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Radioengineering

Radioeng

Proceedings of Czech and Slovak Technical Universities

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April 2012, Volume 21, Number 1

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M. A. Ibrahim, S. Minaei, E. Yuce, N. Herencsar, J. Koton [references] [full-text]
Lossy/Lossless Floating/Grounded Inductance Simulation Using One DDCC

In this work, we present new topologies for realizing one lossless grounded inductor and two floating, one lossless and one lossy, inductors employing a single differential difference current conveyor (DDCC) and a minimum number of passive components, two resistors, and one grounded capacitor. The floating inductors are based on ordinary dual-output differential difference current conveyor (DO-DDCC) while the grounded lossless inductor is based one a modified dual-output differential difference current conveyor (MDO-DDCC). The proposed lossless floating inductor is obtained from the lossy one by employing a negative impedance converter (NIC). The non-ideality effects of the active element on the simulated inductors are investigated. To demonstrate the performance of the proposed grounded inductance simulator as an example, it is used to construct a parallel resonant circuit. SPICE simulation results are given to confirm the theoretical analysis.

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  27. TSMC 0.35 μm SPICE models [online]. Available on www.mosis.com/Technical/Testdata/t14a_tsmc_035_level3.txt
  28. YUCE, E., MINAEI, S., CICEKOGLU, O. Limitations of the simulated inductors based on a single current conveyor. IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems I: Regular Papers, 2006, vol. 53, p. 2860 - 2867.
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  30. IBRAHIM, M. A., MINAEI, S., YUCE, E., HERENCSAR, N., KOTON, J. Lossless grounded inductance simulation using only one modified dual output DDCC. In Proceedings of the 2011 34th International Conference on Telecommunications and Signal Processing (TSP). Budapest (Hungary), August 18-20, 2011, p. 261 - 264.

Keywords: DDCC, MDO-DDCC, inductance simulator, resonant circuit.

U. E. Ayten, M. Sagbas, N. Herencsar, J. Koton [references] [full-text]
Novel Floating General Element Simulators Using CBTA

In this study, a novel floating frequency dependent negative resistor (FDNR), floating inductor, floating capacitor and floating resistor simulator circuit employing two CBTAs and three passive components is proposed. The presented circuit can realize floating FDNR, inductor, capacitor or resistor depending on the passive component selection. Since the passive elements are all grounded, this circuit is suitable for fully integrated circuit design. The circuit does not require any component matching conditions, and it has a good sensitivity performance with respect to tracking errors. Moreover, the proposed FDNR, inductance, capacitor and resistor simulator can be tuned electronically by changing the biasing current of the CBTA or can be controlled through the grounded resistor or capacitor. The high-order frequency dependent element simulator circuit is also presented. Depending on the passive component selection, it realizes high-order floating circuit defining as V(s) = snAI(s) or V(s) = s-nBI(s). The proposed floating FDNR simulator circuit and floating high-order frequency dependent element simulator circuit are demonstrated by using PSPICE simulation for 0.25 μm, level 7, TSMC CMOS technology parameters.

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  29. AYTEN, U. E., SAGBAS, M., HERENCSAR, N., KOTON, J. Novel floating FDNR, inductor and capacitor simulator using CBTA. In Proceedings of the 2011 34th International Conference on Telecommunications and Signal Processing. Budapest (Hungary), 2011, p. 312 - 316.
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Keywords: Frequency dependent negative resistor (FDNR), floating inductor, capacitance multiplier, floating element simulator circuit, current backward transconductance amplifier (CBTA), active networks.

J. Petrzela [references] [full-text]
Optimal Piecewise-Linear Approximation of the Quadratic Chaotic Dynamics

This paper shows the influence of piecewise-linear approximation on the global dynamics associated with autonomous third-order dynamical systems with the quadratic vector fields. The novel method for optimal nonlinear function approximation preserving the system behavior is proposed and experimentally verified. This approach is based on the calculation of the state attractor metric dimension inside a stochastic optimization routine. The approximated systems are compared to the original by means of the numerical integration. Real electronic circuits representing individual dynamical systems are derived using classical as well as integrator-based synthesis and verified by time-domain analysis in Orcad Pspice simulator. The universality of the proposed method is briefly discussed, especially from the viewpoint of the higher-order dynamical systems. Future topics and perspectives are also provided

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Keywords: Chaotic dynamics, Lyapunov exponents, piecewise-linear approximation, stochastic optimization

K. M. Snopek [references] [full-text]
The Study of Properties of n-D Analytic Signals and Their Spectra in Complex and Hypercomplex Domains

In the paper, two various representations of a n-dimensional (n-D) real signal u(x1,x2,…,xn) are investigated. The first one is the n-D complex analytic signal with a single-orthant spectrum defined by Hahn in 1992 as the extension of the 1-D Gabor’s analytic signal. It is compared with two hypercomplex approaches: the known n-D Clifford analytic signal and the Cayley-Dickson analytic signal defined by the Author in 2009. The signal-domain and frequency-domain definitions of these signals are presented and compared in 2-D and 3-D. Some new relations between the spectra in 2-D and 3-D hypercomplex domains are presented. The paper is illustrated with the example of a 2-D separable Cauchy pulse.

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Keywords: Analytic signals, Cayley-Dickson algebra, Clifford algebra, Clifford Fourier transform, Quaternion Fourier transform, Octonion Fourier transform

M. A. Demir, A. Ozen [references] [full-text]
A Novel Variable Step Size Adjustment Method Based on Autocorrelation of Error Signal for the Constant Modulus Blind Equalization Algorithm

Blind equalization is a technique for adaptive equalization of a communication channel without the use of training sequence. Although the constant modulus algorithm (CMA) is one of the most popular adaptive blind equalization algorithms, because of using fixed step size it suffers from slow convergence rate. A novel enhanced variable step size CMA algorithm (VSS-CMA) based on autocorrelation of error signal has been proposed to improve the weakness of CMA for application to blind equalization in this paper. The new algorithm resolves the conflict between the convergence rate and precision of the fixed step-size conventional CMA algorithm. Computer simulations have been performed to illustrate the performance of the proposed method in simulated frequency selective Rayleigh fading channels and experimental real communication channels. The obtained simulation results using single carrier (SC) IEEE 802.16-2004 protocol have demonstrated that the proposed VSS-CMA algorithm has considerably better performance than conventional CMA, normalized CMA (N-CMA) and the other VSS-CMA algorithms.

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Keywords: VSS-CMA, error autocorrelation, blind equalization, IEEE 802.16-2004.

H. Y. Su, M. Wen, J. Ren, N. Wu, J. Chai, C.Y. Zhang [references] [full-text]
High-Efficient Parallel CAVLC Encoders on Heterogeneous Multicore Architectures

This article presents two high-efficient parallel realizations of the context-based adaptive variable length coding (CAVLC) based on heterogeneous multicore processors. By optimizing the architecture of the CAVLC encoder, three kinds of dependences are eliminated or weaken, including the context-based data dependence, the memory accessing dependence and the control dependence. The CAVLC pipeline is divided into three stages: two scans, coding, and lag packing, and be implemented on two typical heterogeneous multicore architectures. One is a block-based SIMD parallel CAVLC encoder on multicore stream processor STORM. The other is a component-oriented SIMT parallel encoder on massively parallel architecture GPU. Both of them exploited rich data-level parallelism. Experiments results show that compared with the CPU version, more than 70 times of speedup can be obtained for STORM and over 50 times for GPU. The implementation of encoder on STORM can make a real-time processing for 1080p @30fps and GPU-based version can satisfy the requirements for 720p real-time encoding. The throughput of the presented CAVLC encoders is more than 10 times higher than that of published software encoders on DSP and multicore platforms.

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Keywords: CAVLC, software parallel, heterogeneous multicore, real-time HD

J. Schimmel [references] [full-text]
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This paper deals with aliasing distortion in digital audio signal synthesis of classic periodic waveforms with infinite Fourier series, for electronic musical instruments. When these waveforms are generated in the digital domain then the aliasing appears due to its unlimited bandwidth. There are several techniques for the synthesis of these signals that have been designed to avoid or reduce the aliasing distortion. However, these techniques have high computing demands. One can say that today's computers have enough computing power to use these methods. However, we have to realize that today’s computer-aided music production requires tens of multi-timbre voices generated simultaneously by software synthesizers and the most of the computing power must be reserved for hard-disc recording subsystem and real-time audio processing of many audio channels with a lot of audio effects. Trivially generated classic analog synthesizer waveforms are therefore still effective for sound synthesis. We cannot avoid the aliasing distortion but spectral components produced by the aliasing can be masked with harmonic components and thus made inaudible if sufficient oversampling ratio is used. This paper deals with the assessment of audible aliasing distortion with the help of a psychoacoustic model of simultaneous masking and compares the computing demands of trivial generation using oversampling with those of other methods.

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Keywords: Music, signal processing algorithms, signal synthesis.

M. Slanina, T. Kratochvil, L. Polak, V. Ricny [references] [full-text]
Analysis of Temporal Effects in Quality Assessment of High Definition Video

The paper deals with the temporal properties of a~scoring session when assessing the subjective quality of full HD video sequences using the continuous video quality tests. The performed experiment uses a modification of the standard test methodology described in ITU-R Rec. BT.500. It focuses on the reactive times and the time needed for the user ratings to stabilize at the beginning of a video sequence. In order to compare the subjective scores with objective quality measures, we also provide an analysis of PSNR and VQM for the considered sequences to find that correlation of the objective metric results with user scores, recored during playback and after playback, differs significantly.

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Keywords: ITU-R BT.500, subjective test, Video quality, peak signal to noise ration, video quality metric

P. Kamencay, M. Breznan, R. Jarina, P. Lukac, M. Zachariasova [references] [full-text]
Improved Depth Map Estimation from Stereo Images based on Hybrid Method

In this paper, a stereo matching algorithm based on image segments is presented. We propose the hybrid segmentation algorithm that is based on a combination of the Belief Propagation and Mean Shift algorithms with aim to refine the disparity and depth map by using a stereo pair of images. This algorithm utilizes image filtering and modified SAD (Sum of Absolute Differences) stereo matching method. Firstly, a color based segmentation method is applied for segmenting the left image of the input stereo pair (reference image) into regions. The aim of the segmentation is to simplify representation of the image into the form that is easier to analyze and is able to locate objects in images. Secondly, results of the segmentation are used as an input of the local window-based matching method to determine the disparity estimate of each image pixel. The obtained experimental results demonstrate that the final depth map can be obtained by application of segment disparities to the original images. Experimental results with the stereo testing images show that our proposed Hybrid algorithm HSAD gives a good performance.

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Keywords: Image segmentation, disparity, Mean Shift, Belief propagation, SAD, HSAD, depth map, 3D image, stereo matching.

D. Mitrea, S. Nedevschi, M. Socaciu, R. Badea [references] [full-text]
The Role of the Superior Order GLCM in the Characterization and Recognition of the Liver Tumors from Ultrasound Images

The hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the most frequent malignant liver tumor. It often has a similar visual aspect with the cirrhotic parenchyma on which it evolves and with the benign liver tumors. The golden standard for HCC diagnosis is the needle biopsy, but this is an invasive, dangerous method. We aim to develop computerized,noninvasive techniques for the automatic diagnosis of HCC, based on information obtained from ultrasound images. The texture is an important property of the internal organs tissue, able to provide subtle information about the pathology. We previously defined the textural model of HCC, consisting in the exhaustive set of the relevant textural features, appropriate for HCC characterization and in the specific values of these features. In this work, we analyze the role that the superior order Grey Level Cooccurrence Matrices (GLCM) and the associated parameters have in the improvement of HCC characterization and automatic diagnosis. We also determine the best spatial relations between the pixels that lead to the highest performances, for the third, fifth and seventh order GLCM. The following classes will be considered: HCC, cirrhotic liver parenchyma on which it evolves and benign liver tumors.

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Keywords: superior order GLCM, ultrasound images, hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), benign liver tumors, non-invasive diagnosis

R. Pust, K. Burda [references] [full-text]
Mutual Interference of Frequency Hopping with Collision Avoidance Systems

The aim of this article is to quantify and analyze mutual interference of Frequency Hopping with Collision Avoidance (FH/CA) systems. The FH/CA system is a frequency hopping system where stations select the least jammed channel from several possible before the next jump. The article describes a mathematical model that allows determining the upper limit of the probability of collision of multiple FH/CA systems operated in a common band. The dependence obtained for mutual interference of FH/CA systems is compared with the dependence for mutual interference of conventional FH systems. The result of the comparison is a conclusion that, in terms of mutual interference, it is more advantageous to operate the FH/CA systems than the conventional FH systems.

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Keywords: frequency hopping, frequency hopping with collision avoidance, dynamic jammer, FH, FH/CA

M. Simek, P. Moravek, D. Komosny, M. Dusik [references] [full-text]
Distributed Recognition of Reference Nodes for Wireless Sensor Network Localization

All known localization techniques for wireless sensor and ad-hoc networks require certain set of reference nodes being used for position estimation. The anchor-free techniques in contrast to anchor-based do not require reference nodes called anchors to be placed in the network area before localization operation itself, but they can establish own reference coordinate system to be used for the relative position estimation. We observed that contemporary anchor-free localization algorithms achieve a low localization error, but dissipate significant energy reserves during the recognition of reference nodes used for the position estimation. Therefore, we have proposed the optimized anchor-free localization algorithm referred to as BRL (Boundary Recognition aided Localization), which achieves a low localization error and mainly reduces the communication cost of the reference nodes recognition phase. The proposed BRL algorithm was investigated throughout the extensive simulations on the database of networks with the different number of nodes and densities and was compared in terms of communication cost and localization error with the known related algorithms such as AFL and CRP. Through the extensive simulations we have observed network conditions where novel BRL algorithm excels in comparison with the state of art.

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Keywords: Recognition, reference nodes, wireless sensor networks, localization, communication cost, simulation.

Z. Peric, M. Savic, S. Panic [references] [full-text]
Semilogarithmic Nonuniform Vector Quantization of Two-Dimensional Laplacean Source for Small Variance Dynamics

In this paper high dynamic range nonuniform two-dimensional vector quantization model for Laplacean source was provided. Semilogarithmic A-law compression characteristic was used as radial scalar compression characteristic of two-dimensional vector quantization. Optimal number value of concentric quantization domains (amplitude levels) is expressed in the function of parameter A. Exact distortion analysis with obtained closed form expressions is provided. It has been shown that proposed model provides high SQNR values in wide range of variances, and overachieves quality obtained by scalar A-law quantization at same bit rate, so it can be used in various switching and adaptation implementations for realization of high quality signal compression.

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Keywords: Laplacean source, A-law, two-dimensional vector quantization, nonuniform quantization

A. Akbulut, T. Adiguzel, A. E. Yilmaz [references] [full-text]
Estimation of Time-Varying Channel State Transition Probabilities for Cognitive Radio Systems by means of Particle Swarm Optimization

In this study, Particle Swarm Optimization is applied for the estimation of the channel state transition probabilities. Unlike most other studies, where the channel state transition probabilities are assumed to be known and/or constant, in this study, these values are realistically considered to be time-varying parameters, which are unknown to the secondary users of the cognitive radio systems. The results of this study demonstrate the following: without any a priori information about the channel characteristics, even in a very transient environment, it is quite possible to achieve reasonable estimates of channel state transition probabilities with a practical and simple implementation.

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Keywords: Cognitive radio, channel state transition probability, partially observable Markov decision process, particle swarm optimization

M. Bandjur, D. Bandjur [references] [full-text]
Performance Analysis of SSC Diversity Receiver over Correlated Hoyt Fading Channels

An infinite-series-based approach for the performance analysis of a dual-branch switched-and-stay combining (SSC) diversity receiver operating over correlated Hoyt fading channels is presented. The performance analysis is based on outage probability (Pout) and average bit error probability (ABEP) criteria. More precisely, the ABEP performance is evaluated for binary differential phase-shift-keying (BDPSK) and binary non-coherent frequency-shift keying (BNFSK) modulation schemes. Derived analytical expressions are easily computable and fast converging, which provides a significant improvement in calculation speed. Obtained numerical results corresponding to different fading channel conditions are graphically illustrated and analyzed.

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Keywords: Bivariate Hoyt distribution, performance analysis, outage probability, average bit error probability

K. Xu, Y. Gao, X. Yi, Y. Pan, Y. Zhang, S. Su [references] [full-text]
Opportunistic Relaying in Time Division Broadcast Protocol with Incremental Relaying

In this paper, we investigate the performance of time division broadcast protocol (TDBC) with incremental relaying (IR) when there are multiple available relays. Opportunistic relaying (OR), i.e., the “best” relay is select for transmission to minimize the system’s outage probability, is proposed. Two OR schemes are presented. The first scheme, termed TDBC-OIR-I, selects the “best” relay from the set of relays that can decode both flows of signal from the two sources successfully. The second one, termed TDBC-OIR-II, selects two “best” relays from two respective sets of relays that can decode successfully each flow of signal. The performance, in terms of outage probability, expected rate (ER), and diversity-multiplexing tradeoff (DMT), of the two schemes are analyzed and compared with two TDBC schemes that have no IR but OR (termed TDBC-OR-I and TDBC-OR-II accordingly) and two other benchmark OR schemes that have no direct link transmission between the two sources.

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Keywords: Opportunistic relaying, incremental relaying, two-way channel, time division broadcast protocol.

L. Polak, T. Kratochvil [references] [full-text]
Analysis and Simulation of the Transmission Distortions of the Mobile Digital Television DVB-SH Part 2: Satellite Mode DVB-SH-B with TDM; Part 2: Satellite Mode DVB-SH-B with TDM

This paper deals with the second part of the latest digital TV standard DVB-SH (Digital Video Broadcasting – Satellite to Handhelds) with focus on utilization of its advantages for the next generation of mobile TV broadcasting. In the second part the simulation model of DVB-SH-B, which is using satellite configuration with TDM (Time Division Multiplexing) transmission mode, is presented. The work is especially focused on the description of TDM system configuration. Dependences of BER on C/N ratio for all used types of modulations are compared in the Gaussian (AWGN) channel, which is generally used in DVB-SH/S2 standards for exploring of the transmission distortions. Moreover, in case of QPSK modulation, the data transmission was explored in the Ricean fading channel. Finally, achieved results are evaluated and clearly discussed.

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Keywords: Digital television, mobile TV, DVB-SH-B, TDM, satellite reception, fixed reception, BER

M. Hasmanda, K. Riha [references] [full-text]
The Modelling of Stereoscopic 3D Scene Acquisition

The main goal of this work is to find a suitable method for calculating the best setting of a stereo pair of cameras that are viewing the scene to enable spatial imaging. The method is based on a geometric model of a stereo pair cameras currently used for the acquisition of 3D scenes. Based on selectable camera parameters and object positions in the scene, the resultant model allows calculating the parameters of the stereo pair of images that influence the quality of spatial imaging. For the purpose of presenting the properties of the model of a simple 3D scene, an interactive application was created that allows, in addition to setting the cameras and scene parameters and displaying the calculated parameters, also displaying the modelled scene using perspective views and the stereo pair modelled with the aid of anaglyphic images. The resulting modelling method can be used in practice to determine appropriate parameters of the camera configuration based on the known arrangement of the objects in the scene. Analogously, it can, for a given camera configuration, determine appropriate geometrical limits of arranging the objects in the scene being displayed. This method ensures that the resulting stereoscopic recording will be of good quality and observer-friendly.

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Keywords: Anaglyph, parallax, stereo base, stereo pair, stereoscopy

F. Mojzis, J. Svihlik, K. Fliegel, L. Knazovicka, E. Jerhotova [references] [full-text]
Measurement and Analysis of Real Imaging Systems

This paper is devoted to statistical analysis of noise generated in real imaging systems and noise suppression methods. The introductory part is focused on description of imaging systems, image degradations, and noise types present in them. The noise analysis section includes determination of basic noise characteristics, the probability distribution and dependence on the signal. The described methods are used to compare properties of two digital still cameras: Nikon D70 and Canon EOS 500D and video camera: JAI CM-040GE. The section devoted to noise suppression discusses different methods of wavelet coefficients thresholding and threshold estimation. The wavelet coefficients are produced by two forms of the wavelet transform: the discrete wavelet transform and the dual-tree complex wavelet transform. The described noise suppression methods are applied to the data sets which were acquired by the analyzed systems under poor lighting conditions.

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Keywords: Imaging system, noise, statistical analysis, denoising, wavelet transform

L. Krasula, M. Klima, E. Rogard, E.Jeanblanc [references] [full-text]
MATLAB-based Applications for Image Processing and Image Quality Assessment – Part II: Experimental Results

The paper provides an overview of some possible usage of the software described in the Part I. It contains the real examples of image quality improvement, distortion simulations, objective and subjective quality assessment and other ways of image processing that can be obtained by the individual applications.

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Keywords: Image quality evaluation, image processing, quality metrics, QoE

D. Brodić, Z. Milivojević [references] [full-text]
Estimation of the Handwritten Text Skew Based on Binary Moments

Binary moments represent one of the methods for the text skew estimation in binary images. It has been used widely for the skew identification of the printed text. However, the handwritten text consists of text objects, which are characterized with different skews. Hence, the method should be adapted for the handwritten text. This is achieved with the image splitting into separate text objects made by the bounding boxes. Obtained text objects represent the isolated binary objects. The application of the moment-based method to each binary object evaluates their local text skews. Due to the accuracy, estimated skew data can be used as an input to the algorithms for the text line segmentation.

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Keywords: Document image processing, text skew, binary moments, text line segmentation.

L. Tan, X. Sun, G. Sun [references] [full-text]
Print-Scan Resilient Text Image Watermarking Based on Stroke Direction Modulation for Chinese Document Authentication

Print-scan resilient watermarking has emerged as an attractive way for document security. This paper proposes an stroke direction modulation technique for watermarking in Chinese text images. The watermark produced by the idea offers robustness to print-photocopy-scan, yet provides relatively high embedding capacity without losing the transparency. During the embedding phase, the angle of rotatable strokes are quantized to embed the bits. This requires several stages of preprocessing, including stroke generation, junction searching, rotatable stroke decision and character partition. Moreover, shuffling is applied to equalize the uneven embedding capacity. For the data detection, denoising and deskewing mechanisms are used to compensate for the distortions induced by hardcopy. Experimental results show that our technique attains high detection accuracy against distortions resulting from print-scan operations, good quality photocopies and benign attacks in accord with the future goal of soft authentication.

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Keywords: Text image watermarking, print-photocopy-scan, stroke direction modulation, junctions

E. Verteletskaya, K. Sakhnov, B. Simak [references] [full-text]
Delay Estimator and Improved Proportionate Multi-Delay Adaptive Filtering Algorithm

This paper pertains to speech and acoustic signal processing, and particularly to a determination of echo path delay and operation of echo cancellers. To cancel long echoes, the number of weights in a conventional adaptive filter must be large. The length of the adaptive filter will directly affect both the degree of accuracy and the convergence speed of the adaptation process. We present a new adaptive structure which is capable to deal with multiple dispersive echo paths. An adaptive filter according to the present invention includes means for storing an impulse response in a memory, the impulse response being indicative of the characteristics of a transmission line. It also includes a delay estimator for detecting ranges of samples within the impulse response having relatively large distribution of echo energy. These ranges of samples are being indicative of echoes on the transmission line. An adaptive filter has a plurality of weighted taps, each of the weighted taps having an associated tap weight value. A tap allocation/control circuit establishes the tap weight values in response to said detecting means so that only taps within the regions of relatively large distributions of echo energy are turned on. Thus, the convergence speed and the degree of estimation in the adaptation process can be improved.

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Keywords: speech enhancement, delay estimation, echo cancellation

D. Belavic, M. Hrovat, G. Dolanc, M. Santo Zarnik, J. Holc, K. Makarovic [references] [full-text]
Design of LTCC-based Ceramic Structure for Chemical Microreactor

The design of ceramic chemical microreactor for the production of hydrogen needed in portable polymer-electrolyte membrane (PEM) fuel cells is presented. The microreactor was developed for the steam reforming of liquid fuels with water into hydrogen. The complex three-dimensional ceramic structure of the microreactor includes evaporator(s), mixer(s), reformer and combustor. Low-temperature co-fired ceramic (LTCC) technology was used to fabricate the ceramic structures with buried cavities and channels, and thick-film technology was used to make electrical heaters, temperature sensors and pressure sensors. The final 3D ceramic structure consists of 45 LTCC tapes. The dimensions of the structure are 75 × 41 × 9 mm3 and the weight is about 73 g.

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  13. HROVAT, M., BELAVIC, D., DOLANC, G., FAJDIGA, P., BATISTA, J., HOCEVAR, S., SANTO ZARNIK, M., HOLC, J., KOSEC, M., STEGEL, I. LTCC ceramics based micro-reactor; fuel processor for PEM fuel cells - preliminary results. In SET-150 specialists meeting on "Energy Technologies for Portable Power Supplies and Energy Management for Military Applications". Brdo pri Kranju (Slovenia), 2009, 11 pages.,
  14. BELAVIC, D., HROVAT, M., HOLC, J., SANTO ZARNIK, M., KOSEC, M., PAVLIN, M. The application of thick-film technology in C-MEMS. Journal of Electroceramics, 2007, vol. 19, no. 4, p. 363-368.
  15. BELAVIC, D., SANTO ZARNIK, M., HROVAT, M., MACEK, S., PAVLIN, M., JERLAH, M., HOLC, J., DRNOVSEK, S., CILENSEK, J., KOSEC, M. Benchmarking different types of thick-film pressure sensors. In Proc. of the IMAPS/ACerS 2007, 3rd International Conference and Exhibition on Ceramic Interconnect and Ceramic Microsystems Technologies (CICMT). Denver (Colorado, USA), 2007, p. 278-285.
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Keywords: Chemical microreactor, LTCC ceramic, 3D structure

M. Santo Zarnik, D. Belavic [references] [full-text]
An Experimental and Numerical Study of the Humidity Effect on the Stability of a Capacitive Ceramic Pressure Sensor

The effect of the humidity of the surrounding atmosphere on the characteristics of capacitive structures is a known problem for capacitive gas-pressure sensors. However, the use of a differential mode of operation can provide a good solution – only the manufacturing of the ceramic structures with the appropriate pairs of capacitive sensing elements remains a major challenge. In order to find a compromise solution, the effect of the humid atmosphere and the moisture on the exterior of an LTCC-based capacitive pressure sensor was inspected closely through experimental and numerical analyses of various situations.

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  5. MARGHESCU, C., IONESCU, C., SVASTA, P., ZARNIK, M. S., BELAVIC, D. FE modeling of capacitive pressure sensor realized in LTCC technology. In Proceedings of 33rd International Spring Seminar on Electronics Technology, ISSE 2010. Warsaw (Poland), 2010, p. 350 - 353.
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Keywords: Capacitive pressure sensor, LTCC, fringe electric field, stray capacitances, finite-element analysis

P. Sedlak, J. Majzner, J. Sikula, K. Hajek [references] [full-text]
Noise Measurement Setup for Quartz Crystal Microbalance

Quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) is a high sensitive chemical sensor which has found widespread spectrum of applications. There are several mechanisms that are related to fluctuation phenomena. Since the aim of our research is oriented to study the sensitivity and influence of different kind of noises on sensor resolution, we modified an existing method to measure the small frequency fluctuation of QCM. The paper describes our measurement setup, in which a quartz crystal oscillator with coated active layers and a reference quartz oscillator are driven by two oscillator circuits. Each one regulates a frequency of a crystal at the minimum impedance which corresponds to the series resonance. A data-acquisition card triggers on the rise-edges of the output signal and stores these corresponding times on which the instantaneous frequency is estimated by own-written software. In comparison to other measurement setups, our approach can acquire immediate change of QCM frequency, thus, chemical processes can be even described on the basis of high-order statistics. The experiments were provided on quartz crystals with the sorption layer of polypyrrole, which is suitable for the construction of QCM humidity sensors.

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Keywords: Quartz crystal microbalance, noise measurement setup, fluctuation

J. Racko, M. Mikolasek, A. Grmanova, J. Breza, P. Benko, O. Gallo, L. Harmatha [references] [full-text]
A New Model of Multiphonon Excitation Trap-Assisted Band-to-Band Tunneling

The paper describes a new approach to calculating the currents in a pn-diode based on the extension of the Shockley-Read-Hall recombination-generation model. The presented theory is an alternative to Schenk’s model of trap-assisted tunneling. The new approach takes into account generation and recombination as well as tunneling processes in pn-junctions. Using this model, the real “soft” I-V curve usually observed in the case of switching diodes and transistors was modeled as a result of the high concentration of traps that assist in the process of tunneling.

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Keywords: Shockley-Read-Hall model, Schenk model, trap assisted tunneling, pn-junction, I-V curve

P. Dobrovolny, M. Miranda, P. Zuber [references] [full-text]
Sub-wavelength Lithography and Variability Aware SRAM Characterization

With shrinking of minimum feature size of advanced technology nodes, the impact of litho process variations on the resulting electrical parameters of printed circuits dramatically increases. Litho process variations correspond to random changes in the actual optical conditions (dose and focus) which develop at every mask exposure, hence from die to die. In this way the litho process variations act as a global variability component affecting all devices on a particular die in the same way. In contrast to this, the intrinsic variability of the devices and interconnects originating mostly from local Random Dopant Fluctuations (RDF) and Line Edge Roughness (LER) has a purely spatially uncorrelated component. Yet, it is not clear which of the two limits scaling down variability sensitive circuits such as SRAM beyond 45nm. This paper presents a tool flow to perform SRAM wide statistical analysis subject to combinations of global litho and local variability components. The tool flow is illustrated in 45nm industry grade SRAM vehicle. Selected case studies show how this tool flow successfully captures non-trivial statistical interactions between the SRAM cell and the periphery, otherwise less visible when using statistical electrical simulations of the critical path alone.

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Keywords: Litho process and technology variability, statistical SRAM analysis, yield prediction

J. Jakovenko, J. Formanek, V. Janicek, M. Husak, R. Werkhoven [references] [full-text]
High Power Solid State Retrofit Lamp Thermal Characterization and Modeling

Thermal and thermo-mechanical modeling and characterization of solid state lightening (SSL) retrofit LED lamp are presented in this paper. Paramount importance is to design SSL lamps for reliability, in which thermal and thermo-mechanical aspects are key points. The main goal is to get a precise 3D thermal lamp model for further thermal optimization. Simulations are performed with ANSYS and CoventorWare software tools to compere different simulation approaches. Simulated thermal distribution has been validated with thermal measurement on a commercial 8W LED lamp. Materials parametric study has been carried out to discover problematic parts for heat transfer from power LEDs to ambient and future solutions are proposed. The objectives are to predict the thermal management by simulation of LED lamp, get more understanding in the effect of lamp shape and used materials in order to design more effective LED lamps and predict light quality, life time and reliability.

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Keywords: Light Emitting Diodes, SSL Lamp, Thermal Validation, Thermo-mechanical modelling

V. Janicek, M. Husak, J. Jakovenko, J. Formanek [references] [full-text]
Design and Fabrication of 3D Electrostatic Energy Harvester

This paper discusses the design of an electrostatic generator, power supply component of the self-powered microsystem, which is able to provide enough energy to power smart sensor chains or if necessary also other electronic monitoring devices. One of the requirements for this analyzer is the mobility, so designing the power supply expects use of an alternative way of getting electricity to power the device, rather than rely on periodic supply of external energy in the form of charging batteries, etc. In this case the most suitable method to use is so-called energy harvesting – a way how to gather energy. This uses the principle of non-electric conversion of energy into electrical energy in the form of converters. The present study describes the topology design of such structures of electrostatic generator. Structure is designed and modeled as a three-dimensional silicon based MEMS. Innovative approach involving the achievement of very low resonant frequency of the structure, while the minimum area of the chip, the ability to work in all 3 axes of coordinate system and ability to be tuned to reach desired parameters proves promising directions of possible further development of this issue. The work includes simulation of electro-mechanical and electrical properties of the structure, description of its behavior in different operating modes and phases of activity. Simulation results were compared with measured values of the produced prototype chip. These results can suggest possible modifications to the proposed structure for further optimization and application environment adaptation.

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  4. MARZENCKI, M., BASROUR, S., CHARLOT, B., GRASSO, A., COLIN, M., VALBIN, L. Design and fabrication of piezoelectric micro power generators for autonomous microsystems. In Proceedings of Symposium on Design, Test, Integration and Packaging of MEMS/MOEMS DTIP05. Montreux (Switzerland), 2005, p. 299 - 302.
  5. BEEBY, S. P., TUDOR, M. J., KOUKHARENKO, E., WHITE, N. M., O’DONNELL, T., SAHA, C., KULKAMI, S., ROY, S. Micromachined silicon generator for harvesting power from vibration. In Proceedings of Transducers. Seoul (Korea), 2005, p. 780 - 783.
  6. YOON, S. H., OH, J. S., LEE, Y. H., LEE, S. W. Miniaturized inertia generators as power supplies for small-caliber fuzes. IEEE Transactions on Magnetics, 2005, vol. 41. no. 7, p. 2300 - 2307.
  7. TASHIRO, R., KABEI, N., KATAYAMA, K., TSUBOI, F., TSUCHIYA, K. Development of a electrostatic generator for a cardiac pacemaker that harnesses the ventricular wall motion. Journal Artificial Organs, 2002, vol. 5, no. 4, p. 239 - 245.
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Keywords: MEMS, energy harvesting, electrostatic, generator

A. Boura, M. Husak [references] [full-text]
Communication and Powering Scheme for Wireless and Battery-Less Measurement

The paper presents solution for wireless and battery-less measurement in the enclosed areas. The principle is based on passive RFID, nevertheless this paper is focused on high power-demanding applications such as MEMS accelerometers, gas sensors, piezoresistive strain gauges, etc. Standard FRID communication scheme (sensing the input current change on the primary side) cannot be used in this case, because the communication channel is overloaded by the high power load. Paper presents possible solution which is based on the dual frequency scheme – one frequency for powering and other for the communication. This is ensuring capability for measurement up to several centimeters on the frequency bands 125 kHz and 375 kHz. It can be suitable for continual measurement in isolated systems such as the rotating objects, concrete walls, enclosed plastic barrels, high temperature chambers etc.

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Keywords: Wireless powering, wireless sensor, dual frequency, long-term monitoring

M. Pavlik, V. Kledrowetz, J. Haze [references] [full-text]
Design of the 12-bit Delta-Sigma Modulator using SC Technique for Vibration Sensor Output Processing

The work deals with the design of the 12-bit Delta-Sigma modulator using switched capacitors (SC) technique. The modulator serves to vibration sensor output processing. The first part describes the Delta-Sigma modulator parameters definition. Results of the proposed topology ideal model were presented as well. Next, the Delta-Sigma modulator circuitry on the transistor level was done. The ONSemiconductor I2T100 0.7 um CMOS technology was used for design. Then, the Delta-Sigma modulator nonidealities were simulated and implemented into the MATLAB ideal model of the modulator. The model of real Delta-Sigma modulator was derived. Consequently, modulator coefficients were optimized. Finally, the corner analysis of the Delta-Sigma modulator with the optimized coefficients was simulated. The value of SNDR = 82.2 dB (ENOB = 13.4 bits) was achieved.

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Keywords: Vibration sensor, Delta-Sigma modulator, Switched Capacitor technique, MATLAB model

J. Zidek, O. Subrt, M. Valenta, P. Martinek [references] [full-text]
A Contribution to Nyquist-Rate ADC Modeling - Detailed Algorithm Description

In this article, the innovative ADC modeling algorithm is described. It is well suitable for nyquist-rate ADC error back annotation. This algorithm is the next step of building a support tool for IC design engineers. The inspiration for us was the work [2]. Here, the ADC behavior is divided into HCF (High Code Frequency) and LCF (Low Code Frequency) separated independent parts. This paper is based on the same concept but the model coefficients are estimated in a different way only from INL data. The HCF order recognition part was newly added as well. Thanks to that the HCF coefficients number is lower in comparison with the original Grimaldi’s work (especially for converters with low ratio between HCF and “random” part of INL). Modeling results are demonstrated on a real data set measured by ASICentrum on chargeredistribution type SAR ADC chip. Results are showed not only by coefficient values but also by the Model Coverage metrics. Model limitations are also discussed.

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Keywords: Analog-digital integrated circuits, Modeling, Order detection, HCF, LCF.

V. Prajzler, E. Strilek, J. Spirkova, V. Jerabek [references] [full-text]
Design of the Novel Wavelength Triplexer Using Multiple Polymer Microring Resonators

We report about new design of wavelength triplexer using multiple polymer optical microring resonators. Triplexer consists of two downstream wavelength channels operating at 1490 ± 10 nm, 1555 ± 10 nm and one upstream wavelength channel operating at 1310 ± 50 nm. The parallel coupled double ring resonator was used for separation of the optical signal band at 1555 nm and filtered out signal bands 1310 nm and 1490 nm. The serially coupled triple optical microring resonator was used for separation of the optical signal band at 1490 nm and filtered out signal bands 1310 nm and 1555 nm. The design was done by using FullWAVETM software by the finite-difference time-domain method. Simulation showed that optical losses for band at 1555 nm were -3 dB and crosstalk between signal bands 1555 nm and 1490 nm was 24 dB. Calculated optical losses for channel 1490 nm were less than -2.5 dB and signal bands at 1555 nm was filtered out with less than 18 dB loss. The bands at 1310 nm were fully filtered out from both downstream wavelength channels operating at bands 1490 nm and 1555 nm.

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Keywords: Microring resonators, triplexer, polymer optical waveguides.

N. Herencsar, A. Lahiri, J. Koton, K. Vrba, B. Metin [references] [full-text]
Realization of Resistorless Lossless Positive and Negative Grounded Inductor Simulators Using Single ZC-CCCITA

This paper is in continuation with the very recent work of Prasad et al. [14], wherein new realizations of grounded and floating positive inductor simulator using current differencing transconductance amplifier (CDTA) are reported. The focus of the paper is to provide alternate realizations of lossless, both positive and negative inductor simulators (PIS and NIS) in grounded form using z-copy current-controlled current inverting transconductance amplifier (ZC-CCCITA), which can be considered as a derivative of CDTA, wherein the current differencing unit (CDU) is reduced to a current-controlled current inverting unit. We demonstrate that only a single ZC-CCCITA and one grounded capacitor are sufficient to realize grounded lossless PIS or NIS. The proposed circuits are resistorless whose parameters can be controlled through the bias currents. The workability of the proposed PIS is validated by SPICE simulations on three RLC prototypes.

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Keywords: Positive inductor simulator (PIS), negative inductor simulator (NIS), grounded lossless inductor, z-copy current-controlled current inverting transconductance amplifier (ZC-CCCITA)

B. Singh, A. K. Singh, R. Senani [references] [full-text]
New Universal Current-mode Biquad Using Only Three ZC-CFTAs

The objective of this paper is to present a new universal Current-mode biquad capable of providing all the five basic filter functions, namely, low pass (LP), Band pass (BP), high pass (HP), Band reject (BR) and all pass (AP) from the same configuration using only three Z - copy current follower transconductance amplifiers (ZC-CFTA) along with the provision of independent electronic tunability of the filter parameters f0 and Q0 (or bandwidth) through two separate DC bias currents while employing both grounded capacitors as desirable for integrated circuit implementation. The workability of the proposed structure is verified by PSPICE simulations based on CMOS implementation of the ZC-CFTA.

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  5. SATANSUP, J., TANGSRIRAT, W. Single-input five-output electronically tunable current-mode biquad consisting of only ZCCFTAs and grounded capacitors. Radioengineering, 2011, vol. 20, no. 3, p. 650 – 655.
  6. HERENCSAR, N., KOTON, J., VRBA, K., LAHIRI, A. Novel mixed-mode KHN-equivalent filter using Z-copy CFTAs and grounded capacitors. Latest Trends on Circuits, System and Signal, North Atlantic University Union (NAUN) WSEAS, 2010, p. 87-90.
  7. BIOLEK, D., BIOLKOVA, V., KOLKA, Z., BAJER, J., Singleinput multi-output resistorless current-mode biquad. In Proc. of ECCTD '09, European Conference on Circuit Theory and Design. Antalya (Turkey), August 23-27, 2009, p. 225-228.
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Keywords: Analog circuits, current mode circuits, Z-copy current follower transconductance amplifier (ZC-CFTA), universal filters, CMOS circuits

S. Maheshwari, M. S. Ansari [references] [full-text]
Catalog of Realizations for DXCCII using Commercially Available ICs and Applications

This paper presents fifteen distinct practical realizations for dual-X second generation current conveyor (DXCCII) using commercially available integrated circuits. Detailed comparisons and results are presented to verify the utility of proposed realizations. The catalog of proposed realizations is a first attempt and is expected to be useful for testing newly developed circuits based on dual-X second generation current conveyor. Each of the first fourteen proposed realizations uses four ICs. One three IC based implementation is further given making the total count fifteen. Some additional features are also explored which further enhance the versatility of DXCCII. The paper further presents a novel and compact quadrature oscillator to verify the applicability of the proposed realizations. Single resistance control of the frequency of oscillation is also demonstrated by employing the new gain-variable DXCCII. Experimental results are also included along with simulation results to validate the proposed theory and its practical significance.

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Keywords: Current Conveyors, DXCCII, Analog Signal Processing, AD844, Quadrature Oscillator, Active- RC

J. W. Horng, C. H. Hsu, C. Y. Tseng [references] [full-text]
High Input Impedance Voltage-Mode Universal Biquadratic Filters With Three Inputs Using Three CCs and Grounding Capacitors

Two current conveyors (CCs) based high input impedance voltage-mode universal biquadratic filters each with three input terminals and one output terminal are presented. The first circuit is composed of three differential voltage current conveyors (DVCCs), two grounded capacitors and four resistors. The second circuit is composed of two DVCCs, one differential difference current conveyor (DDCC), two grounded capacitors and four grounded resistors. The proposed circuits can realize all the standard filter functions, namely, lowpass, bandpass, highpass, notch and allpass filters by the selections of different input voltage terminals. The proposed circuits offer the features of high input impedance, using only grounded capacitors and low active and passive sensitivities. Moreover, the x ports of the DVCCs (or DDCC) in the proposed circuits are connected directly to resistors. This design offers the feature of a direct incorporation of the parasitic resistance at the x terminal of the DVCC (DDCC), Rx, as a part of the main resistance.

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Keywords: Current conveyor, biquadratic filter, active circuit

W. Y. Chiu, J. W. Horng [references] [full-text]
Voltage-Mode Highpass, Bandpass, Lowpass and Notch Biquadratic Filters Using Single DDCC

A new voltage-mode multifunction biquadratic filter using one differential difference current conveyor (DDCC), two grounded capacitors and three resistors is presented. The proposed circuit offers the following attractive advantages: realizing highpass, bandpass, lowpass and notch filter functions, simultaneously, from the same circuit configuration; employing grounded capacitors, which is ideal for integration and simpler circuit configuration.

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Keywords: Active filters, current conveyors, analog signal processing

H. Alpaslan, E. Yuce [references] [full-text]
Current-mode Biquadratic Universal Filter Design with Two Terminal Unity Gain Cells

A grounded parallel lossy active inductor and two current-mode (CM) universal filters are presented in this paper. All the circuits use two voltage followers (VFs) and a current follower (CF). The parallel lossy active inductor includes a grounded capacitor which is attractive in integrated circuit (IC) technology. The CM universal filters have one input and standard three outputs such as band-pass (BP), low-pass (LP) and high-pass (HP) responses. All-pass and notch outputs can be obtained by adding extra one CF. Suggested structures in this paper can be constructed with commercially available active devices such as AD844s. Non-ideal gain and intrinsic X-terminal parasitic resistor effects are examined. Several computer simulations with SPICE program and experimental results by employing AD844s are drawn to verify theoretical ones.

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Keywords: Lossy inductor simulator, current-mode filter, unity gain cell, current follower, voltage follower

W. Jaikla, A. Noppakarn, S. Lawanwisut [references] [full-text]
New Gain Controllable Resistor-less Current-mode First Order Allpass Filter and its Application

New first order allpass filter (APF) in current mode, constructed from 2 CCCCTAs and grounded capacitor, is presented. The current gain and phase shift can be electronically /orthogonally controlled. Low input and high output impedances are achieved which make the circuit to be easily cascaded to the current-mode circuit without additional current buffers. The operation of the proposed filter has been verified through simulation results which confirm the theoretical analysis. The application example as current-mode quadrature oscillator with non-interactive current control for both of oscillation condition and oscillation frequency is included to show the usability of the proposed filter.

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Keywords: Firs order allpass filter, CCCCTA, Current-mode

S. V. Singh, S. Maheshwari [references] [full-text]
Current-Processing Current-Controlled Universal Biquad Filter

This paper presents a current-processing current-controlled universal biquad filter. The proposed filter employs only two current controlled current conveyor transconductance amplifiers (CCCCTAs) and two grounded capacitors. The proposed configuration can be used either as a single input three outputs (SITO) or as three inputs single output (TISO) filter. The circuit realizes all five different standard filter functions i.e. low-pass (LP), band-pass (BP), high-pass (HP), band-reject (BR) and all-pass (AP). The circuit enjoys electronic control of quality factor through the single bias current without disturbing pole frequency. Effects of non-idealities are also discussed. The circuit exhibits low active and passive sensitivity figures. The validity of proposed filter is verified through computer simulations using PSPICE.

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Keywords: Current-mode, analog signal processing, universal filters, electronic control.

D.Titz, F. Ben Abdeljelil, S. Jan, F. Ferrero, C. Luxey, P. Brachat, G. Jacquemod [references] [full-text]
Design and Characterization of CMOS On-Chip Antennas for 60 GHz Communications

In this paper, we present the design and the measurement of two antennas realized on a 130nm CMOS process. They both radiate in the 60 GHz band and are dedicated to Wireless Personal Area Network (WPAN) applications. The antennas are manufactured within the frame of a multi-wafer project with several surrounding microelectronic circuits. The first antenna is an Inverted-F antenna (IFA). It has a maximum gain of -8 dBi and a -10 dB matching bandwidth of 20%. The second radiator is a meandered dipole. It has a maximum gain of -14 dBi and a -10 dB matching bandwidth of 10%. The challenging measurement of their reflection coefficient and their gain radiation pattern are presented. Simulated versus measured curves are analyzed. We especially demonstrate the necessity to take into account the closest microelectronic circuits of the antennas for accurate modeling of the radiating performance of 60 GHz on-chip dies.

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  10. TITZ, D., BEN ABDELJELIL, F., LUXEY, C., JACQUEMOD, G. Co-design of integrated antennas and CMOS switches for future indoor personal networks at 60 GHz. In Proceedings of AP-S International Symposium. Toronto (Canada), 2010, p. 1 - 4.
  11. TITZ, D., KYRO, M., LUXEY, C., BEN ABDELJELIL, F., JACQUEMOD, G., VAINIKAINEN, P. Radiation pattern measurement set-up for 60 GHz on-chip antennas. In Proceedings of Loughbourough Antennas and Propagation Conference. Loughbourough (UK), 2010, p. 533 - 536.
  12. BARAKAT, M. H., NDAGIJIMANA, F., DELAVAUD, C. On the design of 60 GHz integrated antennas on 0.13 μm SOI technology. In Proceedings of International SOI Conference. Indian Wells (USA), 2007, p. 117 - 118.
  13. RANVIER, S., KYRO, M., ICHELN, C., LUXEY, C., STARAJ, R., VAINIKAINEN, P. Compact 3-D on-wafer radiation pattern measurement system for 60 GHz antennas. Microwave and Optical Technology Letters, 2009, vol. 51, no. , p. 319 - 324.
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Keywords: 60 GHz communications, On-Chip antennas, Mm wave radiation pattern set-up.

F. Kaçar, A. Yeşil, A. Noori [references] [full-text]
New CMOS Realization of Voltage Differencing Buffered Amplifier and Its Biquad Filter Applications

In this paper, new biquad filter configuration using a recently introduced active element, namely Voltage Differencing Buffered Amplifier (VDBA), is proposed. This block has high impedance input terminals and low impedance output terminal, providing advantages at voltage mode circuits. Besides, VDBA has a transconductance gain, thus the proposed circuits can be employed without using any external resistors. Two new voltage-mode biquad filter configurations are presented for VDBA application. Each proposed filter employs two active elements and two or three passive components. Filters, having three inputs and single output, can realize voltage-mode low-pass, band-pass, high-pass, band-stop, and all-pass filters. The biquad filters have low output impedances that is necessity for cascadability for voltage mode circuits, and no critical component matching conditions are required. For the second biquad, quality factor can be adjusted via resistor independently of the natural frequency. Simulation results are given to, confirming the theoretical analysis. The proposed biquad filters are simulated using TSMC CMOS 0.35 µm technology. LTSPICE simulations of the proposed circuits give results that agree well with the theoretical analysis.

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Keywords: Voltage differencing Buffered Amplifier, voltage mode filter, CMOS integrated circuit.

J.-M. Wu, C.-K. Liou, C.-J. Chuang, Y. Kuo [references] [full-text]
A 0.8 V T Network-Based 2.6 GHz Downconverter RFIC

A 2.6 GHz downconverter RFIC is designed and implemented using a 0.18 μm CMOS standard process. An important goal of the design is to achieve the high linearity that is required in WiMAX systems with a low supply voltage. A passive T phase-shift network is used as an RF input stage in a Gilbert cell to reduce supply voltage. A single supply voltage of 0.8 V is used with a power consumption of 5.87 mW. The T network-based downconverter achieves a conversion gain (CG) of 5 dB, a single-sideband noise figure (NF) of 16.16 dB, an RF-to-IF isolation of greater than 20 dB, and an input-referred third-order intercept point (IIP3) of 1 dBm when the LO power of -13 dBm is applied.

  1. DEBONO, C. J., MALOBERTI, F., MICALLER, J. A 900 MHz, 0.9 V low-power CMOS downconversion mixer. In Proceedings of the 2001 IEEE Conference on Custom Integrated Circuits. San Diego (U.S.), 2001, p. 527 - 530.
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  3. HUANG, M.-F., KUO, C. J., LEE, S.-Y. A 5.25-GHz CMOS folded-cascode even-harmonic mixer for low-voltage applications. IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques, 2006, vol. 54, no. 2, p. 660 - 669.
  4. DEGUCHI, J., MIYASHITA, D., HAMADA, M. A 0.6V 380μW −14dBm LO-input 2.4GHz double-balanced current-reusing single-gate CMOS mixer with cyclic passive combiner. In Digest of the 2009 IEEE International Solid-State Circuits Conference. San Francisco (U.S.), 2009, p. 224 - 225,225a.
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Keywords: Downconverter, mixer, low voltage.

P. Kovar, P. Kacmarik, F. Vejrazka [references] [full-text]
Economic Galileo E5 Receiver

The Galileo system introduces an extremely wideband civil E5 signal for high precision navigation. The structure of the receiver for the E5 signal is complicated due to the signal complexity and the large bandwidth. It is possible to process the whole E5 signal or process separately E5a and E5b parts combining obtained results afterwards (we call here such method as piece-wise processing). The second procedure has three times worse standard deviation of the pseudorange then first one. The main goal of the paper is to present a design of an E5 receiver which we will call the economic E5 receiver (ecoE5). It is built from jointly controlled correlators for the processing of the E5a and E5b signals which are parts of the E5 signal. Control of these partial E5a and E5b correlators is realized by only one delay and one phase lock loops. The performance, i.e. the pseudorange noise and multipath errors, of the receiver equipped with the ecoE5, is only slightly worse (the standard deviation of the pseudorange noise is 10 - 20% larger) than the performance of the optimal E5 receiver and it is much better than the performance of the receiver combining the piecewise (E5a and E5b) measurements. The ecoE5 receiver hardware demands are about one quarter of the hardware demands of the classical E5 receiver.

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Keywords: Galileo E5 receiver, Galileo E5 signal processing

P. Mlynek, J. Misurec, M. Koutny, P.Silhavy [references] [full-text]
Two-port Network Transfer Function for Power Line Topology Modeling

This paper deals with modeling of power line communication. A two-port network model is theoretically described and compared with measurement. A substantial part is focused on the mathematical description of distri¬bution network using the method, which uses chain pa¬rameter matrices describing the relation between input and output voltage and current of the two-port network. This method is used for modeling sample power line topology. Furthermore, taps length and taps impedance influence on the transfer functions for different topology are examined.

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Keywords: Power line communication, two-port network, distribution network topology, transfer function.

V. Matić, A. Lebl, D. Mitić, Z. Markov [references] [full-text]
Determination of More Realistic Target 95% Values of Post Selection Delay in Modern Telephone Networks

In this paper we present the telephone network and the recommendations, dealing with the greatest target values of Post Selection Delay. It is shown that the Post Selection Delay is the sum of the delays between the network nodes and that it has the smaller dispersion than the one, recommended as the greatest in the recommendations.

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  2. ITU-T. Recommendation E.671: Post-selection delay in PSTN/ISDN networks using Internet telephony for a portion of the connection. March 2000.
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Keywords: Telephone network, Post Selection Delay, probability distribution

P. Lafata [references] [full-text]
Investigation of Accurate Far-End Crosstalk Modeling in Metallic Cables

Crosstalk and especially far-end crosstalk (FEXT) represents the most serious source of disturbance in today’s digital transmission systems. It mostly limits the information capacity of current xDSL digital subscriber lines and also of local data networks with unshielded and or shielded twisted pairs (UTP/STP). The elimination of FEXT will require the implementation of advanced methods for its modeling to obtain required predictions of crosstalk behavior in a cable. The standard simple FEXT model and ITU-T FEXT model are not very accurate and do not provide realistic results. That is why a new method for modeling of FEXT was developed and is presented in this paper. The results of the model are also compared with measured characteristics for a typical UTP cable and several other cables. The proposed advanced FEXT model with minor modifications is applicable for any metallic cable to provide accurate and realistic FEXT characteristics.

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Keywords: Crosstalk, FEXT, modeling, metallic cables, transmission lines

J. Dobes, V. Biolkova [references] [full-text]
Reliable and Efficient Procedure for Steady-State Analysis of Nonautonomous and Autonomous Systems

The majority of contemporary design tools do not still contain steady-state algorithms, especially for the autonomous systems. This is mainly caused by insufficient accuracy of the algorithm for numerical integration, but also by unreliable steady-state algorithms themselves. Therefore, in the paper, a very stable and efficient procedure for the numerical integration of nonlinear differential-algebraic systems is defined first. Afterwards, two improved methods are defined for finding the steady state, which use this integration algorithm in their iteration loops. The first is based on the idea of extrapolation, and the second utilizes nonstandard time-domain sensitivity analysis. The two steady-state algorithms are compared by analyses of a rectifier and a C-class amplifier, and the extrapolation algorithm is primarily selected as a more reliable alternative. Finally, the method based on the extrapolation naturally cooperating with the algorithm for solving the differential-algebraic systems is thoroughly tested on various electronic circuits: Van der Pol and Colpitts oscillators, fragment of a large bipolar logical circuit, feedback and distributed microwave oscillators, and power amplifier. The results confirm that the extrapolation method is faster than a classical plain numerical integration, especially for larger circuits with complicated transients.

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Keywords: Numerical integration, steady-state algorithm, period, extrapolation, epsilon-algorithm, sensitivity analysis.

D. Biolek, V. Biolkova, Z. Kolka [references] [full-text]
Immediate Analysis of Periodic Steady States in Switched DC-DC Converters via SPICE

The method of immediate analysis of periodic steady states in switched DC-DC converters operating in the continuous current mode is described. The initial conditions, which correspond to the periodic steady state, are found in the first step. They are used consequently for the conventional transient analysis. A special SPICE model of the converter finds automatically these initial conditions, which are then available within the transient analysis. The method works both for the well-known behavioral models of switched converters and also for models which employ complex nonlinear SPICE models of semiconductor switches.

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Keywords: Switched DC-DC converter, averaged model. switching effects, periodic steady state

R. Sotner, J. Jerabek, N. Herencsar, Z. Hrubos, T. Dostal, K. Vrba [references] [full-text]
Study of Adjustable Gains for Control of Oscillation Frequency and Oscillation Condition in 3R-2C Oscillator

An idea of adjustable gain in order to obtain controllable features is very useful for design of tuneable oscillators. Several active elements with adjustable properties (current and voltage gain) are discussed in this paper. Three modified oscillator conceptions that are quite simple, directly electronically adjustable, providing independent control of oscillation condition and frequency were designed. Positive and negative aspects of presented method of control are discussed. Expected assumptions of adjustability are verified experimentally on one of the presented solution.

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Keywords: Electronic tuning, adjustable current and voltage amplifiers, voltage and current followers, oscillators

M. Kubicek, Z. Kolka [references] [full-text]
In-system Jitter Measurement Based on Blind Oversampling Data Recovery

The paper describes a novel method for simple estimation of jitter contained in a received digital signal. The main objective of our research was to enable a non-invasive measurement of data link properties during a regular data transmission. To evaluate the signal quality we estimate amount of jitter contained in the received signal by utilizing internal signals of a data recovery circuit. The method is a pure digital algorithm suitable for implementation in any digital integrated circuit (ASIC or FPGA). It is based on a blind-oversampling data recovery circuit which is used in some receivers instead of a traditional PLL-based clock and data recovery (CDR) circuit. Combination of the described jitter measurement block and the data recovery block forms a very efficient input part of the digital receiver. In such configuration it is able to simultaneously perform both data communication (data recovery) and signal quality estimation (jitter measurement). The jitter measurement portion of the receiver requires no special connection of the received data signal. Thus the measured signal is not influenced by the measurement circuitry at all. To verify the method we performed a measurement on a laboratory free-space optics link. Results of the measurement are satisfactory and can be used for on-line channel analysis.

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Keywords: Jitter, Blind Oversampling Data Recovery, FPGA, ASIC, Time-to-Digital, Signal Quality, Bit Error Rate

Z. Fedra, B. Dimitrijevic, N. Milosevic, D. Antic, Z. Nikolic [references] [full-text]
Variance based OFDM frame synchronization

The paper deals with a new frame synchronization scheme for OFDM systems and calculates the complexity of this scheme. The scheme is based on the computing of the detection window variance. The variance is computed in two delayed times, so a modified Early-Late loop is used for the frame position detection. The proposed algorithm deals with different variants of OFDM parameters including guard interval, cyclic prefix, and has good properties regarding the choice of the algorithm's parameters since the parameters may be chosen within a wide range without having a high influence on system performance. The verification of the proposed algorithm functionality has been performed on a development environment using universal software radio peripheral (USRP) hardware.

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Keywords: Frame synchronization, Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplex.

P. Kovacs, T. Urbanec [references] [full-text]
Electromagnetic Band Gap Structures: Practical Tips and Advice for Antenna Engineers

In this paper we discuss the use of electromagnetic band gap (EBG) structures in antenna engineering from a practical point of view. Our aim is to point out the most common mistakes and myths related to design, analysis and application of EBGs in the field of antennas. The paper could be helpful for beginners giving a short course on designing EBGs but also will bring novel findings for experts, investigating the effect of different number of unit cells on radiation characteristics of a planar antenna. An important part of the paper is the experiments showing the surface wave distribution over an EBG board and over the fabricated antennas with- and without the periodic structure.

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Keywords: Electromagnetic band gap (EBG), surface wave distribution, patch antenna, radiation properties

J. Puskely [references] [full-text]
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The Fourier iterative algorithm (FIA) is a well-known planar phase retrieval method. The algorithm uses conventional amplitude measurements on two surfaces placed in different distances from the measured antenna. In this paper FIA will be applied in cylindrical geometry. In this case near-field transformations use high order Hankel functions which are known to become singular in case of measurements close to AUT. In this paper we will analyze properties of Hankel function used for forward and backward transformation in FIA to make recommendations for cylindrical near-field measurement setup. We supplement FIA representing local approach with global optimization to make cylindrical phase retrieval method more robust. The proposed technique is applied for radiation pattern reconstructions of a dish antenna and a horn antenna.

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Keywords: Cylindrical near-field scanning, Phaseless measurement, Fourier iterative algorithm, Hankel functions

P. Vagner, T. Urbanec, M. Kasal [references] [full-text]
Band-monitoring Payload for a CubeSat Satellite

During changing sun activity, the ionosphere is responding accordingly and therefore it is interesting to observe the propagation behavior of shortwave bands. For the above mentioned purpose we have designed a band-monitoring payload for an experimental CubeSat satellite. The payload consists of a receiver, which is able to receive SSB modulated narrowband signals in 28 MHz uplink band, and a transmitter with FM modulation in UHF downlink band. The receiver frequency is selected to be at the center of radio amateur activity with low data rate digital modulations.

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Keywords: CubeSat, band-monitor, BPSK31, PSAT, transponder

T. Fryza, J. Svobodova, F. Adamec, R. Marsalek, J. Prokopec [references] [full-text]
Overview of Parallel Platforms for Common High Performance Computing

The paper deals with various parallel platforms used for high performance computing in the signal processing domain. More precisely, the methods exploiting the multicores central processing units such as message passing interface and OpenMP are taken into account. The properties of the programming methods are experimentally proved in the application of a fast Fourier transform and a discrete cosine transform and they are compared with the possibilities of MATLAB's built-in functions and Texas Instruments digital signal processors with very long instruction word architectures. New FFT and DCT implementations were proposed and tested. The implementation phase was compared with CPU based computing methods and with possibilities of the Texas Instruments digital signal processing library on C6747 floating-point DSPs. The optimal combination of computing methods in the signal processing domain and new, fast routines' implementation is proposed as well.

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Keywords: Digital signal processing, fast Fourier transforms, discrete cosine transforms, parallel programming, high performance computing, message passing interface, OpenMP, MATLAB, digital signal processors, optimization

M. Slanina, T. Kratochvil, V. Ricny, L. Bolecek, O. Kaller, L. Polak [references] [full-text]
Testing QoE in Different 3D HDTV Technologies

The three dimensional (3D) display technology has started flooding the consumer television market. There is a number of different systems available with different marketing strategies and different advertised advantages. The main goal of the experiment described in this paper is to compare the systems in terms of achievable Quality of Experience (QoE) in different situations. The display systems considered are the liquid crystal display using polarized light and passive lightweight glasses for the separation of the left- and right-eye images, a plasma display with time multiplexed images and active shutter glasses and a projection system with time multiplexed images and active shutter glasses. As no standardized test methodology has been defined for testing of stereoscopic systems, we develop our own approach to testing different aspects of QoE on different systems without reference using semantic differential scales. We present an analysis of scores with respect to different phenomena under study and define which of the tested aspects can really express a difference in the performance of the considered display technologies.

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  4. ITU-R Recommendation BT.500-11. Methodology for the Subjective Assessment of the Quality of Television Pictures. Geneva: ITU, 2002.
  5. ITU-T Recommendation P.910. Subjective Video Quality Assessment Methods for Multimedia Applications. Geneva: ITU, 2008.
  6. ITU-R Recommendation BT.1788 Methodology for the Subjective Assessment of Video Quality in Multimedia Applications. Geneva: ITU, 2007.
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Keywords: 3D, stereoscopic display, Quality of Experience, subjective test, reference-free methodology.

M. Grabner, V. Kvicera [references] [full-text]
Measurement of the Structure Constant of Refractivity at Optical Wavelengths Using a Scintillometer

The structure constant of the atmospheric refractive index is used for characterizing the turbulence strength and for predicting the scintillation of electromagnetic waves in atmosphere. It is measured continuously in Prague using an optical scintillometer. First monthly and seasonal statistics obtained from the data gathered in the summer 2011 are provided. Lognormal distribution parameters are fitted to the empirical cumulative distribution. The hourly statistics of the structure constant show the typical evolution of turbulence strength during a day.

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Keywords: Propagation, turbulence, structure constant of refractivity, scintillation.

J. Libich, P. Dvorak, P. Piksa, S. Zvanovec [references] [full-text]
Correction of Thermal Deviations of Fabry-Perot Resonator Based Measurements of Specific Gases in Millimeter Wave Bands

Due to the thermal expansivity of the material used in the Fabry-Perot resonator mirrors, the resonator cavity length can change and this might therefore have an impact on the resonant frequency during high-resolution spectroscopy measurements. Based on measurements and simulations, this paper discusses the influences of temperature on the precise determination of gas attenuation measured in a Fabry-Perot resonator. Several measures to mitigate such influence and to correct the measured results were tested. A correction method for the measured data was proposed.

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Keywords: Fabry-Perot resonator, gas attenuation measurement, thermal deviation

V. Kabourek, P. Cerny, M. Mazanek [references] [full-text]
Clutter Reduction Based on Principal Component Analysis Technique for Hidden Objects Detection

This paper brings a brief overview of the statistical method called Principal Component Analysis (PCA). It is used for clutter reduction in detection of hidden objects, targets hidden behind walls, buried landmines, etc. Since the measured data, imaged in time domain, suffer from the hyperbolic character of objects’ reflections, utilization of the Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) method is briefly described. Besides, the mathematical basics of PCA as well as its comparison with Singular Value Decomposition are presented. The principles of ground and clutter subtraction from image are then demonstrated using training data set and SAR processed measured data.

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Keywords: Synthetic Aperture Radar, through-wall imaging, Singular Value Decomposition, Principal Component Analysis

V. Schejbal, P. Svoboda, J. Pidanic, O. Fiser [references] [full-text]
Two-Dimensional Forward Scattering – Comparisons of Approximate and Exact Solutions

Various methods for analyses of scattering are mentioned and new approximate relationships are derived. Experimental results for thin wire and several numerical simulations of forward scattering using approximate estimations, physical optics and exact solutions for two-dimensional scattering are presented both for far and near fields. That allows not only accuracy analyses but also conclusions about scattering and total fields in the presence of objects, which are important for many applications such as communications, bistatic and multistatic radars and electromagnetic compatibility.

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Keywords: Forward scattering, radar cross section, physical optics, modal solutions, two dimensional scattering

J. L. Jimenez-Martin, V. Gonzalez-Posadas, A. Parra-Cerrada, L. E. Garcia-Munoz, D. Segovia-Vargaz [references] [full-text]
Comments and Remarks over Classic Linear Loop-Gain Method for Oscillator Design and Analysis. New Proposed Method Based on NDF/RRT

Present paper describes a new method for designing oscillators based on the Normalized Determinant Function (NDF) and Return Relations (RRT ). First a review of the loop-gain method will be performed, showing pros, cons and including some examples for exploring wrong so- lutions provided by this method. Wrong solutions, because some conditions have to be previously fulfilled in order to obtain right ones, which will be described and finally, demonstrate that NDF analysis is necessary, including Return Relations (RRT ) usefulness, which in fact are related with the True Loop-Gain. Finally concluding this paper, steps for oscillator design and analysis, using the proposed NDF/RRT method will be presented, compared to wrong previous solutions pointing out new accuracy achieved on oscillation frequency and QL prediction. Also, more new examples, of plane reference oscillators (Z/Y/rho), will be added for which loop gain method application is clearly difficult or even impossible, solving them with the new proposed NDF/RRT method.

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Keywords: Oscillator, Normalized Determinant Function, NDF, Stability, Loop-Gai

L. Wang, B.-R. Guan [references] [full-text]
Novel Compact and High Selectivity Dual-band BPF with Wide Stopband

A novel type of compact and high selectivity dual-band bandpass filter (BPF) incorporating a dual-mode defected ground structure resonator (DDGSR) and a dual-mode open-stub loaded stepped impedance resonator (DOLSIR) is proposed in this paper. Utilizing capacitive source-load coupling and the intrinsic characteristics of the two types of dual-mode resonators, compact dual-band BPF with multi transmission zeros near the passband edges as well as a wide stopband which can be used to achieve high selectivity is realized. An experimental dual-band BPF located at 2.4 and 3.2 GHz was designed and fabricated. The validity of the design approach is verified by good agreement between simulated and measurement results.

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  13. ZHANG, X.–Y., XUE, Q. Novel dual-mode dual-band filters using coplanar-waveguide-fed ring resonators. IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech., 2007, vol. 55, no. 10, p. 2183-2190.
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Keywords: Dual-mode, dual-band, bandpass, defected ground structure.

K. Y. You, J. Salleh, Z. Abbas [references] [full-text]
Effects of Length and Diameter of Open-Ended Coaxial Sensor on its Reflection Coefficient

This paper presents a calibration technique for a coaxial sensor using a transmission signal approach. The sensor was fabricated from commercially available RG402/U and RG405/U semi-rigid coaxial cable. The length of the coaxial sensor was correlated with the attenuation and standing wave inside the coaxial line. The functions of multiple reflection amplitude and tolerance length with respect to the actual length of coaxial line were empirically formulated using regression analysis. The tolerances and the undesired standing wave which occurs along the coaxial line were analyzed in detail

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Keywords: Long open-ended coaxial sensor, aperture calibration, standing wave, transmission line, tolerance length, semi-rigid coaxial cable

Zhongkun Ma., G. A. E. Vandenbosch [references] [full-text]
Comparison of Weighted Sum Fitness Functions for PSO Optimization of Wideband Medium-gain Antennas

In recent years PSO (Particle Swarm Optimization) has been successfully applied in antenna design. It is well-known that the cost function has to be carefully chosen in accordance with the requirements in order to reach an optimal result. In this paper, two different wideband medium-gain arrays are chosen as benchmark structures to test the performance of four PSO fitness functions that can be considered in such a design. The first one is a planar 3 element, the second one a linear 4 element antenna. A MoM (Method of Moments) solver is used in the design. The results clearly show that the fitness functions achieve a similar global best candidate structure. The fitness function based on realized gain however converges slightly faster than the others.

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Keywords: Fitness function, multi-objective optimization, wideband antenna array.

J. J. Yang, M. Huang, F. C. Mao, J. Sun [references] [full-text]
Antenna Miniaturization Based on Supperscattering Effect

Antennas are essential components of all existing radio equipments. The miniaturization of antenna is a key issue of antenna technology. Based on supperscattering effect, we found that when a small horn antenna is located inside of a dielectric core and covered with a complementary layer, its far field radiation pattern will be equivalent to a large horn antenna. The complementary layer with only axial parameters varying with radius is obtained using coordinate transformation theory. Besides, the influence of loss and perturbations of parameters on supperscattering effect is also investigated. Results show that the device is robust against the perturbation in the axial material parameters when the refractive index is kept invariant. Full-wave simulations based on finite element method are performed to validate the design.

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Keywords: Superscattering effect, horn antenna, transformation optics.

Yingsong Li, Wenxing Li, Tao Jiang [references] [full-text]
Implementation and Investigation of a Compact Circular Wide Slot UWB Antenna with Dual Notched Band Characteristics using Stepped Impedance Resonators

A coplanar waveguide (CPW) fed ultra-wideband (UWB) antenna with dual notched band characteristics is presented in this paper. The circular wide slot and circular radiation patch are utilized to broaden the impedance bandwidth of the UWB antenna. The dual notched band functions are achieved by employing two stepped impedance resonators (SIRs) which etched on the circular radiation patch and CPW excitation line, respectively. The two notched bands can be controlled by adjusting the dimensions of the two stepped impedance resonators which give tunable notched band functions. The proposed dual notched band UWB antenna has been designed in details and optimized by means of HFSS. Experimental and numerical results show that the proposed antenna with compact size of 32 × 24 mm2, has an impedance bandwidth range from 2.8 GHz to 13.5 Hz for voltage standing-wave ratio (VSWR) less than 2, except the notch bands 5.0 GHz - 6.2 GHz for HIPERLAN/2 and IEEE 802.11a (5.1 GHz - 5.9 GHz) and 8.0 GHz - 9.3 GHz for satellite and military applications.

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Keywords: UWB antenna, Notch band antenna, stepped impedance resonator, wide slot, X-band, SIR

Ke Lu, Guang-Ming Wang, Hai-yang Xu, Xiong Yin [references] [full-text]
Design of Compact Planar Diplexer Based on Novel Spiral-Based Resonators

A miniaturized planar diplexer utilizing the novel spiral-based resonators is proposed. The given cell which is initially proposed in this article is composed of two separated rectangular spirals which are asymmetrical to each other and thus, it is called as ‘asymmetrical separated spirals resonator’ (ASSR). ASSR has more superior transmission property than the previous prototype and extremely compact dimension is also achieved. It is demonstrated that ASSR can exhibit bandpass performance with high frequency selectivity and good transmission property within the relatively low frequency band. Based on the given characteristic, one planar diplexer composed of T-junction and two ASSRs is synthesized and the fabricated prototype with compact dimension is achieved, thanks to ASSRs explored. Simultaneously, the transversal dimension of each channel is extremely compact because ASSRs are completely embedded in the feed lines. Both the simulated and measured results indicate that satisfactory impedance matching and high isolation between two channels are achieved. Furthermore, the proposed diplexer is uniplanar and no defected ground structure is introduced.

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Keywords: Miniaturized planar diplexer, spiral-based resonator, high frequency selectivity

A. Filipik, J. Jan, I. Peterlik [references] [full-text]
Time-of-Flight Based Calibration of an Ultrasonic Computed Tomography System

The paper presents a novel method for calibration of measuring geometry and of individual signal delays of transducers in ultrasonic computed tomography (USCT) systems via computational processing of multiple time-of-flight measurements of ultrasonic (US) impulses. The positions and time-delay parameters of thousands of ultrasonic transducers inside the USCT tank are calibrated by this approach with a high precision required for the tomographic reconstruction; such accuracy cannot be provided by any other known method. Although utilising similar basic principles as the global positioning system (GPS), the method is importantly generalised in treating all transducer parameters as the to-be calibrated (floating) unknowns, without any a-priori known positions and delays. The calibration is formulated as a non-linear least-squares problem, minimizing the differences between the calculated and measured time-of-arrivals of ultrasonic pulses. The paper provides detailed derivation of the method, and compares two implemented approaches (earlier calibration of individual transducers with the new approach calibrating rigid transducer arrays) via detailed simulations, aimed at testing the convergence properties and noise robustness of both approaches. Calibration using real US signals is described and, as an illustration of the utility of the presented method, a comparison is shown of two image reconstructions using the tomographic US data from a concrete experimental USCT system measuring a 3D phantom, without and after the calibration.

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Keywords: Ultrasonic computed tomography, transmission tomography, calibration of sensors, mammography, nonlinear optimisation, time-of-flight measurements