# December 2012, Volume 21, Number 4

**T. Djerafi, N. Ghassemi, O. Kramer, B. Youzkateli-el-Khatib, A. B. Guntupalli, K. Wu**
[references] [full-text]
[Download Citations]

Small Footprint Multilayered Millimeter-Wave Antennas and Feeding Networks for Multi-Dimensional Scanning and High-Density Integrated Systems

This paper overviews the state-of-the-art of substrate integrated waveguide (SIW) techniques in the design and realization of innovative low-cost, low-profile and low-loss (L3) millimeter-wave antenna elements, feeding networks and arrays for various wireless applications. Novel classes of multilayered antenna structures and systems are proposed and studied to exploit the vertical dimension of planar structures to overcome certain limita-tions in standard two-dimensional (2-D) topologies. The developed structures are based on two techniques, namely multi-layer stacked structures and E-plane corners. Differ-ent E-plane structures realised with SIW waveguide are presented, thereby demonstrating the potential of the proposed techniques as in multi-polarization antenna feeding. An array of 128 elements shows low SLL and height gain with just 200g of the total weight. Two versions of 2-D scanning multi-beam are presented, which effectively combine frequency scanning with beam forming networks. Adding the benefits of wide band performance to the multilayer structure, two bi-layer structures are investigated. Different stacked antennas and arrays are demonstrated to optimise the targeted antenna performances in the smallest footprint possible. These structures meet the requirement for developing inexpensive compact millimeter-wave antennas and antenna systems. Different structures and architectures are theoretically and experimentally studied and discussed for specific space- and ground-based appli-cations. Practical issues such as high-density integration and high-volume manufacturability are also addressed.

- KEMP, M. C. Millimetre wave and terahertz technology for the detection of concealed threats – a review. Proc. SPIE, 2006, vol. 6402.
- MEINEL, H. H. Commercial applications of millimeter waves – history, present status and future trends. IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques, 1995, p. 1639–1653.
- SCHOEBEL J., HERRERO, P. Planar Antenna Technology for mm-Wave Automotive Radar, Sensing, and Communications, Radar Technology. Book edited by: Dr. Guy Kouemou, INTECH, Croatia, December 2009, p. 410.
- GOLDSMITH, P. F., HSIEH, C.-T., HUGUENIN, G. R., KAPITZKY, J., MOORE, E. L. Focal plane imaging systems for millimeter wavelengths. IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory and Techniques, October 1993, vol. 41, p. 1664–1675.
- SALMON, N. A. Scene simulation for passive and active millimetre and sub-millimetre wave imaging for security scanning and medical applications. SPIE, 2004, vol. 5619, p. 129-135.
- HALL, P. S., HALL, C. M. Coplanar corporate feed effects in microstrip patch array design. Proc. Inst. Elect. Eng., June 1988, vol. 135, p.180–186.
- WU, K., DESLANDES, D., CASSIVI, Y. The substrate integrated circuits – a new concept for high-frequency electronics and optoelectronics. In 6th Int. Conf. on Telecommunications in Modern Satellite, Cable and Broadcasting Service. Oct. 2003, vol.1, p. 3-5.
- DJERAFI, T., DESLANDES, D., WU, K. A temperature compensation technique for substrate integrated waveguide cavities and filters. IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques, Aug. 2012, vol. 60, no. 8, p.2448-2455.
- DJERAFI, T., DESLANDES, D., WU, K. Temperature drift compensation technique for substrate integrated waveguide oscillator. IEEE Microwave and Wireless Components Letters, 2012, vol. 22, no. 9, p.489-491.
- DAIGLE, M., DJERAFI, T., WU, K. Modified photoimageable thick-film process for millimeter-wave rectangular waveguide applications. Progress in Electromagnetics Research C, 2011, vol. 22, p.137-150.
- LI, Z., WU, K. 24-GHz frequency-modulation continuous-wave radar front-end system-on-substrate. IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques, Feb. 2008, vol. 56, p. 278–285.
- CHEN, X.-P., WU, K., HAN, L., HE, F. Low-cost high gain planar antenna array for 60-GHz band applications. IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation, June 2010, vol. 58, p. 2126–2129.
- SBARRA, E., MARCACCIOLI, L., GATTI, R. V., SORRENTINO, R. A novel Rotman lens in SIW technology. In European Radar Conference, 2007, p. 236-239.
- CHENG, Y. J., HONG, W., WU, K., FAN, Y. Millimeter-wave substrate integrated waveguide long slot leaky-wave antennas and two-dimensional multibeam applications. IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation, 2011, vol. 59, no. 1, p. 40-47.
- DJERAFI, T., FONSECA, N. J. G., WU, K. Planar Ku_-band 4 4 Nolen matrix in SIW technology. IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques, Feb. 2010, vol. 58, no. 2, p. 259–266.
- DJERAFI, T., WU, K. A low-cost wideband 77-GHz planar Butler matrix in SIW technology over. IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation, 2012, vol. 60, no. 10, p. 4949-4954.
- YOUZKATLI EL KHATIB, B. DJERAFI, T., WU, K. Substrate integrated waveguide vertical interconnects for three-dimensional integrated circuits. Transactions on Components, Packaging and Manufacturing Technology, 2012, vol. 2, no. 9, p. 1526-1535.
- GUNTUPALLI, A. B., DJERAFI, T., WU, K, Integrated waveguide two-dimensional scan conformal multi-beam array antenna. Transactions on Antennas and Propagation. Unpublished.
- FENG, W. J., CHE, W. Q., DENG, K. Compact planar magic-T using E-plane substrate integrated waveguide (SIW) power divider and slot-line transition. IEEE Microw. Wireless Compon. Lett., Jun. 2010, vol. 20, no. 6, p. 331–333.
- VILLENEUVE, A. T. Taylor patterns for discrete arrays. IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation, 1984, vol. 32, p. 1089–1093.
- ANTHONY, T., ZAGHLOUL, A. I. Designing a 32 element array at 76 GHz with a 33 dB Taylor distribution in waveguide for a radar system. In IEEE AP-S Int. Symp., 2009, p. 1–4.
- SATO, H., SAWAYA, K. WAGATSUMA, Y., MIZUNO, K. Broadband FDTD analysis of Fermi antenna with narrow width substrate. In IEEE AP-S Int. Symp., 2003, vol. 1, p. 261–264.
- DJERAFI, T., WU, K. Corrugated substrate integrated waveguide (SIW) antipodal linearly tapered slot antenna array fed by quasitriangular power divider. Progress in Electromagnetics Research C, 2012, vol. 26, p. 139-151.
- YOUZKATLI EL KHATIB, B., DJERAFI, T., WU, K. Threedimensional architecture of substrate integrated waveguide feeder for Fermi tapered slot antenna array applications. IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation, Oct. 2012, vol. 60, no. 10, p. 4610-4618.
- DONGKYU, L., SANGHYO, L., CHANGYUL, C., YOUNGWOO, K. A. Two-dimensional beam scanning antenna array using composite right/left handed microstrip leaky-wave antennas. IEEE/MTT-S Int. Microwave Symposium, 2007, p. 1883 to 1886.
- SOLE, G. C., SMITH, M. S. Multiple beam forming for planar antenna arrays using a three-dimensional Rotman lens. IEE Proceedings H Microwaves, Antennas and Propagation, August 1987, vol. 134, no. 4, p. 375-385.
- GUNTUPALLI, A. B., WU, K. Multi-dimensional scanning multibeam array antenna fed by integrated waveguide Butler matrix. In Proceeding of International Microwave Symposium, 2012, p. 1-3.
- WU, K., CHENG, Y. J., DJERAFI, T., CHEN, X. P., FONSECA, N., HONG, W. Millimeter-wave integrated waveguide antenna arrays and beamforming networks for low-cost satellite and mobile systems. In European Conference on Antennas and Propagation (EuCAP), 2010, p. 1-5, 12-16.
- DJERAFI, T., WU, K. Multi-layered substrate integrated waveguide Butler matrix for millimeter-wave systems. International Journal of RF and Microwave Computer-Aided Engineering, May 2012, vol. 22, no. 3, p. 336-344.
- XU, X., BOSISIO, R. G., WU, K. Analysis and implementation of sixport software-defined radio receiver platform. IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques, 2006, vol. 54, no. 7, p. 2937–2943.
- DJERAFI, T., DAIGLE, M., BOUTAYEB, H., WU, K. SIW six port circuits for mm-wave radar and radio systems. In EUMC 2009. Rome (Italy), 2009, p. 77-80.
- KRAMER, O., WU, K., DJERAFI, T. Dual-layered substrate integrated waveguide six-port with wideband double stub phase shifter. IET Microwaves, Antennas & Propagation, accepted.
- KRAMER, O. DJERAFI, T., WU, K. Very small footprint 60 GHz stacked Yagi antenna array. IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation, 2011, vol. 59, no. 9, p. 1022-1030.
- GHASSEMI, N., WU, K., CLAUDE, S., ZHANG, X., BORNEMANN, J. Low-cost and high-efficient W-band substrate integrated waveguide antenna array made of printed circuit board process. IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation, 2012, vol. 60, no. 3, p. 1648-1653.
- KRAMER, O., DJERAFI, T., WU, K. Vertically multilayerstacked Yagi antenna with single and dual polarizations. IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation, Apr. 2010, vol. 58, p. 1022-1030.
- STUTZMAN, W. L., THIELE, G. A. Antenna Theory and Design. 2nd ed. New York: Wiley, 1998.
- LIOUBTCHENKO, D. V., DUDOROV, S. N., MALLAT, J. A., RAISANEN, A. V. Dielectric rod waveguide antenna for W band with good input match. IEEE Microwave and Wireless Components Letters, 2005, vol. 15, no. 1, p. 4-6.
- GHASSEMI, N., WU, K. W band low cost integrated pyramidal horn antenna made of multilayer printed circuit board process. IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation, Sep. 2012, vol. 60, no. 9, p.1-6.
- GHASSEMI, N., WU, K. High efficient array of patch antennas for gigabyte point to point wireless services at E Band. Accepted in IEEE Antennas and Wireless Propagation Letters, 2012, p.1-3.

Keywords: Beamforming, corner, horn millimeter-wave antenna and array, multi-dimensional scanning, patch, six-port, slot, Substrate Integrated Waveguide (SIW), Yagi

**I. Llatser, C. Kremers, D. N. Chigrin, J. M. Jornet, M. C. Lemme, A. Cabellos-Aparicio, E. Alarcon**
[references] [full-text]
[Download Citations]

Radiation Characteristics of Tunable Graphennas in the Terahertz Band

Graphene-enabled wireless communications constitute a novel paradigm which has been proposed to implement wireless communications among nanosystems. Indeed, graphene-based plasmonic nano-antennas, or graphennas, just a few micrometers in size have been predicted to radiate electromagnetic waves at the terahertz band. In this work, the important role of the graphene conductivity in the characteristics of graphennas is analyzed, and their radiation performance both in transmission and reception is numerically studied. The resonance frequency of graphennas is calculated as a function of their length and width, both analytically and by simulation. Moreover, the influence of a dielectric substrate with a variable size, and the position of the patch with respect to the substrate is also evaluated. Further, important properties of graphene, such as its chemical potential or its relaxation time, are found to have a profound impact in the radiation properties of graphennas. Finally, the radiation pattern of a graphenna is compared to that of an equivalent metallic antenna. These results will prove useful for designers of future graphennas, which are expected to enable wireless communications among nanosystems.

- GEIM, A., NOVOSELOV, K. The rise of graphene. Nature materials, 2007, vol. 6, no. 3, p. 183 - 191.
- CASTRO NETO, A., GUINEA, F., PERES, N., NOVOSELOV, K., GEIM, A. The electronic properties of graphene. Reviews of Modern Physics, 2009, vol. 81, no. 1, p. 109 - 162.
- WU, Y. H., YU, T., SHEN, Z. X. Two-dimensional carbon nanostructures: Fundamental properties, synthesis, characterization, and potential applications. Journal of Applied Physics, 2010, vol. 108, 071301.
- SCHWIERZ, F. Graphene transistors. Nature Nanotechnology, 2010, vol. 5, no. 7, p. 487 - 496.
- WANG, X., ZHI, L., MU¨ LLEN, K. Transparent, conductive graphene electrodes for dye-sensitized solar cells. Nano letters, 2008, vol. 8, no. 1, p. 323 - 327.
- JORNET, J. M., AKYILDIZ, I. F. Graphene-based nano-antennas for electromagnetic nanocommunications in the terahertz band. In European Conference on Antennas and Propagation. Barcelona (Spain), 2010.
- LEMME, M. C. Current status of graphene transistors. Solid State Phenomena, 2010, vol. 156 - 158, p. 499 - 509.
- WANG, H., HSU, A., WY, J., KONG, J., PALACIOS, T. Graphenebased ambipolar RF mixers. IEEE Electron Device Letters, 2010, vol. 31, no. 9, p. 906 - 908.
- PALACIOS, T., HSU, A., WANG, H., Applications of graphene devices in RF communications. IEEE Communications Magazine, 2010, vol. 48, no. 6, p. 122 - 128.
- MOON, J., CURTIS, D., ZEHNDER, D., et al. Low-phase-noise graphene FETs in ambipolar RF applications. IEEE Electron Device Letters, 2011, vol. 32, no. 3, p. 270 - 272.
- KOSWATTA, S., VALDES-GARCIA, A., STEINER, M., LIN, Y., AVOURIS, P., Ultimate RF performance potential of carbon electronics. IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques, 2011, vol. 59, no. 10, p. 2739 - 2750.
- AKYILDIZ, I. F., BRUNETTI, F., BLA´ ZQUEZ, C. Nanonetworks: A new communication paradigm. Computer Networks, 2008, vol. 52, no. 12, p. 2260 - 2279.
- FREITAS, R. A. Nanotechnology, nanomedicine and nanosurgery. International Journal of Surgery, 2005, vol. 3, no. 4, p. 243 - 246.
- TALLURY, P., MALHOTRA, A., BYRNE, L. M., SANTRA, S. Nanobioimaging and sensing of infectious diseases. Advanced drug delivery reviews, 2010, vol. 62, no. 4 - 5, p. 424 - 437.
- FERNANDEZ-PACHECO, R., MARQUINA, C., GABRIELVALDIVIA, J., et al. Magnetic nanoparticles for local drug delivery using magnetic implants. Journal of Magnetism and Magnetic Materials, 2007, vol. 311, no. 1, p. 318 - 322.
- LLATSER, I., KREMERS, C., CABELLOS-APARICIO, A., JORNET, J. M., ALARCO´ N, E., CHIGRIN, D. N. Scattering of terahertz radiation on a graphene-based nano-antenna. AIP Conference Proceedings, 2011, vol. 1398, p. 144 - 146.
- LLATSER, I., KREMERS, C., CABELLOS-APARICIO, A., JORNET, J.M., ALARCO´ N, E., CHIGRIN, D. N. Graphene-based nanopatch antenna for terahertz radiation. Photonics and Nanostructures - Fundamentals and Applications, 2012, vol. 10, no. 4, p. 353 - 358.
- LLATSER, I., KREMERS, C., CHIGRIN, D. N., JORNET, J. M., LEMME,M. C., CABELLOS-APARICIO, A., ALARCO´ N, E. Characterization of graphene-based nano-antennas in the terahertz band. In Proceedings of the Sixth European Conference on Antennas and Propagation. Prague (Czech Republic), 2012.
- VAKIL, A., ENGHETA, N. Transformation optics using graphene. Science, 2011, vol. 332, no. 6035, p. 1291 - 1294.
- FALKOVSKY, L., PERSHOGUBA, S. Optical far-infrared properties of a graphene monolayer and multilayer. Physical Review B, 2007, vol. 76, no. 15, 153410.
- HANSON, G. W. Dyadic Green’s functions and guided surface waves for a surface conductivity model of graphene. Journal of Applied Physics, 2008, vol. 103, 064302.
- MIKHAILOV, S., ZIEGLER, K. A new electromagnetic mode in graphene. Physical Review Letters, 2007, vol. 99, no. 1, 016803.
- EM Software and Systems. FEKO. [Online]. Available at: http://www.feko.info
- TONGAY, S., BERKE, K., LEMAITRE, M., et al. Stable hole doping of graphene for low electrical resistance and high optical transparency. Nanotechnology, 2011, vol. 22, 425701.
- XU, C., JIN, Y., YANG, L., YANG, J., JIANG, X. Characteristics of electro-refractive modulating based on Graphene-Oxide-Silicon waveguide. Optics Express, 2012, vol. 20, no. 20, p. 22398 - 22405.
- GEORGE, P. A., STRAIT, J., DAWLATY, J., et al. Ultrafast opticalpump terahertz-probe spectroscopy of the carrier relaxation and recombination dynamics in epitaxial praphene. Nano Letters, 2008, vol. 8, no. 12, p. 4248 - 4251.
- TRUSHIN, M., SCHLIEMANN, J. Anisotropic photoconductivity in graphene. Europhysics Letters, 2011, vol. 96, no. 3, p. 37006.
- HU, J., RUAN, X., CHEN, Y. P. Thermal conductivity and thermal rectification in graphene nanoribbons: A molecular dynamics study. Nano Letters, 2009, vol. 9, no. 7, p. 2730 - 2735.
- RYZHII, V., RYZHII, M., OTSUJI, T. Negative dynamic conductivity of graphene with optical pumping. Journal of Applied Physics, 2007, vol. 101, no. 8, p. 083114.

Keywords: Graphene, graphene-based plasmonic nano-antenna, graphenna, resonant frequency, Surface Plasmon Polariton, terahertz .

**P.-H. Tichit, S. N. Burokur, A. de Lustrac**
[references] [full-text]
[Download Citations]

Antenna Design Concepts Based on Transformation Electromagnetics Approach

Using the idea of wave manipulation via coordinate transformation, we demonstrate the design of novel antenna concepts. The manipulation is enabled by composite metamaterials that realize the space coordinate transformation. We present the design, realization and characterization of three types of antennas: a directive, a steered beam and a quasi-isotropic one. Numerical simulations together with experimental measurements are performed in order to validate the concept. Near-field cartography and far-field pattern measurements performed on a fabricated prototype agree qualitatively with Finite Element Method (FEM) simulations. It is shown that a particular radiation can be transformed at ease into a desired one by modifying the electromagnetic properties of the space around it. This idea can find various applications in novel antenna design techniques for aeronautical, telecommunication and transport domains.

- PENDRY, J. B., SCHURIG, D., SMITH, D. R. Controlling electromagnetic fields. Science, 2006, vol. 312, no. 5781, p. 1780 to 1782.
- LEONHARDT, U. Optical conformal mapping. Science, 2006, vol. 312, no. 5781, p. 1777-1780.
- SCHURIG, D., MOCK, J. J., JUSTICE, B. J., CUMMER, S. A., PENDRY, J. B., STARR, A. F., SMITH, D. R. Metamaterial electromagnetic cloak at microwave frequencies. Science, 2006, vol. 314, no. 5801, p. 977-980.
- RAHM, M., SCHURIG, D., ROBERTS, D. A., CUMMER, S. A., SMITH, D. R., PENDRY, J. B. Design of electromagnetic cloaks and concentrators using form-invariant coordinate transformations of Maxwell’s equations. Photonics and Nanostructures – Fundamentals and Applications, 2008, vol. 6, no. 1, p. 87-95.
- CHEN, H., HOU, B., CHEN, S., AO, X., WEN, W., CHAN, C. T. Design and experimental realization of a broadband transformation media field rotator at microwave frequencies. Physical Review Letters, 2009, vol. 102, no. 18, p. 183903.
- GREENLEAF, A., KURYLEV, Y., LASSAS, M., UHLMANN, G. Electromagnetic wormholes and virtual magnetic monopoles from metamaterials. Physical Review Letters, 2007, vol. 99, no. 18, p. 183901.
- RAHM, M., ROBERTS, D. A., PENDRY, J. B., SMITH, D. R. Transformation-optical design of adaptive beam bends and beam expanders. Optics Express, 2008, vol. 16, no. 15, p. 11555-11567.
- RAHM, M., CUMMER, S. A., SCHURIG, D., PENDRY, J. B., SMITH, D. R. Optical design of reflectionless complex media by finite embedded coordinate transformations Physical Review Letters, 2008, vol. 100, no. 6, p. 063903.
- LIN, L., WANG, W., CUI, J., DU, C., LUO, X. Design of electromagnetic refractor and phase transformer using coordinate transformation theory Optics Express, 2008, vol. 16, no. 10, p. 6815-6821.
- HUANGFU, J., XI, S., KONG, F., ZHANG, J., CHEN, H., WANG, D., WU, B.-I., RAN, L., KONG, J. A. Application of coordinate transformation in bent waveguide Journal of Applied Physics, 2008, vol. 104, no. 1, p. 014502.
- TICHIT, P.-H., BUROKUR, S. N., DE LUSTRAC, A. Waveguide taper engineering using coordinate transformation technology Optics Express, 2010, vol. 18, no. 2, p. 767-772.
- JIANG, W. X., CUI, T. J., MA, H. F., YANG, X. M., CHENG, Q. Layered high-gain lens antennas via discrete optical transformation Applied Physics Letters, 2008, vol. 93, no. 22, p. 221906.
- MEI, Z. L., BAI, J., NIU, T. M., CUI, T. J. A Planar focusing antenna design using quasi-conformal mapping. Progress In Electromagnetics Research M, 2010, vol. 13, p. 261-273.
- JIANG, Z. H., GREGORY, M. D., WERNER, D. H. Experimental demonstration of a broadband transformation optics lens for highly directive multibeam emission. Physical Review B, 2011, vol. 84, no. 16, p. 165111.
- GARCIA-MECA, C., MARTINEZ, A., LEONHARDT, U. Engineering antenna radiation patterns via quasi-conformal mappings. Optics Express, 2011, vol. 19, no. 24, p. 23743-23750.
- MA, Y. G., ONG, C. K., TYC, T., LEONHARDT, U. An omnidirectional retroreflector based on the transmutation of dielectric singularities. Nature Materials, 2009, vol. 8, no. 8, p. 639-642.
- TYC, T., LEONHARDT, U. Transmutation of singularities in optical instruments. New Journal of Physics, 2008, vol. 10, no. 11, p. 115038.
- KUNDTZ, N., SMITH, D. R. Extreme-angle broadband metamaterial lens. Nature Materials, 2010, vol. 9, no. 2, p. 129-132.
- LIER, E., WERNER, D. H., SCARBOROUGH, C. P., WU, Q., BOSSARD, J. A. An octave-bandwidth negligible-loss radiofrequency metamaterial. Nature Materials, 2011, vol. 10, no. 3, p. 216-222.
- LUO, Y., ZHANG, J., RAN, L., CHEN, H., JONG, J. A. Controlling the emission of electromagnetic source. In Progress In Electromagnetics Research Symposium Online, 2008, vol. 4, no. 7, p. 795-800.
- ALLEN, J., KUNDTZ, N., ROBERTS, D. A., CUMMER, S. A., SMITH, D. R. Electromagnetic source transformations using superellipse equations. Applied Physics Letters, 2009, vol. 94, no. 19, p. 194101.
- POPA, B. I., ALLEN, J., CUMMER, S. A. Conformal array design with transformation electromagnetics. Applied Physics Letters, 2009, vol. 94, no. 24, p. 244102.
- TICHIT, P.-H., BUROKUR, S. N., DE LUSTRAC, A. Ultradirective antenna via transformation optics. Journal of Applied Physics, 2009, vol. 105, no. 10, p. 104912.
- TICHIT, P.-H., BUROKUR, S. N., GERMAIN, D., DE LUSTRAC, A. Design and experimental demonstration of a high-directive emission with transformation optics. Physical Review B, 2011, vol. 83, no. 15, p. 155108.
- TICHIT, P.-H., BUROKUR, S. N., GERMAIN, D., DE LUSTRAC, A. Coordinate transformation based ultra-directive emission. Electronics Letters, 2011, vol. 47, no. 10, p. 580-582.
- WU, X., TICHIT, P.-H., BUROKUR, S. N., KIROUANE, S., SELLIER, A., DE LUSTRAC, A. Numerical and experimental demonstration of a coordinate transformation-based azimuthal directive emission. Microwave and Optical Technology Letters, 2012, vol. 54, no. 11, p. 2536-2540.
- TICHIT, P.-H., BUROKUR, S. N., DE LUSTRAC, A. Transformation media producing quasi-perfect isotropic emission. Optics Express, 2011, vol. 19, no. 21, p. 20551-20556.
- PENDRY, J. B., HOLDEN, A. J., ROBBINS, D. J., STEWART, W. J. Magnetism from conductors and enhanced non-linear phenomena. IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques, 1999, . vol. 47, no. 11, p. 2075-2084.
- SCHURIG, D., MOCK, J. J., SMITH, D. R. Electric-field-coupled resonators for negative permittivity metamaterials. Applied Physics Letters, 2006, vol. 88, no. 4, p. 041109.
- NICOLSON, A. M., ROSS, G. F. Measurement of the intrinsic properties of materials by time-domain techniques. IEEE Transactions on Instrumentation and Measurement, 1970, vol. 19, no. 4, p. 377-382.

Keywords: Metamaterials, transformation electromagnetics, antennas

**H. Visser**
[references] [full-text]
[Download Citations]

Indoor Wireless RF Energy Transfer for Powering Wireless Sensors

For powering wireless sensors in buildings, rechargeable batteries may be used. These batteries will be recharged remotely by dedicated RF sources. Far-field RF energy transport is known to suffer from path loss and therefore the RF power available on the rectifying antenna or rectenna will be very low. As a consequence, the RF-to-DC conversion efficiency of the rectenna will also be very low. By optimizing not only the subsystems of a rectenna but also taking the propagation channel into account and using the channel information for adapting the transmit antenna radiation pattern, the RF energy transport efficiency will be improved. The rectenna optimization, channel modeling and design of a transmit antenna are discussed.

- Intelligent buildings – A holistic perspective on energy management. Electrical Review, October 2009. Available at: http://www.electricalreview.co.uk/features/118645.
- European home automation market is set to double. Business Wire, August 2007. Available at: http://wwwallbusiness.com/services/ business-services/4551021-1.html.
- European smart homes and ASSISTED living – Advanced technologies and global market (2009-2014). Markets and Markets, January 2010. Available at: http://marketsandmarkets. wordpress.com/2010/01/21/.
- DUGRE, M., FREYER, F., ANDERS, A. Bacnet and EnOCean enable energy efficient buildings. Bacnet and EnOcean White Paper. Available at: http://www.enocean-alliance.org /fileadmin /redaktion/enocean-alliance/pdf/whitepaper_BACNET_EnOcean_ en.pdf.
- LANDOW, N. Wiring a building. Macktez, February 2004. Available at: http://www.macktez.com/recommendators/00826. html.
- HIRAI, J., KIM, T., KAWAMURA, A. Wireless transmission of power and information for cableless linear motor drive. IEEE Transactions on Power Electronics, 2000, vol. 15, no. 1, p. 21 to 27.
- Energy harvesting, wireless and next generation energy. Ivory Egg, March 2009. Available at: http://www.ivoryegg.co.uk/tag/energyharvesting/.
- LINKS, C. The third wireless revolution – sensor networks. Greenpeak Technologies, June 2009. Available at: http://www.greenpeak.com/Company/Opinions/CeesLinksColumn 02.pdf.
- European Radiocommunications Committee, ERC Recommendation 70-03 Relating to the Use of Short Range Devices (SRD), ERC/REC 70-03, 2009.
- THEEUWES, J., VISSER, H., VAN BEURDEN, M., DOODEMAN, G. Efficient, compact, wireless battery design. In Proceedings of the European Microwave Conference. Munich (Germany), 2007, p. 991 – 994.
- VISSER, H. THEEUWES, J., VAN BEURDEN, M., DOODEMAN, G. High-efficiency RF-rectenna design. EDN, 2007, vol. 52, no. 14, p. 34.
- VISSER, H. Approximate Antenna Analysis for CAD. Chichester: John Wiley & Sons, 2009.
- VISSER, H., POP, V. OP HET VELD, B., VULLERS, R. Remote RF battery charging. In Proceedings of PowerMEMS. Leuven (Belgium), 2010, 4 p.
- RAHOLA, J. Power waves and conjugate matching. IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems II: Express Briefs, 2008, vol. 55, no. 1, p. 92 - 96.
- HARRISON, R., LE POLOZEC, X. Nonsquarelaw behavior of diode detectors analyzed by the Ritz-Galerkin method. IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques, 1994, vol. 42, no. 5, p. 840-846.
- Agilent Technologies, Designing the virtual battery. Application Note 1088, 1994.
- VISSER, H., VULLERS, R. Automatic antenna design for wireless energy harvesting. In Proceedings of Loughborough Antennas and Propagation conference. Loughborough (UK), 2010, 4p.
- HWU, S., LOH, Y., SHAM, C. Propagation characteristics of international space station wireless local area network. In Proceedings Radio and Wireless Conference. 2004, p. 407 – 410.
- PHAIBOON, S., PHOKHARATKUL, P., SOMKUARNPARIT, S., BOONPIYATHUD, S. Upper- and lower-bound path-loss modeling for indoor line-of-sight environments. In Proceedings Asia-Pacific Microwave Conference APMC2005. 2005, 4p.
- DUANGSUWAN, S., LENKACHORN, T., CHINSAWATPAND, S., PRONGWANG, S. Experimental study of polarimetric measurement of RFID transfer function within an indoor environment. In Proceedings IEEE Malaysia International Conference on Communications. 2009, p. 686 – 690.
- MOLKAR, D. Review on radio propagation into and within buildings. IEE Proceedings – H, 1991, vol. 138, no. 1, p. 61 – 73.
- Available at: http://www.delcross.com/products-savant.php.
- SCHLUB, R., THIEL, D. Switched parasitic antenna on a finite ground plane with conductive sheet. IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation, 2004, vol. 52, no. 5, p. 1343 – 1347.
- VISSER, H. Array and Phased Array Antenna Basics. Chichester: John Wiley & Sons, 2005.
- KING, R., WU, T. The imperfectly conducting cylindrical transmitting antenna, IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation, 1966, vol. 14, p. 524 – 534.
- KING, R., HARRISON, C., ARONSON, E. The imperfectly conducting cylindrical transmitting antenna: Numerical results. IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation, 1966, vol. 14, p. 535 – 542.
- KING, R. Cylindrical Antennas and Arrays. Cambridge, University Press, 2002.
- PARASCHIV, I., VISSER, H. Analysis of coupling between thick dipoles within antenna arrays. In Proceedings of the European Microwave Conference. Amsterdam (The Netherlands), 2012.

Keywords: Antenna, rectenna, channel, modeling

**G. G. Cheng, Y. Zhu, J. Grzesik**
[references] [full-text]
[Download Citations]

3-D Microwave Imaging for Breast Cancer

We introduce a novel microwave imaging technique for breast cancer detection. Our approach provides a one-pass inverse image solution, which is completely new and unprecedented, unrelated to tomography or radar-based algorithms, and unburdened by the optimization toil which lies at the heart of numerical schemes. It operates effectively at a single frequency, without requiring the bandwidth of radar techniques. Underlying this new method is our unique Field Mapping Algorithm (FMA), which transforms electromagnetic fields acquired upon one surface, be it through outright measurement or some auxiliary computation, into those upon another in an exact sense.

- CHENG, G. G., ZHU, Y., GRZESIK, J. Imaging by near-field measurements. In AMTA 2009 Proceedings. Salt Lake City (USA), 2009, A09-0111.
- CHENG, G. G., ZHU, Y., GRZESIK, J. Exact solutions for microwave holography - Part I: Planar case. In PIERS 2009 Proceedings. Beijing (China), 2009.
- CHENG, G. G., ZHU, Y., GRZESIK, J. Exact solutions for microwave holography - Part II: Cylindrical and spherical cases. In PIERS 2009 Proceedings. Beijing (China), 2009.
- CHENG, G. G., ZHU, Y., GRZESIK, J. Visualization of electromagnetic waves. In AMTA 2008 Proceedings. Boston (USA), 2008, A08-0061.
- CHENG, G. G., ZHU, Y., GRZESIK, J. Microwave photography. In IEEE APS 2008 International Symposium Digest. San Diego (USA), 2008, IF219.10.
- CHENG, G. G., ZHU, Y., GRZESIK, J. Full space wave construction via single near-field measurement. In AMTA 2007 Proceedings. St. Louis (USA), 2008, A07-0018.
- CHENG, G. G., ZHU, Y., GRZESIK, J. Wave diffraction phenomenon via measurement. In EuCAP 2007 Proceedings. Edinburgh (UK), 2007, Th2.11.10.
- CHENG, G. G., ZHU, Y., HUYNH, S., CHANG, F. C. RCS time domain near field measurement and 3D ISAR. In AMTA 2004 Proceedings. Atlanta (USA), 2007, PID-207.
- CHENG, G. G. Field mapping algorithm. Allwave Corporation Technical Report, No. AW015-32. 2004.
- IRISHINA, N. Microwave medical imaging using level set techniques. Ph.D. Thesis. Universidad Carlos III de Madrid, Spain, 2004.
- FEAR, E. C., LI, X., HAGNESS, S., STUCHLY, M. Confocal microwave imaging for breast cancer detection: Localization of tumors in three dimensions. IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Engineering, August 2002, vol. 49, no. 8, p. 812-822.
- BOND, E. J., LI, X., HAGNESS, S., VEEN VAN, B. Microwave imaging via space-time beamforming for early detection of breast cancer. IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation, August 2003, vol. 51, no. 8, p. 1690-1705.
- FEAR, E. C., HAGNESS, S., MEANEY, P., OKONIEWSKI, M., STUCHLY, M. Enhancing breast tumor detection with near- field imaging. IEEE Microwave Magazine, March 2002, vol. 3, p. 48 to 56.

Keywords: Electromagnetic waves, imaging, inverse scattering

**C. Gustafson, F. Tufvesson**
[references] [full-text]
[Download Citations]

Characterization of 60 GHz Shadowing by Human Bodies and Simple Phantoms

The 60 GHz band is very prominsing for high data rate (>1 Gb/s) wireless systems operating at short ranges. However, due to the short wavelengths in this frequency band, the shadowing effects cuased by human bodies and furniture are severe and needs to be modeled properly. In this paper, we present an experimental, measurementbased characterization of the reflection and shadowing effects in the 60 GHz band caused by human bodies and various phantoms, in order to find simple phantoms suitable for use in human shadowing measurements. It is shown that a water-filled human phantom serves as a good choice for this purpose.

- Status of Project IEEE 802.11ad - Very High Throughput in 60 GHz. [Online] Available at: http://www.ieee802.org/11/Reports /tgad update.htm
- YONG, S-K., et al. TG3c Channel Modeling Sub-Commitee Final Report, IEEE Technical Report15-07-0584-01-003c, 2007.
- GARCIA, A. P., KOTTERMAN, W., THOMA, R. S., TRAUTWEIN, U., BRUCKNER, D., KUNISCH, J. 60 GHz Time-variant shadowing characterization within an Airbus 340. In COST2100. Vienna (Austria), 2009.
- COLLOGNE, S., ZAHARIA, G., ZEIN, G. E. Influence of the human activity on wideband characteristics of the 60 GHz indoor radio channel. IEEE Transactions on Wireless Communications, 2004, vol. 3, no. 6, p. 2389 - 2406.
- GARCIA, A. P., KOTTERMAN, W., THOMA, R. S., TRAUTWEIN, U., BRUCKNER, D., KUNISCH, J. 60 GHz in-cabin real-time channel sounding. In 3rd International Workshop on Broadband MIMO Channel Measurement and Modeling, IWonCMM. Xi’an (China), 2009, p. 1 - 5.
- GUSTAFSON, C., TUFVESSON, F., WYNE, S., HANEDA, K., MOLISCH, A. F. Directional analysis of measured 60 GHz indoor radio channels using SAGE. In IEEE 73rd Vehicular Technology Conference, VTC Spring. Budapest (Hungary), 2011, p. 1 - 5.
- XU, H., KUKSHYA, V., RAPAPORT, T. S. Spatial and temporal characteristics of 60-GHz indoor channels. IEEE Journal on Selected Areas in Communications, 2002, vol. 20, no. 3, p. 620 - 630.
- JACOB, M., PRIEBE, S, MALTSEV, A., LOMAYEV, A., ERCEG, V., KURNER, T. A ray tracing based stochastic human blockage model for the IEEE 802.11ad 60 GHz channel model. In 5th European Conference on Antennas and Propagation, EuCAP. Rome (Italy), 2011, p. 3084 - 3088
- KUNISCH, J., PAMP, J., Ultra-wideband double vertical knife-edge model for obstruction of a ray by a person. In IEEE International Conference on Ultra-Wideband. Hannover (Germany), 2008, p. 17 - 20.
- SINGH, S., ZILIOTTO, F., MADHOW, U., BELDING, E. M., RODWELL, M. Blockage and directivity in 60 GHz wireless personal area networks: From cross-layer model to multihop MAC design. IEEE Journal on Selected Areas in Communications, 2009, vol. 27, no. 8, p. 1400 - 1413.
- KHAFAJI, A., SAADANE, R., ADDABI, J. E., BELKASMI, M. Ray tracing technique based 60 GHz band propagation modelling and influence of people shadowing. International Journal of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, 2008, vol. 2, no. 2, p. 102 - 108.
- CHAHAT, N., ZHADOBOV, M., SAULEAU, R., ALEKSEEV, S. I. New method for determining dielectric properties of skin and phantoms at millimeter waves based on heating kinetics. IEEE Tansactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques, 2012, vol. 60, no. 3, p. 827 - 832.
- CHAHAT, N., ZHADOBOV, M., ALEKSEEV, S. I., SAULEAU, R. Human skin-equivalent phantom for on-body antenna measurements in the 60 GHz band. Electronics Letters, 2012, vol. 48, no. 2.
- JAMES, G. L. Geometrical Theory of Diffraction for Electromagnetic Diffraction, 3rd ed. London (UK): Peter Peregrinus, 1986.
- GABRIEL, S., LAU, R. W., GABRIEL, C. The dielectric properties of biological tissues: III. Parametric models for the dielectric spectrum of tissues. Physics in Medicine and Biology, 1996, vol. 41, no. 11.
- ELHAWIL, A., ZHANG, L. STIENS, J., TANDT, C., GOTZEN, N. A., ASSCHE, G. V., VOUNCKX, R. A quasi-optical free-space method for dielectric constant characterization of polymer materials in mm-wave band. In Proceedings of Symposium IEEE/LEOS Benelux Chapter. Brussels (Belgium), 2007.
- ZHADOBOV, M., CHAHAT, N., SAULEAU, R., QUEMENT, C. L., DREAN, Y. L. Millimeter-wave interactions with the human body: state of knowledge and recent advances. International Journal of Microwave and Wireless Technologies, 2011, vol. 3, no. 2, p. 237 - 247.

Keywords: 60 GHz, channel measurements, human blockage, mm-Wave, shadowing,

**D. He, G. Liang, J. Portilla, T. Riesgo**
[references] [full-text]
[Download Citations]

A Novel Method for Radio Propagation Simulation Based on Automatic 3D Environment Reconstruction

In this paper, a novel method to simulate radio propagation is presented. The method consists of two steps: automatic 3D scenario reconstruction and propagation modeling. For 3D reconstruction, a machine learning algorithm is adopted and improved to automatically recognize objects in pictures taken from target regions, and 3D models are generated based on the recognized objects. The propagation model employs a ray tracing algorithm to compute signal strength for each point on the constructed 3D map. Our proposition reduces, or even eliminates, infrastructure cost and human efforts during the construction of realistic 3D scenes used in radio propagation modeling. In addition, the results obtained from our propagation model proves to be both accurate and efficient.

- DAMOSSO, E. Digital Mobile Radio Towards Future Generation Systems. Final report of COST 231. Brussels (Belgium): European Commission, 1999.
- HE, L., LIU, H. Shape context for image understanding. In Proceedings of the 5th WSEAS International Conference on Signal, Speech and Image Processing. Corfu (Greece), 2005, p. 276 - 281.
- BELONGIE, S., MALIK, J., PUZICHA, J. Shape matching and object recognition using shape contexts. IEEE Transactions on Pattern Analysis and Machine Intelligence, 2002, vol. 24, no. 24, p. 509 - 522.
- ARIVAZHAGAN, S., SHEBIAH, R., NIDHYANANDHAN, S., GANESAN, L. Fruit recognition using color and texture features. Journal of Emerging Trends in Computing and Information Sciences, 2010, vol. 1, no. 2, p. 90 - 94.
- HE, X., ZEMEL, R.S., CARREIRA-PERPINAN, M. Multiscale conditional random fields for image labeling. In Proceedings of IEEE Conference on Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition. Washington, DC (USA), 2004, vol. 2, p. 695 - 702.
- SHOTTON, J., WINN, J., ROTHER, C., CRIMINISI, A. Texton- Boost for image understanding: multi-class object recognition and segmentation by jointly modeling texture, layout, and context. International Journal of Computer Vision, 2009, vol. 81, no. 1, p. 2 - 23.
- FRIEDMAN, J., HASTIE, T., TIBSHIRANI, R. Additive logistic regression: a statistical view of boosting. The Annals of Statistics, 2000, vol. 38, no. 2, p. 337 - 407.
- BOYKOV, Y., VEKSLER, O., ZABIH, R. Fast approximate energy minimization via graph cuts. IEEE Transactions on Pattern Analysis and Machine Intelligence, 2001, vol. 20, no. 12, p. 1222 - 1239.
- BOYKOV, Y., KOLMOGOROV, V. An experimental comparison of min-cut/max-flow algorithms for energy minimization in vision. IEEE Transactions on Pattern Analysis and Machine Intelligence, 2004, vol. 26, no. 9, p. 1124 - 1137.
- SCHAUBACH, K. R., DAVIS, N. J., RAPPAPORT, T. S. A ray tracing method for predicting path loss and delay spread in microcellular environments. In Proceedings of IEEE Vehicular Technology Conference. Denver (CO, USA), 1992, p. 932 - 935.
- SCHMITZ, A., KOBBELT, L. Wave propagation using the photon path map. In Proceedings of International Workshop on Performance Evaluation of Wireless Ad Hoc, Sensor and Ubiquitous Networks. Terromolinos (Spain), 2006, p. 158 - 161.
- KIM, S., GUARINO, B., WILLIS III, T., ERCEG, V., FORTUNE, S., VALENZUELA, R., THOMAS, L., LING, J., MOORE, J.D. Radio propagation measurements and prediction using three-dimensional ray tracing in urban environments at 908 MHz and 1.9 GHz. IEEE Transactions on Vehicular Technology, 1999, vol. 48, no. 3, p. 931 - 946.
- SCHMITZ, A., RICK, T., KAROLSKI, T., KOBBELT, L., KUHLEN, T. Beam tracing for multipath propagation in urban environments. In Proceedings of 3rd European Conference on Antennas and Propagation. Berlin (Germany), 2009, p. 2631 - 2635.
- WAHL, R.,WOLFLE, G. Combined urban and indoor network planning using the dominant path propagation model. In Proceedings of 1st European Conference on Antennas and Propagation. Nice (France), 2006, p. 1 - 6.
- SON, H., MYUNG, N. A deterministic ray tube method for microcellular wave propagation prediction model. IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation, 1999, vol. 47, no. 8, p. 1344 - 1350.
- KELLER, J. B. Geometrical theory of diffraction. Journal of the Optical Society of America, 1962, vol. 52, no. 2, p. 116 - 130.
- YUN, Z., ZHANG, Z., ISKANDER, M. F. A ray-tracing method based on the triangular grid approach and application to propagation prediction in urban environments. IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation, 2002, vol. 50, no. 5, p. 750 - 758.

Keywords: image understanding, radio propagation, wireless communication, 3D reconstruction

**H. Xiong, J. S. Hong Y.H. Peng**
[references] [full-text]
[Download Citations]

Impedance Bandwidth and Gain Improvement for Microstrip Antenna Using Metamaterials

An improved ultra-wideband (UWB) and high gain rectangular antenna is specifically designed in this paper using planar-patterned metamaterial concepts. The antenna has isolated triangle gaps and crossed gaps etched on the metal patch and ground plane, respectively. By changing the pattern on the ground, the impedance matching characteristics of the antenna are much better. The -10 dB impedance bandwidth of the proposed antenna is 3.85–15.62 GHz, which is about 267% broader. The proposed antenna has an average gain of 5.42 dB and the peak is 8.36 dB at 13.5 GHz. Compared with the original one, the gain of the proposed antenna improved about 1.4 dB. Moreover, the size is reduced slightly. Simulated and experimental results obtained for this antenna show that it exhibits good radiation behavior within the UWB frequency range

- SCHANTZ, H. The Art and Science of Ultrawideband Antennas. Boston: Artech House, 2005.
- CHEN, W. L., WANG, G. M., ZHANG, C. X. Bandwidth enhancement of a microstrip-line-fed printed wide-slot antenna with a fractal-shaped slot. IEEE Trans. Antennas Propagat., 2009, vol. 57, no. 7, p. 2176-2179.
- LAO, J., JIN, R., GENG, J., WU, Q. An ultra-wideband microstrip elliptical slot antenna excited by a circular patch. Microwave Opt. Technol. Lett., 2008, vol. 50, no. 4, p. 845-846.
- OOI, B. L., QIN, S., LEONG, M. S. Novel design of broad-band stacked patch antenna. IEEE Trans. Antennas Propagat., 2002, vol. 50, no. 10, p. 1391-1395.
- OOI, B. L., LEE, C. L. Broadband air-filled stacked U-slot patch antenna. Electron. Lett., 1999, vol. 35, no. 7, p. 515-517.
- MATIN, M. A., SHARIF, B. S., TSIMENIDIS, C. C. Probe fed stacked patch antenna for wideband applications. IEEE Trans. Antennas Propagat., 2007, vol. 55, no. 8, p. 2385-2388.
- YOUSEFI, L., MOHAJER-IRAVANI, B., RAMAHI, O. M. Enhanced bandwidth artificial magnetic ground plane for lowprofile antennas. IEEE Antennas Wireless Propag. Lett., 2007, vol. 6, p. 289-292.
- ENGHETA, N., ZIOLKOWSKI, R. W. Metamaterials: Physics and Engineering Explorations. Hoboken: John Wiley & Sons, 2006.
- S. C., WONG, K. L. Small-size wideband chip antenna for WWAN/LTE operation and close integration with nearby conducting elements in the mobile handset. Microw. Opt. Technol. Lett., 2011, vol. 53, no. 9, p. 1998-2004.
- JU, J., KIM, D., LEE, W. J., CHOI, J. I. Wideband high-gain antenna using metamaterial superstrate with the zero refractive index. Microw. Opt. Technol. Lett., 2009, vol. 51, no. 8, p. 1973-1976.
- ERENTOK, A., ZIOLKOWSKI, R. W. Metamaterial-inspired efficient electrically small antennas. IEEE Trans. Antennas Propagat., 2008, vol. 56, no. 3, p. 691-707.
- ZHOU, B., CUI, T. J. Directivity enhancement to Vivaldi antennas using compactly anisotropic zero-index metamaterials. IEEE Antennas Wireless Propag. Lett., 2011, vol. 10, p. 326-329.
- GHOSH, B., GHOSH, S. Gain enhancement of an electrically small antenna array using metamaterials. Appl. Phys. A, Mater. Sci. Process., 2011, vol. 102, no. 2, p. 345-351.
- LI, L. W., LI, Y. N., YEO, T. S., MOSIG, J. R., MARTIN, O. J. F. A broadband and high-gain metamaterial microstrip antenna. Appl. Phys. Lett., 2010, vol. 96, no. 16, p. 164101.
- MATSUNAGA, N., SANADA, A., KUBO, H. Novel twodimensional planar negative refractive index structure. IEICE. Trans. Electron., 2006, vol. E89C, no. 9, p. 1276-1282.
- YANG, R., XIE, Y.-J., HU, H.-P., WANG, R., MAN, M.-Y., WU, Z.-H. Ultra wideband planner inverted-F antenna with metamaterials loading. Acta Phys. Sin., 2010, vol. 59, no. 5, p. 3173-3178 (in Chinese).

Keywords: Metamaterial, ultra-wideband, microstrip antenna, high gain

**M. Abu, M.K.A.Rahim**
[references] [full-text]
[Download Citations]

Single-band and Dual-band Artificial Magnetic Conductor Ground Planes for Multi-band Dipole Antenna

Two new designs of high impedance surface (HIS) structure are presented, namely zigzag and slotted rectangular with I-shaped slot Artificial Magnetic Conductor (AMC). The zigzag AMC is designed based on the straight dipole AMC. The zigzag AMC is introduced to minimize the AMC size and to be suitable for UHF RFID applications. On the other hand, the slotted rectangular with I-shaped slot AMC is designed to operate at 0.92 GHz and 2.45 GHz. The slot is loaded in the main patch of the AMC to create the other resonant frequency. By using this technique the resonant frequency can be lowered, and hence reduce the size of the AMC. Both structures are designed using the same dielectric substrate that is Taconic TLC-32. The properties of the AMC are investigated such as the reflection phase, reflection magnitude and surface impedance. The designed AMCs then are used as a back plane for the printed multi-band dipole antenna. By introducing the AMC as a ground plane (GP) for the printed dipole antenna, the gain of the dipole antenna is increased.

- SYDANHEIMO, L., UKKONEN, L., KIVIKOSKI, M. Effect of size and shape of metallic objects on performance of passive Radio Frequency Identification. International Journal Manufacturing Technology, 2006, vol. 30, no. 9-10, p. 897-905.
- UKKONEN, L., SYDANHEIMO, L., KIVIKOSKI, M. Patch antenna with EBG ground plane and two-layer substrate for passive RFID of metallic objects. In Proc. 2004 IEEE AP-S. 2004, vol. 1, p. 93-96.
- UKKONEN, L., SYDANHEIMO, L., KIVIKOSKI, M. Effects of metallic plate size on the performance of microstrip patch-type tag antennas for passive RFID. IEEE Antennas and Wireless Propagation Letters, 2005, vol. 4, p. 410-413.
- GOPINATH GAMPALA, ROHIT SAMMETA, REDDY C. J. A thin, low profile antenna using a novel high impedance ground plane. Microwave Journal, July 2010, vol. 53, no. 7, p. 70, -78.
- WONKYU CHOI, JEONG-SEOK KIM, JI-HOON BAE, GILYOUNG CHOI, CHEOL-SIG PYO, JONG-SUK CHAE. RFID tag antenna coupled by shorted microstrip line for metallic surfaces. ETRI Journal, August 2008, vol. 30, no. 4, p. 597-598.
- KOVACS, P., RAIDA, Z., MARTINEZ VAZQUEZ, M. Parametric study of mushroom like and planar periodic structures in terms of simultaneous AMC and EBG properties. Radioengineering, December 2008, vol. 17, no. 4, p. 19-24.
- SIEVENPIPER, D. F. High-impedance Electromagnetic Surfaces, PhD Thesis, University of California at Los Angeles, p. 39-44, 1999.
- FAN YANG, RAHMAT SAMII Electromagnetic Band Gap Structures in Antenna Engineering. Cambridge University Press, p. 156–201, 2009.
- SOHN, J. R., KIM, K. Y., TAE, H.-S. Comparative study on various Artificial Magnetic Conductors for low-profile antenna. Progress In Electromagnetic Research, PIER 61, 2006, p. 27–37.
- SIM, DONG-UK, CHOI, HYUNG-DO, KWON, JONG-HWA KIM, KIM, DONG-HO, CHOI, JAE-ICK. Dipole tag antenna structure mountable on metallic objects using Artificial Magnetic Conductor for wireless identification and wireless identification system using the dipole tag antenna structure. United States Patent, 20100007569, January 2010.
- DE COS, M. E., LAS HERAS, F., FRANCO, M. Design of planar Artificial Magnetic Conductor ground plane using Frequency Selective Surface for frequencies below 1 GHz. IEEE Antennas and Wireless Propagation Letters, 2009, vol. 8, p. 951-954.
- DE COS, M. E., ALVAREZ LOPEZ, Y., HADARIG, R. C., LASHERAS ANDRES, F. Flexible uniplanar Artificial Magnetic Conductor. Progress In Electromagnetics Research, PIER 106, 2010, p 349-362.
- REA, S. P., LINTON, D., ORR, E., MCCONELL, J. Broadband high-impedance surface design for aircraft HIRF protection. IEE Proc.-Microw. Antennas Propagation, August 2006, vol. 153, no. 4, p. 307 – 313.
- XIE, H.-H, JIAO, Y.-C., SONG, K., ZHANG, Z. A novel multiband electromagnetic bandgap structure. Progress In Electromagnetics Research Letters, 2009, vol. 9, p 67–74.
- JOHN, M., AMMANN, M. J. Integrated antenna for multiband multi-national wireless combined with GSM1800/PCS1900/ IMT2000 + Extension. Microwave and Optical Technology Letters, March 2006, vol. 48, no. 3, p. 613- 615.
- ABU, M., RAHIM, M. K. A., AYOP, O., ZUBIR, F. Triple-band printed dipole antenna with single-band AMC-HIS. Progress In Electromagnetics Research B, PIER B 20, 2010, p. 225-244.
- ZHI NENG CHEN Antenna for Portable Device. John Wiley & Sons, p. 71-72, 2007.

Keywords: Artificial Magnetic Conductor (AMC), high impedance surface, printed dipole antenna, RFID and zigzag AMC

**W. Shao, X. Zhu**
[references] [full-text]
[Download Citations]

A Hybrid Optimization Algorithm for Low RCS Antenna Design

In this article, a simple and efficient method is presented to design low radar cross section (RCS) patch antennas. This method consists of a hybrid optimization algorithm, which combines a genetic algorithm (GA) with tabu search algorithm (TSA), and electromagnetic field solver. The TSA, embedded into the GA frame, defines the acceptable neighborhood region of parameters and screens out the poor-scoring individuals. Thus, the repeats of search are avoided and the amount of time-consuming electromagnetic simulations is largely reduced. Moreover, the whole design procedure is auto-controlled by programming the VBScript language. A slot patch antenna example is provided to verify the accuracy and efficiency of the proposed method.

- GONZALEZ, C. G., LOPEZ, Y. A., CASAS, A. D., ANDRES, F. L.-H. Characterization of antenna interaction with scatterers by means of equivalent currents. Progress in Electromagnetics Research, 2011, vol. 116, p. 185 - 202.
- XU, H.-Y., ZHANG, H., Lu, K., ZENG, X.-F. A holly-leaf-shaped monopole antenna with low RCS for UWB application. Progress in Electromagnetics Research, 2011, vol. 117, p. 35 - 50.
- POZAR, D. M. Radiation and scattering from a microstrip patch on a uniaxial substrate. IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation, 1987, vol. 35, no. 6, p. 613 - 621.
- VOLAKIS, J. L., ALEXANIAN, A., LIN, J. M. Broadband RCS reduction of rectangular patch by using distributed loading. Electronic Letters, 1992, vol. 28, no.25, p. 2322 - 2325.
- ABERLE, J. T., CHU M., BIRTCHER, C. R. Scattering and radiation properties of varactor-tuned microstrip antennas. 1992 PIEEE AP-S International Symposium, 1992, p. 2229 - 2232.
- JACKSON, D. R. The RCS of a rectangular microstrip patch in a substrate-superstrate geometry. IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation, 1990, vol. 38, no. 1, p. 2 - 8.
- POZAR, D. M. RCS reduction for a microstrip antenna using a normally biased ferrite substrate. IEEE Microwave and Guided Wave Letters, 1992, vol. 2, no. 5, p. 196 - 198.
- ZHAO, S.-C., WANG, B.-Z., HE, Q.-Q. Broadband radar cross section reduction of a rectangular patch antenna. Progress in Electromagnetics Research, 2008, vol. 79, p. 263 - 275.
- LI, Y., LIU, Y., GONG, S. Microstrip antenna using ground-cut slots for low RCS with size miniaturization techniques. Progress in Electromagnetics Research Letters, 2008, vol. 1, p. 211 - 220.
- KUMAR, R., MALATHI, P. Design of CPW-fed ultra wideband fractal antenna and backscattering reduction. Journal of Microwaves, Optoelectronics and Electromagnetic Applications, 2010, vol. 9, no. 1, p. 10-19.
- REN, L.-S., JIAO, Y.-C., ZHAO, J.-J., LI, F. RCS reduction for a FSS-backed reflectarray using a ring element. Progress in Electromagnetics Research Letters, 2011, vol. 26, p. 115 - 123.
- WANG, W., GONG, S., WANG, X., GUAN, Y., JIANG, W. Differential evolution algorithm and method of moments for the design of low-RCS antenna. IEEE Antennas and Wireless Propagation Letters, 2010, vol. 9, p. 295-298.
- ZHU, X., SHAO, W., LI, J.-L., DONG, Y. Design and optimization of low RCS patch antennas based on a genetic algorithm. Progress in Electromagnetics Research. 2012, vol. 122, p. 327-339.
- HAGEMAN, J. A., WEHRENS, R., VAN SPRANG, H. A., BUYDENS, L. M. C. Hybrid genetic algorithm-tabu search approach for optimising multilayer optical coatings. Analytica Chimica Acta, 2003, vol. 490, no. 1–2, p. 211-222.
- MAK, K. L., SUN, D. A new hybrid genetic algorithm and tabu search method for yard cranes scheduling with inter-crane interference. In Proceedings of the World Congress on Engineering. London (UK), 2009, p. 526-531.
- RAHMAT-SAMII, Y., MICHIELSSEN, E. Electromagnetic Optimization by Genetic Algorithms. New York: John Wiley & Sons, 1999.

Keywords: Genetic algorithm, RCS, slot antenna, tabu search algorithm

**P. Sindler, M. Pokorny**
[references] [full-text]
[Download Citations]

Retrodirective Antenna Array Using High Frequency Offset

The paper deals with the design of a simple retrodirective antenna array exhibiting by high frequency offset between received and transmitted wave. Analysis of the beam pointing error using antenna array model developed in MATLAB is described. The frequencies of transmitted wave and received wave are chosen on the basis of this analysis. Then a suitable structure for further design is determined and particular blocks of complete retrodirective antenna array are briefly described and their measured parameters are presented. Relatively high frequency offset between received and transmitted wave makes it possible to use frequency filters for received and transmitted signal separation which led to significant reduction of the circuit complexity.

- GUO, Y. C., SHI, X. W., CHEN L. Retrodirective array technology. In Progress In Electromagnetics Research B [online], 2008, vol. 5, p.153 – 167. Cited. 2012-2-23. Available at: www.jpier.org/PIERB/pierb05/10.08021704.pdf
- SINDLER, P. Retrodirective Antenna Array (in Czech). Brno: Brno University of Technology, Faculty of Electrical Engineering and Communication. Department of Radio Electronics, 2012.
- ORFANIDIS, S. J. Electromagnetic Waves and Antennas [online]. ECE Dept. Rutgers University 94 Brett Road Piscataway, 2008. Cited 2011-4-2. Available at: http://www.ece.rutgers.edu/~orfanidi/ewa/
- SAXENA, S., PORWAL, S., SONI, K. et. al. Analysis and design of bandstop filter using E–shaped dual mode resonator. In Microwaves, Communications, Antennas and Electronics System [online], 2009. Available at: http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/xpl/freeabs_all.jsp?arnumber=5385961
- MIYAMOTO, R. Y., QIAN, Y., ITOH, T. An active integrated retrodirective transponder for remote information retrievalondemand. IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques [online]. Phoenix, 2001. Cited 2012-2-26. Available at: http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/stamp/stamp.jsp?tp=&arnumber=942580
- MIYAMOTO, R. Y., QIAN, Y., ITOH, T. Retrodirective array using balanced quasi-optical FET mixers with conversion gain. In Microwave Symposium Digest, 1999 IEEE MTT-S International [online]. Anaheim, 1999. Cited 2012-2-26. Available at: http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/stamp/stamp.jsp?tp=&arnumber=779846
- CHEN, L.; GUO, Y. C., et al. Overview on the phase conjugation techniques of the retrodirective array. International Journal of Antennas and Propagation [online], 2010, vol. 2010, article ID 564357, 10 pages. Cited 2011-4-15. Available at: downloads.hindawi.com/journals/ijap/2010/564357.pdf

Keywords: Antenna array, retrodirectivity, mixer, patch antenna

**M. Kufa, Z. Raida**
[references] [full-text]
[Download Citations]

Comparison of Planar Fractal Filters on Defected Ground Substrate

The paper discusses approaches to the reduction of dimensions of planar filters (microstrip ones and coplanar ones). Filter dimensions are reduced by applying the fractal theory to the geometry of a filter, and by the defecting of the ground plane of a filter. An optimum combination of both approaches enables us to reach smaller dimensions of planar filters and protect other parameters. In order to demonstrate advantages of the fractal defected ground approach, we review the designs of existing low-pass filters with defected ground structures (DGS). Results produced by simulations of these filters are compared with results of simulations of a novel fractal DGS filter. The investigated filters are manufactured and measured.

- CHEN, W. L., WANG, G. M., QI, Y. N. Size-reduced fractalshaped dual planar PBG microstrip low-pass filter. In Proceedings of the International Symposium on Antennas, Propagation and EM Theory, 2006, p. 1–4.
- KARIM, M. F., LIU, A. Q., YU, A., ALPHONES, A. Micromachined Tunable Filter using Fractal Electromagnetic Band-gap (EBG) Structures. Elsevier, 2007, vol. 133, no. 2, p. 355–362.
- KARIM, M. F., YU, A. B., ALPHONES, A., LIU, A. Q. Fractal CPW EBG filter with nonlinear distribution. In Proceedings of the Asia-Pacific Microwave Conference, 2005, vol. 3, p. 3.
- KOVACS, P. Planar Circularly Symmetric Electromagnetic Bandgap Structures. Diploma thesis. Brno University of Technology, 2007.
- SEDY, M. Synthesis of Electromagnetic Band-gap Structures. Diploma thesis. Brno University of Technology, 2009.
- CAMPOS, A. L. P. S., DE OLIVEIRA, E. E., DA FONSECA SILVA, P. H. Design of miniaturized frequency selective surfaces using Minkowski island fractal. Journal of Microwave, Optoelectronics and Electromagnetic Applications, 2010, vol. 9, no. 1, p. 43–49.
- KIM, I. K., KINGSLEY, N., MORTON, M., BAIRAVASUBRAMA- NIAN, R., PAPAPOLYMEROU, J., TENTZERIS, M. M., YOOK, J. G. Fractal shaped microstrip coupled line band pass filters for suppression of 2nd harmonic. IEEE Microwave Theory and Techniques Society, 2005, vol. 53, no. 9, p. 2943–2948.
- VAGNER, P. Microstrip Filters using Defected Ground Structure. Doctoral thesis. Brno University of Technology, 2008.
- HONG, J. S., LANCASTER, M. J. Microstrip Filters for RF/Microwave Applications. New York: J. Wiley and Sons, 2001.
- SINWELL, B. The Chebyshev Polynomials: Patterns and Derivation. Mathematics Teacher, 2004, vol. 98, no. 1, p. 20–25.
- AHN, D., PARK, J. S., KIM, C. S., QIAN, Y., ITOH, T. A design of the low-pass filter using the novel microstrip defected ground structure. IEEE Transaction on Microwave Theory and Techniques, 2001, vol. 49, no. 1, p. 86–93.
- PARK, J. S., YUN, J. S., AHN, D. A design of the novel coupledline band-pass filter using defected ground structure with wide stopband performance. IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques, 2002, vol. 50, no. 9, p. 2037–2043.
- LIM, J. S., KIM, C. S., AHN, D., JEONG, Y. C., NAM, S. Design of low-pass filters using defected ground structure. IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques, 2005, vol. 53, no. 8, p. 2539–2545.
- KUFA, M. Planar Fractal Filters on Defected Ground Substrates. Diploma thesis. Brno University of Technology, 2012.

Keywords: Planar filters, fractals, defected ground structure

**E. Abaei, G. Amendola , E. Arnieri , S. Costanzo, E. Mehrshahi**
[references] [full-text]
[Download Citations]

A Fast Frequency Sweep – Green’s Function Based Analysis of Substrate Integrated Waveguide

In this paper, a fast frequency sweep technique is applied to the analysis of Substrate Integrated Waveguides performed with a Green’s function technique. The well-known Asymptotic Waveform Evaluation technique is used to extract the Padè approximation of the frequency response of Substrate Integrated Waveguides devices. The analysis is extended to a large frequency range by adopting the Complex Frequency Hopping algorithm. It is shown that, with this technique, CPU time can be reduced of almost one order of magnitude with respect to a point by point computation.

- DESLANDES, D., WU, K. Integrated microstrip and rectangular waveguide in planar form. IEEE Microwave and Wireless Components Letters, 2001, vol. 11, no. 2, p. 68 - 70.
- DESLANDES, D., WU, K. Single-substrate integration technique of planar circuits and waveguide filters. IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques, 2003, vol. 51, no. 2, p. 593 - 596.
- ZHANG, X.-C., YU, Z.-Y., XU, J. Novel band-pass substrate integrated waveguide (SIW) filter based on complementary split ring resonators (CSRRs). Progress In Electromagnetics Research, 2007, vol. 72, p. 39 – 46.
- ZHONG, C., XU, J., YU, Z., ZHU, Y. Ka-band substrate integrated waveguide Gunn oscillator. IEEE Microwave and Wireless Components Letters, 2008, vol. 18, no. 7, p. 461 - 463.
- LIU, C., HUANG, K. A compact substrate integrated waveguide band-pass filter. Progress in Electromagnetics Research Symposium Proceedings. Cambridge (USA), 2010, p. 1135 - 1138.
- KIM, K., BYUN, J., LEE, H.-Y. Substrate integrated waveguide Wilkinson power divider with improved isolation performances. Progress in Electromagnetics Research Letters, 2010, vol. 19, p. 41 - 48.
- ZHONG, C.-L., XU, J., YU, Z.-Y., WANG, M.-Y., LI, J.-H. Half mode substrate integrated waveguide broadband bandpass filter. Progress in Electromagnetics Research Letters, 2008, vol. 4, p. 131 – 138.
- GERMAIN, S., DESLANDES, D., WU, K. Development of substrate integrated waveguide power dividers. In IEEE 2003. Canadian Conference on Electrical and Computer Engineering, CCECE. Montreal (Canada), 2003, vol. 3, p. 1921 - 1924.
- PARK, S., OKAJIMA, Y., HIROKAWA, J., ANDO, M. A slotted post-wall waveguide array with interdigital structure for 45° linear and dual polarization. IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation, 2005, vol. 53, no. 9, p. 2865 - 2871.
- BOZZI, M., PERREGRINI, L., KE WU Direct determination of multi-mode equivalent circuit models for discontinuities in substrate integrated waveguide technology. In IEEE MTT-S International Microwave Symposium. San Francisco (CA, USA), 2006, p. 68 - 71.
- WU, X. H., KISHK, A. A. Hybrid of method of moments and cylindrical eigenfunction expansion to study substrate integrated waveguide circuits. IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques, 2008, vol. 56, no. 10, p. 2270 - 2276.
- ARNIERI, E., AMENDOLA, G. Analysis of substrate integrated waveguide structures based on the parallel-plate waveguide Green's function. IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques, 2008, vol. 56, no. 7, p.1615 - 1623.
- ARNIERI, E., AMENDOLA, G. Method of moments analysis of slotted substrate integrated waveguide arrays. IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation, 2011, vol. 59, no. 4, p. 1148 - 1154.
- ANGIULLI, G., DE CARLO, D., AMENDOLA, G., ARNIERI, E., COSTANZO, E. Support vector regression machines to evaluate resonant frequency of elliptic substrate integrate waveguide resonators. Progress In Electromagnetics Research, 2008, vol. 83, p. 107 - 118.
- PILLAGE, L. T., ROHRER, R. A. Asymptotic waveform evaluation for timing analysis. IEEE Transactions on Computer- Aided Design of Integrated Circuits and Systems, 1990, vol. 9, no. 4, p. 352 - 366.
- REDDY, C. J., DESHPANDE, M. D. Application of AWE for RCS Frequency Response Calculations using Method of Moments. NASA contractor report NASA CR-4758.
- DEY, S., MITTRA, R. Efficient computation of resonant frequencies and quality factors of cavities via a combination of the finite-difference time-domain technique and the Pade approx.- imation. IEEE Microwave and Guided Wave Letters, 2008, vol. 8, no. 12, p. 415 - 417.
- BELENGUER, A., ESTEBAN, H., DIAZ, E., BACHILLER, C., CASCON, J., BORIA, V. E. Hybrid technique plus fast frequency sweep for the efficient and accurate analysis of substrate integrated waveguide devices. IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques, 2011, vol. 59, no. 3, p. 552 – 560.
- ADVE, R. S., SARKAR, T. K., RAO, S. M., MILLER, E. K., PFLUG, D. R. Application of the Cauchy method for extrapolating/ interpolating narrowband system responses. IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques, 1997, vol. 45, no. 5, p. 837 - 845.
- CHIPROUT, E., NAKHLA, M. S. Analysis of interconnect networks using complex frequency hopping (CFH). IEEE Transactions on Computer-Aided Design of Integrated Circuits and Systems, 1995, vol. 14, no. 2, p. 186 - 200.
- FELDMANN, P., FREUND, R. W. Efficient linear circuit analysis by Pade approximation via the Lanczos process. IEEE Transactions on Computer-Aided Design of Integrated Circuits and Systems, 1995, vol. 14, no. 5, p. 639 - 649.

Keywords: Green's function methods, Substrate integrated waveguide, SIW, Asymptotic Waveform Evaluation, AWE, Complex Frequency Hopping, CFH.

**M. Kvicera, P. Pechac**
[references] [full-text]
[Download Citations]

Influence of Antenna Characteristics on Elevation Dependence of Building Penetration Loss for High Elevation Links

Building penetration loss models presented in our previous paper [1] were valid for various scenarios, propagation conditions, frequency bands and hemispherical receiving antenna pointing towards zenith. These models had a significantly rising trend of penetration loss with increasing elevation angle of the link in common. In this paper we show that when working with non-isotropic terminal antennas, this trend relates primarily to the elevation trend of the corresponding reference level dependent on the receiving antenna radiation pattern. This is demonstrated by the results of single-input multiple-output (SIMO) measurement trials performed at L-band in an office building and a brick building in the city of Prague. Further, based on the detailed analysis, a method to modify the elevation trend of a particular penetration loss model for different receiving antenna radiation patterns is derived and experimentally validated.

- KVICERA, M., PECHAC, P. Building penetration loss for satellite services at L-, S- and C-Band: measurement and modelling. IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation, 2011, vol. 59, no. 8, p. 3013-3021.
- KVICERA, M., HORAK, P., PECHAC, P., PEREZ-FONTAN, F. On a definition of building penetration loss for high elevation angles. IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation, 2010, vol. 58, no. 12, p. 4115-4118.
- ITU-R Rec. P.1411-3. Propagation data and prediction methods for the planning of short-range outdoor radio communication systems and radio local area networks in the frequency range 300 MHz to 100 GHz. ITU-R Rec. P.1411-3. 03/2005, Geneva, 2005.
- PEREZ-FONTAN, F., HOVINEN, V., SCHONHUBER, M., PRIETO-CERDEIRA, R., TESCHL, F., KYROLAINEN, J., VALTR, P. A wideband, directional model for the satellite-toindoor propagation channel at S-band. Int. J. Satell. Commun. Network., DOI: 10.1002/sat.955, 2009, 28 pages.
- PEREZ-FONTAN, F., NUNEZ, A., HOVINEN, V., SCHONHUBER, M., TESCHL, F., PRIETO-CERDEIRA, R., KYROLINEN, J., ROIVAINEN, A. Characterization of the C-band wideband satellite-to-indoor channel for navigation services. In Proc. EuCAP 2010 - 4th European Conference on Antennas and Propagation. Barcelona (Spain), April 2010.
- WYNE, S., MOLISCH, A. F., ALMERS, P., ERIKSSON, G., KAREDAL, J., TUFVESSON, F. Outdoor-to-indoor office MIMO measurements and analysis at 5.2 GHz. IEEE Transactions on Vehicular Technology, 2008, vol. 57, no. 3, p. 1374-1386.
- JOST, T., WANG, W., FIEBIG, U.-C., PEREZ-FONTAN, F. Comparison of L- and C-band satellite-to-indoor broadband wave propagation for navigation applications. IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation, October 2011, vol. 59, no. 10, p. 3899 to 3909.
- http://www.airshipclub.com/.
- HASLETT, C. Essentials of Radio Wave Propagation. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 2008.

Keywords: Propagation measurements, satellite mobile communication, building penetration loss, modeling

**Z. Raida, Z. Kolka, R. Marsalek, J. Petrzela, A. Prokes, J. Sebesta, T. Gotthans, Z. Hrubos, Z. Kincl, L. Klozar, A. Povalac, R. Sotner, P. Kadlec**
[references] [full-text]
[Download Citations]

Communication Subsystems for Emerging Wireless Technologies

The paper describes a multi-disciplinary design of modern communication systems. The design starts with the analysis of a system in order to define requirements on its individual components. The design exploits proper models of communication channels to adapt the systems to expected transmission conditions. Input filtering of signals both in the frequency domain and in the spatial domain is ensured by a properly designed antenna. Further signal processing (amplification and further filtering) is done by electronics circuits. Finally, signal processing techniques are applied to yield information about current properties of frequency spectrum and to distribute the transmission over free subcarrier channels.

- DANIELS, R.C., HEATH, R.W. 60 GHz wireless communications: emerging requirements and design recommendations. IEEE Vehicular Technology Magazine, 2007, vol. 2, no. 3, p. 41–50.
- STALLO, C., MUKHERJEE, S., CIANCA, E., ROSSI, T., DE SANCTIS, M., RUGGIERI, M. Performance analysis of an IRUWB transceiver architecture for multi-gigabit/s LOS links in W band. In Proceedings of the 2010 IEEE International Conference on Ultra-Wideband. Nanjing (China): IEEE, 2010.
- PITRA, K., RAIDA, Z., BARTYZAL, J. Antenna structures for emerging frequency bands. In Proceedings of the 18th Telecommunications Forum TELFOR 2010. Belgrade (Serbia): IEEE, 2010. ISBN: 978-86-7466-392-9.
- FETTE, B. A. Cognitive Radio Technology. Second Edition. Burlington: Elsevier, 2009. ISBN 978-0-12-374535-4.
- ZHANG, D., SHINKUMA, R., MANDAYAM, N. B. Bandwidth exchange: an energy conserving incentive mechanism for cooperation. IEEE Transactions on Wireless Communication, 2010, vol. 9, no. 6, p. 2055-2065.
- VALENTA, V., BAUDOIN, G., VILLEGAS, M., MARSALEK, R. Hybrid dual-mode frequency synthesis for cognitive multi-radio front-ends. Wireless Personal Communications, 2012, vol. 64, no. 1, p. 197-210. ISSN: 0929-6212.
- HAYKIN, S. Cognitive radio: brain-empowered wireless communications. IEEE Journal on Selected Areas in Communications, 2005, vol. 23, no. 2, p. 201-220.
- IEEE Computer Society, IEEE Standard for Information Technology— Telecommunications and information Exchange between systems Wireless Regional Area Networks (WRAN)—Specific requirements, Part 22: Cognitive Wireless RAN Medium Access Control (MAC) and Physical Layer (PHY) Specifications: Policies and Procedures for Operation in the TV Bands, IEEE Std. 802.22- 2011, 1 July 2011.
- VALENTA, V., MARSALEK, R., BAUDOIN, G., VILLEGAS, M., SUAREZ PENALOZA, M., ROBERT, F. Survey on spectrum utilization in Europe: measurements, analyses and observations. In Proceedings of the 5th International Conference on Cognitive Radio Oriented Wireless Networks and Communications. Cannes (France): IEEE, 2010. p. 101-105.
- ALAGHA, S., KABAL, P. Generalized raised cosine filters. IEEE Transactions on Communication, 1999, vol. 47, no.7, p. 989-997.
- FARHANG-BOROUJENY, B. Nyquist filters with robust performance against jitter. IEEE Transactions on Signal Processing, 1998, vol. 46, no. 12, p. 3427-3431.
- BOONYANANT, P., TANTARATANA, S. Design and hybrid realization of FIR Nyquist filters with quantized coefficients and low sensitivity to timing jitter. IEEE Transactions on Signal Processing, 2005, vol. 53, no. 1, p. 208-221.
- ZHANG, X., YOSHIKAWA, T. Design of FIR Nyquist filters with low group delay. IEEE Transactions on Signal Processing, 1999, vol. 47, no. 5, p. 1454-1458.
- HERMES, D., KRAGH, F. A bandwidth efficient constant envelope modulation. In Proceedings of Fortieth Asilomar Conference on Signals, Systems and Computers ACSSC 2006. Pacific Grove (California): IEEE, 2006, p. 488-492.
- CHATELAIN, B., GAGNON, F. Peak-to-average power ratio and inter-symbol interference reduction by Nyquist pulse optimization. In Proceedings of the Vehicular Technology Conference VTC 2004. IEEE, 2004, p. 954-958.
- HARRIS, J. F. On the use of windows for harmonic analysis with the discrete Fourier transform. Proceedings of the IEEE, 1978, vol. 66, no. 1, p. 51-83.
- BEAULIEU, C. N., et al., A “better than” Nyquist pulse. IEEE Communications Letters, 2001, vol. 5, no.9, p. 367-368.
- BOBULA, M., PROKES, A., DANEK, K. Nyquist filters with alternative balance between time and frequency-domain parameters. EURASIP Journal on Advances in Signal Processing, 2010, vol. 2010, p./rec. no: 903980.
- SAYED, A. H., TARIGHAT, A., KHAJEHNOURI, N. Network based wireless location: challenges faced in developing techniques for accurate wireless location information. IEEE Signal Processing Magazine, 2005, vol. 22, no. 4, p. 24-40.
- ZHANG, Y., LI, X., AMIN, M. G. RFID Systems: Research Trends and Challenges. Principles and Techniques of RFID Positioning. Chichester: John Wiley & Sons, 2010, p. 389-415.
- LI, X., ZHANG, Y., AMIN, M. G. Multi-frequency-based range estimation of RFID tags. In Proceedings of the IEEE Internat. Conference on RFID 2009. Orlando (USA), 2009, p. 147-154.
- POVALAC, A., SEBESTA, J. Phase difference of arrival distance estimation for RFID tags in frequency domain. In Proceedings of the 2011 IEEE International Conference on RFID-Technologies and Applications. Barcelona (Spain), 2011, p. 180-185.
- RAPPAPORT, T. S. Wireless Communications: Principle and Practice. 2nd ed. USA: Prentice Hall, 2002.
- KLOZAR, L., PROKOPEC, J. Propagation path loss models for mobile communication. In Proceedings of the 21st International Conference Radioelektronika 2011, Brno (Czechia): Brno University of Technology, 2011, p. 287-290.
- KLOZAR, L., PROKOPEC, J., HANUS, S., SLANINA, M., FEDRA, Z. Indoor channel modeling based on outdoor urban measurement: multi-slope modeling. In Proc. of the IEEE International Conf. on Microwaves, Communications, Antennas and Electronic Systems COMCAS 2011. Tel Aviv (Israel): IEEE, 2011.
- CHENG, D. K. Gain optimization for Yagi-Uda arrays. IEEE Antennas and Propagation Magazine, 1991, vol. 33, no. 3, p. 42 to 45.
- JONES, E. A., JOINES, W. T. Design of Yagi-Uda antennas using genetic algorithms. IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation, 1997, vol. 45, no. 9, p. 1386-1392.
- VENKATARAYALU, N. V., RAY, T. Optimum design of Yagi- Uda antennas using computational intelligence. IEEE Transact. on Antennas and Propagation, 2004, vol. 52, no. 7, p. 1811 to 1818.
- DEB, K. Multi-Objective Optimization using Evolutionary Algorithms. Chichester, UK: J. Wiley and Sons, 2001.
- KADLEC, P., RAIDA, Z. A novel multi-objective self-organizing migrating algorithm. Radioengineering, 2011, vol. 20, no. 4, p. 77 to 90.
- KADLEC, P., RAIDA, Z. Self-organizing migrating algorithm for optimization with general number of objectives. In Proceedings of 22nd International Conference Radioelektronika, 2012, Brno: Brno University of Technology, p. 111–115.
- BIOLEK, D., SENANI, R., BIOLKOVA, V., KOLKA, Z. Active elements for analog signal processing: classification, review and new proposals. Radioengineering, 2008, vol. 17, no. 4, p. 15-32.
- SOTNER, R., PETRZELA, J., SLEZAK, J. Current-controlled current-mode universal biquad employing multi-output transconductors. Radioengineering, 2009, vol. 18, no. 3, p. 285-294.
- SOTNER, R., JERABEK, J., HERENCSAR, N., DOSTAL, T., VRBA, K. Additional approach to the conception of current follower and amplifier with controllable features. In Proc. of the 34th International Conference on Telecommunications and Signal Processing TSP 2011, Budapest (Hungary), p. 279-283.
- SOTNER, R., SLEZAK, J., DOSTAL, T. Influence of mirroring of current output responses through grounded passive elements. In Proc. of the 20th International Conference Radioelektronika 2010. Brno (Czech Republic), p. 177-180.
- JERABEK, J., SOTNER, R., VRBA, K. Tunable universal filter with current follower and transconductance amplifiers and study of parasitic influences. Journal of Electrical Engineering, 2011, vol. 62, no. 6, p. 317-326.
- PETRZELA, J., DRINOVSKY, J. High frequency chaos converters. In Proc. of the International Conference on Computational Technologies in Electrical and Electronics Engineering SIBIRCON 2010. Irkutsk (Russia), p. 750-754.
- SOTNER, R., JERABEK, J., PETRZELA, J., DOSTAL, T., VRBA, K. Electronically tunable simple oscillator based on single-output and multiple-output transconductor. IEICE Electronics Express, 2009, vol. 6, no. 20, p. 1476-1482.
- SOTNER, R., HRUBOS, Z., SLEZAK, J., DOSTAL, T. Simply adjustable sinusoidal oscillator based on negative three-port current conveyors. Radioengineering, 2010, vol. 19, no. 3, p. 446-453.
- SOTNER, R., JERABEK, J., PROKOP, R., VRBA, K. Current gain controlled CCTA and its application in quadrature oscillator and direct frequency modulator. Radioengineering, 2011, vol. 20, no. 1, p. 317-326.
- SOTNER, R., HRUBOS, Z., SEVCIK, B., SLEZAK, J., PETRZELA, J., DOSTAL, T. An example of easy synthesis of active filter and oscillator using signal flow graph modification and controllable current conveyors. Journal of Electrical Engineering, 2011, vol. 62, no. 5, p. 258-266.
- SOTNER, R., JERABEK, J., HERENCSAR, N., HRUBOS, Z., DOSTAL, T., VRBA, K. Study of adjustable gains for control of oscillation frequency and oscillation condition in 3R-2C oscillators. Radioengineering. 2012, vol. 21, no. 1, p. 392-402.
- PETRZELA, J., VYSKOCIL, P., PROKOPEC, J. Fundamental oscillators based on diamond transistors. In Proc. of the 20th International Conference Radioelektronika 2010. Brno (Czech Republic), p. 217-220.
- CHANG, H., KUNDERT, K., Verification of complex analog and RF IC designs. Proceedings of the IEEE , 2007, vol. 95, no. 3, p. 622-639.
- SOMMER, R., HALFMANN, T., BROZ, J. Automated behavioral modeling and analytical model-order reduction by application of symbolic circuit analysis for multi-physical systems. Simulation Modelling Practice and Theory, 2008, no. 16, p. 1024–1039.
- DAEMS, W., GIELEN, G., SANSEN, W. Circuit simplification for the symbolic analysis of analog integrated circuits. IEEE Transactions on Computer Aided Design, 2002, vol. 21, no. 4, p. 395-407.
- HENNIG, E. Symbolic Approximation and Modeling Techniques for Analysis and Design of Analog Circuits. Ph.D. dissertation, University of Kaiserslautern (Germany), 2000.
- YU, Q., SECHEN, C. A unified approach to the approximate symbolic analysis of large analog integrated circuits. IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems I, 1996, vol. 43, no. 8, p. 656-69.
- KOLKA, Z., BIOLEK, D., BIOLKOVA, V., HORAK, M. Implementation of topological circuit reduction. In Proceedings of the 11th Biennial IEEE Asia Pacific Conference on Circuits and Systems (APCCAS 2010). Malaysia: IEEE, 2010, p. 951-954.
- KOLKA, Z., VLK, M., HORAK, M. Topology reduction for approximate symbolic analysis. Radioengineering, 2011, vol. 20, no. 1, p. 252-256.
- KOLKA, Z., BIOLEK, D., BIOLKOVA, V., DOBES, J. Tolerancebased control mechanism for approximate symbolic analysis. In Proc. of the IEEE Africon 2011 Conf.. Zambia: IEEE, 2011, p. 1–5.
- KOLKA, Z., BIOLEK, D., BIOLKOVA, V. Accurate time-domain semi symbolic analysis. In Proc. of 11th International Workshop on Symbolic and Numerical Methods, Modeling and Application to Circuit Design SM2ACD 2010. Tunis: IEEE, 2010, p. 137-140.
- KOLKA, Z.; BIOLEK, D.; KALOUS, J.; BIOLKOVA, V. Program for Multi-Domain Symbolic Analysis. In Proceedings of XIth International Workshop on Symbolic and Numerical Methods, Modeling and Application to Circuit Design SM2ACD 2010. Tunisia: IEEE, 2010. p. 120-123.
- GRASSO, F., LUCHETTA, A., MANETTI, S., PICCIRILLI, M.C. A method for the automatic selection of test frequencies in analog fault diagnosis. IEEE Transactions on Instrumentation and Measurement, 2007, vol. 56, no. 6, p. 2322-2329.
- KINCL, Z., KOLKA, Z. Parametric fault diagnosis using over determined system of fault equations. In Proceedings of the 3rd International IEEE Conference on Microwaves, Communications, Antennas and Electronic Systems COMCAS 2011. Tel-Aviv (Israel), 2011, p. 1-4.
- KINCL, Z., KOLKA, Z., SOTNER, R. Simple method for test frequency selection using tolerance analysis. In Proceedings of the 18th International Conference Mixed Design of Integrated Circuits and Systems 2011. Gliwice (Poland), 2011, p. 511-515.
- KINCL, Z., KOLKA, Z. Test frequency selection for band-pass filters. In Proceedings of the 20th International Conference Radioelektronika 2010. Brno (Czech Republic), 2010, p. 173-176.
- KOLKA, Z., KINCL, Z., BIOLEK, D., BIOLKOVA, V. Parametric reduction of Jacobian matrix for fault analysis. In Proc. of the 22nd IEEE International Conference on Microelectronics (ICM 2010). Cairo: IEEE, 2010. p. 503-506.
- KINCL, Z., KOLKA, Z. Approximate parametric fault diagnosis. In Proc. of the 21st International Conference Radioelektronika 2011. Brno: Brno University of Technology, 2011, p. 199-202.
- KINCL, Z., KOLKA, Z., BIOLKOVA, V. Parasitic parameter estimation using multi-frequency parametric fault diagnosis. In Proc. of the 22nd International Conference Radioelektronika 2012. Brno: Brno University of Technology, 2012.
- DVORAK, J., MARSALEK, R. Simulation of multi-carrier and single-carrier transmission mode for millimeter-wave high speed transmission in presence of transmitter imperfections. In Proceedings of 34th International Conference on Telecommunications and Signal Processing, TSP 2011. 2011. p. 91-94.
- MARSALEK, R., JARDIN, P., BAUDOIN, G. From post distortion to predistortion for power amplifiers linearization. IEEE Communications Letters, 2003, vol. 7, no. 7.
- PAASO, H., MAMMELA, A. Comparison of direct learning and indirect learning predistortion architectures. In Proceedings of Wireless Communication Systems ISWCS 2008, Reykjavik: IEEE, 2008.
- JARDIN, P., BAUDOIN, G. Filter look up table method for power amplifier linearization. IEEE Transactions on Vehicular Technology, 2007, vol. 56, no. 3.
- PAPANDREOU, N., ANTONAKOPOULOS, T. Bit and power allocation in constrained multicarrier systems: the single-user case. EURASIP Journal on Advances in Signal Processing, 2008, vol. 2008.
- AL-SHERBAZ, A., KUSELER, T., ADAMS, C., MARSALEK, R., POVALAC, K. WiMAX parameters adaptation through a baseband processor using discrete particle swarm method. International Journal of Microwave and Wireless Technologies, 2010, vol. 2010, no. 2, p. 165-171.
- POVALAC, K., MARSALEK, R. Adaptation of multicarrier based UWB system parameters using swarm optimization. In Proceedings of the 4th IEEE UWB Forum on Sensing and Communications. TU Vienna (Austria), 2009.
- MARSALEK, R., POVALAC, K., DVORAK, J. Use of the error vector magnitude for low-complex bit loading in orthogonal frequency division multiplexing. In Proceedings of the 7th International Symposium on Image and Signal Processing and Analysis. 2011. p. 42-45.
- POVALAC, K., MARSALEK, R., BAUDOIN, G., SRAMEK, P. Real-time implementation of periodogram based spectrum sensing detector in TV bands. In Proceedings of 20th International Conference Radioelektronika 2010. Brno: Brno University of Technology, p. 137-140.
- POVALAC, K., MARSALEK, R., SRAMEK, P. Optimization of multicarrier communication system with respect to imperfect sensing. In Proceedings of 33rd International Conference TSP 2010. Baden near Vienna (Austria), 2010.

Keywords: Communication system, long term evolution (LTE), WiMAX, radio frequency identification (RFID), cognitive radio, Nyquist δ-filter, channel modeling, antenna system, Yagi-Uda antenna, multi-objective optimization, Multi-Objective Self-Organizing Migrating Algorithm (MOSOMA), amplifier, tunable oscillator, circuit analysis, circuit testing, dirty RF signal processing, multicarrier system optimization, spectrum sensing

**B. F. Zong, G. M. Wang, H. Y. Zeng, Y. W. Wang**
[references] [full-text]
[Download Citations]

Compact and High Performance Dual-band Bandpass Filter Using Resonator-embedded Scheme for WLANs

A compact microstrip dual-band bandpass filter (DBBPF) with high selectivity and good suppression for wireless local area networks (WLANs) is proposed utilizing a novel embedded scheme resonator. Two passbands are produced by a pair of embedded half-wavelength meandered stepped-impedance resonator (MSIR) and a quadwavelength short stub loaded stepped-impedance resonator (SIR) separately. The resonator is fed by folded Tshaped capacitive source-load coupling microstrip feed line, and four transmission zeros are obtained at both sides of the bands to improve selectivity and suppression. Simultaneously, the size of the filter is extermely compact because embedding half-wavelength MSIR only changes the interior configuration of quad-wavelength SIR. To validate the design method, the designed filter is fabricated and measured. Both simulated and measured results indicate that good transmission property has been achieved.

- WU, B., LIANG, C.-H., LI, Q., QIN, P.-Y. Novel dual-band filter incorporating defected SIR and microstrip SIR. IEEE Microwave and Wireless Components Letters, 2008, vol. 18, no. 6, p. 392-394.
- WU, B., LIANG, C.-H., QIN, P.-Y., LI, Q. Compact dual-band filter using defected stepped impedance resonator. IEEE Microwave and Wireless Components Letters, 2008, vol. 18, no. 10, p. 674-676.
- LEE, J., LIM, Y. Dual-band bandpass filter using dual-mode resonators. Microwave and Optical Technology Letters, 2011, vol. 53, no. 11, p. 2515–2517.
- CHU, Q.-X., CHEN, F.-C. A compact dual-band bandpass filter using meandering stepped impedance resonators. IEEE Microwave and Wireless Components Letters, 2008, vol. 18, no. 5, p. 320-322.
- ZHANG, Y.-P., SUN, M. Dual-band microstrip bandpass filter using stepped-impedance resonators with new coupling schemes. IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques, 2006, vol. 54, no. 10, p. 3779-3785.
- WENG, M.-H., WU, H. W., SU, Y.-K. Compact and low loss dualband bandpass filter using pseudo-interdigital stepped impedance resonators for WLANs. IEEE Microwave and Wireless Components Letters, 2007, vol. 17, no. 3, p.187-189.
- LI, Y.-C., WONG, H., XUE, Q. Dual-mode dual-band bandpass filter based on a stub-loaded patch resonator. IEEE Microwave and Wireless Components Letters, 2011, vol. 21, no. 10, p. 525-527.
- SUNG, Y.-J. Dual-mode dual-band filter with band notch structures. IEEE Microwave and Wireless Components Letters, 2010, vol. 20, no. 2, p. 73-75.
- ZHOU, M.-Q., TANG, X.-H., XIAO, F. Compact dual band bandpass filter using novel E-type resonators with controllable bandwidths. IEEE Microwave and Wireless Components Letters, 2008, vol. 18, no. 12, p. 779-781.
- ZHOU, M.-Q., TANG, X.-H., XIAO, F. Compact dual band transversal bandpass filter with multiple transmission zeros and controllable bandwidths. IEEE Microwave and Wireless Components Letters, 2009, vol. 19, no. 6, p. 347-349.
- HONG, J.-S., HUSSEIN, S., CHUN, Y.-H. Dual-mode microstrip open-loop resonators and filters. IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques, 2007, vol. 55, no. 8, p.1764-1770.
- ZHANG, X.-Y., CHEN, J.-X., XUE, Q., LI, S.-M. Dual-band bandpass filters using stub-loaded resonators. IEEE Microwave and Wireless Components Letters, 2007, vol. 17, no. 8, p. 583-585.
- LEE, J., LIM, Y. Compact dual-band bandpass filter with good frequency selectivity. Electronics Letters, 2011, vol. 47, no. 25, p. 1376-1377.
- MITSUO, M., SADAHIKO, Y. Microwave Resonators and Filters for Wireless Communication. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer-verlag, 2001.
- HONG, J.-S., LANCASTER, M. J. Microstrip Filters for RF/Microwave Application. New York: Wiley, 2001.

Keywords: Dual-band bandpass filter (DBBPF), wireless local area networks (WLANs), stepped-impedance line (SIR), resonator-embedded scheme, folded T-shaped feed line.

**Yee Hui LEE, Yu Song MENG**
[references] [full-text]
[Download Citations]

Empirical Modeling of Ducting Effects on a Mobile Microwave Link Over a Sea Surface

In this paper, signal enhancement due to the ducts over a sea surface is experimentally investigated and modeled. The investigation is carried out through the study of air-to-ground mobile microwave links over a tropical ocean with low airborne altitudes (0.37 - 1.83 km) at C band (5.7 GHz). The distance-dependence of the ducting induced enhancement (with reference to the free-space propagation) is linearly modeled, and the physical variations of the ducts are found to be Gaussian distributed. Empirical ducting coefficients and parameters for the Gaussian function are estimated and provided for the prediction of the distance-dependent signal enhancement due to the ducts in similar scenarios.

- PARSONS, J. D. The Mobile Radio Propagation Channel, 2nd ed. Chichester (UK): Wiley, 2000.
- BERTONI, H. L. Radio Propagation for Modern Wireless Systems, 1st ed. Upper Saddle River (NJ, USA): Prentice Hall, 2000.
- SIMUNEK, M., PECHAC, P., FONTAN, F. P. Excess loss model for low elevation links in urban areas for UAVs. Radioengineering, 2011, vol. 20, no. 3, p. 561 - 568.
- MENG, Y. S., LEE, Y. H. Investigations of foliage effect on modern wireless communication systems: A review. Progress In Electromagnetics Research, 2010, vol. 105, p. 313 - 332.
- HORAK, P., PECHAC, P. Excess loss for high elevation angle links shadowed by a single tree: measurements and modeling. IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation, 2012, vol. 60, no. 7, p. 3541 - 3545.
- LEI, Q., RICE M. Multipath channel model for over-water aeronautical telemetry. IEEE Transactions on Aerospace and Electronic Systems, 2009, vol. 45, no. 2, p. 735 - 742.
- ITU-R P.453-10. The Radio Refractive Index: Its Formula and Refractivity Data. Geneva (Switzerland): International Telecommunication Union, 2012.
- MENG, Y. S., LEE, Y. H. Measurements and characterizations of air-to-ground channel over sea surface at C-band with low airborne altitudes. IEEE Transactions on Vehicular Technology, 2011, vol. 60, no. 4, p. 1943 - 1948.
- HITNEY, H. V., HITNEY, L. R. Frequency diversity effects of evaporation duct propagation. IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation, 1990, vol. 38, no. 10, p. 1694 - 1700.
- HEEMSKERK, H. J. M., BOEKEMA, R. B. The influence of evaporation duct on the propagation of electromagnetic waves low above the sea surface at 3-94 GHz. In Proceedings of the Eighth International Conference on Antennas and Propagation. Edinburgh (UK), 1993, p. 348 - 351.
- LEE, Y. H., MENG, Y. S. Analysis of ducting effects on air-toground propagation channel over sea surface at C-Band. In Proceedings of the 2011 Asia-Pacific Microwave Conference. Melbourne (Australia), 2011, p. 1678 - 1681.
- LEE, Y. H., MENG, Y. S. Evaluation of laboratory equipments as channel sounding system for mobile radio propagation. In Proceedings of the 2012 IEEE International Symposium on Antennas and Propagation and USNC-URSI National Radio Science Meeting. Chicago (USA), 2012.
- MENG, Y. S., LEE, Y. H. Study of shadowing effect by aircraft maneuvering for air-to-ground communication. AEU - International Journal of Electronics and Communications, 2012, vol. 66, no. 1, p. 7 - 11.
- MENG, Y. S., LEE, Y. H., NG, B. C. The effects of tropical weather on radio-wave propagation over foliage channel. IEEE Transactions on Vehicular Technology, 2009, vol. 58, no. 8, p. 4023 - 4030.
- ZHAO, X., HUANG, S. Influence of sea surface roughness on the electromagnetic wave propagation in the duct environment. Radioengineering, 2010, vol. 19, no. 4, p. 601 - 605.

Keywords: Air-to-ground, channel modeling, ducting, microwave link, propagation

**P. Dvorak, M. Mazanek, S. Zvanovec**
[references] [full-text]
[Download Citations]

Short-term Prediction and Detection of Dynamic Atmospheric Effects by Microwave Radiometer

Specific utilization of a microwave radiometer for online monitoring, detection and, especially, prediction of particular dynamic atmospheric effects such as precipitation and cloudiness is proposed in the paper. The ground-based microwave radiometer and meteorological stations were incorporated into the measurement campaign in order to observe actual brightness temperature changes. The characteristics of atmospheric parameters recorded over a period of 14 months were evaluated and new applications for rain forecasting and cloud detection, based on signal variance, were proposed and validated.

- DICKE, R. H. A Radiometer for measuring thermal radiation at microwave frequencies, Physical Review, 1946, vol. 69, p. 694 to 694.
- ULABY, F. T., et al. Microwave remote sensing: active and passive. Reading, Mass.: Addison-Wesley Pub. Co., Advanced Book Program/World Science Division, 1981.
- EWANS, G., MCLEISH C. W., RF Radiometer Handbook. Dedham: Artech House Inc., 1976.
- BRUSSAARD, G. Radiometry, A Useful Prediction Tool. Noordwijk: ESA Scientific and Technical Publ. Branch, ESTEC, NL, 1985.
- ESEPKINA, N. A., KOROLKOV, D. V., PARIJSKIJ, Y. N. Radiotelescopes and radiometers. M. Nauka, 1973.
- KAO-CHENG, H., ZHAOCHENG, W. Terahertz terabit wireless communication. Microwave Magazine, IEEE, 2011, vol. 12, p. 108-116.
- NADEEM, F., et al. Weather effects on hybrid FSO/RF communication link. IEEE Journal on Selected Areas in Communications, 2009, vol. 27, p. 1687-1697.
- ZVANOVEC, S., PIKSA, P., MAZANEK, M., PECHAC, P. A study of gas and rain propagation effects at 48 GHz for HAP scenarios. EURASIP Journal on Wireless Communications and Networking, vol. 2008, Article ID: 734216.
- BORGARINO, M., POLEMI, A., MAZZANTI, A. Low-cost integrated microwave radiometer front-end for industrial applications. IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques, Dec. 2009, vol. 57, no. 12, p.3011-3018.
- HOGG, D. C. Rain, radiometry, and radar. IEEE Transactions on Geoscience and Remote Sensing, Sep 1989, vol. 27, no. 5, p. 576 to 585.
- MENEGHINI, R., KUMAGAI, H., WANG, J. R., IGUCHI, T., KOZU, T. Microphysical retrievals over stratiform rain using measurements from an airborne dual-wavelength radarradiometer. IEEE Transactions on Geoscience and Remote Sensing, May 1997, vol. 35, no. 3, p.487-506.
- PIERDICCA, N., MARZANO, F. S., D'AURIA, G., BASILI, P., CIOTTI, P., MUGNAI, A. Precipitation retrieval from spaceborne microwave radiometers based on maximum a posteriori probability estimation. IEEE Transactions on Geoscience and Remote Sensing, Jul 1996, vol. 34, no. 4, p. 831-846.
- BURNS, B. A., WU, X., DIAK, G. R. Effects of precipitation and cloud ice on brightness temperatures in AMSU moisture channels. IEEE Transactions on Geoscience and Remote Sensing, Nov 1997, vol. 35, no. 6, p. 1429-1437.
- WESTWATER, E. R. The accuracy of water vapor and cloud liquid determinations by dual-frequency ground-based microwave radiometry. Radio Science, 1978, vol. 13, no. 4, p. 677-685.
- MARZANO, F. S., CIMINI, D., CIOTTI, P., WARE, R. Modeling and measurement of rainfall by ground-based multispectral microwave radiometry. IEEE Transactions on Geoscience and Remote Sensing, 2005, vol. 43, no. 5, p. 1000-1011.
- MARZANO, F. S., et al. Bayesian estimation of precipitating cloud parameters from combined measurements of spaceborne microwave radiometer and radar. IEEE Transactions on Geoscience and Remote Sensing, Jan 1999, vol. 37, p. 596-613.
- MARZANO, F. S., et al. Rainfall nowcasting from multi-satellite passive-sensor images using a recurrent neural network. IEEE Transactions on Geoscience and Remote Sensing, Nov 2007, vol. 45, p. 3800-3812.
- LIU, G. R., et al. Rainfall intensity estimation by ground-based dual-frequency microwave radiometers. Journal of Applied Meteorology, 2001, vol. 40, p. 1035-1041.
- WON, H. Y., KIM, Y., LEE, H. An application of brightness temperature received from a ground-based microwave radiometer to estimation of precipitation occurrences and rainfall intensity. Asia-Pacific Journal of Atmospheric Sciences, 2009, vol. 45, no. 1, p. 55 – 69.
- FERRARO, R. R., SMITH, E. A., BERG, W., HUFFMAN, G. J. A screening methodology for passive microwave precipitation retrieval algorithms. Journal of the Atmospheric Sciences, 1998, vol. 55, no. 9, p. 1583-1600.
- SKOU, N., LE VINE, D. Microwave Radiometer Systems: Design & Analysis. Norwood: Artech House Inc., 1989.
- SHARKOV, E. A. Passive Microwave Remote Sensing of the Earth, Physical Foundations. Chichester: Praxis Publishing Ltd, 2003.
- Anemo s.r.o., Czech Republic. WS981 (manual), www.anemo.cz, 56 pages. [Online] Cited 2010-05-15. Available at: http://www.anemo.cz/dokumenty/WS981navod.zip.
- SKOFRONICK-JACKSON, G. M., GASIEWSKI, A. J., WANG, J. R. Influence of microphysical cloud parameterizations on microwave brightness temperatures. IEEE Transactions on Geoscience and Remote Sensing, Jan 2002, vol. 40, no. 1, p. 187-196.
- WORLD METEOROLOGICAL ORGANIZATION (WMO). Guide to Meteorological Instruments and Methods of Observation. Geneva, 2008.
- LONG, D. G., REMUND, Q. P., DAUM, D. L. A cloud-removal algorithm for SSM/I data. IEEE Transactions on Geoscience and Remote Sensing, Jan 1999, vol. 37, no. 1, p. 54-62.

Keywords: Microwave radiometer, rain detection, cloud detection, wave propagation.

**M. Z. H. Bhuiyan J. Zhang, E. S. Lohan, W. Wang, S. Sand**
[references] [full-text]
[Download Citations]

Analysis of Multipath Mitigation Techniques with Land Mobile Satellite Channel Model

Multipath is undesirable for Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) receivers, since the reception of multipath can create a significant distortion to the shape of the correlation function leading to an error in the receivers’ position estimate. Many multipath mitigation techniques exist in the literature to deal with the multipath propagation problem in the context of GNSS. The multipath studies in the literature are often based on optimistic assumptions, for example, assuming a static two-path channel or a fading channel with a Rayleigh or a Nakagami distribution. But, in reality, there are a lot of channel modeling issues, for example, satellite-to-user geometry, variable number of paths, variable path delays and gains, Non Line-Of-Sight (NLOS) path condition, receiver movements, etc. that are kept out of consideration when analyzing the performance of these techniques. Therefore, this is of utmost importance to analyze the performance of different multipath mitigation techniques in some realistic measurement-based channel models, for example, the Land Multipath is undesirable for Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) receivers, since the reception of multipath can create a significant distortion to the shape of the correlation function leading to an error in the receivers’ position estimate. Many multipath mitigation techniques exist in the literature to deal with the multipath propagation problem in the context of GNSS. The multipath studies in the literature are often based on optimistic assumptions, for example, assuming a static two-path channel or a fading channel with a Rayleigh or a Nakagami distribution. But, in reality, there are a lot of channel modeling issues, for example, satellite-to-user geometry, variable number of paths, variable path delays and gains, Non Line-Of-Sight (NLOS) path condition, receiver movements, etc. that are kept out of consideration when analyzing the performance of these techniques. Therefore, this is of utmost importance to analyze the performance of different multipath mitigation techniques in some realistic measurement-based channel models, for example, the Land Mobile Satellite (LMS) channel model [1]-[4], developed at the German Aerospace Center (DLR). The DLR LMS channel model is widely used for simulating the positioning accuracy of mobile satellite navigation receivers in urban outdoor scenarios. The main objective of this paper is to present a comprehensive analysis of some of the most promising techniques with the DLR LMS channel model in varying multipath scenarios. Four multipath mitigation techniques are chosen herein for performance comparison, namely, the narrow Early-Minus-Late (nEML), the High Resolution Correlator, the C/N0-based two stage delay tracking technique, and the Reduced Search Space Maximum Likelihood (RSSML) delay estimator. The first two techniques are the most popular and traditional ones used in nowadays GNSS receivers, whereas the later two techniques are comparatively new and are advanced techniques, recently proposed by the authors. In addition, the implementation of the RSSML is optimized here for a narrow-bandwidth receiver configuration in the sense that it now requires a significantly less number of correlators and memory than its original implementation. The simulation results show that the reduced-complexity RSSML achieves the best multipath mitigation performance in moderate-to-good carrier-to-noise density ratio with the DLR LMS channel model in varying multipath scenarios.

- LEHNER, A. Multipath Channel Modelling for Satellite Navigation System. Ph.D. thesis, 2007, ISBN: 978-3-8322-6651-6.
- LEHNER, A., STEINGA, A., SCHUBERT, F. A location and movement dependent GNSS multipath error model for pedestrian applications. ATTI Journal dell'Istituto Italiano di Navigazione, 2009, p. 108 – 119, ISSN 1120-6977.
- LEHNER, A., STEINGA, A. A novel channel model for land mobile satellite navigation. In Proceedings of the ION GNSS. Long Beach (USA), Sep 2005.
- WANG, W., JOST, T., LEHNER, A., PEREJ-DIAZ, F., FIEBIG, U.-C. Towards a channel model for joint GNSS and mobile radio based positioning. In Proceedings of COST Action IC1004, Cooperative Radio Communications for Green Smart Environments. Lisbon (Portugal), 2011.
- VAN DIERENDONCK, A. J., FENTON, P., FORD T. Theory and performance of narrow correlator spacing in a GPS receiver. Navigation: Journal of the Institute of Navigation, 1992, vol. 39, no. 3, p. 265 - 283.
- BROWN, A. Multipath rejection through spatial processing. In Proceedings of ION GPS 2000. Utah, USA, Sep 2000.
- RAY, J. Mitigation of GPS Code and Carrier Phase Multipath Effects using a Multi-Antenna System. Ph.D. thesis, University of Calgary, 2000.
- BALTERSEE, J., FOCK, G., SCHULZ-RITTICH, P. Adaptive code-tracking receiver for direct-sequence code division multiple access (CDMA) communications over multipath fading channels and method for signal processing in a RAKE receiver. US Patent Application Publication, US 2001/0014114 A1 (Lucent Technologies), Aug 2001.
- BISCHOFF, R., HB-UMBACH, R., SCHULZ, W., HEINRICHS, G. Employment of a multipath receiver structure in a combined Galileo/UMTS receiver. In Proceedings of IEEE VTC Spring, 2002, vol. 4, p. 1844 - 1848.
- SIMON, M. K., ALOUINI, M. S. Digital Communication over Fading Channels. 1st ed. John Wiley & Sons, 2000.
- MCGRAW, G. A., BRAASCH, M. S. GNSS multipath mitigation using gated and high resolution correlator concepts. In Proceedings of the National Technical Meeting of the Satellite Division of the Institute of Navigation. San Diego (USA), Jan 1999.
- IRSIGLLER, M., EISSFELLER, B. Comparison of multipath mitigation techniques with consideration of future signal structures. In Proceedings of ION GNSS, OR, USA, Sep 2003, p. 2584 – 2592.
- BETZ, J. W., KOLODZIEJSKI, K. R. Extended theory of earlylate code tracking for a bandlimited GPS receiver. Navigation: Journal of the Institute of Navigation, 2000, vol. 47, no. 3, p 211 to 226.
- BRAASCH, M. S. Performance comparison of multipath mitigating receiver architectures. In Proceedings of IEEE Aerospace Conference. Big Sky (Mont, USA), Mar 2001, p. 1309 - 1315.
- HURSKAINEN, H., LOHAN, E. S., HU, X., RAASAKKA, J. NURMI, J. Multiple Gate Delay tracking structures for GNSS signals and their evaluation with Simulink, SystemC, and VHDL. International Journal of Navigation and Observation, 2008, DOI:10.1155/2008/785695.
- GARIN, L., ROUSSEAU, J. M. Enhanced strobe correlator multipath rejection for code and carrier. In Proceedings of ION GPS. Kansas City (USA), Sep 1997, p. 559 - 568.
- JONES, J., FENTON, P., SMITH, B. Theory and performance of the pulse aperture correlator. Tech. Report, NovAtel, Canada, Sep 2004.
- WEILL, L. R. Multipath mitigation - How good can it get with new signals? GPS World, 2003, vol. 16, no. 6, p. 106 – 113.
- BELLO, P. A., FANTE, R. L. Code tracking performance for novel unambiguous M-code time discriminators. In Proceedings of ION NTM. San Diego (USA), Jan 2005.
- FANTE, R. Unambiguous tracker for GPS binary-offset carrier signals. In Proc. of ION NTM. Albuquerque (USA), 2003.
- FANTE, R. Unambiguous first-order tracking loop M-code. MITRE Technical Paper, 2004.
- BHUIYAN, M. Z. H. Analyzing Code Tracking Algorithms for Galileo Open Service Signal. M.Sc. Thesis, 2006, Tampere University of Technology, Finland.
- VAN DIRENDONCK, A. J., BRAASCH, M. S. Evaluation of GNSS receiver correlation processing techniques for multipath and noise mitigation. In Proceedings of ION NTM. CA, USA, Jan 1997, p. 207 - 215.
- TOWNSEND, B., FENTON, P. A practical approach to the reduction of pseudorange multipath errors in a L1 GPS receiver. In Proceedings of ION GPS. UT, USA, Sep 1994, p. 143 - 148.
- SLEEWAEGEN, J. M., BOON, F. Mitigating short-delay multipath: A promising new technique. In Proceedings of ION GPS. UT, USA, Sep 2001, p. 204 - 213.
- BHUIYAN, M. Z. H., LOHAN, E. S., RENFORS, M. A Slopebased multipath estimation technique for mitigating short delay multipath in GNSS receivers. In Proceedings of the IEEE International Symposium on Circuits and Systems. Paris (France), 2010, p. 3573–3576.
- PHELTS, R. E., ENGE, P. The multipath invariance approach for code multipath mitigation. In Proceedings of ION GPS. UT, USA, Sep 2000, p. 2376 - 2384.
- PHELTS, R. E., ENGE, P. Multipath mitigation for narrowband receivers. In Proceedings of the IEEE PLANS. CA, USA, Mar 2000, p. 30 - 36.
- VAN NEE, R. D. J. The multipath estimating delay lock loop. In Proceedings of IEEE Second International Symposium on Spread Spectrum Techniques and Applications. Yokohama (Japan), 1992, p. 39 - 42.
- VAN NEE, R. D. J., SIERVELD, J., FENTON, P. C., TOWNSEND, B. R. The multipath estimating delay lock loop: approaching theoretical accuracy limits. In Proceedings of IEEE Position Location and Navigation Symposium, 1994, vol. 1, p. 246 - 251.
- TOWNSEND, B. R., VAN NEE, R. D. J., FENTON, P. C., VAN DIERENDONCK, A. J. Performance evaluation of the multipath estimating delay lock loop. In Proceedings of ION NTM. Anaheim (USA), Jan 1995.
- FENTON, P. C., JONES, J. The theory and performance of NovAtel Inc.’s vision correlator. In Proceedings of ION GNSS. Long Beach (USA), Sep 2005, p. 2178 - 2186.
- WEILL, L. R. Multipath mitigation using modernized GPS signals: How good can it get? In Proceedings of ION GPS. CA, USA, Sep 2002, p. 493 - 505.
- BHUIYAN, M. Z. H., LOHAN, E. S. Advanced Multipath Mitigation Techniques for Satellite-Based Positioning Applications. International Journal of Navigation and Observation, 2010, DOI:10.1155/2010/412393.
- BHUIYAN, M. Z. H. Analysis of Multipath Mitigation Techniques for satellite-based Positioning Applications. Ph.D. thesis, 2011, Tampere University of Technology, Finland.
- LOHAN, E. S., LAKHZOURI, A., RENFORS, M. Feedforward delay estimators in adverse multipath propagation for Galileo and modernized GPS signals. EURASIP Journal of Advances in Signal Processing, 2006, Article ID 50971.
- WU, J., DEMPSTER, A. G. Validation of carrier multipath mitigation for BOC-GPRN discriminator. In Proceedings of ENCGNSS. Naples (Italy), May 2009.
- BHUIYAN, M. Z. H, LOHAN, E. S., RENFORS, M. Code tracking algorithms for mitigating multipath effects in fading channels for satellite-based positioning. EURASIP Journal on Advances in Signal Processing, 2008, Article ID 863629.
- BHUIYAN, M. Z. H., ZHANG, J., LOHAN, E. S. Enhanced delay tracking performance of a C/N0-based two-stage tracker for GNSS receivers. In Proceedings of the European Navigation Conference on Global Navigation Satellite System. Braunschweig (Germany), Oct 2010.
- Tampere University of Technology. Simulink-based open source Galileo E1 signal simulator. [Online] Cited 2012-04-23. Available at: http://www.cs.tut.fi/tlt/pos/Software.htm.
- German Aerospace Center. Land Mobile Multipath Channel Model V3.0. [Online] Cited 2012-04-23. Available at: http://www.kns. dlr.de/satnav/LandMobile.html.
- European Space Agency. Galileo Open Service Signal In Space Interface Control Document. Issue 1, Revision 1, European Space Agency, Sep 2010.
- SIDDIQUI, B. A., ZHANG, J., BHUIYAN, M. Z. H., LOHAN, E. S. Joint data-pilot acquisition and tracking of Galileo E1 open service signal. In Proceedings of UPINLBS’2010. Helsinki (Finland), Oct 2010.
- PARKINSON, B. W., SPILKER, J. J. Global positioning system: Theory and applications. American Institute of Aeronautics, vol. 1, 1996, p. 390 - 392.

Keywords: Multipath mitigation technique, GNSS receiver, channel model, performance analysis

**P. Balling**
[references] [full-text]
[Download Citations]

Analytical High-efficiency Spot beam Model for High Throughput Satellites

We develop a simple model for a feed horn with a uniformly excited circular aperture at the focus of an offset paraboloidal reflector antenna and compare it with reflector antenna analyses using combinations of circular waveguide TE_{1n} modes. The model demonstrates the deep dip that can occur at the center of the spot beam for certain feed diameters and it is used in a design procedure that relates the feed and the spot-beam diameter. The model may be extended to include feed horn flare effects.

- INGERSON, P., CHEN, C. A. The use of non-focusing aperture for multibeam antenna. In Proc. IEEE International Symposium on Antennas and Propagation. Houston (TX), 1983, p. 330-333. [Note: While the title refers to an alternative multiple spot-beam solution based upon an oversized hyperboloidal reflector, the paper also discusses the multiple reflector aperture case].
- RAO, S. K. Design and analysis of multiple-beam reflector antennas. IEEE Antennas and Propagation Magazine, Aug. 1999, vol. 45, no. 4, p. 53-59.
- RAO, S. K. Parametric design and analysis of multiple-beam reflector antennas for satellite communications. IEEE Antennas and Propagation Magazine, Aug. 2003, vol. 45, no. 4, p. 26-34.
- http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/KA-SAT.
- NELSON, N. J. G., AUGEVAIN, J.-C., MANGENOT, C. Toward the Terabit/s satellite: Antenna trade-offs and analyses. In Proc. 33rd ESA Antenna Workshop. Noordwijk, Oct. 2011, paper 14.4.
- SOTOUDEH, O., KILDAL, P.-S., INGVARSON, P., SKOBELEV, S. P. Single- and dual-band multimode hard horn antennas with partly corrugated walls. IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation, Feb. 2006, vol. 54, no. 2, p. 330-339.
- LIER, E. Review of soft and hard horn antennas, including metamaterial- based hybrid-mode horns. IEEE Antennas and Propagation Magazine, Apr. 2010, vol. 52, no. 2, p. 31-39.
- BHATTACHARYYA, A. K., GOYETTE, G. A novel horn radiator with high aperture efficiency and low cross-polarization and applications in arrays and multibeam reflector antennas. IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation, Nov. 2004, vol. 52, no. 11, p. 2850-2859.
- AMYOTTE, E., DEMERS, Y., MARTINS-CAMELO, L., BRAND, Y., LIANG, A., UHER, J., CARRIER, G., LANGEVIN, J.-P. High performance communications and tracking multi-beam antennas. In Proc. 1st European Conference on Antennas and Propagation. Nice (France), Nov. 2006, Paper 359671.
- RAO, S. K. TANG, M. Q. Stepped reflector antenna for dual-band multiple beam satellite communications payloads. IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation, Mar. 2006, vol. 54, no. 3, p. 801-811.
- RAO, S., CHAN, K. K., TANG, M. Design of high efficiency circular horn feeds for multibeam reflector applications. In IEEE International Symposium on Antennas and Propagation. Washington, DC, 2005, p. 359-362.
- JACOBSEN, J. On the crosspolarization of asymmetric reflector antennas for satellite applications. IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation, 1977, vol. 25, p. 276-283.
- POCHERNYAEV, V. N. Integrals of products of Bessel functions for applied electrodynamic problem. Ukrainian Math. Journ., 1995, vol. 47, p. 658-662.
- GRADSHTEYN, I. S., RYZNIK, I. M. Table of Integrals, Series, and Products. New York, NY: Academic Press, 1980. Eq. 6.512 3. p. 667.
- http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Brent%27s_method.
- BORN, M., WOLF, E. Principles of Optics. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 6th ed., 1980, Sec. 8.8.1.
- NARASIMHAN, M. S., RAO, B. V. Radiation from conical horns with large flare angles. IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation, Sep. 1971, vol. 19, p. 678-681.

Keywords: Satellite antenna, multibeam antenna, offset reflector, circular waveguide feed, high-efficiency feed, high throughput satellite

**M. Haghighat, H. Fathi, S. M.-S. Sadough**
[references] [full-text]
[Download Citations]

Robust Resource Allocation for OFDM-based Cognitive Radio in the Presence of Primary User Emulation Attack

Cognitive radio (CR) is a promising solution to improve the spectrum efficiency in which some unlicensed users are allowed to exploit frequency bands which are not used by licensed network. However, CR technology imposes some threats to the network. One of these threats is primary user emulation attack where some malicious users try to send fake signals similar to the primary user (PU) and prevent secondary users from accessing vacant bands. Moreover, the presence of a primary user emulation attacker (PUEA) leads to additional interference to the CR and consequently, the efficiency of conventional power loading algorithms will be degraded. In this paper, we propose a power allocation scheme in an orthogonal frequency-division multiplexing (OFDM) based CR in the presence of PUEA. Power allocation is performed with the aim of maximizing the downlink transmission capacity achieved by the cognitive user, while keeping the interference level at the PU below a predefined threshold. Simulation results confirm the efficiency of our proposed power loading scheme, compared to classical loading algorithms that do not consider the activity of malicious users in the radio environment.

- HAYKIN, S. Cognitive radio: Brain-empowered wireless communications. IEEE Journal on Selected Areas in Communications, 2005, vol. 23, no. 2, p. 201 - 220.
- ZHANG,W., BEN LETAIEF, K. Cooperative spectrum sensing with transmit and relay diversity in cognitive radio networks. IEEE Transactions on Wireless Communications, 2008, vol. 7, no. 12, p. 4761 - 4766.
- BEN LETAIEF, K., ZHANG, W. Cooperative communications for cognitive radio networks. Proceedings of the IEEE, 2009, vol. 97, no. 5, p. 878 - 893.
- ALMALFOUH, S. M., STUBER, G. L. Interference-aware radio resource allocation in OFDMA-based cognitive radio networks . IEEE Transactions on Vehicular Technology, 2011, vol. 60, no. 4, p. 1699 - 1713.
- CHEN, R., PARK, J.-M. Ensuring trustworthy spectrum sensing in cognitive radio networks. In IEEE Workshop on Networking Technologies for Software Defined Radio Networks. Reston (USA), 2006, p. 110 - 119.
- CHEN, C., CHENG, H., YAO, Y.-D. Cooperative spectrum sensing in cognitive radio networks in the presence of the primary user emulation attack. IEEE Transactions on Wireless Communications, 2011, vol. 10, no. 7, p. 2135 - 2141.
- CHEN, Z., COOKLEV, T., CHEN, C., POMALAZA-RAEZ, C., Modeling primary user emulation attacks and defenses in cognitive radio networks. In 28th IEEE International Performance Computing and Communications Conference. Phoenix (USA), 2009, p. 208 - 215.
- TAFAGHODI, N., SADEGHI, S., SADOUGH, S. M. S. A novel framework for spectrum sensing in cognitive radio systems. IEICE Transaction on Communications, 2011, vol. 94, no. 9, p. 2600 - 2609.
- BANSAL, G., HOSSAIN, M., BHARGAVA, V. Optimal and suboptimal power allocation schemes for OFDM-based cognitive radio systems. IEEE Transactions on Wireless Communications, 2008, vol. 7, no. 11, p. 4710 - 4718 .
- WANG, S., HUANG, F., YUAN, M., DU, S. Resource allocation for multiuser cognitive OFDM networks with proportional rate constraints. International Journal of Communication Systems, 2012, vol. 25, no. 2, p. 254 - 269.
- CHEN, R., PARK, J. M., REED, J. H. Defense against primary user emulation attacks in cognitive radio networks. IEEE Journal on Selected Areas in Communications, 2008, vol. 10, no. 1, p. 25 - 37.
- YUAN, Z., NIYATO, D., LI, H., HAN, Z. Defense against primary user emulation attacks using belief propagation of location information. In IEEE Wireless Communications and Networking Conference (WCNC). Cancun (Mexico), 2011, p. 599 - 604.
- WEISS, T., HILLENBRAND, J., KROHN, A., JONDRAL, F. K. Mutual interference in OFDM-based spectrum pooling systems. IEEE 59th Vehicular Technology Conference (VTC 2004 - Spring). Milan (Italy), 2004, vol. 4, p. 1873 - 1877.
- BOYD, S., VANDENBERGHE, L. Convex Optimization. Cambridge (UK): Cambridge University Press, 2004.

Keywords: Cognitive radio, primary user emulation attacker, spectrum sensing, orthogonal frequency-division multiplexing, power allocation.

**S. S. Ivrigh, S. M.-S. Sadough**
[references] [full-text]
[Download Citations]

Spectrum Sensing for Cognitive Radio Systems Through Primary User Activity Prediction

Traditional spectrum sensing techniques such as energy detection, for instance, can sense the spectrum only when the cognitive radio (CR) is is not in operation. This constraint is relaxed recently by some blind source separation techniques in which the CR can operate during spectrum sensing. The proposed method in this paper uses the fact that the primary spectrum usage is correlated across time and follows a predictable behavior. More precisely, we propose a new spectrum sensing method that can be trained over time to predict the primary user's activity and sense the spectrum even while the CR user is in operation. Performance achieved by the proposed method is compared to classical spectrum sensing methods. Simulation results provided in terms of receiver operating characteristic curves indicate that in addition to the interesting feature that the CR can transmit during spectrum sensing, the proposed method outperforms conventional spectrum sensing techniques.

- HAYKIN, S. Cognitive radio: brain-empowered wireless communications. IEEE Journal on Selected Areas in Communications, 2005, vol. 23, no. 2, p. 201 - 220.
- YUCEK, T., ARSLAN, H. A survey of spectrum sensing algorithms for cognitive radio applications. IEEE Communications Surveys & Tutorials, 2009, vol. 11, no. 1, p. 116 - 130.
- TAFAGHODI KHAJAVI, N., SADOUGH, S. M. S. Improved spectrum sensing and achieved throughputs in cognitive radio networks. In 6th Conference on Wireless Advanced (WiAD). London (UK), 2010, p. 1 - 6.
- GHASEMI, A., SOUSA, E. S. Opportunistic spectrum access in fading channels through collaborative sensing. Journal of Communications, 2007, vol. 2, no. 2, p. 71 - 82.
- TAFAGHODI KHAJAVI, N., SADEGHI, S., SADOUGH, S. M. S. An improved blind spectrum sensing technique for cognitive radio systems. In 5th International Symposium on Telecommunications (IST). Tehran (Iran), 2010, p. 13 - 17.
- TAFAGHODI KHAJAVI, N., SADEGHI IVRIGH, S., SADOUGH, S. M. S. A novel framework for spectrum sensing in cognitive radio networks. IEICE Transactions on Communications, 2011, vol. E94- B, no. 9, p. 2600 - 2609.
- SADEGHI IVRIGH, S., SADOUGH, S. M. S., GHORASHI, S. A. A blind source separation technique for spectrum sensing in cognitive radio networks based on kurtosis metric. In International eConference on Computer and Knowledge Engineering (ICCKE). Mashhad (Iran), 2011, p. 327 - 331.
- LIU, X., TAN, X., ANGHUWO, A. A. Spectrum detection of cognitive radio based on blind signal separation. In IEEE Youth Conference on Information, Computing and Telecommunication. Beijing (China), 2009, p. 166 - 169.
- XU, G., LU, Y., HE, J., HU, N. Primary users detect for multipleantenna cognitive radio based on blind source separation. In 8. International Symposium on Intelligent Information Technology Application Workshops (IITAW). Shanghai (China), 2008, p. 777 - 780.
- WANG, W. (Ed.) Cognitive Radio Systems. InTech, 2009.
- CHUNLI, D., YUNING, D., LI, W. Autoregressive channel prediction model for cognitive radio. In 5th International Conference on Wireless Communications, Networking and Mobile Computing, WiCom ’09. Beijing (China), 2009, p. 1 - 4.
- WEN, Z., LUO, T., XIANG, W., MAJHI, S., MA, Y. Autoregressive spectrum hole prediction model for cognitive radio systems. In IEEE International Conference on Communications Workshops. Beijing (China), 2008, p. 154 - 157.
- YARKAN, S., ARSLAN, H. Binary time series approach to spectrum prediction for cognitive radio. In IEEE 66th Vehicular Technology Conference. Baltimore (MD, USA), 2007, p. 1563 - 1567.
- CHEN, Z., QIU, R. C. Prediction of channel state for cognitive radio using higher-order hidden Markov model. In Proceedings of the IEEE SoutheastCon (SoutheastCon). Concord (NC, USA), 2010, p. 276 - 282.
- LI, Y., DONG, Y. N., ZHANG, H. ZHAO, H. T. ; SHI, H. X. ZHAO, X. X. Spectrum usage prediction based on high-order markov model for cognitive radio networks. In IEEE 10th International Conference on Computer and Information Technology (CIT). Bradford (UK), 2010, p. 2784 - 2788.
- BEGLEITER, R., EL-YANIV, R., YONA, G. On prediction using variable order Markov models. Artificial Intelligence, 2004, vol. 22, p. 385 - 421.
- PAPADIAS, C. B. Globally convergent blind source separation based on a multiuser kurtosis maximization criterion. IEEE Transactions on Signal Processing, 2000, vol. 48, no. 12, p. 3508 - 3519.
- ZIV,J., LEMPEL, A. Compression of individual sequences via variable-rate coding. IEEE Transactions on Information Theory, 1978, vol. 24, p. 530 - 536.
- CLEARY, J., WITTEN, I. Data compression using adaptive coding and partial string matching. IEEE Transactions on Communications, 1984, vol. 32, no. 4, p. 396 - 402.
- WILLEMS, F. M. J., SHTARKOV, Y. M., TJALKENS, T. J. The context-tree weighting method: Basic properties. IEEE Transactions on Information Theory, 1995, vol. 41, no. 3, p. 653 - 664.
- VOLF, P. Weighting Techniques in Data Compression Theory and Algorithms, PhD thesis. Eindhoven (The Netherlands): Technische Universiteit Eindhoven, 2002.
- RON, D., SINGER, Y., TISHBY, N. The power of amnesia: Learning probabilistic automata with variable memory length. Machine Learning, 1996, vol. 2 - 3, no. 25, p. 117 - 149.
- BELL, T., CLEARY, J., WITTEN, I. Text Compression. Upper Saddle River (NJ, USA): Prentice-Hall, 1990.
- Department of wireless networks - MobNets. RWTH Aachen University Static Spectrum Occupancy Measurement Campaign. 2009
- YAO, Y., R. NGOGA, S., POPESCU, A. Cognitive radio spectrum decision based on channel usage prediction. In 8th Euro-NF Conference on Next Generation Internet, Karlskrona (Sweden), 2012, p. 41 - 48.
- ZHITAOL, Z., LIFENL, W., GUORU. D., SHENGGUNK, W. Enhanced spectrum decision based on the combination of sensing and prediction. In Cross Strait Quad-Regional Radio Science and Wireless Technology Conference. Harbin (China), 2011, p. 985 - 989.

Keywords: Cognitive radio, spectrum sensing, blind source separation, primary user activity prediction, variable order Markov model

**R. Urban, T. Korinek, P. Pechac**
[references] [full-text]
[Download Citations]

Broadband Spectrum Survey Measurements for Cognitive Radio Applications

It is well known that the existing spectrum licensing system results in a gross under-utilization of the frequency spectrum. Spectrum background measurements – spectrum surveys – provide useful data for spectrum regulation, planning or finding frequency niches for spectrum sharing. Dynamic spectrum sharing as a main goal of cognitive radio (CR) is the modern option on how to optimize usage of the frequency spectrum. A spectrum survey measurement system is introduced with results obtained from a variety of markedly different scenarios allowing us, unlike other studies, to focus on wideband and fast spectrum scans. The sensitivity of the receiver is no worse than -113 dBm in the whole band. The utilization of the frequency spectrum is analyzed to prove its under-utilization and to show spectrum sharing opportunities. This was shown to be true in the frequency band higher than 2.5 GHz. A comparison with other spectrum survey campaigns is provided.

- MITOLA, J. Cognitive radio architecture evolution. In Proceedings of the IEEE, 2009, vol. 97, no. 4, p. 626 - 641.
- MITOLA, J. Cognitive Radio Architecture: The Engineering Foundations of Radio XML. Hoboken (NJ, USA): Wiley- Interscience, 2006.
- CORDEIRO, C., CHALLAPALI, K., BIRRU D., SAI SHANKAR, N. IEEE 802.22: The first worldwide wireless standard based on cognitive radios. In First IEEE International Symposium on New Frontiers in Dynamic Spectrum Access Networks (DySPAN 2005). Baltimore (USA), 2005, p. 328 - 337.
- AKYILDIZ, I. F., LEE, W.-Y., VURAN, M. C., MOHANTY, S. NeXt generation/dynamic spectrum access/cognitive radio wireless networks: a survey. Computer Networks Journal, 2006, vol. 50, p. 2127-2159.
- YAN, Z. Dynamic spectrum access in cognitive radio wireless networks. In IEEE International Conference on Communications (ICC '08). Beijing (China), 2008, p. 4927 - 4932.
- MALDONADO, D., LE, B., HUGINE, A., RONDEAU, T. W., BOSTIAN, C. W. Cognitive radio applications to dynamic spectrum allocation: A discussion and an illustrative example. In First IEEE International Symposium on New Frontiers in Dynamic Spectrum Access Networks (DySPAN 2005). Baltimore (USA), 2005, p. 597 - 600.
- BERLEMANN, L., MANGOLD, S. Cognitive Radio and Dynamic Spectrum Access. New York (USA): Wiley, 2009.
- CELENTANO, U., BOCHOW, B., HERRERO, J., CENDON, B., LANGE, C., NOACK, F., GRONDALEN, O., MERAT, V., ROSIK, C. Flexible architecture for spectrum and resource management in the whitespace. In 14th International Symposium on Wireless Personal Multimedia Communications (WPMC). Brest (France), 2011, p. 1 - 5.
- FILIN, S., ISHIZU, K., HARADA, H. IEEE draft standard P1900.4a for architecture and interfaces for dynamic spectrum access networks in white space frequency bands: Technical overview and feasibility study. In IEEE 21st International Symposium on Personal, Indoor and Mobile Radio Communications Workshops (PIMRC Workshops). Istanbul (Turkey), 2010, p. 15 - 20.
- SHENGLI, X., YI, L., YAN, Z., RONG, Y. A parallel cooperative spectrum sensing in cognitive radio networks. IEEE Transactions on Vehicular Technology, 2010, vol. 59, no. 8, p. 4079 - 4092.
- TOBAGI, F., KLEINROCK, L. Packet switching in radio channels: Part II – the hidden terminal problem in carrier sense multiple-access and the busy-tone solution. IEEE Transactions on Communications, 1975, vol. 23, no. 12, p. 1417 - 1433.
- SHANKAR, N. S., CORDEIRO, C., CHALLAPALI, K. Spectrum agile radios: utilization and sensing architectures. In First IEEE International Symposium on New Frontiers in Dynamic Spectrum Access Networks (DySPAN). Baltimore (USA), 2005, p. 160 - 169.
- Cognitive Radio Experimentation Platform. [Online]. Available at: http://asgard.lab.es.aau.dk/joomla/index.php/home.
- FENG, G., QINQIN, C., YING, W., BOSTIAN, C. W., RONDEAU, T. W., LE, B. Cognitive radio: From spectrum sharing to adaptive learning and reconfiguration. In IEEE Aerospace Conference. Big Sky (MT, USA), 2008, p. 1 - 10.
- R&S®PR100 Portable Receiver. [Online]. Available at http://www2.rohde-schwarz.com/en/products/radiomonitoring/ receivers/PR100-|-Key_Facts-|-4-|-3473.html.
- KIM, J. N., PARK, S. O. Ultra wideband double discone antenna showing 30:1 bandwidth. In Asia-Pacific Microwave Conference. Melbourne (Australia), 2003.
- R&S® PR100 Portable Receiver - Manual. Munich (Germany): Rohde & Schwarz GmbH & Co. KG, 2011.
- Shared Spectrum Company (SSC). [Online]. Available at: http://www.sharedspectrum.com/papers/spectrum-reports/
- VALENTA, V., MARSALEK, R., BAUDOIN, G., VILLEGAS, M., SUAREZ, M., ROBERT, F. Survey on spectrum utilization in Europe: Measurements, analyses and observations. In Proceedings of the Fifth International Conference on Cognitive Radio Oriented Wireless Networks & Communications (CROWNCOM 2010). Cannes (France), 2010, p. 1 - 5.
- PATIL, K., PRASAD, R., SKOUBY, K. A survey of worldwide spectrum occupancy measurement campaigns for cognitive radio. In International Conference on Devices and Communications (ICDeCom). Mesra (India), 2011, p. 1-5.
- YUCEK, T., ARSLAN, H. A survey of spectrum sensing algorithms for cognitive radio applications. IEEE Communications Surveys & Tutorials, 2008, vol. 11, no. 1, p. 116 - 130.
- AKYILDIZ, I. F., WON-YEOL, L., VURAN, M. C., MOHANTY, S. A survey on spectrum management in cognitive radio networks. IEEE Communications Magazine, 2008, vol. 46, no. 4, p. 40 – 48.
- IEEE. Part 11: Wireless LAN Medium Access Control (MAC) and Physical Layer (PHY) specifications. In Amendment 4: Further Higher Data Rate Extension in the 2.4 GHz Band. The Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Inc., 2003.

Keywords: Spectrum survey, spectral measurement, cognitive radio, spectrum allocation

**S. Montejo, R. D. Souza, E. M. G. Fernandez, V. Alfonso.**
[references] [full-text]
[Download Citations]

Impact of Power Allocation and Antenna Directivity in the Capacity of a Multiuser Cognitive Ad Hoc Network

This paper studies the benefits that power control and antenna directivity can bring to the capacity of a multiuser cognitive radio network. The main objective is to optimize the secondary network sum rate under the capacity constraint of the primary network. Exploiting location awareness, antenna directivity, and the power control capability, the cognitive radio ad hoc network can broaden its coverage and improve capacity. Computer simulations show that by employing the proposed method the system performance is significantly enhanced compared to conventional fixed power allocation.

- MITOLA, J., MAGUIRE, G. Q. Cognitive radio: making software radios more personal. IEEE Personal Communications, 1999, vol. 6, no. 4, p. 13 - 18.
- Federal Communications Commission. Notice of Proposed Rule Making and Order: Facilitating Opportunities for Flexible, Efficient, and Reliable Spectrum use Employing Cognitive Radio Technologies. ET Docket No. 03–108, 2003.
- HAYKIN, S. Cognitive radio: brain-empowered wireless communications. IEEE Journal on Selected Areas in Communications, 2005, vol. 23, no. 2, p. 201 - 220.
- MITOLA, J. Cognitive radio architecture evolution: annals of telecommunications. Annals of Telecommunications, 2009, vol. 64, no. 7, p. 419 - 441.
- WANG, B., LIU, K. J. R. Advances in cognitive radio networks: A survey. IEEE Journal of Selected Topics in Signal Processing, 2011, vol. 5, no. 1, p. 5 - 23.
- AKYILDIZ, I., LEE,W., VURAN, M., MOHANTY, S. NeXt generation/ dynamic spectrum access/cognitive radio wireless networks: A survey. Computer Networks, 2006, vol. 50, no. 13, p. 2127 - 2159.
- WANG, L.-C., CHEN, A. Effects of location awareness on concurrent transmissions for cognitive ad hoc networks overlaying infrastructure-based systems. IEEE Transactions on Mobile Computing, 2009, vol. 8, no. 5, p. 577 - 589.
- SONG, Y., XIE, J. Optimal power control for concurrent transmissions of location-aware mobile cognitive radio ad hoc networks. In Proceedings of the IEEE Global Telecommunications Conference. Honolulu (USA), 2009, p. 1 - 6.
- WEI, R., ZHAO, Q., SWAMI, A. Power control in spectrum overlay networks: How to cross a multi-lane highway. In Proceedings of the IEEE International Conference on Acoustics, Speech and Signal Processing. Las Vegas (USA), 2008, p. 2773 - 2776.
- CELEBI, H., ARSLAN, H. Utilization of location information in cognitive wireless networks. IEEE Wireless Communications, 2007, vol 14, no. 4, p. 6 - 13.
- GEZICI, S. A survey on wireless position estimation. Wireless Personal Communications, 2008, vol. 44, no. 3, p. 263 - 282.
- QIANT, L., LI, X., ATTIAT, J., GAJIC, Z. Power control for cognitive radio ad hoc networks. In Proceedings of the 5th IEEE Workshop on Local & Metropolitan Area Networks. Princeton (USA), 2007, p. 7 - 12.
- LI, X. Secondary transmission power of cognitive radios for dynamic spectrum access. In Proceedings of the Third International Conference on Communications and Networking in China. Hangzhou (China), 2008, p. 1211 - 1215.
- HOVEN, N., SAHAI, A. Power scaling for cognitive radio. In Proceedings of the International Conference on Wireless Networks, Communications and Mobile Computing. Maui (USA), 2005, p. 250 - 255.
- YAO, H., ZHOU, Z., ZHANG, L., LIU, H., TANG, L., KWAK, K. S. An efficient power allocation scheme in joint spectrum overlay and underlay cognitive radio networks. In Proceedings of the International Symposium on Communications and Information Technology. Incheon (Korea), 2009, p. 102 - 105.
- XIA, W., QI, Z. Power control for cognitive radio base on game theory. In Proceedings of the International Conference on Wireless Communications, Networking and Mobile Computing. Shanghai (China), 2007, p. 1256 - 1259.
- HAYAJNEH, M., ABDALLAH, C. T. Distributed joint rate and power control game-theoretic algorithms for wireless data. IEEE Communications Letters, 2004, vol. 8, no. 8, p. 511 - 513.
- SARAYDAR, C. U., MANDAYAM, N. B., GOODMAN, D. J. Efficient power control via pricing in wireless data networks. IEEE Transactions on Communications, 2002, vol. 50, no. 2, p. 291 - 303.
- GOODMAN, D., MANDAYAM, N. Power control for wireless data. IEEE Personal Communications, 2000, vol. 7, no. 2, p. 48 - 54.
- FERDOUS, N., AHMED, M., MATIN, M. A., HABIBA, U. Efficient algorithm for power allocation in relay-based cognitive radio network. Radioengineering, 2011, vol. 20, no. 4, p. 946 - 951.
- ZHANG, R., LIANG, Y.-C. Exploiting multi-antennas for opportunistic spectrum sharing in cognitive radio networks. IEEE Journal of Selected Topics in Signal Processing, 2008, vol. 2, no. 1, p. 88 - 102.
- SCHUBERT, M., BOCHE, H. Solution of the multiuser downlink beamforming problem with individual SINR constraints. IEEE Transactions on Vehicular Technology, 2004, vol. 53, no. 1, p. 18 - 28.
- WANG, F., WANG, W. Robust beamforming and power control for multiuser cognitive radio network. In Proceedings of the IEEE Global Telecommunications Conference. Miami (USA), 2010, p. 1 - 5.
- HIGHTOWER, J., BORRIELLO, G. Location systems for ubiquitous computing. Computer, 2001, vol. 34, no. 8, p. 57 - 66.
- NICULESCU D., NATH, B. Ad hoc positioning system (APS). In Proceedings of the IEEE Global Telecommunications Conference. San Antonio (USA), 2001, p. 2926 - 2931.
- SUN, G., CHEN, J., GUO, W., LIU, K. J. R. Signal processing techniques in network-aided positioning: a survey of state-of-the-art positioning designs. IEEE Signal Processing Magazine, 2005, vol. 22, no. 4, p. 12 - 23.
- MAUVE, M., WIDMER, A., HARTENSTEIN, H. A survey on position-based routing in mobile ad hoc networks. IEEE Network, 2001, vol. 15, no. 6, p. 30 - 39.
- HUR, S. M., MAO, S., HOU, Y. T., NAM, K., REED, J. H. Exploiting location information for concurrent transmissions in multihop wireless networks. IEEE Transactions on Vehicular Technology, 2009, vol. 58, no. 1, p. 314 - 323.
- PEREIRA, N., DE MORAES, R. M. Comparative analysis of AODV route recovery mechanisms in wireless ad hoc networks. IEEE Latin America Transactions, 2010, vol. 8, no. 4, p. 385 - 393.
- SHANNON, C. E. The mathematical theory of communication. The Bell System Technical Journal, 1948, vol. 27, p. 379 - 423.
- RAPPAPORT, T. S. Wireless Communications: Principles and Practice. 2nd ed. Upper Saddle River (USA): Prentice Hall, 2002.
- RAMAN, C., FOSCHINI, G. J., VALENZUELA, R. A., YATES, R. D., MANDAYAM, N. B. Half-duplex relaying in downlink cellular systems. IEEE Transactions on Wireless Communications, 2011, vol. 10, no. 5, p. 1396 - 1404.

Keywords: Cognitive radio, power control, location awareness, antenna directivity

**J.Y. Huang, P. Wang, X.F. Shen**
[references] [full-text]
[Download Citations]

CRLBs for Pilot-Aided Channel Estimation in OFDM System under Gaussian and Non-Gaussian Mixed Noise

The determination of Cramer-Rao lower bound (CRLB) as an optimality criterion for the problem of channel estimation in wireless communication is a very important issue. Several CRLBs on channel estimation have been derived for Gaussian noise. However, a practical channel is affected by not only Gaussian background noise but also non-Gaussian noise such as impulsive interference. This paper derives the deterministic and stochastic CRLBs for Gaussian and non-Gaussian mixed noise. Due to the use of the non-parametric kernel method to build the PDF of non-Gaussian noise, the proposed CRLBs are suitable for practical channel environments with various noise distributions.

- MORELLI, M., MORETTI, M. Channel estimation in OFDM systems with unknown interference. IEEE Trans. Wireless Communications, 2009, vol. 8, no. 10, p. 5338 - 5347.
- CAI, J., SHEN, X.M., MARK, J. W. Robust channel estimation for OFDM wireless communication systems - an H∞ approach. IEEE Trans. Wireless Communications, 2004, vol. 3, no. 6, p. 2060-2071.
- ABDELKEFI, F., DUHAMEL, P., ALBERGE, F. Impulsive noise cancellation in multicarrier transmission. IEEE Trans. Communications, 2005, vol. 53, no. 1, p. 94-106.
- MENG, J., YIN. W.T., LI, Y.Y., NGUYEN, N.T., HAN, Z. Compressive sensing based high-resolution channel estimation for OFDM system. IEEE Journal of Selected Topics in Signal Processing, 2012, vol. 6, no. 1, p. 15-25.
- WAN, F., ZHU, W. P., SWAMY, M. N. S. Semiblind sparse channel estimation for MIMO-OFDM systems. IEEE Transactions on Vehicular Technology, 2011, vol. 60, no. 6, p. 2569 - 2582.
- SHUICHI, OHNO, GIANNAKIS, G. B. Capacity maximizing MMSE-optimal pilots for wireless OFDM over frequency-selective block Rayleigh-fading channels. IEEE Trans. Information Theory, 2004, vol. 50, no. 9, p. 2138-2145.
- CHOI, J. W., LEE, Y. H. Optimum pilot pattern for channel estimation in OFDM systems. IEEE Trans. Wireless Communications, 2005, vol. 4, no. 5, p. 2083- 2088.
- BUECHE, D., CORLAY, P., GAZALET, M., COUDOUX, F.X. A method for analyzing the performance of comb-type pilot-aided channel estimation in power line communications. IEEE Transactions on Consumer Electronics, 2008, vol. 54, no.3, p. 1074 – 1081.
- EDFORS, O., SANDELL, M., VAN DE BEEK, J.J., HWILSON, S.K, BORJESSON, P.O. Analysis of DFT-based channel estimators for OFDM. Wireless Personal Communications, 2000, vol. 12, no.1, p. 55 – 70.
- KAY, S. M. Fundamentals of Statistical Signal Processing: Estimation Theory. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall, 1993.
- HARRY, V.T. Detection, Estimation and Modulation Theory: Part I. John Wiley, 1968.
- MORELLI, M., MENGALI, U. A comparison of pilot-aided channel estimation methods for OFDM systems. IEEE Transactions on Signal Processing, 2001, vol. 49, no. 12, p. 3065 – 3073.
- BERRICHE, L., ABED-MERAIM, K. Stochastic Cramer-Rao bounds for semiblind MIMO channel estimation. In The Fourth IEEE International Symposium Signal Processing and Information Technology. Rome(Italy), 2004, p. 119-122
- KOZICK, R.J., SADLER, B.M. Maximum-likelihood array processing in non-Gaussian noise with Gaussian mixtures. IEEE Transactions on Signal Processing, 2000, vol. 48, no.12, p. 3520 – 3535.
- HUANG, J.Y., WAN, Q. CRLB for DOA estimation in Gaussian and non-Gaussian mixed environments. Wireless Personal Communications, 2012, Online First™.
- STANKOVIC, L., IVANOVIC, V. Further results on the minimum variance time-frequency distribution kernels. IEEE Transactions on Signal Processing, 1997, vol. 45, no.6, p. 1650 – 1655.
- DJUROVIC, I., LUKIN, V.V. Robust DFT with high breakdown point for complex-valued impulse noise environment. IEEE Signal Processing Letters, 2006, vol. 13, no.1, pp. 25 – 28.
- SCOTT, D. Multivariate Density Estimation: Theory, Practice, and Visualization. Toronto: John Wiley & Sons, 1992.
- ELGAMMAL, A., DURAISWAMI, R., HARWOOD, D., DAVIS, L.S. Background and foreground modeling using nonparametric kernel density estimation for visual surveillance. Proceedings of the IEEE, 2002, vol. 90, no. 7, p. 1151-1163.
- MIDDLETON, D. Man-made noise in urban environments and transportation systems: Models and measurement. IEEE Trans. Commun., 1973, vol. COM-21, no. 11, p. 1232–1241.
- ZHANG, Y., WAN, Q., ZHAO, H.P., YANG, W.L. Support vector regression for basis selection in Laplacian noise environment. IEEE Signal Process. Lett., 2007, vol. 14, no. 11, p. 871–874.

Keywords: Channel estimation, orthogonal frequency-division multiplexing (OFDM), Cramer-Rao lower bound (CRLB), Mixed noise.

**S. Stosović, Z. Nikolić, B. Dimitrijević, D. Antić, N. Milosević**
[references] [full-text]
[Download Citations]

A Novel OFDM/DQPSK Receiver with Adaptive Remodulation Filter

The description and performance analysis of a new OFDM/DQPSK signal receiver is considered in this paper. The proposed receiver has performance that is close to the performance for the coherent detection of the OFDM/DQPSK signal, in case of zero carrier frequency offset. In case of non-zero frequency ofset, receiver with decision feedback differential detection (DFDD-OFDM) is often used in the literature. The analysis will show that the proposed receiver has better perfomance in the presence of the frequency offset than DFDD-OFDM receiver, in the sense wider frequency offset range where the error probability is acceptable. The novel proposed OFDM receiver has better performance for all the considered values of the number of OFDM channels.

- POLLET, T., VAN BLADEL, M., MOENECLAEY, M. BER sensitivity of OFDM systems to carrier frequency offset and Wiener phase noise. IEEE Transactions on Communications, 1995, vol. 43, no. 2, p. 191 - 193.
- NARASIMHAN, R. Performance of diversity schemes for OFDM systems with frequency offset, phase noise and channel estimation errors. In IEEE International Conference on Communications, ICC. New York City (USA), 2002, vol. 3, p. 1551 - 1557.
- MASSEY, J. Optimum frame synchronization. IEEE Transactions on Communications, 1972, vol. 20, no. 2, p. 115 - 119.
- MOOSE, P. H. A technique for orthogonal frequency division multiplexing frequency offset correction. IEEE Transactions on Communications, 1994, vol. 42, no, 10, p. 2908 - 2914.
- SCHMIDL, T. M., COX, D. C. Robust frequency and timing synchronization for OFDM. IEEE Transactions on Communications, 1997, vol. 45, no. 12, p. 1613 - 1621.
- ZHANG, W., XIA, X.-G., CHING, P. C. Clustered pilot tones for carrier frequency offset estimation in OFDM systems. IEEE Transactions on Wireless Communications, 2007, vol. 6, no. 1, p. 101 - 109.
- DAFFARA, F., CHOULY, A. Maximum likelihood frequency detectors for orthogonal multi-carrier systems. In IEEE International Conference on Communications, ICC. Geneva (Switzerland), 1993, p. 766 - 771.
- DAFFARA, F, ADAMI, O. A new frequency detector for orthogonal multicarrier transmission techniques. In IEEE 45th Vehicular Technology Conference. Chicago (USA), 1995, p. 804 - 809.
- HSIEH, M. H., WEI C. H. A low complexity frame synchronization and frequency offset compensation scheme for OFDM systems over fading channels. IEEE Transactions on Vehicular Technology, 1999, vol. 48, no. 5, p. 1596 - 1609.
- SIMON, M. K., ALOUINI, M.-S. Digital Communication over Fading Channels: A Unified Approach to Performance Analysis. New York (USA): Wiley, 2000.
- KORN, I. Error floors in satellite and land mobile channels. IEEE Transactions on Communications, 1991, vol. 39, no. 6, p. 833-837.
- EDBAUER, F. Bit error rate of binary and quaternary DPSK signals with multiple differential feedback detection. IEEE Transactions on Communications, 1992, vol. 40, no. 3, p. 457 - 460.
- SCHOBER, W., GERSTACKER, H., HUBER, J. B. Decisionfeedback differential detection of MDPSK for flat Rayleigh fading channels. IEEE Transactions on Communications, 1999, vol. 47, no, 7, p. 1025 - 1035.
- SCHOBER, R., GERSTACKER, W. H., Decision-feedback differential detection based on linear prediction for MDPSK signals transmitted over Ricean fading channels. IEEE Journal On Selected Areas In Communications, 2000, vol. 18, no. 3, p. 391 - 402.
- STOSOVIĆ, S., DIMITRIJEVIĆ, B., FEDRA, Z. Application of improved decision feedback differential detection algorithm at OFDM/MDPSK system. In Proceedings of the 22nd International Conference Radioelektronika 2012. Brno (Czech Republic), 2012, p. 123 - 126.
- DIVSALAR, D., SIMON, M. K. Multiple-symbol differential detection of MPSK. IEEE Transactions on Communications, 1990, vol. 38, no. 3, p. 300 - 308.
- GAO, C., HAIMOVICH, A. M., LAO, D. Multiple-symbol differential detection for MPSK space-time block codes: decision metric and performance analysis. IEEE Transactions on Communications, 2006, vol. 54, no. 8, p. 1502 - 1510.
- DIMITRIJEVIĆ, B., STOSOVIĆ, S., MILOSEVIĆ, N., NIKOLIĆ, Z. Performances of the OFDM/DQPSK system with MBDD in the presence of frequency offset. In Proceedings of TELFOR 2010. Belgrade (Serbia), 2010, p. 475 - 478.
- HASAN, M. A., LEE, J. C., BHARGAVA, V. K. A narrowband interference canceller with an adjustable center weight. IEEE Transactions on Communications, 1994., vol. 42, no. 2/3/4, p. 877 - 880.
- STOSOVIĆ, S., DIMITRIJEVIĆ, B., MILOSEVIĆ, N., NIKOLIĆ, Z. Frequency offset influence on OFDM/MDPSK system performance. In Proceedings of ICEST 2010. Ohrid (Macedonia), 2010, p. 81 - 84.

Keywords: Detection, estimation, mobile satellite communications, modulation, orthogonal frequency division multiplex, synchronization

**X. Liu. A. Liu, B. Zhang, K. Pan**
[references] [full-text]
[Download Citations]

Design of Multiple Trellis-Coded Multi-h CPM Based on Super Trellis

It has been shown that the multiple trellis code can perform better than the conventional trellis code over AWGN channels, at the cost of additional computations per trellis branch. Multiple trellis coded multi-h CPM schemes have been shown in the literature to have attractive power-bandwidth performance at the expense of increased receiver complexity. In this method, the multi-h format is made to be associated with the specific pattern and repeated rather than cyclically changed in time for successive symbol intervals, resulting in a longer effective length of the error event with better performance. It is well known that the rate (n-1)/n multiple trellis codes combined with 2^n-level CPM have good power-bandwidth performance. In this paper, a scheme combining rate 1/2 and 2/3 multiple trellis codes with 4- and 8-level multi-h CPM is shown to have better power-bandwidth performance over the upper bound than the scheme with single-h.

- Department of Defense Interface Standard. Interoperablility standard for single-acess 5-kHz and 25-kHz UHF satellite communications channels. MIL-STD188-181B, Mar. 1999.
- GEOGHEGAN, M. Description and performance results for a multi-h CPM telemetry waveform. In Proc. 21st Century MILCOM Conf., vol. 1, 2000, p. 353-357.
- WILSON, S., HIGHFILL, J., HSU, C.-D. Error bounds for multi-h phase codes. IEEE Trans. Commun., Jul. 1982, vol. 28, p. 660 to 665.
- XIONG, E, BHATMULEY, S. Performance of MHPM in Rician and Rayleigh flat fading mobile channels. IEEE Trans. Commun., Mar. 1997, vol. 45, p. 279 - 283.
- DAVE, B. A., RAO, K. R. Generalized asymmetric multi-h phase coded modulation for M-ary data transmission. In Canadian Conference on Electrical and Computer Engineering (IEEE CCECE). Niagara Falls, May 2004, p. 559 - 562.
- SASASE, I., MORI, S. Multi-h phase-coded modulation. IEEE Commun. Mag., 1991, p. 46 - 56.
- FONSEKA, J. P., DAVIS, G. R. Combined coded multi-h CPFSK signalling. IEEE Trans. Commun., Oct. 1990, vol. 38, p. 1708 to 1715.
- ERTAS, T., POON, F. S. F. Trellis coded multi-h CPM for power and bandwidth efficiency. Electron. Lett., 1993, vol. 29, no. 2, p. 229 - 230.
- KIM, H., STUBER, G. L. Turbo-like coded multi-h continuous phase modulation. IEEE Military Communications Conference, 2004, p. 352 - 358.
- NARAYANAN, K. R., STUBER, G. L. Performance of trelliscoded CPM with iterative demodulation and decoding. IEEE Trans. Commun., Apr. 2001, vol. 49, p. 676 - 687.
- MOQVIST, P., AULIN, T. M. Serially concatenated continuous phase modulation with iterative decoding. IEEE Trans. Commun., Nov. 2001, vol. 49, no. 11, p. 1901 - 1915.
- FONSEKA, J. P. Nonlinear continuous phase frequency shift keying. IEEE Trans. Commun., 1991, vol. 39, no. 10, p. 1473 to 1481.
- DIVSALAR, D., SIMON, M. K. Multiple trellis coded modulation (MTCM). IEEE Trans. Commun., 1988, vol. 36, no. 4, p. 410 to 419.
- RIMOLDI, B. E. A decomposition approach to CPM. IEEE Trans. Inform. Theory, 1988, vol. 34, no. 2, p. 260 - 270.
- SALEEM, S., STUBER, G. L. Trellis termination of multi-h CPM and the diophantine Frobenius problem. IEEE Tran. Commun., August 2011, vol. 59, no. 8, p. 2196-2205.
- UNGERBOECK, G. Channel coding with multilevel phase signals. IEEE Trans. Inform. Theory, Jan. 1982, vol. IT-28, p. 56 – 67.
- LINDELL, G., SUNDBERG, C.-E. W. An upper bound on the bit error probability of combined convolutional coding and continuous phase modulation. IEEE Trans. Inform. Theory, Sep. 1988, vol. 34, no. 5, p. 1263 - 1269.

Keywords: multiple trellis code, multi-h continuous phase modulation, merged encoder, super trellis

**Jiawei Ren, Huihua Chen, Weimin Jia, Minli Yao**
[references] [full-text]
[Download Citations]

Linear-Combined-Code-Based Unambiguous Code Discriminator Design for Multipath Mitigation in GNSS Receivers

Unambiguous tracking and multipath mitigation for Binary Offset Carrier (BOC) signals are two important requirements of modern Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS) receivers. A GNSS discriminator design method based on optimization technique is proposed in this paper to meet these requirements. Firstly, the discriminator structure based on a linear-combined code is given. Then the requirements of ideal discriminator function are converted into the mathematical constraints and the objective function to form a non-linear optimization problem. Finally, the problem is solved and the local code is generated according to the results. The theoretical analysis and simulation results indicate that the proposed method can completely remove the false lock points for BOC signals and provide superior multipath mitigation performance compared with traditional discriminator and high revolution correlator (HRC) technique. Moreover, the proposed discriminator is easy to implement for not increasing the number of correlators.

- JUANG, J., CHEN, Y., KAO, T., TSAI, Y. Design and implementation of an adaptive code discriminator in a DSP/FPGAbased Galileo receiver. GPS Solutions, 2010, vol. 14, no. 3, p. 255 to 266.
- WU, J., DEMPSTER, A. G. “BOC-Gated-PRN,” A multipath mitigation technique for BOC(n,n) waveforms. IEEE Transactions on Aerospace and Electronic Systems, 2011, vol. 47, no. 2, p. 1136-1153.
- BHUIYAN, M. Z. H., LOHAN, E. S., RENFORS, M. Code tracking algorithms for mitigating multipath effects in fading channels for satellite-based positioning. EURASIP Journal on Advances in Signal Processing, 2008, p. 1-18.
- YOO, S., LEE, Y., YOON, S., KIM, S. Y. Generalized advanced region correlation (G-ARC) scheme for BOC(m, n) modulated code tracking in future GNSS. In Proceedings of the International Technical Conference on Circuits/Systems, Computers and Communications. Shimonoseki (Japan), 2008.
- ROUABAH, K., CHIKOUCHE, D., BOUTTOUT, F., HARBA, R., RAVIER, P. GPS/Galileo multipath mitigation using the first side peak of double delta correlator. Wireless Personal Communications, 2011, p. 321-333.
- NUNES, F. D., SOUSA, F. M. G., LEITAO, J. E. N. Gating functions for multipath mitigation in GNSS BOC signals. IEEE Transactions on Aerospace and Electronic Systems, 2007, vol. 43, no. 3, p. 941-964.
- PANY, T., IRSIGLER, M., EISSFELLER, B. S-curve shaping: A new method for optimum discriminator based code multipath mitigation. In Proceedings of ION-GNSS 2005, Long Beach (USA), 2005, p. 2139-2154.
- HURSKAINEN, H., LOHAN, E. S., HU, X., RAASAKKA, J., NURMI, J. Multiple gate delay tracking structures for GNSS signals and their evaluation with Simulink, SystemC, and VHDL. International Journal of Navigation and Observation, 2008, p. 20 to 37.
- YAO, Z., LU, M. Side-peaks cancellation analytic design framework with applications in BOC signals unambiguous processing. In Proceedings of ION-ITM 2011. San Diego (USA), 2011, p. 775-785.
- JUANG, J. Multi-objective approach in GNSS code discriminator design. IEEE Transactions on Aerospace and Electronic Systems, 2008, vol. 44, no. 2, p. 481-492.
- HOLMES, J. K. Noncoherent late minus early power code tracking performance with front end filtering. In Proceedings of ION-GPS 1997. Kansas (USA), 1997, p. 583-593.
- HARRIS, R. B., LIGHTSEY, E. G. A general model of multipath error for coherently tracked BOC modulated signals. IEEE Journal of Selected Topics in Signal Processing, 2009, vol. 3, no. 4, p. 682- 694.
- NOCEDAL, J., WRIGHT, S. J. Numerical optimization. Springer Verlag, 2006.
- UNITED, NATIONS. Current and planned global and regional navigation satellite systems and satellite-based augmentations systems. In Proceedings of International Committee on Global Navigation Satellite Systems Provider Forum, 2010, p. 35-40.
- MCGRAW, G. A., BRAASCH, M. S. GNSS multipath mitigation using gated and high resolution correlator concepts. In Proc. of ION-NTM 1999. San Diego (USA), 1999, p. 333-342.

Keywords: GNSS, multipath, BOC, HRC

**Y.B. Li, X. Zhang, F. Ye, Z.G. Gao**
[references] [full-text]
[Download Citations]

Utility based Dynamic Subcarrier Allocation for QoS Guarantees in SC-FMDA System

Two utility based dynamic subcarrier allocation (DSA) algorithms: the max exponential utility (MEU) algorithm and the max weighted exponential utility (MWEU) algorithm are proposed for quality of service (QoS) guarantees in single carrier frequency division multiple access (SC-FDMA) system. With the objective of maximizing the system total utility, the two proposed DSA algorithms are designed based on a cross-layer manner so as to guarantee the diverse QoS requirements of real-time traffic. The proposed MEU algorithm exploits the property of the exponential utility function to provide higher allocation priority for the user in heavy traffic load. Furthermore, the MWEU algorithm is proposed as a kind of priority adjustable DSA scheduling by introducing the grading theory and the weight factor into the utility function. Simulation results indicate that the MEU algorithm is able to achieve outstanding average delay and system rate-sum capacity performance. And the MWEU algorithm can further improve the delay variance and delay violation probability performance by setting appropriate allocation weights. It is also concluded that the adaptive weight factor value of the MWEU algorithm can be derived according to the practical QoS requirements and average packets arrival rate.

- VARAHRAM, P., ALI, B. M. A low complexity partial transmit sequence for peak to average power ratio reduction in OFDM systems. Radioengineering, 2011, vol. 20, no. 3, p. 677 - 682.
- MYUNG, H. G., GOODMAN, D. J. Single Carrier FDMA a New Air Interface for Long Term Evolution. United Kingdom: John Wiley & Sons, 2008.
- ZUKANG, S., ANDREWS, J. G., EVANS, B. L. Adaptive resource allocation in multiuser OFDM systems with proportional rate constraint. IEEE Transactions on Wireless Communications, 2005, vol. 4, no. 6, p. 2726 - 2737.
- SADR, S., ANPALAGAN, A., RAAHEMIFAR, K. Radio resource allocation algorithms for the downlink of multiuser OFDM communication systems. IEEE Communications Surveys and Tutorials, 2009, vol. 11, no. 3, p. 92 - 106.
- JUNSUNG, L., MYUNG, H. G., KYUNGJIN, O., GOODMAN, D. J. Channel-dependent scheduling of uplink single carrier Conference. Canada (Montreal), 2006, p. 1 - 5.
- HOON, K., YOUNGNAM, H. A proportional fair scheduling for multicarrier transmission systems. IEEE Communications Letters, 2005, vol. 9, no. 3, p. 210 - 212.
- LI, Y. B., ZHANG, X., YE, F., GAO, Z. G. Adjustable fairness dynamic subcarrier allocation algorithm for SC-FMDA systems. Systems Engineering and Electronics, 2011, vol. 33, no. 6, p. 1377 to 1382.
- ANDREWS, M., KUMARAN, K., RAMANAN, K., STOLYAR, A., WHITING, P., VIJAYAKUMAR, R. Providing quality of service over a shared wireless link. IEEE Communications Magazine, 2001, vol. 39, no. 2, p. 150 - 154.
- KATOOZIAN, M., NAVAIE, K., YANIKOMEROGLU, H. Utility- based adaptive radio resource allocation in OFDM wireless networks with traffic prioritization. IEEE Transactions on Wireless Communications, 2009, vol. 8, no. 1, p. 66 - 71.
- SONG, G. C. Cross-Layer Resource Allocation and Scheduling in Wireless Multicarrier Networks. Ph.D.dissertation, Georgia Tech, 2005.
- LI, Y. B., HUANG, H., YE, F. An improved cooperative spectrum sensing in cognitive radio. Journal of Computational Information Systems, 2012, vol. 8, no. 4, p. 1399 - 1406.
- MYUNG, H. G., KYUNGJIN, O., JUNSUNG, L., GOODMAN, D.J. Channel-dependent scheduling of an uplink SC-FDMA system with imperfect channel information. In Proceedings of the Wireless Communications and Networking Conference. Las Vegas (United States), 2008, p. 1860 - 1864.
- LI, Y. B., ZHANG, X., YE, F. A stepwise subcarrier allocation algorithm for SC-FDMA systems. Journal of Digital Content Technology and its Applications, 2011, vol. 5, no. 9, p. 272 - 280.
- SONG, G. C., LI, Y., CIMINI, L. J. JR., ZHENG, H. Joint channel-aware and queue-aware data scheduling in multiple shared wireless channels. In Proceedings of Wireless Communications and Networking Conference, Atlanta (United States), 2004, p. 1939 – 1944.
- SONG, G. C., LI, Y. Utility-based resource allocation and scheduling in OFDM-based wireless broadband networks. IEEE Communications Magazine, 2005, vol. 43, no. 12, p. 127 - 134.
- BIAGIONI, A., FANTACCI, R., MARABISSI, D., TARCHI, D. Adaptive subcarrier allocation schemes for wireless OFDMA systems in WiMAX networks. Selected Areas in Communication, 2009, vol. 27, no. 2, p. 217 - 225.
- HARADA, H., PRASAD, R. Simulation and Software Radio for Mobile Communications. Artech House, 2002.
- KONG, Z., KWOK, Y. K., WANG, J. Z. A low-complexity QoSaware proportional fair multicarrier scheduling algorithm for OFDM systems. IEEE Transactions on Vehicular Technology, 2009, vol. 58, no. 5, p. 2225 - 2235.
- CHENG, H. T., ZHUANG, W. H. Joint power-frequency-time resource allocation in clustered wireless mesh networks. IEEE Network, 2008, vol. 22, no.1, p. 45 - 51.

Keywords: Single carrier frequency division multiple access (SC-FDMA), dynamic subcarrier allocation (DSA), quality of service (QoS), utility function; max exponential utility (MEU) algorithm, max weighted exponential utility (MWEU) algorithm.

**A. Stankovic, C. Stefanovic, N. Sekulovic, Z. Popovic, M. Stefanovic**
[references] [full-text]
[Download Citations]

The Distribution of Minimum of Ratios of Two Random Variables and Its Application in Analysis of Multi-hop Systems

The distributions of random variables are of interest in many areas of science. In this paper, ascertaining on the importance of multi-hop transmission in contemporary wireless communications systems operating over fading channels in the presence of cochannel interference, the probability density functions (PDFs) of minimum of arbitrary number of ratios of Rayleigh, Rician, Nakagami-m, Weibull and α-µ random variables are derived. These expressions can be used to study the outage probability as an important multi-hop system performance measure. Various numerical results complement the proposed mathematical analysis.

- SIMON, M. K., ALOUINI, M. S. Digital Communication over Fading Channels. 1st ed. New York: Wiley, 2000.
- NADARAJAH, S., KOTZ, S. On the ratio of Pearson type VII and Bessel random variables. Journal of Applied Mathematics and Decision Sciences, 2005, vol. 2005, no. 4, p. 191–199.
- OKUI, S. Effects of CIR selection diversity with two correlated branches in the m-fading channel. IEEE Transactions on Communications, 2000, vol. 48, no. 10, p. 1631–1633.
- KARAGIANNIDIS, G. K. Performance analysis of SIR-based dual selection diversity over correlated Nakagami-m fading channels. IEEE Transactions on Vehicular Technology, 2003, vol. 52, no. 5, p. 1207–1216.
- STEFANOVIC, M. C., MILOVIC, D. M., MITIC, A. M., JAKOVLJEVIC, M. M. Performance analysis of system with selection combining over correlated Weibull fading channels in the presence of cochannel interference. AEU - International Journal of Electronics and Communications, 2008, vol. 62, no. 9, p. 695–700.
- PANAJOTOVIC, A. S., STEFANOVIC, M. C., DRACA, D. LJ. Performance analysis of system with selection combining over correlated Rician fading channels in the presence of cochannel interference. AEU - International Journal of Electronics and Communications, 2009, vol. 63, no. 12, p. 1061–1066.
- STEFANOVIC, M. C., DRACA, D. LJ., PANAJOTOVIC, A. S., SEKULOVIC, N. M. Performance analysis of system with Lbranch selection combining over correlated Weibull fading channels in the presence of cochannel interference. International Journal of Communication Systems, 2010, vol. 23, no. 2, p. 139–150.
- CVETKOVIC, A. D., SEKULOVIC, N. M., KRSTIC, D. S., MEKIC, E. S., POPOVIC, Z. J., STEFANOVIC, M. C. Performance analysis of multi-hop system in Nakagami-m environment. In Proceedings of the International Conference on Circuits, Systems, Signals. Malta, 2010.
- CVETKOVIC, A., STEFANOVIC, M., SEKULOVIC, N., MEKIC, E., MANIC, D. Dual-hop system analysis in Nakagami-m environment. Electronics and Electrical Engineering, 2011, vol. 108, no. 2, p. 47-50.
- KARAGIANNIDIS, G. K., TSIFTSIS, T. A., MALLIK, R. K. Bounds for multihop relayed communications in Nakagami-m fading. IEEE Transactions on Communications, 2006, vol. 54, no. 1, p. 18–22.
- STEFANOVIC, M., POPOVIC, Z., DESTOVIC, F., TANASKOVIC, N. Statistical properties for multipath-relayed communications over fading channels. Serbian Journal of Electrical Engineering, 2008, vol. 5, no. 2, p. 341–352.
- HASNA, M. O., ALOUINI, M. S. End-to-end performance of transmission systems with relays over Rayleigh-fading channels. IEEE Transactions on Wireless Communications, 2003, vol. 2, no. 6, p. 1126–1131.
- HASNA, M. O., ALOUINI, M. S. Outage probability of multihop transmission over Nakagami fading channels. Communications Letters, IEEE, 2003, vol. 7, no. 5, p. 216–218.
- TSIFTSIS, T. A., KARAGIANNIDIS, G. K., MATHIOPOULOS, P. T., KOTSOPOULOS, S. A. Nonregenerative dual-hop cooperative links with selection diversity. EURASIP Journal on Wireless Communications and Networking, 2006, vol. 2006, no. 2, p. 34 to 34.
- KARAGIANNIDIS, G. K. Performance bounds of multihop wireless communications with blind relays over generalized fading channels. IEEE Transactions on Wireless Communications, 2006, vol. 5, no. 3, p. 498–503.
- ZHONG, C., JIN, S., WONG, K. Outage probability of dual-hop relay channels in the presence of interference. In IEEE 69th Vehicular Technology Conference. Barcelona (Spain), 2009, p. 1–5.
- DATSIKAS, C. K., PEPPAS, K. P., SAGIAS, N. C., TOMBRAS, G. S. Serial relaying communications over generalized-gamma fading channels. Wireless Communications and Mobile Computing, 2012, vol. 12, no. 13, p. 1191-1202.
- NAKAGAMI, M. The m-distribution, a general formula of intensity distribution of rapid fading. In Statistical Methods in Radio Wave Propagation: Proceedings of a Symposium, 1958, p. 3–36.
- BABICH, F., LOMBARDI, G. Statistical analysis and characterization of the indoor propagation channel. IEEE Transactions on Communications, 2000, vol. 48, no. 3, p. 455–464.
- TZEREMES, G., CHRISTODOULOU, C.G. Use of Weibull distribution for describing outdoor multipath fading. In Antennas and Propagation Society International Symposium, IEEE, 2002, vol. 1, p. 232–235.
- SHEPHERD, N. H. Radio wave loss deviation and shadow loss at 900 MHz. IEEE Transactions on Vehicular Technology, 1977, vol. 26, no. 4, p. 309–313.
- SAGIAS, N. C., KARAGIANNIDIS, G. K. Gaussian class multivariate Weibull distributions: theory and applications in fading channels. IEEE Transactions on Information Theory, 2005, vol. 51, no. 10, p. 3608–3619.
- YACOUB, M. D. The α-μ distribution: A general fading distribution. In Proceedings of IEEE International Symposium on Personal, Indoor, and Mobile Radio Communications, 2002, p. 629–633.
- STUBER, G. L. Principles of Mobile Communication. 2nd ed. Boston: Kluwer Academic publisher, 2002.
- ZWILINGER, D., KOKOSKA, S. Standard Probability and Statistics Tables and Formulae. Boca Raton, 2000.
- KHOOLENJANI, N. B., KHORSHIDIAN, K. On the ratio of Rice random variables. Journal of the Iranian Statistical Society, 2009, vol. 8, no. 1, p. 61-71.
- KOSTOV, N. Mobile radio channels modelling in MATLAB. Radioengineering, 2003, vol. 12, no. 4, p. 12-16.

Keywords: Fading, ratios of random variables, Rayleigh distribution, Rician distribution, Nakagami-*m* distribution, Weibull distribution, *α-µ* distribution, multi-hop technique

**A. Povalac, K. Witrisal, J. Sebesta**
[references] [full-text]
[Download Citations]

Degenerate RFID Channel Modeling for Positioning Applications

This paper introduces the theory of channel modeling for positioning applications in UHF RFID. It explains basic parameters for channel characterization from both the narrowband and wideband point of view. More details are given about ranging and direction finding. Finally, several positioning scenarios are analyzed with developed channel models. All the described models use a degenerate channel, i.e. combined signal propagation from the transmitter to the tag and from the tag to the receiver.

- DOBKIN, D. M. The RF in RFID: Passive UHF RFID in Practice. Burlington (MA, USA): Newnes, 2007.
- ZHANG, Y., LI, X., AMIN, M. G. Principles and techniques of RFID positioning. BOLIC, M., SIMPLOT-RYL, D., STOJMENOVIC, I. (Eds.) RFID systems: Research trends and challenges, ch. 15, p. 389 - 415. Chichester (UK): John Wiley & Sons, 2010.
- ARNITZ, D. Tag Localization in Passive UHF RFID, PhD thesis. Graz (Austria): Graz University of Technology, 2011. [Online] Cited 2012-01-24. Available at: http://www.spsc.tugraz.at/ sites/default/files/phdthesis-arnitz online.pdf
- SAUNDERS, S. R., ZAVALA, A. A. Antennas and Propagation for Wireless Communication Systems, 2nd ed. Chichester (UK): John Wiley & Sons, 2007.
- POVALAC , A., SEBESTA, J. Phase of arrival ranging method for UHF RFID tags using instantaneous frequency measurement. In ICECom 2010, Conference Proceedings. Dubrovnik (Croatia), 2010, p. 1 - 4.
- POVALAC , A., SEBESTA, J. Phase difference of arrival distance estimation for RFID tags in frequency domain. In IEEE International Conference on RFID-Technology and Applications 2011. Sitges (Spain), 2011, p. 180 - 185.
- NIKITIN, P. V., MARTINEZ, R., RAMAMURTHY, S., LELAND, H., SPIESS, G., RAO, K. V. S. Phase based spatial identification of UHF RFID tags. In Proceedings of the IEEE International Conference on RFID. Orlando (FL, USA), 2010, p. 102 - 109.
- LI, X., ZHANG, Y., AMIN, M. G. Multifrequency-based range estimation of RFID tags. In Proceedings of the IEEE International Conference on RFID. Orlando (FL, USA), 2009, p. 147 - 154.
- VIIKARI, V., PURSULA, P., JAAKKOLA, K. Ranging of UHF RFID tag using stepped frequency read out. IEEE Sensors Journal, 2010, vol. 10, no. 9, p. 1535 - 1539.
- DERBEK, V., PREISHUBER-PFLUEGL, J., STEGER, C., PISTAUER, M. Architecture for model-based UHF RFID system design verification. In European Conference on Circuit Theory and Design (ECCTD’05). Cork (Ireland), 2005, vol. 2, p. 181 - 184.
- FLOERKEMEIER, C., PAPPU, R. Evaluation of RFIDSim – a physical and logical layer RFID simulation engine. In Proceedings of the IEEE International Conference on RFID 2008. Las Vegas (NV, USA), 2008, p. 350 - 356.
- DIMITRIOU, A. G., BLETSAS, A., POLYCARPOU, A. C., SAHALOS, J. N. Theoretical findings and measurements on planning a UHF RFID system inside a room. Radioengineering, 2011, vol. 20, no. 2, p. 387–397.
- ARNITZ, D., MUEHLMANN, U., GIGL, T., WITRISAL, K. Wideband system-level simulator for passive UHF RFID. In Proceedings of the IEEE International Conference on RFID. Orlando (FL, USA), 2009, p. 28 - 33.
- PAULRAJ, A., NABAR, R., GORE, D. Introduction to Space-Time Wireless Communications. Cambridge (UK): Cambridge University Press, 2003.
- Emerson & Cuming Anechoic Chambers NV. ECCOSORB R VHYNRL Pyramidal Hybrid Absorber (datasheet), 2010.
- POVALAC , A., SEBESTA, J. Experimental front end for UHF RFID reader. Elektrorevue - Journal for Electrical Engineering, 2011, vol. 2, p. 55 - 59.

Keywords: RFID, UHF, channel modeling, ranging, FD-PDoA

**S. A. Rahman, M. S. Ansari, A. A. Moinuddin**
[references] [full-text]
[Download Citations]

Solution of Linear Programming Problems using a Neural Network with Non-Linear Feedback

This paper presents a recurrent neural circuit for solving linear programming problems. The objective is to minimize a linear cost function subject to linear constraints. The proposed circuit employs non-linear feedback, in the form of unipolar comparators, to introduce transcendental terms in the energy function ensuring fast convergence to the solution. The proof of validity of the energy function is also provided. The hardware complexity of the proposed circuit compares favorably with other proposed circuits for the same task. PSPICE simulation results are presented for a chosen optimization problem and are found to agree with the algebraic solution. Hardware test results for a 2–variable problem further serve to strengthen the proposed theory.

- KREYSZIG, E. Advanced Engineering Mathematics. 8th ed. New Delhi (India): Wiley-India, 2006.
- KAMBO, N. S. Mathematical Programming Techniques. New Delhi (India): Affilated East-West Press Pvt Ltd., 1991.
- ANGUITA, D., BONI, A., RIDELLA, S. A digital architecture for support vector machines: Theory, algorithm, and FPGA implementation. IEEE Transactions on Neural Networks, 2003, vol. 14, no. 5, p. 993 - 1009.
- CICHOCKI, A., UNBEHAUEN, R. Neural Networks for Optimization and Signal Processing. Chichester (UK): Wiley, 1993.
- IQBAL, K., PAI, Y. C. Predicted region of stability for balance recovery: motion at the knee joint can improve termination of forward movement. Journal of Biomechanics, 2000, vol. 13, no. 12, p. 1619 - 1627.
- ZHANG, Y. Towards piecewise-linear primal neural networks for optimization and redundant robotics. In IEEE International Conference on Networking, Sensing and Control. Fort Lauderdale (FL, USA), 2006, p. 374 - 379.
- ZHANG, Y., LEITHEAD,W. E. Exploiting Hessian matrix and trustregion algorithm in hyperparameters estimation of Gaussian process. Applied Mathematics and Computation, 2005, vol. 171, no. 2, p. 1264 - 1281.
- YOUNG, M. R. A minimax portfolio selection rule with linear programming solution. Management Science, 1988, vol. 44, no. 5, p. 673 - 683.
- BIXBY, R. E., GREGORY J. W., LUSTIG, I. J., MATSTEN, R. E., SHANNO, D. F. Very large-scale linear programming: A case study in combining interior point and simplex methods. Operations Research, 1992, vol. 40, no. 5, p. 885 - 897.
- PEIDRO, D., MULA, J., JIMENEZ, M., del MAR BOTELLA, M. A fuzzy linear programming based approach for tactical supply chain planning in an uncertainty environment. European Journal of Operational Research, 2010, vol. 205, no. 16, p. 65 - 80.
- CHERTKOV, M., STEPANOV, M. G. An efficient pseudocodeword search algorithm for linear programming decoding of LDPC codes. IEEE Transactions on Information Theory, 2008, vol. 54, no. 4, p. 1514 - 1520.
- CHVATAL, V., COOK, W., DANTZIG, G. B., FULKERSON, D. R., JOHNSON, S. M. Solution of a Large-Scale Traveling-Salesman Problem. Berlin (Germany): Springer, 2010, p. 7 - 28.
- KROGH, A. What are artificial neural networks? Nature Biotechnology, 2008, vol. 26, no. 2, p. 195 - 197.
- TANK, D. W., HOPFIELD, J. J. Simple ‘neural’ optimization networks: An A/D converter, signal decision circuit, and a linear programming circuit. IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems, 1986, vol. 33, no. 5, p. 533 - 541.
- RAHMAN, S. A., ANSARI, M. S. A neural circuit with transcendental energy function for solving system of linear equations. Analog Integrated Circuits and Signal Processing, 2011, vol. 66, no. 3, p. 433 - 440.
- ANSARI, M. S., RAHMAN, S. A. A non-linear feedback neural network for solution of quadratic programming problems. International Journal of Computer Applications, 2012, vol. 39, no. 2, p. 44 - 48.
- ANSARI, M. S., RAHMAN, S. A. A DVCC-based non-linear analog circuit for solving linear programming problems. In International Conference on Power, Control and Embedded Systems (ICPCES). Allahabad (India), 2010, p. 1 - 4.
- WEN, U.-P., LAN, K.-M., SHIH, H.-S. A review of Hopfield neural networks for solving mathematical programming problems. European Journal of Operational Research, 2009, vol. 198, no. 3, p. 675 - 687.
- KENNEDY, M. P., CHUA, L. O. Neural networks for nonlinear programming. IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems, 1988, vol. 35, no. 5, p. 554 - 562.
- RODRIGUEZ-VAZQUEZ, A., RUEDA, A., HUERTAS, J. L., DOMINGUEZ-CASTRO, R. Switched-capacitor neural networks for linear programming. Electronics Letters, 1988, vol. 24, no. 8, p. 496 - 498.
- RODRIGUEZ-VAZQUEZ, A., DOMINGUEZ-CASTRO, R., RUEDA, A., HUERTAS, J. L., SANCHEZ-SENENCIO, E. Nonlinear switched capacitor ‘neural’ networks for optimization problems. IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems, 1990, vol. 37, no. 3, p. 384 - 398.
- LAN, K.-M., WEN, U.-P., SHIH, H.-S., LEE, E. S. A hybrid neural network approach to bilevel programming problems. Applied Mathematics Letters, 2007, vol. 20, no. 8, p. 880 - 884.
- MAA, C.-Y., SHANBLATT, M. A. Linear and quadratic programming neural network analysis. IEEE Transactions on Neural Networks, 1992, vol. 3, no. 4, p. 580 - 594.
- CHONG, E. K. P., HUI, S., ZAK, S. H. An analysis of a class of neural networks for solving linear programming problems. IEEE Transactions on Automatic Control, 1999, vol. 44, no. 11, p. 1995 - 2006.
- ZHU, X., ZHANG, S., CONSTANTINIDES, A. G. Lagrange neural networks for linear programming. Journal of Parallel and Distributed Computing, 1992, vol. 14, no. 3, p. 354 - 360.
- XIA, Y., WANG, J. Neural network for solving linear programming problems with bounded variables. IEEE Transactions on Neural Networks, 1995, vol. 6, no. 2, p. 515 - 519.
- MALEK, A., YARI, A. Primal-dual solution for the linear programming problems using neural networks. Applied Mathematics and Computation, 2005, vol. 167, no. 1, p. 198 - 211.
- GHASABI-OSKOEI, H., MALEK, A., AHMADI, A. Novel artificial neural network with simulation aspects for solving linear and quadratic programming problems. Computers & Mathematics with Applications, 2007, vol. 53, no. 9, p. 1439 - 1454.
- RAHMAN, S. A., JAYADEVA, DUTTA ROY, S. C. Neural network approach to graph colouring. Electronics Letters, 1999, vol. 35, no. 14, p. 1173 - 1175.
- NEWCOMB, R. W., LOHN, J. D. Analog VLSI for neural networks. The Handbook of Brain Theory and Neural Networks, p. 86 - 90. Cambridge (MA, USA): MIT Press, 1998.
- ANSARI, M. S., RAHMAN, S. A. A novel current-mode non-linear feedback neural circuit for solving linear equations. In International Conference on Multimedia, Signal Processing and Communication Technologies. Aligarh (India), 2009, p. 284 - 287.

Keywords: Linear Programming, Dynamical Systems, Neural Networks, Feedback Systems, Non-Linear Feedback.

**M. Agatonović, Z. Stanković, N. Doncov, L. Sit, B. Milovanović, T. Zwick**
[references] [full-text]
[Download Citations]

Application of Artificial Neural Networks for Efficient High-Resolution 2D DOA Estimation

A novel method to provide high-resolution Two-Dimensional Direction of Arrival (2D DOA) estimation employing Artificial Neural Networks (ANNs) is presented in this paper. The observed space is divided into azimuth and elevation sectors. Multilayer Perceptron (MLP) neural networks are employed to detect the presence of a source in a sector while Radial Basis Function (RBF) neural networks are utilized for DOA estimation. It is shown that a number of appropriately trained neural networks can be successfully used for the high-resolution DOA estimation of narrowband sources in both azimuth and elevation. The training time of each smaller network is significantly re¬duced as different training sets are used for networks in detection and estimation stage. By avoiding the spectral search, the proposed method is suitable for real-time ap¬plications as it provides DOA estimates in a matter of seconds. At the same time, it demonstrates the accuracy comparable to that of the super-resolution 2D MUSIC algorithm.

- SCHMIDT, R. Multiple emitter location and signal parameter estimation. IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation, 1986, vol. 34, no. 3, p. 276-280.
- ROY, R., KAILATH, T. ESPRIT-estimation of signal parameters via rotational invariance techniques. IEEE Transactions on Acoustics, Speech and Signal Processing, 1989, vol. 37, no. 7, p. 984 – 995.
- OTTERSTEN, B., VIBERG, M., KAILATH, T. Performance analysis of the total least squares ESPRIT algorithm. IEEE Transactions on Signal Processing, 1991, vol. 39, no. 5, p. 1122-1134.
- ZHANG, Q. J., GUPTA, K. C. Neural Networks for RF and Microwave Design. Artech House, 2000.
- CHRISTODOULOU, C. G., GEORGIOPOULOS, M. Application of Neural Networks in Electromagnetics. Artech House, 2000.
- EL ZOOGHBY, A. H., CHRISTODOULOU, C. G., GEORGIOPOULOS, M. A neural network-based smart antenna for multiple source tracking. IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation, 2000, vol. 48, no. 5, p. 768 – 776.
- ÇAYLAR, S., LEBLEBICIOĞLU, K., DURAL, G. A new neural network approach to the target tracking problem with smart structure. In Proceedings of IEEE AP-S International Symposium and USNC/URCI meeting, Albuquerque (USA), 2006, p. 1121-1124.
- WANG, M., YANG, S., WU, S., LUO, F. A RBFNN approach for DOA estimation of ultra wideband antenna array. Neurocomputing- Elsevier, 2008, vol. 71, no. 4-6, p. 631-640.
- JORGE, N., FONSECA, G., COUDYSER, M., LAURIN, J.-J., BRAULT, J.-J. On the design of a compact neural network-based DOA estimation system. IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation, 2010, vol. 58, no. 2, p. 357-366.
- MATSUMOTO, T., KUWAHARA, Y. 2D DOA estimation using beam steering antenna by the switched parasitic elements and RBF neural network. Electronics and Communications in Japan (Part I: Communications), 2006, vol. 89, no. 9, p. 22-31.
- HONGGUANG, C., BIAO, L., ZHENKANG, S. Efficient network training method for two-dimension DOA estimation. In Proceedings of the 4th International Conference on Computer and Information Technology (CIT '04). Wuhan (China), 2004, p. 1028 – 1032.
- STANKOVIĆ, Z., MILOVANOVIĆ, B., DONCOV, N. Hybrid empirical-neural model of loaded microwave cylindrical cavity. Progress in Electromagnetics Research, PIER, 2008, vol. 83, p. 257-277.
- SAREVSKA, M., MILOVANOVIĆ, B., STANKOVIĆ, Z. Reliability of radial basis function - neural network smart antenna. In Proceedings of the 9th WSEAS International Conference on Communications. Athens (Greece), 2005.

Keywords: DOA estimation, MLP, RBF, sectorisation, URA

**A. Eksim, E. Murat**
[references] [full-text]
[Download Citations]

Novel Feedback Calculation Technique for Improved Transmit Scheme

Extended balanced space-time block coding (EBSTBC) is able to achieve large coding gain and guarantee full diversity for any number of transmit antennas. Performance of the EBSTBC has been improved with improved transmit scheme (ITS) which is combination of the EBSTBC with transmit antenna selection. Performance of the ITS with a limited number of feedback bits approaches to performance of ideal beamforming which requires ideal channel state information at the transmitter. However, the calculation of feedback information at the receiver employs exhaustive searching scheme which is very complex and energy inefficient process. In this work, a low complexity and energy efficient feedback information scheme for the ITS receiver is proposed. Theoretical and simulation results show that the calculation complexity of feedback information is decreased more than 87% and the proposed scheme yields the same bit error rate performance with the ITS. Moreover, the proposed scheme requires very low addition memory with respect to alternative schemes.

- TAROKH, V., JAKARKHANI, H., CALDERBANK, A. R. Spacetime block codes from orthogonal designs. IEEE Trans. Information Theory, 1999, vol. 45, p. 1456-1467.
- ALAMOUTI, S. M. A simple transmit diversity technique for wireless communications. IEEE J. Select. Areas Commun., 1998, vol. 16, p. 1451-1458.
- ÇELEBİ, M. E., ŞAHİN, S, AYGOLU, U. Full rate full diversity space-time block codes for more than two transmit antenna. IEEE Transaction on Wireless Communications, 2007, vol. 6, p. 16-19.
- EKŞİM, A., ÇELEBİ, M. E. Extended balanced space-time block coding for wireless communications. IET Signal Processing, 2009, vol. 3, p. 476-484.
- EKŞİM, A., ÇELEBİ, M. E. Performance improvement of binary sensor based statistical STBC cooperative diversity using limited feedback. IETE Technical Review, 2010, vol. 27, p. 60-67.
- HU, Z., YUAN, C., ZHAO, W. Low-complexity calculating scheme of feedback information for receiver in EBSTBC. In Proc. Int. Conf. on Consumer Electronics, Communications and Network. Xianning (China), 2011, p. 1372–1375.
- EKŞİM, A. Transmit antenna selection for extended balanced space-time block codes. In Proc. 6th Int. Wireless Communications and Mobile Computing. Caen (France), 2010.
- EKŞİM, A. Extended balanced space-time block coding with transmit antenna selection. Transactions on Emerging Telecommunication Technologies, 2012, vol. 23, no. 2, p. 163-171.
- YU, Y., KEROUEDEN, S., YUAN, Y. Closed-loop extended orthogonal space-time block codes for three and four transmit antennas. IEEE Signal Processing Letters, 2006, vol. 13, p. 273-276.
- ELTAYEB, N. M., LAMBOTHARAN, S., CHAMBERS, J. A. A Phase feedback based extended space-time block codes for enhancement of diversity. In Proc. VTC 2007-Spring, 2007, p. 2296-2299.
- HEATH, R. W., PAULRAJ, A. A simple scheme for transmit diversity using partial channel feedback. In Conference Record of the 32nd Asilomar Conference on Signals, Systems & Computers. 1998, p. 1073-1078.
- ANDERSEN, J. B. Antenna arrays in mobile communications: Gain, diversity and channel capacity. IEEE Antenna and Propagation Magazine, 2000, vol. 42, p. 12-16.
- LOVE, D. J., HEALTH JR., R. W., STROHMER, T. Grassmannian beamforming for multiple-input multiple-output wireless systems. IEEE Transactions on Information Theory, 2003, vol. 49, p. 2735-2747.

Keywords: Extended balanced space-time coding, feedback calculation, low complexity, energy efficiency.

**B. ZHANG, Y. LI, L. MAO, B. BAI**
[references] [full-text]
[Download Citations]

A Rate-Splitting Based Bound-Approaching Transmission Scheme for the Two-User Symmetric Gaussian Interference Channel with Common Messages

This paper is concerned with a rate-splitting based transmission strategy for the two-user symmetric Gaussian interference channel that contains common messages only. Each transmitter encodes its common message into multiple layers by multiple codebooks that drawn from one separate code book, and transmits the superposition of the messages corresponding to these layers; each receiver decodes the messages from all layers of the two users successively. Two schemes are proposed for decoding order and optimal power allocation among layers respectively. With the proposed decoding order scheme, the sum-rate can be increased by rate-splitting, especially at the optimal number of rate-splitting, using average power allocation in moderate and weak interference regime. With the two proposed schemes at the receiver and the transmitter respectively, the sum-rate achieves the inner bound of HK without time-sharing. Numerical results show that the proposed optimal power allocation scheme with the proposed decoding order can achieve significant improvement of the performance over equal power allocation, and achieve the sum-rate within two bits per channel use (bits/channel use) of the sum capacity.

- SHANNON, C. E. Two-way communication channels. In Proceedings of 4th Berkeley Symposium on Mathematical Statistics and Probability. Berkeley (CA, USA), 1960, vol. 1, p. 611 - 644.
- CARLEIAL, A. A case where interference does not reduce capacity. IEEE Transactions on Information Theory, 1951, vol. 21, no. 5, p. 569 - 570.
- COSTA, M., GAMAL, A. E. The capacity region of the discrete memoryless interference channel with strong interference. IEEE Transactions on Information Theory, 1987, vol. 33, no. 5, p. 710 - 711.
- SATO, H. The capacity of the Gaussian interference channel under strong interference. IEEE Transactions on Information Theory, 1981, vol. 27, no. 6, p. 786 - 788.
- MOTAHARI, A. S., KHANDANI, A. K. Capacity bounds for the Gaussian interference channel. IEEE Transactions on Information Theory, 2009, vol. 55, no. 2, p. 620 - 643.
- ANNAPUREDDY, V. S., VEERAVALLI, V. V. Gaussian interference networks: sum capacity in the low-interference regime and new outer bounds on the capacity region. IEEE Transactions on Information Theory, 2009, vol. 55, no. 7, p. 3032 - 3050.
- SHANG, X. H., KRAMER, G., CHEN, B. A new outer bound and the noisy-interference sum-rate capacity for Gaussian interference channels. IEEE Transactions on Information Theory, 2009. vol. 55, no.2, p. 689 - 699.
- HAN, T. S., KOBAYASHI, K. A new achievable rate region for the interference channel. IEEE Transactions on Information Theory, 1981, vol. 27, no. 1, p. 49 - 60.
- ETKIN, R. H., TSE, D. N. C., WANG, H. Gaussian interference channel capacity to within one bit. IEEE Transactions on Information Theory, 2008, vol. 54, no. 12, p. 5534 - 5562.
- CADAME, V. R., JAFAR, S. A. Interference alignment and degrees of freedom of the K-user interference channel. IEEE Transactions on Information Theory, 2008, vol. 54, no. 8, p. 3425 - 3441.
- YU, W., GINIS, G., CIOFFI, J. M. Distributed multiuser power control for digital subscriber lines. IEEE Journal on Selected Areas in Communications, 2002, vol. 20, no. 5, p. 1105 - 1115.
- CENDRILLON, R., MOONEN, M., VERLIDEN, J., BOSTOEN, T., YU, W. Optimal multi-user spectrum management for digital subscriber lines. In Proceedings of the IEEE International Conference on Communications. Paris (France), 2004, vol. 1, p. 1 - 5.
- CENDRILLON, R., MARC, M. Iterative spectrum balancing for digital subscriber lines. In Proceedings of the IEEE International Conference on Communications. Seoul (Korea), 2005, vol. 3, p. 1937 - 1941.
- CHUNG, H. W., JEON, S. W., PARK, D. H., CHUNG, S. Y. Joint determination of power and decoding order for successive inter-and intra-cell interference cancellation. In The 9th International Conference on Advanced Communication Technology. Phoenix Park (Korea), 2007, vol. 3, p. 1482 - 1486.
- MADDAH-ALI, M. A., MAHDAVI-DOOST, H., KHANDANI, A. K. Optimal order of decoding for max-min fairness in K-user memoryless interference channels. In Proceedings of the IEEE International Symposium on Information Theory. Nice (France), 2007, p. 2866 - 2870.
- DENG, S., WEBER, T., AHRENS, A. Capacity optimizing power allocation in interference channels. AEU - International Journal of Electronics and Communications, 2009, vol. 63, no. 2, p. 139 - 147.
- CHEN, G., TAJER, A.,WANG, X. D. Interference channel with constrained partial group decoding. IEEE Transaction Information Theory, 2011, vol. 59, no. 11, p. 3059 - 3071.
- JING, Z. H., BAI, B. M., MA, X. Compensation-based game for spectrum sharing in the Gaussian interference channel. Radioengineering, 2010, vol. 19, no. 4, p. 518 - 526.

Keywords: Interference channel, rate-splitting, power control

**V. Prajzler, N.K. Pham, J. Spirkova**
[references] [full-text]
[Download Citations]

Design, Fabrication and Properties of the Multimode Polymer Planar 1 x 2 Y Optical Splitter

We report about design, fabrication and measurement of the properties of multimode 1 x 2 optical planar power splitter. The splitters were designed with help of OptiCAD software using ray tracing method. The dimensions of the splitters were then optimized for connecting standard Plastic Optical Fiber. Norland Optical Adhesives glues were used as optical waveguide layers and the design structures were completed by CNC engraving on Poly(methyl methacrylate) or Poly(methylmethacrylimide) substrate. The devices have the insertion loss around 7.6 dB at 650 nm and the coupling ratio was 52:48.

- ZIEMANN, O., KRAUSER, J., ZAMZOW, P. E., DAUM, W. POF Handbook: Optical Short Range Transmission Systems. 2nd ed. Springer, 2008.
- LI, Y. P., HENRY, C. H. Silica-based optical integrated circuits. IEE Proceedings-Optoelectronics, 1996, vol. 143, no. 5, p. 263 to 280.
- SAKAI, A., FUKAZAWA, T., BABA, T. Low loss ultra-small branches in a silicon photonic wire waveguide. IEICE Transactions on Electronics E Series C, 2002, vol. 85, no. 4, p. 1033 to 1038.
- SUM, T. C., BETTIOL, A. A., KAN, J. A., WATT, F., PUN, E. Y. B., TUNG, K. K. Proton beam writing of low-loss polymer optical waveguides. Applied Physics Letters, 2003, vol. 83, no. 9, p.1707 to 1709.
- YABU, T., GESHIRO, M., OHASHI, M. Low-loss wide-angle ybranch optical waveguides. Electronics and Communications in Japan (Part II: Electronics), 2005, vol. 88, no. 2, p. 11–18.
- GAO, Y., GONG, Z., BAI, R., HAO, Y.L., LI, X.H., JIANG, X.Q., WANG, M.H., PAN, J.X., YANG, J.Y. Multimode-waveguidebased optical power splitters in glass. Chinese Physics Letters, 2008, vol. 25, no. 8, p. 2912-2914.
- MIZUNO, H., SUGIHARA, O., JORDAN, S., OKAMOTO, N., OHAMA, M., KAINO, T. Replicated polymeric optical waveguide devices with large core connectable to plastic optical fiber using thermo-plastic and thermo-curable resins. Journal of Lightwave Technology, 2006, vol. 24, no. 2, p. 919-926.
- TAKAZEWA, Y., AKASAKA, S., OHARA, S., ISHIBASHI, T., ASANO, H., TAKETANI, N. Low excess losses in a Y-branching plastic optical waveguide formed through injection holding. Applied Optics, 1994, vol. 33, no. 12, p. 2307-2312.
- KLOTZBUECHER, T., BRAUNE, T., DADIC, D., SPRZAGALA, M., KOCH, A. Fabrication of optical 1x2 POF splitters using the Laser-LIGA technique. In Proceedings Laser Micromachining for Optoelectronic Device Fabrication, 2003, vol. 4941, p. 121-132.
- MIZUNO, H., SUGIHARA, O., KAINO, T., OKAMOTO, N., OHAMA, M. Compact Y-branch-type polymeric optical waveguide devices with large-core connectable to plastic optical fibers. Japanese Journal of Applied Physics, 2005, vol. 44, p. 8504-8506.
- EHSAN, A. A., SHAARI, S., RAHMAN, M. K. A. Low cost 1 × 2 acrylic-based plastic optical fiber coupler with hollow taper waveguide. Piers Online, 2009, vol. 5, no. 2, p. 129-132.
- EHSAN, A. A., SHAARI, S., RAHMAN, M. K .A. 1 x 2 Y-branch plastic optical fiber waveguide coupler for optical access card system. Progress in Electromagnetics Research Pier, 2009, vol. 91, p. 85-100.
- EHSAN, A. A., SHAARI, S., RAHMAN, M. K. A. Acrylic and metal based Y-branch plastic optical fiber splitter with optical NOA63 polymer waveguide taper region. Optical Review, 2011, vol. 18, no. 1, p. 80-85.
- PARK, H. J., LIM, K. S., KANG, H. S. Low-cost 1×2 plastic optical beam splitter using a V-type angle polymer waveguide for the automotive network. Optical Engineering, 2011, vol. 50, no. 7, p. 075002-075004.
- BELTRAMI, D. R., LOVE, J. D., LADOUCEUR, F. Multimode planar devices. Optical and Quantum Electronics, 1999, vol. 31, p. 307–326.

Keywords: Multimode 1x2 splitter, optical planar waveguide, polymer, ray tracing

**A. Acharyya, S. Banerjee, J. P. Banerjee**
[references] [full-text]
[Download Citations]

Optical Control of Millmeter-wave Lateral Double-Drift Region Silicon IMPATT Device

The effect of optical illumination on lateral Double-Drift Region (DDR) structure of Silicon Impact Avalanche Transit Time (IMPATT) device is investigated in this paper. The device is designed to operate at mm-wave W-band frequency. The optical modulation of DC and RF properties of lateral DDR IMPATT device is studied by a simulation technique which incorporates the dependence of normalized difference of photocurrent density at the depletion layer edges on the intensity of optical illumination and surface density of photon flux. The simulation results are compared with those obtained for a conventional vertical DDR Si IMPATT structure under similar optical and electrical operating conditions. The results show that the optical control is more effective in lateral IMPATT structure than in its vertical counterpart as regards reduction of output power and shifting of optimum frequency. When light is incident on hole drift layer of the lateral structure the output power reduces by 18.7% while the optimum frequency shifts upwards by 2.48%. Under similar conditions the power reduces by 10.9% and optimum frequency shifts upwards by 0.75% in vertical structure.

- MIDFORD, T. A., BERNICK, R. L. Millimeter wave CW IMPATT diodes and oscillators. IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech., 1979, vol. 27, no. 5, p. 483-492.
- ACHARYYA, A., MUKHERJEE, M., BANERJEE, J. P. Studies on the millimeter-wave performance of MITATTs from avalanche transit time phase delay. In IEEE Applied Electromagnetics Conference 2011. Kolkata (India), December 18-22, 2011.
- ACHARYYA, A., MUKHERJEE, M., BANERJEE, J. P. Influence of tunnel current on DC and dynamic properties of silicon based terahertz IMPATT source. Terahertz Science and Technology, 2011, vol. 4, no. 1, p. 26-41.
- ACHARYYA, A., BANERJEE, J. P. Potentiality of IMPATT devices as terahertz source: An avalanche response time based approach to determine the upper cut-off frequency limits. IETE Journal of Research. Accepted, to be published March-April 2013.
- JOHNSTON, R. L., DE LOACH, D. C., COHEN, B. G. A silicon diode microwave oscillator. Bell Syst. Tech. J. Briefs, 1965, vol. 44, p. 369-372.
- LEE, D. H., WELLER, K. P., THROWER, W. F. Ion-implanted planner mesa IMPATT diodes for millimeter wavelengths. IEEE Trans. on Electron. Devices, 1978, vol. 25, p. 714-722.
- MIDFORD, T. A., BOWERS, H. C. A two-port IMPATT diode travelling wave amplifier. Proc. of IEEE, 1968, vol. 56, p. 1724 to 1725.
- STABILE, P. J., LALEVIC, B., Lateral IMPATT diodes. IEEE Trans. on Electron devices, 1989, vol. 10, no. 6, p. 249-251.
- AL-ATTAR, T., MULLIGAN, M., LEE, T. H. Lateral IMPATT diodes in standard CMOS technology. In Int. Electron Devices Meeting Dig. Washington, DC, Dec. 13-14, 2004, p. 459 to 462.
- AL-ATTAR, T., MULLIGAN, M., LEE, T. H. A 77 GHz monolithic IMPATT transmitter in standard CMOS technology. In IEEE MTT-S Int. Microwave Symp. Dig. Long Beach (USA), June 2005.
- AL-ATTAR, T., LEE, T. H. Monolithic integrated millimeterwave IMPATT transmitter in standard CMOS technology. IEEE Trans. on MTT, 2005, vol. 53, no. 11, p. 3557-3561.
- AL-ATTAR, T. CMOS diodes operating beyond avalanche frequency. In 12th Int. Symp. on Quality Electronic Design (ISQED). March 14-16, 2011, p. 1-6.
- VYAS, H. P., GUTMANN, R. J., BORREGO, J. M. Leakage current enhancement in IMPATT oscillator by photo-excitation. Eletron. Lett., 1977, vol. 13, 189-190.
- VYAS, H. P., GUTMANN, R. J., BORREGO, J. M. Effect of hole versus electron photocurrent on microwave-optical interactions in impatt oscillators. IEEE Transactions on Electron Devices, 1979, vol. 26, no. 3, p. 232-234.
- YEN, H. W., BARNOSKI, M. K., HUNSPERGER, R. G., MELVILLE, R. T. Switching of GaAs IMPATT diode oscillator by optical illumination. Appl. Phys. Lett., 1977, vol. 31, p. 120-121.
- SCHWEIGHART, A., VYAS, H. P., BORREGO, J. M., GUTMANN, R. J. Avalanche diode structure suitable for microwaveoptical interaction. Solid-Sate Electron., 1978, vol. 21, p. 1119 to 1121.
- FORREST, J. R., SEEDS, A. J., Optical injection locking of impatt oscillators. Electronics Letters, 1978, vol. 14, no. 19, p. 626-627.
- SEEDS, A. J., AUGUSTO, A. Optical control of microwave semiconductor devices. IEEE Trans. on Microwave Theory and Techniques, 1990, vol. 38, no. 5, p. 577-585.
- MUKHERJEE, R., BANERJEE, J. P. Effect of electron and hole dominant photocurrent on the millimeter-wave properties of Indium Phosphide Impatt diode at 94 GHz. Semiconductor Science and Technology, 1994, vol. 9, p. 1-4.
- MUKHERJEE, M., MAJUMDER, N. Optically illuminated 4HSiC terahertz IMPATT device. Egypt J. Solids, 2007, vol. 30, no. 1, p. 87-101.
- MUKHERJEE, M., MAJUMDER, N., ROY, S. K. Prospects of 4H-SiC double drift region IMPATT device as a photo-sensitive high power source at 0.7 Terahertz frequency regime. Active and Passive Electronic Components, 2008, vol. 2008, p. 1-9.
- MUKHERJEE, N., ROY, S. K. Optically modulated III-V nitridebased top-mounted and flip-chip IMPATT oscillators at terahertz regime: Studies on the shift of avalanche transit time phase delay due to photogenerated carriers. IEEE Trans. on Electron Devices, 2009, vol. 56, no. 7, p. 1411-1417.
- BANERJEE, S., CHAKRABARTI, P., BAIDYA, R. Studies on frequency chirping in optical illuminated α-gallium nitride IMPATT diodes at sub-millimeter wave frequency. Journal of Telecommunication, 2010, vol. 3, no. 2, p. 1-8.
- BANERJEE, S., BANERJEE, J. P. Studies on optical modulation of III-V GaN and InP based DDR IMPATT diode at submillimeter wave frequency. International Journal of Engineering Science & Technology, 2010, vol. 2, no. 7, p. 2790-2801.
- MUKHOPADHYAY, J., BANERJEE, S., BANERJEE, J. P. A comparative study on indium phosphide and α-gallium nitride based IMPATT oscillators for terahertz communication. Journal of Telecommunications, 2010, vol. 3, no. 1, p. 14-21.
- ACHARYYA, A., BANERJEE, J. P. A comparative study on the effect of optical illumination on Si1-xGex and Si based DDR IMPATT diodes at W-band. Iranian Journal of Electronics & Electrical Engineering, 2011, vol. 7, no. 3, p. 179-189.
- ACHARYYA, A., BANERJEE, J. P. Analysis of photo-irradiated double-drift region silicon impact avalanche transit time devices in the millimeter-wave and terahertz regime. Terahertz Science and Technology, 2012, vol. 5, no. 2, p. 97-113.
- ACHARYYA, A., BANERJEE, J. P. Dependence of avalanche response time on photon flux incident on DDR silicon IMPATT devices. In The 32nd PIERS. Moscow (Russia), August 19-23, 2012, p. 1-6.
- ACHARYYA, A., BANERJEE, J. P. A proposed lateral DDR IMPATT structure for better millimeter-wave optical interaction. In IEEE Int. Conference on Devices, Circuits and Systems. Coimbatore (Tamil Nadu, India), 15-16 March 2012, p. 599-602.
- GRANT, W. N. Electron and hole ionization rates in epitaxial silicon. Solid State Electron, 1973, vol. 16, no. 10, p. 1189-1203.
- CANALI, C., OTTAVIANI, G., QUARANTA, A. A. Drift velocity of electrons and holes and associated anisotropic effects in silicon. J. Phys. Chem. Solids, 1971, vol. 32, no. 8, p. 1707.
- Electronic Archive: New Semiconductor Materials, Characteristics and Properties. http://www.ioffe.ru/SVA/NSM/Semicond.
- SZE, S. M., RYDER, R. M. Microwave avalanche diodes. Proc. of IEEE, Special Issue on Microwave Semiconductor Devices, 1971, vol. 59, no. 8, p. 1140-1154.
- ROY, S. K., SRIDHARAN, M., GHOSH, R., PAL, B. B. Computer methods for the dc field and carrier current profiles in impatt devices starting from the field extremum in the depletion layer. In Proc. of NASECODE-I Conf. on Numerical Analysis of Semiconductor Devices. Dublin: Boole Press, 1979, p. 266-274.
- ROY, S. K., BANERJEE, J. P., PATI, S. P. A computer analysis of the distribution of high frequency negative resistance in the depletion layers of IMPATT diodes. In Proc. of NASECODE-IV Conf. on Numerical Analysis of Semiconductor Devices. Dublin: Boole Press, 1985, p. 494-500.
- GUMMEL, H. K., BLUE, J. L. A small-signal theory of avalanche noise in IMPATT diodes. IEEE Trans. on Electron Devices, 1967, vol. 14, no. 9, p. 569-580.
- NEAMEN, D. A. Semiconductor Physics and Devices. The McGraw Hill Companies, 2007, p. 613-615.
- VARSHNI, Y. P. Temperature dependence of the energy gap in semiconductors. Physica, 1967, vol. 34 p. 149-154.
- RAJKANAN, K., SINGH, R., SHEWCHUN, J. Absorption coefficient of silicon for solar cell calculations. Solid-Sate Electron., 1979, vol. 22, p. 793-795.
- BUCHER, K., BRUNS, J., WAGEMANN, H. G. Absorption coefficient of silicon: An assessment of measurements and the simulation of temperature variation. J. Appl. Phys., 1994, vol. 75, no. 2, p. 1127-1131.
- LUY, J. F., CASEL, A., BEHR, W., KASPER, E. A 90-GHz double-drift IMPATT diode made with Si MBE. IEEE Trans. Electron Devices, 1987, vol. 34, p. 1084-1089.
- HUSAIN, K., AL-ATTAR, T. CMOS IMPATT impedance and design parameters for millimeter-wave application. International Journal of Electronics. Accepted, publication schedule: 2012.
- BAZKIR, O. Quantum efficiency determination of unbiased silicon photodiode and photodiode based trap detectors. Rev. Adv. Mater. Sci., 2009, vol. 21, p. 90-98.

Keywords: Lateral IMPATT structure, optical control, millimeter-wave, DDR device

**A. Acharyya, S. Banerjee, J. P. Banerjee**
[references] [full-text]
[Download Citations]

Large-Signal Simulation of 94 GHz Pulsed Silicon DDR IMPATTs Including the Temperature Transient Effect

In this paper large-signal modeling and simulation has been carried to study the frequency chirping due to temperature transients and the large-signal power and efficiency of pulsed silicon Double-Drift Region (DDR) Impact Avalanche Transit Time (IMPATT) device operating at 94 GHz. A large-signal simulation method based on non-sinusoidal voltage excitation incorporating the transient thermal effect has been developed by the authors. Results show that the device is capable of delivering a peak pulsed power output of 17.5 W with 12.8% efficiency when the voltage modulation is 60%. The maximum junction temperature rise is 350.2 K for a peak pulsed bias current of 6.79 A with 100 ns pulsewidth and 0.5 percent duty cycle; whereas the chirp bandwidth is 8.3 GHz.

- MIDFORD, T. A., BERNICK, R. L. Millimeter wave CW IMPATT diodes and oscillators. IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech., 1979, vol. 27, p. 483-492.
- CHANG, Y., HELLUM, J. M., PAUL, J. A., WELLER, K. P. Millimeter-wave IMPATT sources for communication applications. IEEE MTT-S International Microwave Symposium Digest, 1977, p. 216-219.
- GRAY, W. W., KIKUSHIMA, L., MORENTC, N. P., WAGNER, R. J. Applying IMPATT power sources to modern microwave systems. IEEE Journal of Solid-State Circuits, 1969, vol. 4, p. 409 to 413.
- MISWA, T. Negative resistance in p-n junctions under avalanche breakdown conditions. IEEE Trans Electron Devices, 1966, vol. ED-33, p. 137- 151.
- GILDEN, M., HINES, M. E. Electronic tuning effects in the Read microwave avalanche diode. IEEE Trans. on Electron Devices, 1966, vol. ED-13, no. 1, pp. 169-175.
- GUMMEL, H. K., SCHARFETTER, D. L. Avalanche region of IMPATT diodes. Bell Sys. Tech. J., 1966, vol. 45, p. 1797-1828.
- EVANS, W. J., HADDAD, G. I. A large-signal analysis of IMPATT diodes. IEEE Trans. on Electron Devices, 1968, vol. ED- 15, no. 10, p. 708-717.
- SCHARFETTER, D. L., GUMMEL, H. K. Large-signal analysis of a silicon Read diode oscillator. IEEE Trans. on Electron Devices, 1969, vol. ED-16, no. 1, p. 64-77.
- GUPTA, M. S., LOMAX, R. J. A Current-excited large-signal analysis of IMPATT devices and its circuit implementations. IEEE Trans. on Electron Devices, 1973, vol. ED-20, p. 395-399.
- ACHARYYA, A., BANERJEE, S., BANERJEE, J. P. Effect of junction temperature on the large-signal properties of a 94 GHz silicon based double-drift region impact avalanche transit time device. Journal of Semiconductors, Accepted, 2013, vol. 34, issue 1.
- ACHARYYA, A., BANERJEE, S., BANERJEE, J. P. A proposed method to study the parasitic resistance of Ka-band silicon IMPATT diode from large-signal electric field snap-shots. In International Conf. on Communications, Devices and Intelligent Systems (CODIS) 2012. Jadavpur University, W. B., India, Accepted, 2012.
- GUMMEL, H. K., BLUE, J. L. A small-signal theory of avalanche noise in IMPATT diodes. IEEE Trans. on Electron Devices, 1967, vol. 14, no. 9, p. 569-580.
- ACHARYYA, A., BANERJEE, J. P. Dependence of avalanche response time on photon flux incident on DDR silicon IMPATT devices. In Progress In Electromagnetics Research Symposium Proceedings. Moscow (Russia), August 19-23, 2012, p. 867-872.
- ACHARYYA, A., BANERJEE, J. P. Potentiality of IMPATT devices as terahertz source: An avalanche response time based approach to determine the upper cut-off frequency limits. IETE Journal of Research. Accepted, publication schedule: March-April 2013.
- ACHARYYA, A., BANERJEE, J. P. Analysis of photo-irradiated double-drift region silicon impact avalanche transit time devices in the millimeter-wave and terahertz regime. Terahertz Science and Technology, 2012, vol. 5, no. 2, p. 97-113.
- ACHARYYA, A., BANERJEE, S., BANERJEE, J. P. Calculation of avalanche response time for determining the high frequency performance limitations of IMPATT devices. Journal of Electron Devices, 2012, vol. 12, p. 756-760.
- ACHARYYA, A., BANERJEE, S., BANERJEE, J. P. Dependence of DC and small-signal properties of double drift region silicon IMPATT device on junction temperature. Journal of Electron Devices, 2012, vol. 12, p. 725-729.
- ROY, S. K., SRIDHARAN, M., GHOSH, R., PAL, B. B. Computer methods for the dc field and carrier current profiles in IMPATT devices starting from the field extremum in the depletion layer. In Proc. of NASECODE-I Conf. on Numerical Analysis of Semiconductor Devices. Dublin: Boole Press, 1979, p. 266-274.
- ROY, S. K., BANERJEE, J. P., PATI, S. P. A computer analysis of the distribution of high frequency negative resistance in the depletion layers of IMPATT diodes. In Proc. of NASECODE-IV Conf. on Numerical Analysis of Semiconductor Devices. Dublin: Boole Press, 1985, p. 494-500.
- OLSON, H. M. Temperature transients in IMPATT diodes. IEEE Trans. on Electron Devices, 1976, vol. ED-23, no. 5, p. 494-503.
- GRANT, W. N. Electron and hole ionization rates in epitaxial silicon. Solid State Electron, 1973, vol. 16, no. 10, p. 1189-1203.
- CANALI, C., OTTAVIANI, G., QUARANTA, A. A. Drift velocity of electrons and holes and associated anisotropic effects in silicon. J. Phys. Chem. Solids, 1971, vol. 32, no. 8, p. 1707.
- ZEGHBROECK, B.V. Principles of Semiconductor Devices, Colorado Press, 2011.
- “Electronic Archive: New Semiconductor Materials, Characteristics and Properties,” http://www.ioffe.ru/SVA/NSM/Semicond/Si/index.html.
- SRIDHARAN, M., ROY, S. K. Computer studies on the widening of the avalanche zone and decrease on efficiency in silicon X-band symmetrical DDR. Electron Lett., 1978, vol. 14, p. 635-637.
- SRIDHARAN, M., ROY, S. K. Effect of mobile space charge on the small signal admittance of silicon DDR. Solid State Electron, 1980, vol. 23, p. 1001-1003.
- CHANG, K., SUN, C., ENGLISH, D. L., NAKAII, E. M., High power 94-GHz pulsed IMPATT oscillators. In IEEE MTT-S International Microwave Symposium Digest, 1979, p. 71-72.
- FONG, T. T., KUNO, H. J. Millimeter-wave pulsed IMPATT sources. IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech., 1979, vol. 27, no. 5, p. 492-499.

Keywords: Chirp bandwidth, frequency chirping, large-signal simulation, pulsed DDR IMPATT, temperature transients.

**P. Montero, L. Polak, J. Taibo, T. Kratochvil**
[references] [full-text]
[Download Citations]

Subjective Quality Assessment of the Impact of Buffer Size in Fine-Grain Parallel Video Encoding

Fine-Grain parallelism is essential for real-time video encoding performance. This usually implies setting a fixed buffer size for each encoded block. The choice of this parameter is critical for both performance and hardware cost. In this paper we analyze the impact of buffer size on image subjective quality, and its relation with other encoding parameters. We explore the consequences on visual quality, when minimizing buffer size to the point of causing the discard of quantized coefficients for highest frequencies. Finally, we propose some guidelines for the choice of buffer size, that has proven to be heavily dependent, in addition to other parameters, on the type of sequence being encoded. These guidelines are useful for the design of efficient realtime encoders, both hardware and software.

- ISO/IEC 13818-2. Generic Coding of Moving Pictures and Associated Audio Information. International Standard: ISO/IEC, 1995.
- WIEGAND, T., SULLIVAN, G. J., BJONTEGAARD, G., LUTHRA, A. Overview of the H.264/AVC video voding standard. IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems for Video Technology, 2003, vol. 13, no. 7, p. 560 - 576.
- SU, H., WEN, M., REN, J., WU, N., CHAI, J., ZHANG, C. Y. Highefficient parallel CAVLC encoders on heterogeneous multicore architectures. Radioengineering, 2012, vol. 21, no. 1, p. 46 - 55.
- MEENDERICK, C., AZEVEDO, A., ALVAREZ, M., JUURLINK, B., RAMIREZ, A. Parallel scalability of H.264. In Proceedings of the 1st Workshop on Programmability Issues for Multi-Core Computers (MULTIPROG2008). Goteborg (Sweden), 2008, p. 1 - 12.
- REN, J., HE, Y., WU, W., WEN, M., WU, N., ZHANG, C. Software parallel CAVLC encoder based on stream processing. In Proceedings of the 7th Workshop on Embedded Systems for Real-Time Multimedia (ESTIMedia2009). Grenoble (France), 2009, p. 126 - 133.
- MONTERO, P., GULIAS, V. M., TAIBO, J., RIVAS, S. Optimising lossless stages in a GPU-based MPEG encoder. Multimedia Tools and Applications, 2012, vol. 57, no. 2, p. 1 - 26.
- CHEN, T.-C., HUANG, Y.-W., TSAI, C.-Y., HSIEH, B.-Y., CHEN, L.-G. Dual-block-pipelined VLSI architecture of entropy coding for H.264/AVC baseline profile. In Proceedings of the 15th International Symposium on VLSI Design, Automation and Test (2005 VLSI-TSA). Taiwan (China), 2005, p. 271 - 274.
- PRAKASH, V. A. M, GURUMURTHY, K. S. VLSI architecture for low power variable length encoding and decoding for image processing applications. International Journal of Advances in Engineering and Technology, 2012, vol. 2, no. 1, p. 105 - 120.
- LOHSCHELLER, H. A subjectively adapted image communication system. IEEE Transactions on Communications, 1984, vol. 32, no. 12, p. 1316 - 1322.
- CHANG, L.-W., WANG, CH.-Y.W., LEE, S.-M. Designing JPEG quantization tables based on human visual system. Proceedings of the 5th International Conference on image Processing (ICIP99). Kobe (Japan), 1999, vol. 2, p. 376 - 380.
- MANNOS, J., SAKRISON, D. The effects of a visual fidelity criterion of the encoding of images. IEEE Transactions on Information Theory, 1974, vol. 20, no. 4, pp. 525 - 536.
- PITREY, Y., BARKOWSKY, M., PEPION, R., LE CALLET, P., HLAVACS, H. Influence of the source content and encoding configuration on the perceived quality for Scalable Video Coding. Proceedings of the SPIE, 2012, vol. 8291, p. 1 - 8.
- OU, Y.-F., ZENG, H., WANG, Y. Perceptual quality of video with quantization variation: A subjective study and analytical modeling. In IEEE International Conference on Image Processing (ICIP2012). Orlando (FL, USA), 2011, p. 1 - 4.
- MONTERO, P., TAIBO, J., GULIAS, V. M., RIVAS, S. Parallel zigzag scanning and Huffman coding for a GPU-based MPEG-2 encoder. In Proceedings of the IEEE International Symposium on Multimedia. Dana Point (CA, USA), 2011, p. 97 - 104.
- REITER, U., KORHONEN, J. Comparing apples and oranges: subjective quality assessment of streamed video with different types of distortion. International Workshop on Quality of Multimedia Experience (QoMEx). San Diego (CA, USA), 2009, p. 127 - 132.
- HUYNH-THU, I., GARCIA, M.-N., SPERANZA, F., CORRIVEAU, P., RAAKE, A. Study of rating scales for subjective quality assessment of high-definition video. IEEE Transactions on Broadcasting, 2011, vol. 57, no. 1, p. 1 - 14.
- WINKLER, S., MOHANDAS, P. The evolution of video quality measurement: from PSNR to hybrid metrics. IEEE Transactions on Broadcasting, 2008, vol. 54, no. 3, p. 46 - 51.
- SPERANZA, F., POULIN, F., RENAUD, R., CARON, M., DUPRAS, J. Objective and subjective quality assessment with expert and non-expert viewers. In Proceedings of the 2nd International Workshop on Quality of Multimedia Experience (QoMEX). Trondheim (Norway), 2010, p. 46 - 51.
- ITU-R Recommendation BT.500-13. Methodology for the Subjective Assessment of the Quality of Television Pictures. Geneva (Switzerland): ITU, 2012.
- ITU-T Recommendation P.910. Subjective Video Quality Assessment Methods for Multimedia Applications. Geneva (Switzerland): ITU, 2008.
- SPERANZA, F., MARTIN, T., RENAUD, R. Subjective quality assessment and the effect of context in expert and non-expert viewers. In Proceedings SPIE Image Quality and System Performance. San Jose (USA), 2010, vol. 5294, p. 201 - 210.
- PINSON, M., WOLF, S. Comparing subjective video quality testing methodologies. In Proceedings SPIE Visual Communications and Image Processing. Lugano (Switzerland), 2003, vol. 5150, p. 573 - 582.
- SLANINA, M., KRATOCHVIL, T., POLAK, L., RICNY, V. Temporal aspects of scoring in the user based quality evaluation of HD video. In Proceedings of the 34th Conference on Telecommunications and Signal Processing (TSP2011). Budapest (Hungary), 2011, p. 598 - 601.
- SLANINA, M., KRATOCHVIL, T., POLAK, L., RICNY, V. Analysis of temporal effects in quality assessment of high definition video. Radioengineering, 2012, vol. 21, no. 1, p. 63 - 69.
- THAKOLSRI, S., KELLERER, W., STEINBACH, E. QoE-based cross-layer optimization of wireless video with unperceivable temporal video quality fluctuation. In IEEE International Conference on Communications (ICC). Kyoto (Japan), 2011, p. 1 - 6.
- PINSON, M. H.,WOLF, S., CERMAK, G. HDTV subjective quality of H.264 vs. MPEG-2, with and without packet loss. IEEE Transactions on Broadcasting, 2010, vol. 56, no. 1, p. 86 - 91.
- SLANINA, M., KRATOCHVIL, T., BOLECEK, L, RICNY, V., KALLER, O., POLAK, L. Testing QoE in different 3D HDTV technologies. Radioengineering, 2012, vol. 21, no. 1, p. 445 - 454.
- Living Lab Galicia. [Online]. Available at: http://www.cinfo.es/ ?p=112&lang=en.
- SAKAMOTO, K., AOYAMA, S., ASAHARA, S., YAMASHITA, K., OKADA, A. Evaluation of viewing distance vs. TV size on visual fatigue in a home viewing environment. In Digest of Technical Papers, International Conference on Consumer Electronics (ICCE09). Las Vegas (USA), 2009, p. 1 - 2.
- KLIMA, M. et al. DEIMOS - an open source image database. Radioengineering, 2011, vol. 20, no. 4, p. 1016 - 1023.
- COX, D. R. The Collected Works of John W. Tukey: Factorial and Anova, Volume VII (Statistics/probability series). Chapman & Hall/CRC, 1992, 350 pages.
- SHAPIRO, S. S., WILK, M. B. An analysis of variance test for normality (complete samples). Biometrika, 1965, vol. 52, no. 3/4, p. 591 - 611.
- BROWN, M. B., FORSYTHE, A. B. Robust tests for the equality of variances. Journal of the American Statistical Association, 1974, vol. 69, no. 346, p. 364 - 367.
- KRUSKAL, W. H., WALLIS, W. A. Use of ranks in one-criterion variance analysis. Journal of the American Statistical Association, 1952, vol. 69, no. 260, p. 583 - 621.

Keywords: Parallel MPEG-2, ITU-R BT.500, subjective test, video quality, ACR, MOS, PSNR.

**M. R. Khokher, A. Ghafoor, A. M. Siddiqui**
[references] [full-text]
[Download Citations]

Graph Cuts based Image Segmentation using Fuzzy Rule Based System

This work deals with the segmentation of gray scale, color and texture images using graph cuts. From input image, a graph is constructed using intensity, color and texture profiles of the image simultaneously. Based on the nature of image, a fuzzy rule based system is designed to find the weight that should be given to a specific image feature during graph development. The graph obtained from the fuzzy rule based weighted average of different image features is further used in normalized graph cuts framework. Graph is iteratively bi-partitioned through the normalized graph cuts algorithm to get optimum partitions resulting in the segmented image. Berkeley segmentation database is used to test our algorithm and the segmentation results are evaluated through probabilistic rand index, global consistency error, sensitivity, positive predictive value and Dice similarity coefficient. It is shown that the presented segmentation method provides effective results for most types of images.

- KRSTINIC, A., SKELIN, A. K., SLAPNIC, I. Fast two-step histogram-based image segmentation. IET Image Processing, 2011, vol. 5, no. 1, p. 63 - 72.
- HUANG, Y.-R., KUO, C.-M. Image segmentation using edge detection and region distribution. In 3rd International Congress on Image and Signal Processing. Yantai (China), 2010, vol. 3, p. 1410 - 1414.
- PETROUDI, S., BRADY, M. Segmentation of colorectal pathology images using level sets. In 9th International Conference on Information Technology and Applications in Biomedicine. Larnaca (Cyprus), 2009, p. 1 - 4.
- WANG, Z., YANG, M. A fast clustering algorithm in image segmentation. In 2nd International Conference on Computer Engineering and Technology. Chengdu (China), 2010, vol. 6, p. 592 - 594.
- ANEJA, K., LAGUZET, F., LACASSAGNE, L., MERIGOT, A. Video-rate image segmentation by means of region splitting and merging. In IEEE International Conference on Signal and Image Processing Applications. Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia), 2009, p. 437 - 442.
- ZHANG, X., SHAN, Y., WEI, W., ZHU, Z. An image segmentation method based on improved watershed algorithm. In International conference on Computational and Information Sciences. Chengdu (China), 2010, p. 258 - 261.
- LI, P., WANG, S., JING, J., ZHU, Z. The segmentation in textile printing image based on mean shift. In 10th International Conference on Computer-Aided Industrial Design & Conceptual Design. Wenzhou (China), 2009, p. 1528 - 1532.
- LE, T. H., JUNG, S.-W., CHOI, K.-S., KO, S.-J. Image segmentation based on modified graph-cut algorithm. Electronics Letters, 2010, vol. 46, no. 16, p. 1121 - 1123.
- TAO, W., JIN, H., ZHANG, Y. Color image segmentation based on mean shift and normalized cuts. IEEE Transactions on Systems, Man, and Cybernetics, Part B: Cybernetics, 2007, vol. 37, no. 5, p. 1382 - 1389.
- WANG, S., SISKIND, J. M. Image segmentation with ratio cut. IEEE Transactions on Pattern Analysis and Machine Intelligence, 2003, vol. 25, no. 6, p. 675 - 690.
- WANG, S., SISKIND, J. M. Image segmentation with minimum mean cut. In Eighth IEEE International Conference on of Computer Vision. Vancouver (Canada), 2001, vol. 1, p. 517 - 524.
- SHI, J., MALIK, J. Normalized cuts and image segmentation. In 1997 IEEE CS Conference on Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition. San Juan (Puerto Rico), 1997, p. 731 - 737.
- SHI, J., MALIK, J. Normalized cuts and image segmentation. IEEE Transactions on Pattern Analysis and Machine Intelligence, 2000, vol. 22, no. 8, p. 888 - 905.
- KIM, J. S., HONG, K. S. Color-texture segmentation using unsupervised graph cuts. Pattern Recognition, 2009, vol. 42, no. 5, p. 735 - 750.
- LI, X., FAN, H., ZHAO, Y., ZHANG, H. Graph cuts based image segmentation using local color and texture. In 4th International Congress on Image and Signal Processing (CISP). Shanghai (China), 2011, vol. 3, p. 1251 - 1255.
- TRAN, T., VO, P., LE, B. Combining color and texture for a robust interactive segmentation algorithm. IEEE RIVF International Conference on Computing and Communication Technologies, Research, Innovation, and Vision for the Future (RIVF). Hanoi (Vietnam), 2010, p. 1-4.
- KULKARNI, M., NICOLLS, F. Interactive image segmentation using graph cuts. Twentieth Annual Symposium of the Pattern Recognition Association of South Africa. Stellenbosch (South Africa), 2009, p. 1 - 6.
- ERIKSSON, A. P., BARR, O., ASTROM, K. image segmentation using minimal graph cuts. In Swedish Symposium on Image Analysis. Ume°a (Sweden), 2006, p. 45 - 48.
- WANG, X. A Course in Fuzzy Systems and Control. Upper Saddle River (NJ, USA): Prentice Hall, 1997.
- MARTIN, D., FOWLKES, C., TAL, D., MALIK, J. A database of human segmented natural images and its application to evaluating segmentation algorithms and measuring ecological statistics. In 8th IEEE International Conference on Computer Vision. Vancouver (Canada), 2001, p. 416 - 423.
- UNNIKRISHNAN, R., PANTOFARU, C., HEBERT, M. A measure for objective evaluation of image segmentation algorithms. In IEEE International Conference on Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition. San Diego (CA, USA), 2005, vol. 3, p. 34 - 41.
- MARTIN, D. An Empirical Approach to Grouping and Segmentation, Ph.D. dissertation. Berkeley (CA, USA): U. C. Berkeley, 2000.
- ZOU, K. H., WARFIELD, S. K., BHARATHA, A., TEMPANY, C. M. C., KAUS, M. R., HAKER, S. J., WELLS, W. M., JOLESZ, F. A., KIKINIS, R. Statistical validation of image segmentation quality based on a spatial overlap index. Academic Radiology, 2004, vol. 11, no. 2, p. 178 - 189.
- JULESZ, B. Textons, the elements of texture perception, and their interactions. Nature, 1981, vol. 290, no. 5802, p. 91 - 97.
- RAND, W. M. Objective criteria for the evaluation of clustering methods. J. Amer. Stat. Assoc., 1971, p. 846 - 850.

Keywords: Segmentation, normalized graph cuts, fuzzy rule based system

**A. Ghafoor, M. Imran**
[references] [full-text]
[Download Citations]

A Non-blind Color Image Watermarking Scheme Resistent Against Geometric Attacks

A non-blind color image watermarking scheme using principle component analysis, discrete wavelet transform and singular value decomposition is proposed. The color components are uncorrelated using principle component analysis. The watermark is embedded into the singular values of discrete wavelet transformed sub-band associated with principle component containing most of the color information. The scheme was tested against various attacks (including histogram equalization, rotation, Gaussian noise, scaling, cropping, Y-shearing, X-shearing, median filtering, affine transformation, translation, salt & pepper, sharpening), to check robustness. The results of proposed scheme are compared with state-of-the-art existing color watermarking schemes using normalized correlation coefficient and peak signal to noise ratio. The simulation results show that proposed scheme is robust and imperceptible.

- YIN, C.-Q., LI, L., LV, A.-Q., QU, L. A color image watermarking algorithm based on DWT-SVD. In IEEE Internation Conference on Automation and Logistics. Jinan (China), 2007, p. 2607 - 2611.
- GANIC, E., ESKICIOGLU, A. M. Robust DWT-SVD domain image watermarking: Embedding data in all frequencies. In Proceedings of the 2004 Workshop on Multimedia and Security. Magdeburg (Germany), 2004, p. 166 - 174.
- SANTHI, V., REKHA, N., THARINI, S. A hybrid block based watermarking algorithm using DWT-DCT-SVD techniques for color images. In International Conference on Computing, Communication and Networking, ICCCn. St. Thomas (USA), 2008, p. 1 - 7.
- LAI, C. C., TSAI, C. C. Digital image watermarking using discrete wavelet transform and singular value decomposition. IEEE Transactions on Instrumentation and Measurement, 2010, vol. 59, no. 11, p. 3060 - 3063.
- DHARWADKAR, N. V., AMBERKER, B. B., GORAI, A. Nonblind watermarking scheme for color images in RGB space using DWT-SVD. In International Conference on Communications and Signal Processing (ICCSP). Calicut (India), 2011, p. 489 - 493.
- BHAGYASHRI, S. K., JOSHI, M. Y. All frequency band DWT-SVD robust watermarking technique for color images in YUV color space. In IEEE Conference on Computer Science and Automation Engineering (CSAE). Shanghai (China), 2011, p. 295 - 299.
- ZHANG, H., SHU, H., COATRIEUX, G., ZHU, J., WU, Q. M. J., ZHANG, Y., ZHU, H., LUO, L. Affine Legendre Moment Invariants for image watermarking robust to geometric distortions. IEEE Transactions on Image Processing, 2011, vol. 20, no. 8, p. 2189 - 2199.
- SONG, H., QIU, Z., GU, J. A novel semi-fragile image watermarking scheme based on wavelet. In IEEE International Conference on Audio Language and Image Processing (ICALIP). Shanghai (China), 2010, p. 1504 - 1510.
- RAWAT, S., RAMAN, B. A new robust watermarking scheme for color images. In IEEE 2nd International Advance Computing Conference. Patalia (India), 2010, p. 206 - 209.
- AGARWAL, R., SANTHANAM, M. S., VENUGOPALAN, K. Multichannel digital watermarking of color images using SVD. In IEEE International Conference on Image Information Processing. Waknaghat (India), 2011, p.1 - 6.
- BHATNAGAR, G., RAMAN, B. A new robust reference watermarking scheme based on DWT-SVD. International Journal of Computer Standards & Interfaces, 2009, vol. 31, no. 5, p. 1002 - 1013.
- SANTHI, V., THANGAVELU, A. DWT-SVD combined full band robust watermarking technique for color images in YUV color space. International Journal of Computer Theory and Engineering, 2009, vol. 1, no. 4, p. 1793 - 8201.
- GUNJAL, B. L., MALI, S. N. Comparative performance analysis of DWT-SVD based color image watermarking technique in YUV, RGB and YIQ color spaces. International Journal of Computer Theory and Engineering, 2011, vol. 3, no. 6, p. 714 - 717.
- KAPOOR, P., SHARMA, K. K., BEDI, S. S., KUMAR, A. Colored image watermarking technique based on HVS using HSV color model. In In Proceedings of International Conference on Advances in Computer Engineering. Trivandrum (India), 2011, pp. 20-24.
- KHALIFA, A., HAMMAD, S. A robust non-blind algorithm for watermarking color images using multi-resolution wavelet decomposition. International Journal of Computer Applications, 2012, vol. 37, no. 8, p. 33 - 39.
- XING, Y., TAN, J. A color image watermarking scheme resistant against geometrical attacks. Radioengineering, 2010, vol. 19, no. 1, p. 62 - 47.
- SUN, X., BO, S. A blind digital watermarking for color medical images based on PCA. In IEEE International Conference on Wireless Communications, Networking and Information Security (WCNIS). Beijing (China), 2010, p. 421 - 427.
- JOLLIFFE, I. T. Introduction. Principle Component Analysis, 2nd ed. New York: Springer, 2002, p. 1 - 6.
- YANAI, H., TAKEUCHI, K., TAKANE, Y. Singular value decomposition. Projection Matrices, Generalized Inverse Matrices, and Singular Value Decomposition, 1st ed. New York: Springer, 2011, p. 125 - 148.
- LAI, C. C. An improved SVD-based watermarking scheme using human visual characteristics. International Journal of Optics Communications, 2011, vol. 284, no. 4, p. 938 - 944.

Keywords: Copyright protection, digital watermarking, principle component analysis, discrete wavelet transform, singular value decomposition, color watermarking

**J. Slezak, T. Gotthans, J. Drinovsky**
[references] [full-text]
[Download Citations]

Evolutionary Synthesis of Fractional Capacitor Using Simulated Annealing Method

Synthesis of fractional capacitor using classical analog circuit synthesis method was described in [6]. The work presented in this paper is focused on synthesis of the same problem by means of evolutionary method simulated annealing. Based on given desired characteristic function as input impedance or transfer function, the proposed method is able to synthesize topology and values of the components of the desired analog circuit. Comparison of the results given in [6] and results obtained by the proposed method will be given and discussed.

- KOZA, J. Genetic Programming: On the Programming of Computers by Means of Natural Selection. Cambridge (MA, USA): MIT Press, 1992.
- GRIMBLEBY, J. B. Automatic analogue circuit synthesis using genetic algorithms. IEE Proceedings, 2000, vol. 147, no. 6, p. 319 - 323.
- ZEBULUM, R. S., PACHECO, M. A., VELLASCO, M. M. Evolutionary Electronics: Automatic Design of Electronic Circuits and Systems by Genetic Algorithms. Boca Raton (FL, USA): CRC Press, 2001.
- DAS, A., VEMURI, R. An automated passive analog circuit synthesis framework using genetic algorithms. In IEEE Computer Society Annual Symposium on VLSI. Porto Alegre (Brazil), 2007, p. 145 - 152.
- KIRKPATRICK, S., GELLAT, C., VECCHI, M. Optimization by simulated annealing. Science, 1983, vol. 220, no. 4598, p. 671 - 680.
- CARLSON, G. E., HALIJAK, C. A. Approximation of fractional capacitors (1=s)1=n by a regular Newton process. IEEE Transactions on Circuit Theory, 1964, vol. 11, no. 2, p. 210 - 213.
- HARTLEY, T., LORENZO, C., QAMMER, H. K. Chaos in a fractional order Chua’s system. IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems I: Fundamental Theory and Applications, 1995, vol. 42, no. 8, p. 485 - 490.
- STEIGLITZ, K. An RC impedance approximant to s
^{-1/2}. IEEE Transactions on Circuit Theory, 1964, vol. 11, no. 1, p. 160 - 161. - ORTIGUEIRA, M. D. An introduction to the fractional continuoustime linear systems. IEEE Circuits and Systems Magazine, 2008, vol. 8, no. 3., p. 19 - 26.
- MATTIUSSI, C., FLOREANO, D. Analog genetic encoding for the evolution of circuits and networks. IEEE Transactions on Evolutionary Computation, 2007, vol. 11, no. 5, p. 596 - 607.
- MESQUITE, A., SALAZAR, F. A., CANAZIO, P. P. Chromosome representation through adjacency matrix in evolutionary circuits synthesis. In Proceedings of NASA/DoD Conference on Evolvable Hardware. Washington D.C. (USA), 2002, p. 102 - 109.
- LOHN, J. D., COLOMBANO, S. P. A circuit representation technique for automated circuit design. IEEE Transactions on Evolutionary Computation, 1999, vol. 3, no. 3, p. 205 - 219.
- TORRES, A., PONCE, E. E., TORRES, M. D., DIAZ, E., PADILLA, F. Comparison of two evolvable systems in the automated analog circuit synthesis. In Eighth Mexican International Conference on Artificial Intelligence. Guanajuato (Mexico), 2009, p. 3 - 8.
- RODRIGUEZ, J. L., GARCIA-TUNON, I., TABOADA, J. M., BASTEIRO, F. O. Broadband HF antenna matching network design using a real-coded genetic algorithm. IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation, 2007, vol. 55, no. 3, p. 611 - 618.
- ZINCHENKO, L., MUHLENBEIN, H., KUREICHIK, V., MAHNING, T. Application of the univariate marginal distribution algorithm to analog circuit design. In Proceedings of NASA/DoD Conference on Evolvable Hardware. Washington D.C. (USA), 2002, p. 93 - 101.
- OCHOTTA, E. S., RUTEMBAR, R. A., CARLEY, L. R. Synthesis of high-performance analog circuits in ASTRX/OBLX. IEEE Transactions on Computer-Aided Design of Integrated Circuits and Systems, 1996, vol. 15, no. 3, p. 273 - 294.
- INGBER, L. Very fast simulated re-annealing. Mathematical and Computer Modelling, 1989, vol. 12, no. 8, p. 967 - 973.
- PETRZELA, J., GOTTHANS, T., HRUBOS, Z. Modeling deterministic chaos using electronic circuits. Radioengineering, 2011, vol. 20, no. 2, p. 438 - 444.
- PETRZELA, J., DRINOVSKY, J. High frequency chaos converters. In IEEE Region 8 International Conference on Computational Technologies in Electrical and Electronics Engineering (SIBIRCON). Irkutsk Listvyanka (Russia), 2010, p. 750 - 754.
- KOLKA, Z. SNAP - Program for Symbolic Analysis. Radioengineering, 1999, vol. 8, no. 1, p. 23 - 24.
- VALSA, J., DVORAK, P., FRIEDL, M. Network Model of the CPE. Radioengineering, 2011, vol. 20, no. 3, p. 619 - 626.
- DRINOVSKY, J. Simply impedance measuring system. In Procedings of EEICT 2005 conference. Brno (Czech Republic), 2005, vol. 15, no. 2, p. 56 - 60.

Keywords: simulated annealing, automated circuit synthesis, evolutionary electronics

**Jiun-Wei Horng, To-Yao Chiu, Zih-Yang Jhao**
[references] [full-text]
[Download Citations]

Tunable Versatile High Input Impedance Voltage-Mode Universal Biquadratic Filter Based on DDCCs

A high input impedance voltage-mode universal biquadratic filter with three input terminals and seven output terminals is presented. The proposed circuit uses three differential difference current conveyors (DDCCs), four resistors and two grounded capacitors. The proposed circuit can realize all the standard filter functions, namely, lowpass, bandpass, highpass, notch and allpass, simultaneously. The proposed circuit offers the features of high input impedance, using only grounded capacitors, and orthogonal controllability of resonance angular frequency and quality factor.

- CHIU, W., LIU, S. I., TSAO, H. W., CHEN, J. J. CMOS differential difference current conveyors and their applications. IEE Proceedings-Circuits Devices and Systems, 1996, vol. 143, p. 91-96.
- ELWAN, H. O., SOLIMAN, A. M. Novel CMOS differential voltage current conveyor and its applications. IEE Proceedings- Circuits, Devices and Systems, 1997, vol. 144, p. 195-200.
- PAL, K. Modified current conveyors and their applications. Microelectronics Journal, 1989, vol. 20, p. 37-40.
- FABRE, A., DAYOUB, F., DURUISSEAU, L., KAMOUN, M. High input impedance insensitive second-order filters implemented from current conveyors. IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems-I: Fundamental Theory and Applications, 1994, vol. 41, p. 918-921.
- HORNG, J. W. High-input impedance voltage-mode universal biquadratic filter using three plus-type CCIIs. IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems-II: Analog and Digital Signal Processing, 2001, vol. 48, p. 996-997.
- KOTON, J., HERENCSAR, N., VRBA, K. KHN-equivalent voltage-mode filters using universal voltage conveyors. AEU International Journal of Electronics and Communications, 2011, vol. 65, p. 154-160.
- BHUSHAN, M., NEWCOMB, R.W. Grounding of capacitors in integrated circuits. Electronics Letters, 1967, vol. 3, p. 148-149.
- CHANG, C. M., SOLIMAN, A. M., SWAMY, M. N. S. Analytical synthesis of low-sensitivity high-order voltage-mode DDCC and FDCCII-grounded R and C all-pass filter structures. IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems I: Regular Papers, 2007, vol. 54, p. 1430-1443.
- GUPTA, S.., SENANI, R. Realisation of current-mode SRCOs using all grounded passive elements. Frequenz, 2003, vol. 57, p. 26-37.
- CHIU, W. Y., HORNG, J. W. High-input and low-output impedance voltage-mode universal biquadratic filter using DDCCs. IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems Part II: Express Briefs, 2007, vol. 54, p. 649-652.
- CHEN, H. P., YANG, W. S. High-input and low-output impedance voltage-mode universal DDCC and FDCCII filter. IEICE Transactions on Electronics, 2008, vol. 91-C, p. 666 - 669.
- LEE, C. N. Fully cascadable mixed-mode universal filter biquad using DDCCs and grounded passive components. Journal of Circuits, Systems, and Computers, 2011, vol. 20, p. 607 - 620.
- HORNG, J. W. High input impedance voltage-mode universal biquadratic filter with three inputs using DDCCs. Circuits, Systems, and Signal Processing, 2008, vol. 27, p. 553-562.
- CHEN, H. P. Versatile multifunction universal voltage-mode biquadratic filter. AEU International Journal of Electronics and Communications, 2010, vol. 64, p. 983-987.
- MINAEI, S., YUCE, E. All-grounded passive elements voltagemode DVCC-based universal filters. Circuits, Systems, and Signal Processing, 2010, vol. 29, p. 295-309.
- NIKOLOUDIS, S., PSYCHALINOS, C. Multiple input single output universal biquad filter with current feedback operational amplifiers. Circuits, Systems, and Signal Processing, 2010, vol. 29, p. 1167-1180.
- TOPALOGLU, S., SAGBAS, M., ANDAY, F. Three-input singleoutput second-order filters using current-feedback amplifiers. AEU International Journal of Electronics and Communications, 2012, vol. 66, p. 683-686.
- HORNG, J. W., HSU, C. H., TSENG, C. Y. High input impedance voltage-mode universal biquadratic filters with three inputs using three CCs and grounding capacitors. Radioengineering, 2012, vol. 21, p. 290-296.
- CHEN, H. P. Voltage-mode FDCCII-based universal filters. AEU International Journal of Electronics and Communications, 2008, vol. 62, p. 320-323.
- HORNG, J. W., CHIU, W. Y. High input impedance DDCC-based voltage-mode universal biquadratic filter with three inputs and five outputs. Indian Journal of Engineering & Materials Sciences, 2011, vol. 18, p. 183-190.
- ABUELMA’ATTI, M. T., AL-ZAHER, H. A. New universal filter with one input and five outputs using current-feedback amplifiers. Analog Integrated Circuits and Signal Processing, 1998, vol. 16, p. 239-244.
- HORNG, J. W. Lossless inductance simulation and voltage-mode universal biquadratic filter with one input and five outputs using DVCCs. Analog Integrated Circuits and Signal Processing, 2010, vol. 62, p. 407-413.
- MAHESHWARI, S., MOHAN, J., CHAUHAN, D. S. High input impedance voltage-mode universal filter and quadrature oscillator. Journal of Circuits, Systems, and Computers, 2010, vol. 19, p. 1597- 1607.
- CHIU, W. Y., HORNG, J. W. High input impedance voltage-mode universal biquadratic filter with three inputs and six outputs using three DDCCs. Circuits, Systems and Signal Processing, 2012, vol. 31, p. 19-30.
- HORNG, J. W., HOU, C. L, CHANG, C. M., CHOU, H. P., LIN, C. T. High input impedance voltage-mode universal biquadratic filter with one input and five outputs using current conveyors. Circuits, Systems and Signal Processing, 2006, vol. 25, p. 767-777.
- MAHESHWARI, S. Quadrature oscillator using grounded components with current and voltage outputs. IET Circuits, Devices and Systems, 2009, vol. 3, p. 153-160.

Keywords: Current conveyor, biquadratic filter, active circuit, voltage-mode

**F. Kacar, A. Yesil, H. Kuntman**
[references] [full-text]
[Download Citations]

Current-Mode Universal Filters Employing Single FDCCII

In this study, to realize current-mode multifunction filters, three new circuit configurations are presented. The circuits include fully differential current conveyor (FDCCII) and four passive components. First proposed circuit is a universal filter with single-input and three-outputs, which can simultaneously realize current mode low-pass, band-pass and high-pass filter responses employing all grounded passive components. The last two proposed are universal filters with three-inputs single-output, which can realize current mode low-pass, band-pass, high-pass, band-stop and all-pass filter responses employing single FDCCII. Furthermore, each of the proposed circuits still enjoys realization using a minimum number of active and passive components. First and last of the proposed circuits have no requirement with the component choice conditions to realize specific filtering functions. No parameter matching condition is required. Active and passive sensitivities of filters are investigated and calculated 5 percentage hangings. Simulation results are found in close agreement with the theoretical results.

- TOUMAZOU, C., LIDGEY F. J., HAIGH, D. Analog IC Design: The Current-Mode Approach. Exeter (UK): Peter Peregrinus,1990.
- WILSON, B. Recent developments in current conveyor and current mode circuits. IEE Proceedings G: Circuits, Devices and Systems, 1990, vol. 137, no. 2, p. 63 - 77.
- ROBERTS, G. W., SEDRA, A. S. All current-mode frequency selective circuits. Electronics Letters, 1989, vol. 25, no. 12, p. 759 - 761.
- ROBERTS, G. W., SEDRA A. S. A general class of current amplifier-based biquadratic filter circuits. IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems - I: Fundamental Theory and Applications, 1992, vol. 39, no, 4, p. 257 - 263.
- WANG, H.-Y., LEE, C.-T. Versatile insensitive current-mode universal biquad implementation using current conveyors. IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems - II: Analog and Digital Signal Processing, 2001, vol. 48, no. 4, p. 409 - 413.
- ABUELMA'ATTI, M. T. Cascadable current-mode filters using single FTFN. Electronics Letters, 1996, vol. 32, no. 16, p. 1457 - 1458.
- GEIGER, R. L., SINENCIO E. S. Active filter design using operational transconductance amplifiers: A tutorial. IEEE Circuits and Devices Magazine, 1985, vol. 1, no. 2, p. 20 - 32.
- ACAR, C., OZOGUZ, S. A new versatile building block: current differencing buffered amplifier. Microelectronics Journal, 1999, vol. 30, no. 2, p. 157 - 160.
- SHARMA, R. K., SENANI, R. Universal current mode biquad using a single CFOA. International Journal of Electronics, 2004, vol. 91, no. 3, p. 175 - 183.
- HORNG, J. W., HOU, C. L., SHIE, J. Y., CHANG, C. M. Universal current filter with single input and three outputs using MOCCIIs. International Journal of Electronics, 2007, vol. 94, no. 4, p. 327 - 333.
- KESKIN, A. U., CAM, U. Insensitive high-output impedance minimum configuration SITO-type current-mode biquad using dual-output current conveyors and grounded passive components. International Journal of Electronics and Communication, 2007, vol. 61, no. 5, p. 341 - 344.
- SOLIMAN, A. M. Current mode filters using two output inverting CCII. International Journal of Circuit Theory and Applications, 2008, vol. 36, no. 7, p. 875 - 881.
- YUCE, E., MINAEI, S. A modified CFOA and its applications to simulated inductors, capacitance, multipliers, and analog filters. IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems-I: Regular Papers, 2008, vol. 55, no. 1, p. 266 - 275.
- SAGBAS, M., KOKSAL, M. Current-mode state-variable filter. Frequenz, 2008, vol. 62, no. 1- 2, p. 37 - 42.
- HORNG, J.-W. Current-mode highpass, bandpass and lowpass filters using followers. Microelectronics International, 2012, vol. 29, no. 1, p. 10 - 14.
- SAGBAS, M., AYTEN, U. E., SEDEF, H. Current and voltage transfer function filters using a single active device. IET Circuits, Devices and Systems, 2010, vol. 4, no. 1, p. 78 - 86.
- HERENCSAR, N., KOTON, J., VRBA, K. Realization of currentmode KHN-equivalent biquad using current follower transconductance amplifiers (CFTAs). IEICE Transactions Fundamentals, 2010, vol. E93-A, no. 10, p. 1816 - 1819.
- TANGSRIRAT, W. Novel current-mode and voltage-mode universal biquad filters using single CFTA. Indian Journal of Engineering & Materials Sciences, 2010, vol. 17, p. 99 - 104.
- SINGH, S. V., MAHESHWARI, S. Current-processing currentcontrolled universal biquad filter. Radioengineering, 2012, vol. 21, no. 1, p. 317 - 323.
- TRANGSRIRAT, W., SURAKAMPONTORN, W. Cascadable multiple-input single-output current-mode universal filter based on current differencing buffered amplifiers. Frequenz, 2006, vol. 60, no. 7 - 8, p. 152 - 154.
- JIANG, J., HE, Y. Tunable frequency versatile filters implementtation using minimum number of passive elements. Analog Integrated Circuits and Signal Processing, 2009, vol. 59, no. 1, p. 53 - 64.
- FEKI, N. B. E., MASMOUDI, D. S. High performance dualoutput second and third generation current conveyors and currentmode multifunction filter application. In 6th International Multi- Conference on Systems, Signals and Devices. Djerba (Tunisia), 2009, p. 1 - 6.
- PANDEY, N., PAUL, S. K., BHATTACHARYYA, A. An insensitive current mode universal biquad: multi-input multioutput. In IEEE International Symposium on Circuits and Systems, ISCAS 2005. Kobe (Japan), 2005, vol. 4. p. 3299 - 3302.
- TANGSRIRAT, W., SURAKAMPONTORN W. Electronically tunable current mode universal filter employing only plus-type current-controlled conveyors and grounded capacitors. Circuits, Systems and Signal Processing, 2006, vol. 25, no. 6, p. 701 - 713.
- SHARMA, R. K., SENANI, R. Universal current mode biquad using a single CFOA. International Journal of Electronics, 2004, vol. 91, no. 3, p. 175 - 183.
- SHARMA, R. K., SENANI, R. On the realization of universal current mode biquads using a single CFOA. Analog Integrated Circuits and Signal Processing, 2004, vol. 41, no. 1, p. 65 - 78.
- TANJAROEN, W., DUMAWIPATA, T., TANGSRIRAT W. TISO Cascadable current-mode multifunction filter employing current differencing transconductance amplifiers. In SICE-ICASE International Joint Conference. Busan (Korea), 2006, p. 5703 - 5706.
- OZCAN, S., CICEKOGLU, O., KUNTMAN, H. Multi-input single-output filter with reduced number of passive elements employing single current conveyor. Computers and Electrical Engineering, 2003, vol. 29, no. 1, p. 45 - 53.
- KACAR, F., METIN, B., KUNTMAN, H., CICEKOGLU O. Current-mode multifunction filters using a single FDCCII. In Proceedings of ELECO’2009: The 6th International Conference on Electrical and Electronics Engineering. Bursa (Turkey), 2009, vol. 2, p. 54 - 57.
- CHANG, C. M., AL-HASHIMI, B. M., WANG, C. L., HUNG, C. W. Single fully differential current conveyor biquad filters. IEE Proceedings – Circuits, Devices and Systems, 2003, vol. 150, no. 5. p. 394 - 398.
- GUR, F., ANDAY, F. Simulation of a novel current mode universal filter using FDCCIIs. Analog Integrated Circuits and Signal Processing, 2009, vol. 60, p. 231 - 236.
- KACAR, F., YESIL, A. Voltage mode universal filters employing single FDCCII. Analog Integrated Circuits and Signal Processing, 2010, vol. 63, no. 1, p. 137 - 142.
- KACAR, F., KUNTMAN, H. New current-mode filters using single FDCCII with grounded resistors and capacitors. The Online Journal on Electronics and Electrical Engineering, 2010, vol. 2, no. 4, p. 341 - 345.
- EL-ADAWAY, A. A., SOLIMAN, A. M., ELWAN, H. O. A novel fully differential current conveyor and applications for analog VLSI. IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems - II: Analog and Digital Signal Processing, 2000, vol. 47, no. 4, p. 306 - 313.
- AYDOGMUS, M. A., KUNTMAN, H. New CMOS realization of ZC-CG-CDBA and its filter application. In Proceedings of 20th. IEEE Signal Processing And Communications Applications Conference (SIU 2012). Muğla (Turkey), 2012, p. 18 - 20.
- PALMISANO, G., PALUMBO, G., PENNISI, S. CMOS Current Amplifiers. Norwell (MA, USA): Kluwer Academic Publishers, 1999.
- FERRI, G., GUERRINI, N. C. Low-Voltage Low-Power CMOS Current Conveyors. Dordrecht (The Netherlands): Kluwer Academic Publishers, 2003.
- KACAR, F., METIN, B., KUNTMAN, H., CICEKOGLU, O. A new high performance CMOS FDCCII with application example of biquad filter realization. IJE: International Journal of Electronics, 2010, vol. 97, no. 5, p. 499 - 510.

Keywords: FDCCII, current-mode filter, analog MOS integrated circuit, analog signal processing.

**V. R. Tirumalasetty, S. Avireni**
[references] [full-text]
[Download Citations]

Modified Level Restorers Using Current Sink and Current Source Inverter Structures for BBL-PT Full Adder

Full adder is an essential component for the design and development of all types of processors like digital signal processors (DSP), microprocessors etc. In most of these systems adder lies in the critical path that affects the overall speed of the system. So enhancing the performance of the 1-bit full adder cell is a significant goal. In this paper, we proposed two modified level restorers using current sink and current source inverter structures for branch-based logic and pass-transistor (BBL-PT) full adder [1]. In BBL-PT full adder, there lies a drawback i.e. voltage step existence that could be eliminated in the proposed logics by using the current sink inverter and current source inverter structures. The proposed full adders are compared with the two standard and well-known logic styles, i.e. conventional static CMOS logic and Complementary Pass transistor Logic (CPL), demonstrated the good delay performance. The implementation of 8-bit ripple carry adder based on proposed full adders are finally demonstrated. The CPL 8-bit RCA and as well as the proposed ones is having better delay performance than the static CMOS and BBL-PT 8-bit RCA. The performance of the proposed BBL-PT cell with current sink & current source inverter structures are examined using PSPICE and the model parameters of a 0.13 µm CMOS process.

- HASSOUNE, I., FLANDRE, D., O’CONNOR, I., LEGAT, J.-D. A new efficient design of a power-aware full adder. IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems-I: Regular papers, 2010, vol. 57, no. 8, p. 2066-2074.
- SHAMS, A. M., DARWISH, T., BAYOUMI, M. Performance analysis of low power 1-bit CMOS full adder cells. IEEE Trans. Very Large Scale Integr. (VLSI) Syst., 2002, vol. 10, no. 1, p. 20 to 29.
- WESTE, N., ESHRAGHIAN, K. Principles of CMOS VLSI Design, A System Perspectives. Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley, 1988.
- SHUBIN, V. V. New CMOS circuit implementation of a one- bit full adder cell. Russian Microelectronics Journal, 2011, vol. 40, no. 2, p. 130-139.
- CHANDRAKASAN, A. P., SHENG, S., BRODERSEN, R. W. Low power CMOS digital design. IEEE Journal of Solid State Circuits, 1992, vol. 27, p. 473-483.
- CHU, K., PULFREY, D. A comparison of CMOS circuit techniques: Differential cascode voltage switches logic versus conventional logic. IEEE Journal Solid State Circuits, 1987, vol. 22, p. 528–532.
- KO, U., BALSARA, T., LEE. W. Low power design techniques for high performance CMOS adders. IEEE Trans. VLSI Syst., 1995, vol. 3, no. 2, p. 327– 333.
- RADHAKRISHNAN, D. Low-voltage low-power CMOS full adder. In Proceedings of the IEE Circuits Devices Syst., 2001, vol. 148, no. 1, p. 19–24.
- ZHANG, M., GU, J., CHANG, C. H. A novel hybrid pass logic with static CMOS output drive full-adder cell. In Proceedings of the IEEE Int. Symp. on Circuits Systems, May 2003, p. 317–320.
- GOEL, S., KUMAR, A., BAYOUMI, M. Design of robust, energy-efficient full adders for deep-sub micrometer design using hybrid-CMOS logic style. IEEE Transactions on Very Large Scale Integration (VLSI) System, 2006, vol. 14, no. 12, p. 1309–1320.
- RABAEY, J. M., CHANDRAKASAN, A, NIKOLIC, B. Digital Integrated Circuits, A Design Perspective. Englewood Cliffs, 2nd ed. N.J.: Prentice Hall, 2002.
- KANG, S., LEBLEBICI, Y. CMOS Digital Integrated Circuits - Analysis and Design. McGraw-Hill, 2003.
- ZIMMERMANN, R., FICHTNER, W. Low-power logic styles: CMOS versus pass-transistor logic. IEEE Journal Solid State Circuits, 1997, vol. 32, p. 1079-1090.
- ISSAM, S., KHATER, A., BELLAOUAR, A., ELMASRY, M. I. Circuit techniques for CMOS low-power high performance multipliers. IEEE Journal Solid State Circuits, 1996, vol. 31, p. 1535-1544.
- ZHUANG, N., WU, H. A new design of the CMOS full adder. IEEE Journal of Solid State Circuit, 1992, vol. 27, p. 840-844.
- ABU-SHAMA, E., BAYOUMI, M. A new cell for low-power adders. In Proc. Int. Midwest Symp. Circuits Syst., 1995.
- CHANG, C.-H., GU, J., ZHANG, M. A review of 0.18 m full adder performances for tree structured arithmetic circuits. IEEE Trans. Very Large Scale Integr. (VLSI) Syst., 2005, vol. 13, no. 6, p. 686–694.
- PIGUET, C., PIGUET, C. Ed., Chapter 7: Logic Circuits and Standard Cells. In Low-power Electronics Design. Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press, 2004.
- NÈVE, A., et al. Design of a branch-based 64-bit carry-select adder in 0.18 μm partially-depleted SOI CMOS. In Proc. ISLPED’02. Monterey (CA), August 12-14, 2002, p. 108-111.
- GU, R. X., ELMASRY, M.-I. Power dissipation analysis and optimization of deep submicron CMOS digital circuits. IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits, 1996, vol. 31, no. 5, p. 707–713.

Keywords: Full adders, high-speed, current sink inverter, current source inverter, CMOS digital integrated circuits, performance analysis.