# December 2007, Volume 16, Number 4

**V. Ricny**
[references] [full-text]

Single Frequency Networks (SFN) in Digital Terrestrial Broadcasting

The paper deals with principles and properties of single frequency networks of digital television and radio transmitters. Basic definitions and contextual relationships (guard interval, area of SFN, influence of used modulation parameters etc.) are explained.

- FISCHER,W. Digital television. Berlin: Springer Verlag, 2004. ISBN 3-540-01155-2.
- O'LEARY, S. Digital Terrestrial Broadcasting. London: Artech House, 2000. ISBN 1-58053-063X.
- LEGIN, M. Televizni technika - Digitalni vysilani DVB -T. (Television Technology - Digital Broadcasting DVB -T). Prague: BEN, 2006. ISBN 80-7300-204-3. (in Czech)
- BUREL, G., MAGNIEZ, P. Transmitters separation for Single Frequency Networks. In Proceedings of IEEE Conference - SPAWC. Anapolis (USA), 1999.
- DOEVEN, J. Planning of Single Frequency Network. In Presentation on Workshop on Digital Broadcasting EBU IT. Sofia, 2004.
- DOUG, L. Single Frequency Network for DTV presentation (part 1). http://www.tvtechnology.com.
- RICNY, V. Co je to jednofrekvencni sit digitalnich vysilacu a jaky je jeji rozsah ? (What is SFN and what is its area ?). In Internet magazine STEREOMAG, 2005. http://www.stereomag.cz (in Czech).
- Design program of SFN: http://www.crcdata.cz.

Keywords: Digital television, single frequency network (SFN), standard DVB-T, transmitter, terrestrial broadcast, guard interval, multipath reception, SFN area

**J. Prokopec, T. Kratochvil**
[references] [full-text]

Testing of DVB-H Mobile Terminals Capability

This paper deals with the transmission of digital television to the DVB-H mobile terminals and interaction of DVB-H system with GSM/UMTS network. The mobile terminals testing approach is introduced including the testing transmission system in the laboratory of digital television and mobile communications at the Department of Radio Electronics, Brno University of Technology. This system can be used for efficient analysis in research and development of near future commercial DVB-H networks. The task of the DVB-H providers is to offer commercial mobile terminals capable to operate in DVB-H network with GSM/UMTS interactivity channel.

- RIEMERS, U. Digital Video Broadcasting. The Family of International Standards for Digital Television. Springer Verlag, 2004.
- FARIA, G., HENRIKSSON, J., STARE, E., TALMOLA, P. DVB-H: Digital Broadcast services to Handheld Devices. In Proceedings of the IEEE, vol. 94, no. 1, January 2006.
- ETSI EN 300744 v 1.4.1 (2001-01). European Standard (Telecommunications series). Digital Video Broadcasting (DVB); Framing Structure, Channel Coding and Modulation for Digital Terrestrial Television. ETSI, 1/2001.
- ETSI EN 302304 v 1.1.1 (2004-11). European Standard (Telecommunications series). Digital Video Broadcasting (DVB); Transmission System for Handheld Terminals. ETSI, 11/2004.
- ETSI TR 102377 v 1.2.1 (2005-11). Technical Report. Digital Video Broadcasting (DVB); DVB-H Implementation Guidelines. ETSI, 11/2005.
- Application note 1MA91_0E. Test of DVB-H Capable Mobile Phones in Development and Production. www.rohdeschwarz.com. Rohde & Schwarz 4/2005.
- KRATOCHVIL, T.; PROKOPEC, J. DVB-H standard and testing of its mobile terminals. In Proceedings of 17th International Conference Radioelektronika 2007. Brno, Department of Radio Electronics, Brno University of Technology. 2007. p. 493 - 497. ISBN 978-80-214-3390-8.

Keywords: Mobile terminal testing, mobile terminal capability, interaction, DVB-H, GSM

**P. Stranak**
[references] [full-text]

New Methods of Stereo Encoding for FM Radio Broadcasting Based on Digital Technology

The article describes new methods of stereo encoding for FM radio broadcasting. Digital signal processing makes possible to construct an encoder with properties that are not attainable using conventional analog solutions. The article describes the mathematical model of the encoder, on the basis of which a specific program code for DSP was developed. The article further deals with a new method of composite clipping which does not cause impurities in the output spectrum, and at the same time preserves high separation between the left and right audio channels. The application of the new method is useful mainly where there are unwanted signal overshoots on the input of the stereo encoder, e.g., in case of signal transmission from the studio to the transmitter site through a route with psychoacoustic lossy compression of data rate.

- ORBAN, R. United States Patent 6,434,241 B1, Controlling the Peak Levels of the FM Composite Signal by Half-Cosine Interpolation. August 13, 2002.
- BONELLO, O. Multiband audio processing and its influence on the coverage area of the FM stereo transmission. Journal of AES, 2007, no. 3, p. 145 - 156.
- ANALOG DEVICES. ADSP 21161, AD 1852. Analog Devices company datasheets 2002-2007.
- FOTI, F. United States Patent 4,991,212 Broadcast Signal Conditioning Method and Apparatus, February 5, 1991.

Keywords: Stereo encoder, stereo generator, composite clipping, digital encoding, digital signal processors, DSP

**Z. Fedra, R. Marsalek, V. Sebesta**
[references] [full-text]

Chip Interleaving and its Optimization for PAPR Reduction in MC-CDMA

This paper analyzes the usability of peak to average power ratio (PAPR) reduction in multicarrier code division multiple access (MC-CDMA) by the chip interleaving optimization. This means chip position formatting to PAPR minimization. One chip interleaving pattern is used for all users in system (all spreading sequences). Dependency on number of subcarriers and spreading sequence length is simulated. The impact on amplitude histogram is presented and relation to random interleaving pattern is shown.

- FAZEL, K., KAISER, S. Multi-Carrier and Spread Spectrum Systems. John Wiley & Sons, 2003.
- FEDRA, Z., SEBESTA, V. Genetic algorithm and ant colony optimization for PAPR reduction in MC-CDMA. In Radioelektronika 2006, Bratislava (Slovak Republic), 2006.
- HARA, S., PRASAD, R. Overview of multicarrier CDMA. IEEE Communication Magazine, 1997, vol. 35, no.12.
- HO, W. S., MADHUKUMAR, A. S., CHIN, F. Peak-to-average power reduction using partial transmit sequences: A suboptimal approach based on dual layered phase sequencing. IEEE Transaction on Broadcasting, 2003, vol. 49, no. 2.
- KWON, O., HA, Y. Multi-carrier pap reduction method using suboptimal PTS with threshold. IEEE Transaction on Broadcasting, 2003, vol. 49, no. 2.
- LIM, D., NO, J., LIM, Ch., CHUNG, H. A new SLM OFDM scheme with low complexity for PAPR reduction. IEEE Signal Processing Letters, 2005, vol. 12, no. 2.
- SEUNG, H. H., JAE, H. L. Modified selected mapping technique for PAPR reduction of coded OFDM signal. IEEE Transactions on Broadcasting, 2004, vol. 50, no.3.
- TELLADO, J. Multicarrier Modulation with Low PAR: Application to DSL and Wireless. Academic Publishers, 2000.
- YOU, Y., JEON, W., PAIK, J., SONG, H. A simple construction of OFDM-CDMA signals with low peak-to-average power ratio. IEEE Transactions on Broadcasting, 2003, vol. 49, no. 4.

Keywords: MC-CDMA, OFDM, PAPR reduction, chip interleaving

**J. Spacek, M. Kasal**
[references] [full-text]

The Low Rate Telemetry Transmission Simulator

The presented paper is dedicated to the low rate telemetry transmission simulator. The basic concept of the system uses the carrier (DSB) and subcarrier (BPSK). The research is focused on the AWGN and carrier phase noise influence. Presented system can be extended with the described carrier phase noise model. In this paper, some issues related to the described model are also discussed. For example, the relation between bit error rate for uncoded bit stream and bit stream with differential coding, which is used in the model. Authors prove the using of Costas loops for very low energy per bit to noise power spectral density ratio. The influence of additive white Gaussian noise and phase noise is also investigated.

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- Proceedings of the CCSDS RF and Modulation Subpanel 1E on Bandwidth-Efficient Modulations. Report concerning space data system standards, CCSDS B20.0-Y-2, 2001.
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- Communications Blockset for Use with Simulink®. The MathWorks® Reference, The MathWorks Inc., 2004.
- KUNDERT, K. Modeling and Simulation of Jitter in Phase-Locked Loops. Cadence Design Systems, California, 2002.
- PAAL, L., SNIFFIN, R. W. Telemetry Data Decoding. DSMS Telecommunications Link Design Handbook, 2004.
- KASAL, M. Frequency Synthesis in Communication Systems Experimental Satellites. Brno: VUTIUM, Brno University of Technology, 2005. (In Czech.)
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- Telemetry Synchronization and Channel Coding. Recommendation for space data system standards, CCSDS 131.0-B-1, 2003.
- KASAL, M. Modern Methods of Generation and Signal Processing in Nuclear Magnetics Resonance. Inaugural dissertation, Brno University of Technology, Brno, 1998. (In Czech.)
- Bandwidth-Efficient Modulations - Summary of Definition, Implementation, and Performance. Report concerning space data system standards, CCSDS 413.0-G-1, 2003.
- Radio Frequency and Modulation Systems. Recommendation for space data system standards, CCSDS 401.0, 2005.
- LAM, L., MILLION, S. Performance of pulse code modulation / phase modulation receivers with nonideal data. TDA Progress Report. 1997, vol. 128, 17 p.
- Telemetry - Summary of Concept and Rationale. Report concerning space data system standards, CCSDS 100.0-G-1, 1987.
- STEBER, J. M. PSK Demodulation. TechNote, San Jose: WJ Communications, Inc. 2001.
- SUE, M. K. Block IV receiver tracking loop performance in the presence of a CW RFI. TDA Progress Report. 1980, vol. 60, 13 p.
- HURD, W. J., MILEANT A. Improved carrier tracking for low-threshold telemetry using a smoother. TMO Progress Report. 2000, vol. 141, 16 p.
- NOREEN, G. K. Deep Space Network Support of Small Missions. Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, California, 2003.
- HAGHIGHAT, A. Low-Jitter Symbol Timing Recovery for M-ary QAM and PAM Signals. A thesis in the Department of Electrical Engineering, Concordia University, Canada, 1998.
- WARREN, L. M. DSN Support of Earth Orbiting and Deep Space Missions. Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, California, 1994.
- KUIPER, T. B. H., RESCH, G. M. Deep Space Telecommunications, Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, California, 2001.
- CHI, X. DSP Implementation of Communication Systems - Carrier recovery using a second order Costas loop. Lecture note, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Virginia, 2002.
- KARSI, M. F., LINDSEY, W. C. Effects of CW interference on phase-locked loop performance. IEEE Transactions on Communications. 2000, vol. 48, no. 5.
- AKINLI, C., GAMACHE, M., ROSE, M., ROST, A., SALES, J. TANG, J. Telemetry, tracking, communications, command and data handling. TMO Progress Report.2001, vol. 145, 77 p.
- CHEN, C. C., SHAMBAYATI, S., MAKOVSKY, A., TAYLOR, F. H., HERMAN M. I., ZINGALES, S. H. Small Deep Space Transponder (SDST) - Technology Validation Report. JET Propulsion Lab., California Inst. of Technology, California, 2000.

Keywords: Low rate telemetry, Simulink® model, BPSK/DSB modulation, phase noise model, noise effect

**J. Vodrazka**
[references] [full-text]

Multi-Carrier Modulation and MIMO Principle Application on Subscriber Lines

The multi-carrier modulation is used in many applications, primary for a wireless transmission, for example Wi-Fi and WiMAX networks or DVB-T. But the same physical principle can be used also for metallic lines in access or local networks, for example ADSL and VDSL. The multi-carrier modulation in these cases is called DMT. The dominant source of noise in multi-pair metallic cables is crosstalk when the information capacity is limited dramatically. However, information capacity of metallic lines can be increased, if the system is using MIMO principles, concrete VDMT modulation and line bounding concept. The methods for VDMT modulation and partial crosstalk cancellation are discussed and simulation results are presented.

- VODRAZKA, J., JARES, P., HUBENY, T. xDSL simulator. In http://matlab.feld.cvut.cz/en/. Praha, 2005.
- VODRAZKA, J. Downstream power-back-off used for ADSL. In Proceedings EC-SIP-M 2005. Bratislava, Slovak University of Technology, 2005, pp. 349–353.
- VODRAZKA, J., JARES, P., PROKOP, T. Modeling of middle-range metallic lines for Ethernet with VDMT. In IWSSIP 2007 & EC-SIPMCS 2007. University of Maribor, 2007, p. 277-280.
- VODRAZKA, J., HRAD, J., JARES, P. Modeling of access network structure. In Proceedings of the 6th Conference on Telecommunications. Instituto de Telecomunicacoes – Lisboa, 2007, p. 469-472.
- RAUSCHMAYER, D. J. ADSL/VDSL Principles: A Practical and Precise Study of Asymmetric Digital Subscriber Lines and Very High Speed Digital Subscriber Lines. Indianapolis, USA: Macmillan Technical Publishing, 1999.
- CENDRILLON, R., MOONEN, M. Iterative spectrum balancing for digital subscriber lines. Communications. ICC 2005. 2005. Vol. 3, p. 1937- 1941.
- CENDRILLON, R., GINIS, G., BOGAERT, E., MOONEN, M. A near-optimal linear crosstalk canceller for VDSL. IEEE Transactions on Signal Processing. 2004.
- CENDRILLON, R., GINIS, G., MOONEN, M., ACKER, K. Partial crosstalk precompensation in downstream VDSL. Signal Processing 84. Elsevier (2004), pp. 2005-2019.
- BRADY, M. H., CIOFFI, J. M. The worst-case interference in DSL systems employing dynamic spectrum management. Hindawi Publishing Corporation EURASIP Journal on Applied Signal Processing. Vol. 2006, Article ID 78524, pp. 1 11.

Keywords: Multi-carrier Modulation, Digital subscriber line, Twisted pair, Crosstalk cancellation, VDMT

**L. Svoboda, A. Stancak, P. Sovka**
[references] [full-text]

Detection of Cortical Oscillations Induced by SCS Using Power Spectral Density

Chronic, intractable pain of lower back and lower extremity might develop as the result of unsuccessful surgery of back. This state called failed-back surgery syndrome (FBSS) cannot be effectively treated by pharmacotherapy. Electric stimulation of the dorsal spinal cord is applied to relieve the pain. According to the medical hypothesis, oscillatory activity, which might be related to the analgesic effects, may occur in the cortex during the stimulation. To confirm the presence of the SCS induced oscillations, a new method of detection was designed for this purpose. The analysis of EEG data was performed using power spectral density, confidence intervals, visualization and group statistic for its verification. Parameters of the method were experimentally optimized to maximize its reliability. During ongoing SCS, statistically significant changes were detected and localized at the stimulation frequency and/or its subharmonic or upper harmonic over central midline electrodes in eight patients.

- ALO, K. M., HOLSHEIMER, J. New Trends in Neuromodulation for the Management of Neuropatic Pain. Neurosurgery. April 2002, vol. 50, no. 4, pp. 690-704.
- BELL, G. K., KIDD, D., NORTH, R. B. Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of Spinal Cord Stimulation in Treatment of Failed Back Surgery Syndrome. Journal of Pain and Symptom Management. May 1997, vol. 13, no. 5, pp. 286-295.
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- KOZAK, J. et al. Methodical Instructions for Acute and Chronic Non-Oncogenous Pain Pharmacotherapy (in Czech). Bolest. 2004, vol. 7, sup. 1, pp. 9-18.
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- SVOBODA, L. Detection of Electrocortical Rhythms Induced by Spinal Neurostimulator in Patients Suffering from Chronic Pain (in Czech). Diploma thesis. Prague: FEE CTU, Dept. of Circuit Theory, 2006.
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Keywords: Power spectral density, failed-back surgery syndrome, spinal cord stimulation, induced oscillations, EEG

**L. Svoboda, A. Stancak, P. Sovka**
[references] [full-text]

Localization of Cortical Oscillations Induced by SCS Using Coherence

This paper suggests a method based on coherence analysis and scalp mapping of coherence suitable for more accurate localization of cortical oscillations induced by electric stimulation of the dorsal spinal cord (SCS), which were previously detected using spectral analysis. While power spectral density shows the increase of power during SCS only at small number of electrodes, coherence extends this area and sharpens its boundary simultaneously. Parameters of the method were experimentally optimized to maximize its reliability. SCS is applied to suppress chronic, intractable pain by patients, whom pharmacotherapy does not relieve. In our study, the pain developed in lower back and lower extremity as the result of unsuccessful vertebral discotomy, which is called failed-back surgery syndrome (FBSS). Our method replicated the results of previous analysis using PSD and extended them with more accurate localization of the area influenced by SCS.

- BENDAT, J. S., PIERSOL, A. G. Random Data: Analysis and Measurement Procedures. New York: John Wiley & Sons, 1971.
- BORTEL, R., SOVKA, P. Approximation of Statistical Distribution of Magnitude Squared Coherence Estimated with Segment Overlapping. Signal Processing. 2007, vol. 87, no. 5, pp. 1100-1117.
- KOZAK, J. et al. Methodical Instructions for Acute and Chronic Non-Oncogenous Pain Pharmacotherapy (in Czech). Bolest. 2004, vol. 7, sup. 1, pp. 9-18.
- SVOBODA, L. Detection of Electrocortical Rhythms Induced by Spinal Neurostimulator in Patients Suffering from Chronic Pain (in Czech). Diploma thesis. Prague: FEE CTU, Dept. of Circuit Theory, 2006.
- SVOBODA, L., STANCAK, A., SOVKA, P. Detection of Cortical Oscillations Induced by SCS Using Power Spectral Density. Radioengineering. December 2007, vol. 16, no. 4.
- THICKBROOM, G. W. et al. Source Derivation: Application to Topographic Mapping of Visual Evoked Potentials. Electroencephalography and Clinical Neurophysiology. July 1984, vol. 4, no. 59, pp. 279-285.

Keywords: Magnitude squared coherence, z-coherence, failedback surgery syndrome, spinal cord stimulation, induced oscillations, EEG

**L. Ruckay, J. Stastny, P. Sovka**
[references] [full-text]

ICA Model Order Estimation Using Clustering Method

In this paper a novel approach for independent component analysis (ICA) model order estimation of movement electroencephalogram (EEG) signals is described. The application is targeted to the brain-computer interface (BCI) EEG preprocessing. The previous work has shown that it is possible to decompose EEG into movement-related and non-movement-related independent components (ICs). The selection of only movement related ICs might lead to BCI EEG classification score increasing. The real number of the independent sources in the brain is an important parameter of the preprocessing step. Previously, we used principal component analysis (PCA) for estimation of the number of the independent sources. However, PCA estimates only the number of uncorrelated and not independent components ignoring the higher-order signal statistics. In this work, we use another approach - selection of highly correlated ICs from several ICA runs. The ICA model order estimation is done at significance level α = 0.05 and the model order is less or more dependent on ICA algorithm and its parameters.

- STASTNY, J. Analysis of States in EEG Signals. Ph.D. thesis, CTU FEE Prague, Department of Circuit Theory, 2005. (In Czech).
- ZEJBRDLICH, J., STASTNY, J., SOVKA, P. Optimal parameterization selection for the brain computer interface. In The 4th WSEAS International Conference on Applications of Electrical Engineering. 2005, p. 300 - 304.
- JAMES, C. J., HESSE, C. W. ICA and BSS applied to biomedical signals: An overview of their use in biomedicine. In The 3rd European Medical and Biological Engineering Conference (EMBEC 2005). 2005, p. 1500 - 1504.
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- KONOPKA, O., STASTNY, J., SOVKA, P. Movement-related EEG separation using independent component analysis. In The 3rd European Medical and Biological Engineering Conference (EMBEC 2005), 2005, p. 1471 - 1475.
- HUNG, C.-I., LEE, P.-L., WU, Y.-T., CHEN, H.-Y., CHEN, L.-F., YEH, T.-C., HSIEH, J.-C. Recognition of motor imagery electroencephalography using independent component analysis and machine classifiers. In The 12-th International Conference in Central Europe on Computer Graphics, Visualization and Computer Vision'2004, (WSCG 2004). 2004, p. 101 - 108.
- VIGARIO, R., SARELA, J., JOUSMAKI, V., HAMALAINEN, M., OJA, E. Independent component approach to the analysis of EEG and MEG recordings. IEEE Transaction on Biomedical Engineering, 2000, vol. 47, no. 5, p. 589 - 593.
- WENTRUP, M. G., GRAMANN, K., WASCHER, E., BUSS, M. EEG source localization for brain-computer-interfaces. In Proceedings of the 2nd International IEEE EMBS, Conference of Neural Engineering. 2005, p. 128 - 131.
- RUCKAY, L., STASTNY, J., SOVKA, P. Movement-related EEG decomposition using independent component analysis. In Analysis of Biomedical Signals and Images - Proceedings of Biosignal 2006. 2006, p. 78 - 80.
- RUCKAY, L. ICA model order estimation - selection of independent components. Unpublished research report Z06-5, CTU FEE Prague, Dept. of Circuit Theory, Biological Signal Lab., 2006. (In Czech).
- CHOI, S., CICHOCKI, A., PARK, H.-M., LEE, S.-Y. Blind source separation and independent component analysis: A review. Neural Information Processing - Letters and Reviews, 2005, vol. 6, no. 1, p. 1 - 57.
- JUNG, T.-P., MAKEIG, S., HUMPHRIES, C., LEE, T.-W., MCKEOWN, M. J., IRAGUI, V., SEJNOWSKI, T. J. Removing electroencephalographic artifacts by blind source separation. Psychophysiology, 2000, vol. 37, p. 163 - 178.
- JUNG, T.-P., MAKEIG, S., LEE, T.-W., MCKEOWN, M. J., BROWN, G., BELL, A. J., SEJNOWSKI, T. J. Independent component analysis of biomedical signals. In The 2nd International Workshop on Independent Component Analysis and Signal Separation. 2000, p. 633 - 644.
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- STANCAK, A., FEIGEB, B., LUCKING, C. H., KRISTEVA-FEIGE, R. Oscillatory cortical activity and movement-related potentials in proximal and distal movements. Clinical Neurophysiology, 2000, vol. 111, no. 4, p. 636 - 650.

Keywords: EEG classification, brain computer interface, blind source separation, independent component analysis, ICA model order, clustering

**C. Chemak, J. C. Lapayre, M. S. Bouhlel**
[references] [full-text]

New Watermarking Scheme for Security and Transmission of Medical Images for PocketNeuro Project

We describe a new Watermarking system of medical information security and terminal mobile phone adaptation for PocketNeuro project. The later term refers to a Project created for the service of neurological diseases. It consists of transmitting information about patients \"Desk of Patients\" to a doctor\'s mobile phone when he is visiting or examining his patient. This system is capable of embedding medical information inside diagnostic images for security purposes. Our system applies JPEG Compression to Watermarked images to adapt them to the doctor\'s mobile phone. Experiments performed on a database of 30-256x256 pixel-sized neuronal images show that our Watermarking scheme for image security is robust against JPEG Compression. For the purpose of increasing the image Watermarking robustness against attacks for an image transmission and to perform a large data payload, we encode with Turbo-Code image-embedded bits information. Fidelity is improved by incorporation of the Relative Peak Signal-to-Noise Ratio (RPSNR) as a perceptual metric to measure image degradation.

- KONG, X., FENG, R. Watermarking medical signals for Telemedicine. IEEE Transactions on Information Technology in Biomedicine, 2001, vol. 5, no. 3, p. 195-201.
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Keywords: PocketNeuro project, multi-resolution field, turbocode, R.P.S.N.R., robustness, fidelity

**M. Benco, R. Hudec**
[references] [full-text]

Novel Method for Color Textures Features Extraction Based on GLCM

Texture is one of most popular features for image classification and retrieval. Forasmuch as grayscale textures provide enough information to solve many tasks, the color information was not utilized. But in the recent years, many researchers have begun to take color information into consideration. In the texture analysis field, many algorithms have been enhanced to process color textures and new ones have been researched. In this paper the new method for color GLCM textures and comparing with other good known methods is presented.

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Keywords: GLCM, Gabor filters, features extraction, image classification, image retrieval, color textures

**J. Huska, P. Kulla**
[references] [full-text]

Content Adaptive True Motion Estimator for H.264 Video Compression

Content adaptive true motion estimator for H.264 video coding is a fast block-based matching estimator with implemented multi-stage approach to estimate motion fields between two image frames. It considers the theory of 3D scene objects projection into 2D image plane for selection of motion vector candidates from the higher stages. The stages of the algorithm and its hierarchy are defined upon motion estimation reliability measurement (image blocks including two different directions of spatial gradient, blocks with one dominant spatial gradient and blocks including minimal spatial gradient). Parameters of the image classification into stages are set adaptively upon image structure. Due to search strategy are the estimated motion fields more corresponding to a true motion in an image sequence as in the case of conventional motion estimation algorithms that use fixed sets of motion vector candidates from tight neighborhood.

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Keywords: Motion estimation, H.264, true motion field, multi stage, estimation reliability, objects projection

**R. Ridzon, D. Levicky**
[references] [full-text]

Robust Digital Watermarking Based on the Log-Polar Mapping

The geometrical attacks are still an open problem for many digital watermarking algorithms used in present time. Most of geometrical attacks can be described by using affine transforms. This article deals with digital watermarking in images robust against the affine transformations. The new approach to improve robustness against geometrical attacks is presented. The discrete Fourier transform and log-polar mapping is used for watermark embedding and for watermark detection. Some attacks against the embedded watermarks are performed and the results are given.

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Keywords: Digital watermarking, geometrical attacks, discrete Fourier transform, log-polar mapping, hash function

**P. Varchol, D. Levicky**
[references] [full-text]

Using of Hand Geometry in Biometric Security Systems

In this paper, biometric security system for access control based on hand geometry is presented. Biometric technologies are becoming the foundation of an extensive array of highly secure identification and personal verification solutions. Experiments show that the physical dimensions of a human hand contain information that is capable to verify the identity of an individual. The database created for our system consists of 408 hand images from 24 people of young ages and different sex. Different pattern recognition techniques have been tested to be used for verification. Achieved experimental results FAR=0,1812% and FRR=14,583% show the possibilities of using this system in environment with medium security level with full acceptance from all users.

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Keywords: Biometric security, hand geometry recognition, Gaussian mixture model, expectation-maximization algorithm

**V. I. Djigan**
[references] [full-text]

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This paper considers the application of the linear constraints and RLS inverse QR decomposition in adaptive arrays based on constant modulus criterion. The computational procedures of adaptive algorithms are presented. Linearly constrained least squares adaptive arrays, constant modulus adaptive arrays and linearly constrained constant modulus adaptive arrays are compared via simulation. It is demonstrated, that a constant phase shift in the array output signal, caused by desired signal orientation and array weights, is compensated in a simple way in linearly constrained constant modulus adaptive arrays.

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Keywords: Adaptive array, constant modulus criterion, RLS, inverse QR decomposition, linear constraints

**A. Mohammed, T. Ballal, N. Grbic**
[references] [full-text]

Blind Source Separation Using Time-Frequency Masking

In blind source separation (BSS), multiple mixtures acquired by an array of sensors are processed in order to recover the initial multiple source signals. While a variety of Independent Component Analysis (ICA)-based techniques are being used, in this paper we used a newly proposed method: The Degenerate Unmixing and Estimation Technique (DUET). The method applies when sources are W-disjoint orthogonal; that is, when the time-frequency representations, of any two signals in the mixtures are disjoint sets. The method uses an online algorithm to perform gradient search for the mixing parameters, and simultaneously construct binary time-frequency masks that are used to partition one of the mixtures to recover the original source signals. Previous studies have demonstrated the robustness of the method. However, the investigation in this paper reveals significant drawbacks associated with the technique which should be addressed in the future.

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Keywords: Blind source separation, DUET, Time-frequency masking

**E. Dumic, S. Grgic, M. Grgic**
[references] [full-text]

The Use of Wavelets in Image Interpolation: Possibilities and Limitations

Discrete wavelet transform (DWT) can be used in various applications, such as image compression and coding. In this paper we examine how DWT can be used in image interpolation. Afterwards proposed method is compared with two other traditional interpolation methods. For the case of magnified image achieved by interpolation, original image is unknown and there is no perfect way to judge the magnification quality. Common approach is to start with an original image, generate a lower resolution version of original image by downscaling, and then use different interpolation methods to magnify low resolution image. After that original and magnified images are compared to evaluate difference between them using different picture quality measures. Our results show that comparison of image interpolation methods depends on downscaling technique, image contents and quality metric. For fair comparison all these parameters need to be considered.

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Keywords: Image interpolation, image quality, wavelets, image downscaling, image upscaling

**J. Prochaska, R. Vargic**
[references] [full-text]

On the Relationship between Integer Lifting and Rounding Transform

In this paper we analyze the relationship between integer Lifting scheme and Rounding transform as means to compute the wavelet transform in signal processing area. We bring some new results which better describe relationship, reversibility and equivalence of integer lifting scheme and rounding transform concept.

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Keywords: Wavelet, lifting, transform, integer, rounding

**M. Kamensky, K. Kovac, E. Kralikova, A. Krammer**
[references] [full-text]

Evaluation of Measurement Performance in Averaging Quantization System with Noise

Statistical description of quantization process is common in the theory of quantization. For the case of nonsubtractive dither theoretical analyses of the dithered quantizer have been confronted with experimental results. As a quantization system one-chip microcomputer with the analog-to-digital converter on a chip has been used. Generally valid criteria for dithered system performance have been practically applied for Gaussian dither. Interaction of natural noise present in the signal with an added Gaussian noise of several different disperses and influence of differential nonlinearity of the converter has been observed.

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Keywords: Quantization, nonsubtractive dither, averaging, Gaussian noise