December 2012, Volume 21, Number 4

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T. Djerafi, N. Ghassemi, O. Kramer, B. Youzkateli-el-Khatib, A. B. Guntupalli, K. Wu [references] [full-text]
Small Footprint Multilayered Millimeter-Wave Antennas and Feeding Networks for Multi-Dimensional Scanning and High-Density Integrated Systems

This paper overviews the state-of-the-art of substrate integrated waveguide (SIW) techniques in the design and realization of innovative low-cost, low-profile and low-loss (L3) millimeter-wave antenna elements, feeding networks and arrays for various wireless applications. Novel classes of multilayered antenna structures and systems are proposed and studied to exploit the vertical dimension of planar structures to overcome certain limita-tions in standard two-dimensional (2-D) topologies. The developed structures are based on two techniques, namely multi-layer stacked structures and E-plane corners. Differ-ent E-plane structures realised with SIW waveguide are presented, thereby demonstrating the potential of the proposed techniques as in multi-polarization antenna feeding. An array of 128 elements shows low SLL and height gain with just 200g of the total weight. Two versions of 2-D scanning multi-beam are presented, which effectively combine frequency scanning with beam forming networks. Adding the benefits of wide band performance to the multilayer structure, two bi-layer structures are investigated. Different stacked antennas and arrays are demonstrated to optimise the targeted antenna performances in the smallest footprint possible. These structures meet the requirement for developing inexpensive compact millimeter-wave antennas and antenna systems. Different structures and architectures are theoretically and experimentally studied and discussed for specific space- and ground-based appli-cations. Practical issues such as high-density integration and high-volume manufacturability are also addressed.

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Keywords: Beamforming, corner, horn millimeter-wave antenna and array, multi-dimensional scanning, patch, six-port, slot, Substrate Integrated Waveguide (SIW), Yagi

I. Llatser, C. Kremers, D. N. Chigrin, J. M. Jornet, M. C. Lemme, A. Cabellos-Aparicio, E. Alarcon [references] [full-text]
Radiation Characteristics of Tunable Graphennas in the Terahertz Band

Graphene-enabled wireless communications constitute a novel paradigm which has been proposed to implement wireless communications among nanosystems. Indeed, graphene-based plasmonic nano-antennas, or graphennas, just a few micrometers in size have been predicted to radiate electromagnetic waves at the terahertz band. In this work, the important role of the graphene conductivity in the characteristics of graphennas is analyzed, and their radiation performance both in transmission and reception is numerically studied. The resonance frequency of graphennas is calculated as a function of their length and width, both analytically and by simulation. Moreover, the influence of a dielectric substrate with a variable size, and the position of the patch with respect to the substrate is also evaluated. Further, important properties of graphene, such as its chemical potential or its relaxation time, are found to have a profound impact in the radiation properties of graphennas. Finally, the radiation pattern of a graphenna is compared to that of an equivalent metallic antenna. These results will prove useful for designers of future graphennas, which are expected to enable wireless communications among nanosystems.

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Keywords: Graphene, graphene-based plasmonic nano-antenna, graphenna, resonant frequency, Surface Plasmon Polariton, terahertz .

P.-H. Tichit, S. N. Burokur, A. de Lustrac [references] [full-text]
Antenna Design Concepts Based on Transformation Electromagnetics Approach

Using the idea of wave manipulation via coordinate transformation, we demonstrate the design of novel antenna concepts. The manipulation is enabled by composite metamaterials that realize the space coordinate transformation. We present the design, realization and characterization of three types of antennas: a directive, a steered beam and a quasi-isotropic one. Numerical simulations together with experimental measurements are performed in order to validate the concept. Near-field cartography and far-field pattern measurements performed on a fabricated prototype agree qualitatively with Finite Element Method (FEM) simulations. It is shown that a particular radiation can be transformed at ease into a desired one by modifying the electromagnetic properties of the space around it. This idea can find various applications in novel antenna design techniques for aeronautical, telecommunication and transport domains.

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Keywords: Metamaterials, transformation electromagnetics, antennas

H. Visser [references] [full-text]
Indoor Wireless RF Energy Transfer for Powering Wireless Sensors

For powering wireless sensors in buildings, rechargeable batteries may be used. These batteries will be recharged remotely by dedicated RF sources. Far-field RF energy transport is known to suffer from path loss and therefore the RF power available on the rectifying antenna or rectenna will be very low. As a consequence, the RF-to-DC conversion efficiency of the rectenna will also be very low. By optimizing not only the subsystems of a rectenna but also taking the propagation channel into account and using the channel information for adapting the transmit antenna radiation pattern, the RF energy transport efficiency will be improved. The rectenna optimization, channel modeling and design of a transmit antenna are discussed.

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Keywords: Antenna, rectenna, channel, modeling

G. G. Cheng, Y. Zhu, J. Grzesik [references] [full-text]
3-D Microwave Imaging for Breast Cancer

We introduce a novel microwave imaging technique for breast cancer detection. Our approach provides a one-pass inverse image solution, which is completely new and unprecedented, unrelated to tomography or radar-based algorithms, and unburdened by the optimization toil which lies at the heart of numerical schemes. It operates effectively at a single frequency, without requiring the bandwidth of radar techniques. Underlying this new method is our unique Field Mapping Algorithm (FMA), which transforms electromagnetic fields acquired upon one surface, be it through outright measurement or some auxiliary computation, into those upon another in an exact sense.

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Keywords: Electromagnetic waves, imaging, inverse scattering

C. Gustafson, F. Tufvesson [references] [full-text]
Characterization of 60 GHz Shadowing by Human Bodies and Simple Phantoms

The 60 GHz band is very prominsing for high data rate (>1 Gb/s) wireless systems operating at short ranges. However, due to the short wavelengths in this frequency band, the shadowing effects cuased by human bodies and furniture are severe and needs to be modeled properly. In this paper, we present an experimental, measurementbased characterization of the reflection and shadowing effects in the 60 GHz band caused by human bodies and various phantoms, in order to find simple phantoms suitable for use in human shadowing measurements. It is shown that a water-filled human phantom serves as a good choice for this purpose.

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Keywords: 60 GHz, channel measurements, human blockage, mm-Wave, shadowing,

D. He, G. Liang, J. Portilla, T. Riesgo [references] [full-text]
A Novel Method for Radio Propagation Simulation Based on Automatic 3D Environment Reconstruction

In this paper, a novel method to simulate radio propagation is presented. The method consists of two steps: automatic 3D scenario reconstruction and propagation modeling. For 3D reconstruction, a machine learning algorithm is adopted and improved to automatically recognize objects in pictures taken from target regions, and 3D models are generated based on the recognized objects. The propagation model employs a ray tracing algorithm to compute signal strength for each point on the constructed 3D map. Our proposition reduces, or even eliminates, infrastructure cost and human efforts during the construction of realistic 3D scenes used in radio propagation modeling. In addition, the results obtained from our propagation model proves to be both accurate and efficient.

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Keywords: image understanding, radio propagation, wireless communication, 3D reconstruction

H. Xiong, J. S. Hong Y.H. Peng [references] [full-text]
Impedance Bandwidth and Gain Improvement for Microstrip Antenna Using Metamaterials

An improved ultra-wideband (UWB) and high gain rectangular antenna is specifically designed in this paper using planar-patterned metamaterial concepts. The antenna has isolated triangle gaps and crossed gaps etched on the metal patch and ground plane, respectively. By changing the pattern on the ground, the impedance matching characteristics of the antenna are much better. The -10 dB impedance bandwidth of the proposed antenna is 3.85–15.62 GHz, which is about 267% broader. The proposed antenna has an average gain of 5.42 dB and the peak is 8.36 dB at 13.5 GHz. Compared with the original one, the gain of the proposed antenna improved about 1.4 dB. Moreover, the size is reduced slightly. Simulated and experimental results obtained for this antenna show that it exhibits good radiation behavior within the UWB frequency range

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Keywords: Metamaterial, ultra-wideband, microstrip antenna, high gain

M. Abu, M.K.A.Rahim [references] [full-text]
Single-band and Dual-band Artificial Magnetic Conductor Ground Planes for Multi-band Dipole Antenna

Two new designs of high impedance surface (HIS) structure are presented, namely zigzag and slotted rectangular with I-shaped slot Artificial Magnetic Conductor (AMC). The zigzag AMC is designed based on the straight dipole AMC. The zigzag AMC is introduced to minimize the AMC size and to be suitable for UHF RFID applications. On the other hand, the slotted rectangular with I-shaped slot AMC is designed to operate at 0.92 GHz and 2.45 GHz. The slot is loaded in the main patch of the AMC to create the other resonant frequency. By using this technique the resonant frequency can be lowered, and hence reduce the size of the AMC. Both structures are designed using the same dielectric substrate that is Taconic TLC-32. The properties of the AMC are investigated such as the reflection phase, reflection magnitude and surface impedance. The designed AMCs then are used as a back plane for the printed multi-band dipole antenna. By introducing the AMC as a ground plane (GP) for the printed dipole antenna, the gain of the dipole antenna is increased.

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Keywords: Artificial Magnetic Conductor (AMC), high impedance surface, printed dipole antenna, RFID and zigzag AMC

W. Shao, X. Zhu [references] [full-text]
A Hybrid Optimization Algorithm for Low RCS Antenna Design

In this article, a simple and efficient method is presented to design low radar cross section (RCS) patch antennas. This method consists of a hybrid optimization algorithm, which combines a genetic algorithm (GA) with tabu search algorithm (TSA), and electromagnetic field solver. The TSA, embedded into the GA frame, defines the acceptable neighborhood region of parameters and screens out the poor-scoring individuals. Thus, the repeats of search are avoided and the amount of time-consuming electromagnetic simulations is largely reduced. Moreover, the whole design procedure is auto-controlled by programming the VBScript language. A slot patch antenna example is provided to verify the accuracy and efficiency of the proposed method.

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Keywords: Genetic algorithm, RCS, slot antenna, tabu search algorithm

P. Sindler, M. Pokorny [references] [full-text]
Retrodirective Antenna Array Using High Frequency Offset

The paper deals with the design of a simple retrodirective antenna array exhibiting by high frequency offset between received and transmitted wave. Analysis of the beam pointing error using antenna array model developed in MATLAB is described. The frequencies of transmitted wave and received wave are chosen on the basis of this analysis. Then a suitable structure for further design is determined and particular blocks of complete retrodirective antenna array are briefly described and their measured parameters are presented. Relatively high frequency offset between received and transmitted wave makes it possible to use frequency filters for received and transmitted signal separation which led to significant reduction of the circuit complexity.

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Keywords: Antenna array, retrodirectivity, mixer, patch antenna

M. Kufa, Z. Raida [references] [full-text]
Comparison of Planar Fractal Filters on Defected Ground Substrate

The paper discusses approaches to the reduction of dimensions of planar filters (microstrip ones and coplanar ones). Filter dimensions are reduced by applying the fractal theory to the geometry of a filter, and by the defecting of the ground plane of a filter. An optimum combination of both approaches enables us to reach smaller dimensions of planar filters and protect other parameters. In order to demonstrate advantages of the fractal defected ground approach, we review the designs of existing low-pass filters with defected ground structures (DGS). Results produced by simulations of these filters are compared with results of simulations of a novel fractal DGS filter. The investigated filters are manufactured and measured.

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Keywords: Planar filters, fractals, defected ground structure

E. Abaei, G. Amendola , E. Arnieri , S. Costanzo, E. Mehrshahi [references] [full-text]
A Fast Frequency Sweep – Green’s Function Based Analysis of Substrate Integrated Waveguide

In this paper, a fast frequency sweep technique is applied to the analysis of Substrate Integrated Waveguides performed with a Green’s function technique. The well-known Asymptotic Waveform Evaluation technique is used to extract the Padè approximation of the frequency response of Substrate Integrated Waveguides devices. The analysis is extended to a large frequency range by adopting the Complex Frequency Hopping algorithm. It is shown that, with this technique, CPU time can be reduced of almost one order of magnitude with respect to a point by point computation.

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Keywords: Green's function methods, Substrate integrated waveguide, SIW, Asymptotic Waveform Evaluation, AWE, Complex Frequency Hopping, CFH.

M. Kvicera, P. Pechac [references] [full-text]
Influence of Antenna Characteristics on Elevation Dependence of Building Penetration Loss for High Elevation Links

Building penetration loss models presented in our previous paper [1] were valid for various scenarios, propagation conditions, frequency bands and hemispherical receiving antenna pointing towards zenith. These models had a significantly rising trend of penetration loss with increasing elevation angle of the link in common. In this paper we show that when working with non-isotropic terminal antennas, this trend relates primarily to the elevation trend of the corresponding reference level dependent on the receiving antenna radiation pattern. This is demonstrated by the results of single-input multiple-output (SIMO) measurement trials performed at L-band in an office building and a brick building in the city of Prague. Further, based on the detailed analysis, a method to modify the elevation trend of a particular penetration loss model for different receiving antenna radiation patterns is derived and experimentally validated.

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Keywords: Propagation measurements, satellite mobile communication, building penetration loss, modeling

Z. Raida, Z. Kolka, R. Marsalek, J. Petrzela, A. Prokes, J. Sebesta, T. Gotthans, Z. Hrubos, Z. Kincl, L. Klozar, A. Povalac, R. Sotner, P. Kadlec [references] [full-text]
Communication Subsystems for Emerging Wireless Technologies

The paper describes a multi-disciplinary design of modern communication systems. The design starts with the analysis of a system in order to define requirements on its individual components. The design exploits proper models of communication channels to adapt the systems to expected transmission conditions. Input filtering of signals both in the frequency domain and in the spatial domain is ensured by a properly designed antenna. Further signal processing (amplification and further filtering) is done by electronics circuits. Finally, signal processing techniques are applied to yield information about current properties of frequency spectrum and to distribute the transmission over free subcarrier channels.

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Keywords: Communication system, long term evolution (LTE), WiMAX, radio frequency identification (RFID), cognitive radio, Nyquist δ-filter, channel modeling, antenna system, Yagi-Uda antenna, multi-objective optimization, Multi-Objective Self-Organizing Migrating Algorithm (MOSOMA), amplifier, tunable oscillator, circuit analysis, circuit testing, dirty RF signal processing, multicarrier system optimization, spectrum sensing

B. F. Zong, G. M. Wang, H. Y. Zeng, Y. W. Wang [references] [full-text]
Compact and High Performance Dual-band Bandpass Filter Using Resonator-embedded Scheme for WLANs

A compact microstrip dual-band bandpass filter (DBBPF) with high selectivity and good suppression for wireless local area networks (WLANs) is proposed utilizing a novel embedded scheme resonator. Two passbands are produced by a pair of embedded half-wavelength meandered stepped-impedance resonator (MSIR) and a quadwavelength short stub loaded stepped-impedance resonator (SIR) separately. The resonator is fed by folded Tshaped capacitive source-load coupling microstrip feed line, and four transmission zeros are obtained at both sides of the bands to improve selectivity and suppression. Simultaneously, the size of the filter is extermely compact because embedding half-wavelength MSIR only changes the interior configuration of quad-wavelength SIR. To validate the design method, the designed filter is fabricated and measured. Both simulated and measured results indicate that good transmission property has been achieved.

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Keywords: Dual-band bandpass filter (DBBPF), wireless local area networks (WLANs), stepped-impedance line (SIR), resonator-embedded scheme, folded T-shaped feed line.

Yee Hui LEE, Yu Song MENG [references] [full-text]
Empirical Modeling of Ducting Effects on a Mobile Microwave Link Over a Sea Surface

In this paper, signal enhancement due to the ducts over a sea surface is experimentally investigated and modeled. The investigation is carried out through the study of air-to-ground mobile microwave links over a tropical ocean with low airborne altitudes (0.37 - 1.83 km) at C band (5.7 GHz). The distance-dependence of the ducting induced enhancement (with reference to the free-space propagation) is linearly modeled, and the physical variations of the ducts are found to be Gaussian distributed. Empirical ducting coefficients and parameters for the Gaussian function are estimated and provided for the prediction of the distance-dependent signal enhancement due to the ducts in similar scenarios.

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Keywords: Air-to-ground, channel modeling, ducting, microwave link, propagation

P. Dvorak, M. Mazanek, S. Zvanovec [references] [full-text]
Short-term Prediction and Detection of Dynamic Atmospheric Effects by Microwave Radiometer

Specific utilization of a microwave radiometer for online monitoring, detection and, especially, prediction of particular dynamic atmospheric effects such as precipitation and cloudiness is proposed in the paper. The ground-based microwave radiometer and meteorological stations were incorporated into the measurement campaign in order to observe actual brightness temperature changes. The characteristics of atmospheric parameters recorded over a period of 14 months were evaluated and new applications for rain forecasting and cloud detection, based on signal variance, were proposed and validated.

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Keywords: Microwave radiometer, rain detection, cloud detection, wave propagation.

M. Z. H. Bhuiyan J. Zhang, E. S. Lohan, W. Wang, S. Sand [references] [full-text]
Analysis of Multipath Mitigation Techniques with Land Mobile Satellite Channel Model

Multipath is undesirable for Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) receivers, since the reception of multipath can create a significant distortion to the shape of the correlation function leading to an error in the receivers’ position estimate. Many multipath mitigation techniques exist in the literature to deal with the multipath propagation problem in the context of GNSS. The multipath studies in the literature are often based on optimistic assumptions, for example, assuming a static two-path channel or a fading channel with a Rayleigh or a Nakagami distribution. But, in reality, there are a lot of channel modeling issues, for example, satellite-to-user geometry, variable number of paths, variable path delays and gains, Non Line-Of-Sight (NLOS) path condition, receiver movements, etc. that are kept out of consideration when analyzing the performance of these techniques. Therefore, this is of utmost importance to analyze the performance of different multipath mitigation techniques in some realistic measurement-based channel models, for example, the Land Multipath is undesirable for Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) receivers, since the reception of multipath can create a significant distortion to the shape of the correlation function leading to an error in the receivers’ position estimate. Many multipath mitigation techniques exist in the literature to deal with the multipath propagation problem in the context of GNSS. The multipath studies in the literature are often based on optimistic assumptions, for example, assuming a static two-path channel or a fading channel with a Rayleigh or a Nakagami distribution. But, in reality, there are a lot of channel modeling issues, for example, satellite-to-user geometry, variable number of paths, variable path delays and gains, Non Line-Of-Sight (NLOS) path condition, receiver movements, etc. that are kept out of consideration when analyzing the performance of these techniques. Therefore, this is of utmost importance to analyze the performance of different multipath mitigation techniques in some realistic measurement-based channel models, for example, the Land Mobile Satellite (LMS) channel model [1]-[4], developed at the German Aerospace Center (DLR). The DLR LMS channel model is widely used for simulating the positioning accuracy of mobile satellite navigation receivers in urban outdoor scenarios. The main objective of this paper is to present a comprehensive analysis of some of the most promising techniques with the DLR LMS channel model in varying multipath scenarios. Four multipath mitigation techniques are chosen herein for performance comparison, namely, the narrow Early-Minus-Late (nEML), the High Resolution Correlator, the C/N0-based two stage delay tracking technique, and the Reduced Search Space Maximum Likelihood (RSSML) delay estimator. The first two techniques are the most popular and traditional ones used in nowadays GNSS receivers, whereas the later two techniques are comparatively new and are advanced techniques, recently proposed by the authors. In addition, the implementation of the RSSML is optimized here for a narrow-bandwidth receiver configuration in the sense that it now requires a significantly less number of correlators and memory than its original implementation. The simulation results show that the reduced-complexity RSSML achieves the best multipath mitigation performance in moderate-to-good carrier-to-noise density ratio with the DLR LMS channel model in varying multipath scenarios.

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Keywords: Multipath mitigation technique, GNSS receiver, channel model, performance analysis

P. Balling [references] [full-text]
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Keywords: Satellite antenna, multibeam antenna, offset reflector, circular waveguide feed, high-efficiency feed, high throughput satellite

M. Haghighat, H. Fathi, S. M.-S. Sadough [references] [full-text]
Robust Resource Allocation for OFDM-based Cognitive Radio in the Presence of Primary User Emulation Attack

Cognitive radio (CR) is a promising solution to improve the spectrum efficiency in which some unlicensed users are allowed to exploit frequency bands which are not used by licensed network. However, CR technology imposes some threats to the network. One of these threats is primary user emulation attack where some malicious users try to send fake signals similar to the primary user (PU) and prevent secondary users from accessing vacant bands. Moreover, the presence of a primary user emulation attacker (PUEA) leads to additional interference to the CR and consequently, the efficiency of conventional power loading algorithms will be degraded. In this paper, we propose a power allocation scheme in an orthogonal frequency-division multiplexing (OFDM) based CR in the presence of PUEA. Power allocation is performed with the aim of maximizing the downlink transmission capacity achieved by the cognitive user, while keeping the interference level at the PU below a predefined threshold. Simulation results confirm the efficiency of our proposed power loading scheme, compared to classical loading algorithms that do not consider the activity of malicious users in the radio environment.

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Keywords: Cognitive radio, primary user emulation attacker, spectrum sensing, orthogonal frequency-division multiplexing, power allocation.

S. S. Ivrigh, S. M.-S. Sadough [references] [full-text]
Spectrum Sensing for Cognitive Radio Systems Through Primary User Activity Prediction

Traditional spectrum sensing techniques such as energy detection, for instance, can sense the spectrum only when the cognitive radio (CR) is is not in operation. This constraint is relaxed recently by some blind source separation techniques in which the CR can operate during spectrum sensing. The proposed method in this paper uses the fact that the primary spectrum usage is correlated across time and follows a predictable behavior. More precisely, we propose a new spectrum sensing method that can be trained over time to predict the primary user's activity and sense the spectrum even while the CR user is in operation. Performance achieved by the proposed method is compared to classical spectrum sensing methods. Simulation results provided in terms of receiver operating characteristic curves indicate that in addition to the interesting feature that the CR can transmit during spectrum sensing, the proposed method outperforms conventional spectrum sensing techniques.

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Keywords: Cognitive radio, spectrum sensing, blind source separation, primary user activity prediction, variable order Markov model

R. Urban, T. Korinek, P. Pechac [references] [full-text]
Broadband Spectrum Survey Measurements for Cognitive Radio Applications

It is well known that the existing spectrum licensing system results in a gross under-utilization of the frequency spectrum. Spectrum background measurements – spectrum surveys – provide useful data for spectrum regulation, planning or finding frequency niches for spectrum sharing. Dynamic spectrum sharing as a main goal of cognitive radio (CR) is the modern option on how to optimize usage of the frequency spectrum. A spectrum survey measurement system is introduced with results obtained from a variety of markedly different scenarios allowing us, unlike other studies, to focus on wideband and fast spectrum scans. The sensitivity of the receiver is no worse than -113 dBm in the whole band. The utilization of the frequency spectrum is analyzed to prove its under-utilization and to show spectrum sharing opportunities. This was shown to be true in the frequency band higher than 2.5 GHz. A comparison with other spectrum survey campaigns is provided.

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Keywords: Spectrum survey, spectral measurement, cognitive radio, spectrum allocation

S. Montejo, R. D. Souza, E. M. G. Fernandez, V. Alfonso. [references] [full-text]
Impact of Power Allocation and Antenna Directivity in the Capacity of a Multiuser Cognitive Ad Hoc Network

This paper studies the benefits that power control and antenna directivity can bring to the capacity of a multiuser cognitive radio network. The main objective is to optimize the secondary network sum rate under the capacity constraint of the primary network. Exploiting location awareness, antenna directivity, and the power control capability, the cognitive radio ad hoc network can broaden its coverage and improve capacity. Computer simulations show that by employing the proposed method the system performance is significantly enhanced compared to conventional fixed power allocation.

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Keywords: Cognitive radio, power control, location awareness, antenna directivity

J.Y. Huang, P. Wang, X.F. Shen [references] [full-text]
CRLBs for Pilot-Aided Channel Estimation in OFDM System under Gaussian and Non-Gaussian Mixed Noise

The determination of Cramer-Rao lower bound (CRLB) as an optimality criterion for the problem of channel estimation in wireless communication is a very important issue. Several CRLBs on channel estimation have been derived for Gaussian noise. However, a practical channel is affected by not only Gaussian background noise but also non-Gaussian noise such as impulsive interference. This paper derives the deterministic and stochastic CRLBs for Gaussian and non-Gaussian mixed noise. Due to the use of the non-parametric kernel method to build the PDF of non-Gaussian noise, the proposed CRLBs are suitable for practical channel environments with various noise distributions.

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Keywords: Channel estimation, orthogonal frequency-division multiplexing (OFDM), Cramer-Rao lower bound (CRLB), Mixed noise.

S. Stosović, Z. Nikolić, B. Dimitrijević, D. Antić, N. Milosević [references] [full-text]
A Novel OFDM/DQPSK Receiver with Adaptive Remodulation Filter

The description and performance analysis of a new OFDM/DQPSK signal receiver is considered in this paper. The proposed receiver has performance that is close to the performance for the coherent detection of the OFDM/DQPSK signal, in case of zero carrier frequency offset. In case of non-zero frequency ofset, receiver with decision feedback differential detection (DFDD-OFDM) is often used in the literature. The analysis will show that the proposed receiver has better perfomance in the presence of the frequency offset than DFDD-OFDM receiver, in the sense wider frequency offset range where the error probability is acceptable. The novel proposed OFDM receiver has better performance for all the considered values of the number of OFDM channels.

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Keywords: Detection, estimation, mobile satellite communications, modulation, orthogonal frequency division multiplex, synchronization

X. Liu. A. Liu, B. Zhang, K. Pan [references] [full-text]
Design of Multiple Trellis-Coded Multi-h CPM Based on Super Trellis

It has been shown that the multiple trellis code can perform better than the conventional trellis code over AWGN channels, at the cost of additional computations per trellis branch. Multiple trellis coded multi-h CPM schemes have been shown in the literature to have attractive power-bandwidth performance at the expense of increased receiver complexity. In this method, the multi-h format is made to be associated with the specific pattern and repeated rather than cyclically changed in time for successive symbol intervals, resulting in a longer effective length of the error event with better performance. It is well known that the rate (n-1)/n multiple trellis codes combined with 2^n-level CPM have good power-bandwidth performance. In this paper, a scheme combining rate 1/2 and 2/3 multiple trellis codes with 4- and 8-level multi-h CPM is shown to have better power-bandwidth performance over the upper bound than the scheme with single-h.

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Keywords: multiple trellis code, multi-h continuous phase modulation, merged encoder, super trellis

Jiawei Ren, Huihua Chen, Weimin Jia, Minli Yao [references] [full-text]
Linear-Combined-Code-Based Unambiguous Code Discriminator Design for Multipath Mitigation in GNSS Receivers

Unambiguous tracking and multipath mitigation for Binary Offset Carrier (BOC) signals are two important requirements of modern Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS) receivers. A GNSS discriminator design method based on optimization technique is proposed in this paper to meet these requirements. Firstly, the discriminator structure based on a linear-combined code is given. Then the requirements of ideal discriminator function are converted into the mathematical constraints and the objective function to form a non-linear optimization problem. Finally, the problem is solved and the local code is generated according to the results. The theoretical analysis and simulation results indicate that the proposed method can completely remove the false lock points for BOC signals and provide superior multipath mitigation performance compared with traditional discriminator and high revolution correlator (HRC) technique. Moreover, the proposed discriminator is easy to implement for not increasing the number of correlators.

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Keywords: GNSS, multipath, BOC, HRC

Y.B. Li, X. Zhang, F. Ye, Z.G. Gao [references] [full-text]
Utility based Dynamic Subcarrier Allocation for QoS Guarantees in SC-FMDA System

Two utility based dynamic subcarrier allocation (DSA) algorithms: the max exponential utility (MEU) algorithm and the max weighted exponential utility (MWEU) algorithm are proposed for quality of service (QoS) guarantees in single carrier frequency division multiple access (SC-FDMA) system. With the objective of maximizing the system total utility, the two proposed DSA algorithms are designed based on a cross-layer manner so as to guarantee the diverse QoS requirements of real-time traffic. The proposed MEU algorithm exploits the property of the exponential utility function to provide higher allocation priority for the user in heavy traffic load. Furthermore, the MWEU algorithm is proposed as a kind of priority adjustable DSA scheduling by introducing the grading theory and the weight factor into the utility function. Simulation results indicate that the MEU algorithm is able to achieve outstanding average delay and system rate-sum capacity performance. And the MWEU algorithm can further improve the delay variance and delay violation probability performance by setting appropriate allocation weights. It is also concluded that the adaptive weight factor value of the MWEU algorithm can be derived according to the practical QoS requirements and average packets arrival rate.

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Keywords: Single carrier frequency division multiple access (SC-FDMA), dynamic subcarrier allocation (DSA), quality of service (QoS), utility function; max exponential utility (MEU) algorithm, max weighted exponential utility (MWEU) algorithm.

A. Stankovic, C. Stefanovic, N. Sekulovic, Z. Popovic, M. Stefanovic [references] [full-text]
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The distributions of random variables are of interest in many areas of science. In this paper, ascertaining on the importance of multi-hop transmission in contemporary wireless communications systems operating over fading channels in the presence of cochannel interference, the probability density functions (PDFs) of minimum of arbitrary number of ratios of Rayleigh, Rician, Nakagami-m, Weibull and α-µ random variables are derived. These expressions can be used to study the outage probability as an important multi-hop system performance measure. Various numerical results complement the proposed mathematical analysis.

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Keywords: Fading, ratios of random variables, Rayleigh distribution, Rician distribution, Nakagami-m distribution, Weibull distribution, α-µ distribution, multi-hop technique

A. Povalac, K. Witrisal, J. Sebesta [references] [full-text]
Degenerate RFID Channel Modeling for Positioning Applications

This paper introduces the theory of channel modeling for positioning applications in UHF RFID. It explains basic parameters for channel characterization from both the narrowband and wideband point of view. More details are given about ranging and direction finding. Finally, several positioning scenarios are analyzed with developed channel models. All the described models use a degenerate channel, i.e. combined signal propagation from the transmitter to the tag and from the tag to the receiver.

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Keywords: RFID, UHF, channel modeling, ranging, FD-PDoA

S. A. Rahman, M. S. Ansari, A. A. Moinuddin [references] [full-text]
Solution of Linear Programming Problems using a Neural Network with Non-Linear Feedback

This paper presents a recurrent neural circuit for solving linear programming problems. The objective is to minimize a linear cost function subject to linear constraints. The proposed circuit employs non-linear feedback, in the form of unipolar comparators, to introduce transcendental terms in the energy function ensuring fast convergence to the solution. The proof of validity of the energy function is also provided. The hardware complexity of the proposed circuit compares favorably with other proposed circuits for the same task. PSPICE simulation results are presented for a chosen optimization problem and are found to agree with the algebraic solution. Hardware test results for a 2–variable problem further serve to strengthen the proposed theory.

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Keywords: Linear Programming, Dynamical Systems, Neural Networks, Feedback Systems, Non-Linear Feedback.

M. Agatonović, Z. Stanković, N. Doncov, L. Sit, B. Milovanović, T. Zwick [references] [full-text]
Application of Artificial Neural Networks for Efficient High-Resolution 2D DOA Estimation

A novel method to provide high-resolution Two-Dimensional Direction of Arrival (2D DOA) estimation employing Artificial Neural Networks (ANNs) is presented in this paper. The observed space is divided into azimuth and elevation sectors. Multilayer Perceptron (MLP) neural networks are employed to detect the presence of a source in a sector while Radial Basis Function (RBF) neural networks are utilized for DOA estimation. It is shown that a number of appropriately trained neural networks can be successfully used for the high-resolution DOA estimation of narrowband sources in both azimuth and elevation. The training time of each smaller network is significantly re¬duced as different training sets are used for networks in detection and estimation stage. By avoiding the spectral search, the proposed method is suitable for real-time ap¬plications as it provides DOA estimates in a matter of seconds. At the same time, it demonstrates the accuracy comparable to that of the super-resolution 2D MUSIC algorithm.

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Keywords: DOA estimation, MLP, RBF, sectorisation, URA

A. Eksim, E. Murat [references] [full-text]
Novel Feedback Calculation Technique for Improved Transmit Scheme

Extended balanced space-time block coding (EBSTBC) is able to achieve large coding gain and guarantee full diversity for any number of transmit antennas. Performance of the EBSTBC has been improved with improved transmit scheme (ITS) which is combination of the EBSTBC with transmit antenna selection. Performance of the ITS with a limited number of feedback bits approaches to performance of ideal beamforming which requires ideal channel state information at the transmitter. However, the calculation of feedback information at the receiver employs exhaustive searching scheme which is very complex and energy inefficient process. In this work, a low complexity and energy efficient feedback information scheme for the ITS receiver is proposed. Theoretical and simulation results show that the calculation complexity of feedback information is decreased more than 87% and the proposed scheme yields the same bit error rate performance with the ITS. Moreover, the proposed scheme requires very low addition memory with respect to alternative schemes.

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Keywords: Extended balanced space-time coding, feedback calculation, low complexity, energy efficiency.

B. ZHANG, Y. LI, L. MAO, B. BAI [references] [full-text]
A Rate-Splitting Based Bound-Approaching Transmission Scheme for the Two-User Symmetric Gaussian Interference Channel with Common Messages

This paper is concerned with a rate-splitting based transmission strategy for the two-user symmetric Gaussian interference channel that contains common messages only. Each transmitter encodes its common message into multiple layers by multiple codebooks that drawn from one separate code book, and transmits the superposition of the messages corresponding to these layers; each receiver decodes the messages from all layers of the two users successively. Two schemes are proposed for decoding order and optimal power allocation among layers respectively. With the proposed decoding order scheme, the sum-rate can be increased by rate-splitting, especially at the optimal number of rate-splitting, using average power allocation in moderate and weak interference regime. With the two proposed schemes at the receiver and the transmitter respectively, the sum-rate achieves the inner bound of HK without time-sharing. Numerical results show that the proposed optimal power allocation scheme with the proposed decoding order can achieve significant improvement of the performance over equal power allocation, and achieve the sum-rate within two bits per channel use (bits/channel use) of the sum capacity.

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Keywords: Interference channel, rate-splitting, power control

V. Prajzler, N.K. Pham, J. Spirkova [references] [full-text]
Design, Fabrication and Properties of the Multimode Polymer Planar 1 x 2 Y Optical Splitter

We report about design, fabrication and measurement of the properties of multimode 1 x 2 optical planar power splitter. The splitters were designed with help of OptiCAD software using ray tracing method. The dimensions of the splitters were then optimized for connecting standard Plastic Optical Fiber. Norland Optical Adhesives glues were used as optical waveguide layers and the design structures were completed by CNC engraving on Poly(methyl methacrylate) or Poly(methylmethacrylimide) substrate. The devices have the insertion loss around 7.6 dB at 650 nm and the coupling ratio was 52:48.

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Keywords: Multimode 1x2 splitter, optical planar waveguide, polymer, ray tracing

A. Acharyya, S. Banerjee, J. P. Banerjee [references] [full-text]
Optical Control of Millmeter-wave Lateral Double-Drift Region Silicon IMPATT Device

The effect of optical illumination on lateral Double-Drift Region (DDR) structure of Silicon Impact Avalanche Transit Time (IMPATT) device is investigated in this paper. The device is designed to operate at mm-wave W-band frequency. The optical modulation of DC and RF properties of lateral DDR IMPATT device is studied by a simulation technique which incorporates the dependence of normalized difference of photocurrent density at the depletion layer edges on the intensity of optical illumination and surface density of photon flux. The simulation results are compared with those obtained for a conventional vertical DDR Si IMPATT structure under similar optical and electrical operating conditions. The results show that the optical control is more effective in lateral IMPATT structure than in its vertical counterpart as regards reduction of output power and shifting of optimum frequency. When light is incident on hole drift layer of the lateral structure the output power reduces by 18.7% while the optimum frequency shifts upwards by 2.48%. Under similar conditions the power reduces by 10.9% and optimum frequency shifts upwards by 0.75% in vertical structure.

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Keywords: Lateral IMPATT structure, optical control, millimeter-wave, DDR device

A. Acharyya, S. Banerjee, J. P. Banerjee [references] [full-text]
Large-Signal Simulation of 94 GHz Pulsed Silicon DDR IMPATTs Including the Temperature Transient Effect

In this paper large-signal modeling and simulation has been carried to study the frequency chirping due to temperature transients and the large-signal power and efficiency of pulsed silicon Double-Drift Region (DDR) Impact Avalanche Transit Time (IMPATT) device operating at 94 GHz. A large-signal simulation method based on non-sinusoidal voltage excitation incorporating the transient thermal effect has been developed by the authors. Results show that the device is capable of delivering a peak pulsed power output of 17.5 W with 12.8% efficiency when the voltage modulation is 60%. The maximum junction temperature rise is 350.2 K for a peak pulsed bias current of 6.79 A with 100 ns pulsewidth and 0.5 percent duty cycle; whereas the chirp bandwidth is 8.3 GHz.

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Keywords: Chirp bandwidth, frequency chirping, large-signal simulation, pulsed DDR IMPATT, temperature transients.

P. Montero, L. Polak, J. Taibo, T. Kratochvil [references] [full-text]
Subjective Quality Assessment of the Impact of Buffer Size in Fine-Grain Parallel Video Encoding

Fine-Grain parallelism is essential for real-time video encoding performance. This usually implies setting a fixed buffer size for each encoded block. The choice of this parameter is critical for both performance and hardware cost. In this paper we analyze the impact of buffer size on image subjective quality, and its relation with other encoding parameters. We explore the consequences on visual quality, when minimizing buffer size to the point of causing the discard of quantized coefficients for highest frequencies. Finally, we propose some guidelines for the choice of buffer size, that has proven to be heavily dependent, in addition to other parameters, on the type of sequence being encoded. These guidelines are useful for the design of efficient realtime encoders, both hardware and software.

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Keywords: Parallel MPEG-2, ITU-R BT.500, subjective test, video quality, ACR, MOS, PSNR.

M. R. Khokher, A. Ghafoor, A. M. Siddiqui [references] [full-text]
Graph Cuts based Image Segmentation using Fuzzy Rule Based System

This work deals with the segmentation of gray scale, color and texture images using graph cuts. From input image, a graph is constructed using intensity, color and texture profiles of the image simultaneously. Based on the nature of image, a fuzzy rule based system is designed to find the weight that should be given to a specific image feature during graph development. The graph obtained from the fuzzy rule based weighted average of different image features is further used in normalized graph cuts framework. Graph is iteratively bi-partitioned through the normalized graph cuts algorithm to get optimum partitions resulting in the segmented image. Berkeley segmentation database is used to test our algorithm and the segmentation results are evaluated through probabilistic rand index, global consistency error, sensitivity, positive predictive value and Dice similarity coefficient. It is shown that the presented segmentation method provides effective results for most types of images.

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Keywords: Segmentation, normalized graph cuts, fuzzy rule based system

A. Ghafoor, M. Imran [references] [full-text]
A Non-blind Color Image Watermarking Scheme Resistent Against Geometric Attacks

A non-blind color image watermarking scheme using principle component analysis, discrete wavelet transform and singular value decomposition is proposed. The color components are uncorrelated using principle component analysis. The watermark is embedded into the singular values of discrete wavelet transformed sub-band associated with principle component containing most of the color information. The scheme was tested against various attacks (including histogram equalization, rotation, Gaussian noise, scaling, cropping, Y-shearing, X-shearing, median filtering, affine transformation, translation, salt & pepper, sharpening), to check robustness. The results of proposed scheme are compared with state-of-the-art existing color watermarking schemes using normalized correlation coefficient and peak signal to noise ratio. The simulation results show that proposed scheme is robust and imperceptible.

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Keywords: Copyright protection, digital watermarking, principle component analysis, discrete wavelet transform, singular value decomposition, color watermarking

J. Slezak, T. Gotthans, J. Drinovsky [references] [full-text]
Evolutionary Synthesis of Fractional Capacitor Using Simulated Annealing Method

Synthesis of fractional capacitor using classical analog circuit synthesis method was described in [6]. The work presented in this paper is focused on synthesis of the same problem by means of evolutionary method simulated annealing. Based on given desired characteristic function as input impedance or transfer function, the proposed method is able to synthesize topology and values of the components of the desired analog circuit. Comparison of the results given in [6] and results obtained by the proposed method will be given and discussed.

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Keywords: simulated annealing, automated circuit synthesis, evolutionary electronics

Jiun-Wei Horng, To-Yao Chiu, Zih-Yang Jhao [references] [full-text]
Tunable Versatile High Input Impedance Voltage-Mode Universal Biquadratic Filter Based on DDCCs

A high input impedance voltage-mode universal biquadratic filter with three input terminals and seven output terminals is presented. The proposed circuit uses three differential difference current conveyors (DDCCs), four resistors and two grounded capacitors. The proposed circuit can realize all the standard filter functions, namely, lowpass, bandpass, highpass, notch and allpass, simultaneously. The proposed circuit offers the features of high input impedance, using only grounded capacitors, and orthogonal controllability of resonance angular frequency and quality factor.

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Keywords: Current conveyor, biquadratic filter, active circuit, voltage-mode

F. Kacar, A. Yesil, H. Kuntman [references] [full-text]
Current-Mode Universal Filters Employing Single FDCCII

In this study, to realize current-mode multifunction filters, three new circuit configurations are presented. The circuits include fully differential current conveyor (FDCCII) and four passive components. First proposed circuit is a universal filter with single-input and three-outputs, which can simultaneously realize current mode low-pass, band-pass and high-pass filter responses employing all grounded passive components. The last two proposed are universal filters with three-inputs single-output, which can realize current mode low-pass, band-pass, high-pass, band-stop and all-pass filter responses employing single FDCCII. Furthermore, each of the proposed circuits still enjoys realization using a minimum number of active and passive components. First and last of the proposed circuits have no requirement with the component choice conditions to realize specific filtering functions. No parameter matching condition is required. Active and passive sensitivities of filters are investigated and calculated 5 percentage hangings. Simulation results are found in close agreement with the theoretical results.

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Keywords: FDCCII, current-mode filter, analog MOS integrated circuit, analog signal processing.

V. R. Tirumalasetty, S. Avireni [references] [full-text]
Modified Level Restorers Using Current Sink and Current Source Inverter Structures for BBL-PT Full Adder

Full adder is an essential component for the design and development of all types of processors like digital signal processors (DSP), microprocessors etc. In most of these systems adder lies in the critical path that affects the overall speed of the system. So enhancing the performance of the 1-bit full adder cell is a significant goal. In this paper, we proposed two modified level restorers using current sink and current source inverter structures for branch-based logic and pass-transistor (BBL-PT) full adder [1]. In BBL-PT full adder, there lies a drawback i.e. voltage step existence that could be eliminated in the proposed logics by using the current sink inverter and current source inverter structures. The proposed full adders are compared with the two standard and well-known logic styles, i.e. conventional static CMOS logic and Complementary Pass transistor Logic (CPL), demonstrated the good delay performance. The implementation of 8-bit ripple carry adder based on proposed full adders are finally demonstrated. The CPL 8-bit RCA and as well as the proposed ones is having better delay performance than the static CMOS and BBL-PT 8-bit RCA. The performance of the proposed BBL-PT cell with current sink & current source inverter structures are examined using PSPICE and the model parameters of a 0.13 µm CMOS process.

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Keywords: Full adders, high-speed, current sink inverter, current source inverter, CMOS digital integrated circuits, performance analysis.

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