# June 2005, Volume 14, Number 2

**P. Brida, P. Cepel, J. Duha**
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Geometric Algorithm for Received Signal Strength Based Mobile
Positioning

Mobile positioning is one of the fastest growing areas for the development of new technologies, services and applications. This paper describes a simple and efficient geometric algorithm using received signal strength measurements extracted from at least three base stations. This method is compared with standard Least Squares method. The simulation results show, that geometric algorithm gives more accurately location estimation than LS algorithm in multipath propagation.

- CAFFERY, J. J. Jr. Wireless Location in CDMA Cellular Radio Systems. Kluwer Academic Publishers, 2000.
- RAPPAPORT, T. S. Wireless Communications: Principles and Practice. Prentice Hall PTR, 1996.
- HATA, M. Empirical formula for propagation loss in land mobile radio services. IEEE Transaction on Vehicular Technology, 1980, vol. VT-29, no. 3, pp. 317-325.
- PRASAD, RAMJEE. Universal Wireless Personal Communications. Artech House, 1998.
- SIWIAK, K. Radiowave Propagation and Antennas for Personal Communications. 2nd ed. Artech House, 1998.
- WANG, S., WANG, F., DEVABHAKTUNI, V. K., ZHANG, Q.-J. A hybrid neural and circuit-based model structure for microwave mo-deling. In Proceedings of the 29 European Microwave Conference. Munich (Germany), 1999, p. 174 - 177.
- WANG, X., WANG, Z., O'DEA, B. A TOA-based location algorithm reducing the errors due to non-line-of-sight (NLOS) propagation. IEEE Transactions on Vehicular Technology, 2003, vol. 52, no. 1, p. 112 - 116.
- SPRATT, M. An Overview of Positioning by Diffusion, Mobile Systems and Services Laboratories. HPL-2001-207, 2001.
- CHEUNG, K. W., SO, H. C., MA, W.-K., CHAN, Y. T. Least squares algorithms for time-of-arrival-based mobile location. IEEE Transactions on Signal Processing, 2004, vol. 52, no. 4, p. 1121-1128.
- GARG, V. K., WILKES, J. E. Wireless and Personal Communication Systems. Prentice Hall, 1996.
- DOBOS, ¡., DUHA, J., MARCHEVSKY, S., WIESER, V. Mobilne radiove siete. EDIS, Zilinska univerzita, Zilina, 2002.

**R . Arnaudov, Y. Angelov**
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Improvement in the Method for Bias Drift Compensation in
Micromechanical Gyroscopes

In this paper an improvement in method is proposed for the compensation of the bias drift in micromechanical gyroscopes by a change in the sign of the measured quantity. A general model of external factors of influence is proposed that must be taken into account when the method is applied. An information-measurement system is developed and experimental data are taken from two commercial sensors. The derived results are showing considerable improvement in the long-term bias stability when the proposed improvement in method is applied.

- GENESYS ELEKTRONIK GMBH The Engineering Department, Inertial sensors and systems an introduction, June 2000.
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- GREWAL M. S., WEIL L. R., ANDREWS A. P. Global Positioning Systems, Inertial navigation, and Integration. John Willey & Sons, Inc., 2001.
- KIMOTO K., THORPE C. Map building with radar and motion sensors for automated highway vehicle navigation. In Proceedings of the IEEE/RSJ International Conference on Intelligent Robots and Systems, IROS '97, Vol. 3 , p. 7-11.
- MOISEEV, N. V., NEKRASOV, J. A. Termostatirovanie mikromechaniceskogo akcelerometra ADXL105. AVTEKS Sankt-Peterburg. www.autex.spb.ru.
- BARSHAN B., DURRANT-WHYTE H. F. Evaluation of a solid-state gyroscope for robotics applications. IEEE Transactions on Instrumentation and Measurement, 1995, Vol. 44, No. 1, p. 61 - 67.
- KIM D. G., HONG S. K. The compensation of nonlinear thermal bias drift of resonant rate sensor (RRS) using fuzzy logic. In Proc. of the IEEE 1998 National Aerospace and Electronics Conference, NAECON 1998, p. 38 - 42.
- BRUNSTEIN E., NEYTARD F. Long term navigation method and device. US patent No. 6,594,911 B2, 2003.
- ANALOG DEVICES. ADXRS150 '150°/s Single Chip Yaw Rate Gyro with Signal Conditioning, product datasheet, www.analog.com.
- BEI TECHNOLOGIES INC. BEI GyroChip™ Horizon Microma-chined Angular Rate Sensor, product datasheet, www.systron.com.
- TEXAS INSTRUMENTS. MSP430x1xx Family User's Guide (Rev. D), slau049d.pdf, www.ti.com.
- ANALOG DEVICES. AD7739 8-Channel, High Throughput, 24-Bit Σ-Δ ADC, product datasheet.

**J. Kaiser**
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Advanced Colorimetry of Display Systems: Tetra-Chroma3 Display Unit

High-fidelity color image reproduction is one of the key issues in visual telecommunication systems, for electronic commerce, telemedicine, digital museum and so on. All colorimetric standards of display systems are up to the present day trichromatic. But, from the shape of a horseshoe-area of all existing colors in the CIE xy chromaticity diagram it follows that with three real reproductive lights, the stated area in the CIE xy chromaticity diagram cannot be overlaid. The expansion of the color gamut of a display device is possible in a few ways. In this paper, the way of increasing the number of primaries is studied. The fourth cyan primary is added to three conventional ones to enlarge the color gamut of reproduction towards cyans and yellow-oranges. The original method of color management for this new display unit is introduced. In addition, the color gamut of the designed additive-based display is successfully compared with the color gamut of a modern subtractive-based system. A display with more than three primary colors is called a multiprimary color display. The very advantageous property of such display is the possibility to display metameric colors.

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- BOLL, H. A color to colorant transformation for a seven ink process. In Device Independent Color Imaging, SPIE Proceedings, p. 108-18.
- FRASER, B., MURPHY, CH., BUNTING, F. Real World Color Ma-nagement. Peachpit press, 2003, ISBN 0-201-77340-6.
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- VIGGIANO, J. A. S., HOAGLAND, W. J. Colorant selection for six-color lithographic printing. In Proc. IS&T/SID 1998 Color Imaging Conference, p. 112-115.
- AJITO, T. et al. Color conversion method for multiprimary display using matrix switching. Optical Review, 2001, vol. 8, no. 3, p. 191-7.
- MURAKAMI et al. Color conversion method for multi-primary dis-play for spectral color reproduction. Journal of Electronic Imaging, October 2004, vol. 13, no. 4, p. 701 - 708.
- PTACEK, M. Prenosove soustavy barevne a digitalni televize. 2/E, Nadas Praha 1981, 488 p.
- SHARMA, G. Digital Color Imaging Handbook. CRC Press, 2003.
- KONIG, F., et al. A multiprimary display: Discounting observer me-tamerism. In 9th Congress of the International Color Association, Proc. SPIE, 2002, vol. 4421.

**J. Hribik, P. Fuchs, M. Hruskovic, R. Michalek, B., Lojko**
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Digital Power Network Parameters Measurement

Exact measurement of the parameters of a power network is now possible by digital methods. The description of the proposed and realized instrument based on the digital sampling method is given. It can measure basic parameters of the three-phase power network such as rms values of voltages and currents, powers, energies, power factors and the network frequency. Questions concerning the accuracy of measurement, error sources, and error correction are also given. A method of calibration based on the frequency output is proposed and its calculation accuracy evaluated by MATLAB.

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- KUSUI, S., NAGAI, T. A Single-Phase Three-Wire Watt-to-Pulse Frequency Converter Using Simple PWM and Its Accuracy Analysis. IEEE Transactions on Instrumentation and Measurement, 1994, vol. 43, no. 5, p. 770 - 774.
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- LALINSKY, T., HASCIK, S., MOZOLOVA, Z., BURIAN, E., DRZIK, M. The improved performance of GaAs micromachined power sensor microsystem. Sensors and Actuators, 1999, vol. 76, p. 241 - 246.
- SCHWENDTNER, M. F. Digital Measurement System for Electricity Meters. In Proceedings of the Conference "Metering and Tariffs for Energy Supply". Brighton (UK), 1996, p. 190 - 193.
- K2006 Three-Phase Comparator. Operational Manual. EMH, Brackel - MTE, Zug, 2003.
- STENBAKEN, D. N., DOLEV, A. High-Accuracy Sampling Wattmeter. IEEE Transactions on Instrumentation and Measurement, 1992, vol. 41, No. 6, p. 974 - 978.
- PEREIRA, J., POSTOLACHE, O., GIRAO, P., RAMOS, H. Minimising Errors Due to Non-Simultaneous Sampling of Voltage and Current in Digital Power Measurement Systems. In Proceedings of the 12 IMEKO TC4 International Symposium "Electrical Measurements and Instrumentation", Part 1, Zagreb (Croatia), 2002, p. 307 - 310.th
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- HRUSKOVIC, M., HRIBIK, J. Voltage and Current Channel of Digital Calibration Electricity Meter. In Proceedings of the Conference "New Trends in Signal Processing V", Liptovsky Mikulas (Slovakia), 2000, p. 3 - 8.
- FUCHS, P., FERANEC, R., GABOR, P., HRIBIK, J., HRUSKOVIC, M., POVAZANEC, D. Digital Three-Phase Registration/Calibration Electricity Meter. In Proceedings of the 3rd International Conference on Measurement "Measurement 2001", Smolenice (Slovakia), 2001, p. 66 - 69.
- FUCHS, P., HRIBIK, J., HRUSKOVIC, M., LOJKO, B., MICHALEK, R. Digital Power and Energy Measurement. In CD ROM Proceedings of the 6th International Conference "Control of Power Systems'04", Strbske Pleso (Slovakia), 2004, 4 p.
- MICHALEK, R., GABOR, P., FUCHS, P., HRIBIK, J., HRUSKOVIC, M. Digital Part of Digital Electricity Meter. In Proceedings of the 12th International Czech-Slovak Scientific Conference "Radioelektronika 2002", Bratislava (Slovakia), 2002, p. 345 - 348.
- SEDLACEK, M., HAASZ, V. Electrical Measurement and Instrumentation, 2 ed. Prague: Vydavatelstvi CVUT, 2000.
- MICHALEK, R., GABOR, P., LOJKO, B., FUCHS, P., HRIBIK, J., HRUSKOVIC, M. Digital Electricity Meter. In Proceedings of the 13th International Czech-Slovak Scientific Conference "Radioelektronika 2003", Brno (Czech Republic), 2003, p. 99 - 102.
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**A. Anagnostoudis, J. Jan**
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Cross-Wire Calibration for Freehand 3D Ultrasonography: Measurement and
Numerical Issues

3D freehand ultrasound is an imaging technique, which is gradually finding clinical applications. A position sensor is attached to a conventional ultrasound probe, so that B-scans are acquired along with their relative locations. This allows the B-scans to be inserted into a 3D regular voxel array, which can then be visualized using arbitrary-plane slicing, and volume or surface rendering. A key requirement for correct reconstruction is the calibration: determining the position and orientation of the B-scans with respect to the position sensor's receiver. Following calibration, interpolation in the set of irregularly spaced B-scans is required to reconstruct a regular-voxel array. This text describes a freehand measurement of 2D ultrasonic data, an approach to the calibration problem and several numerical issues concerned with the calibration and reconstruction.

- PRAGER, R., ROHLING, R., GEE, A., BERMAN, L. Rapid calibra-tion for 3D freehand ultrasound. Ultrasound in Medicine and Bi-ology, 1998, vol. 24, no. 6, p. 855 - 869.
- Optimization Toolbox. For Use with MATLAB. User's Guide Ver-sion 2. The Mathworks, 2002.
- AMIN, D., KANADE, T., JARAMAZ, B., DiGIOIA, A., NIKOU, K., LaBARCA, R., MOODY, J. Calibration method for determining the physical location of the ultrasound image plane. In Proceedings Medical Image Computing and Computer-Assisted Intervention 2001, Lecture Notes in Computer Science. 2001, vol. 2208, p. 940 - 947.
- LANGO, T., LINDSETH, F., KASPERSEN J., GRONNINGSATER A. Novel probe calibration methods for 3D freehand ultrasound. Submitted to Computer Aided Surgery, 2000.
- LEOTTA, D. An efficient calibration method for freehand 3D ultra-sound imaging system. Ultrasound in Medicine and Biology, 2004, vol. 30, no. 7, p. 999 - 1008.
- FENSTER, A., DOWNEY, D. Three-dimensional ultrasound imaging and its use in quantifying organ and pathology volumes. Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry, 2003, vol. 377, no. 6, p. 982 - 989.
- ROHLING, R., GEE, A., BERMAN, L., TREECE, G. Radial basis function interpolation for freehand 3D ultrasound. In Proceedings of 16th International Conference Information Processing in Medical Imaging, Visegrad (Hungary), 1999.
- BOUCHET, L., MEEKS, S., GOODCHILD, G., BOVA, F., BUATTI, J., FRIEDMAN, W. Calibration of three-dimensional ul-trasound images for image-guided radiation therapy. Physics in Medicine and Biology, 2001, vol. 46, p. 559 - 577.
- SATO, Y., NAKAMOTO, M., TAMAKI, Y., SASAMA, T., SAKITA, I., NAKAJIMA, Y., MONDEN, M., TAMURA, S. Image guidance of breast cancer surgery using 3D ultrasound images and augmented reality visualization. IEEE Transactions on Medical Imaging, 1998, vol. 17, no. 5, p. 681 - 693.