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Radioengineering

Radioeng

Proceedings of Czech and Slovak Technical Universities

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June 2012, Volume 21, Number 2

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A. Muñoz-Acevedo, M. Sierra-Castañer [references] [full-text]
Signal to Noise Ratio Maximization in Quiet Zone Acquisitions for Range Assessment at Sub-millimeter Wavelengths

This paper proposes a quiet zone probing approach which deals with low dynamic range quiet zone acquisitions. Lack of dynamic range is a feature of millimeter and sub-millimeter wavelength technologies. It is consequence of the gradually smaller power generated by the instrumentation, that follows a f^α law with frequency, being α≥1 variable depending on the signal source’s technology. The proposed approach is based on an optimal data reduction scenario which redounds in a maximum signal to noise ratio increase for the signal pattern, with minimum information losses. After theoretical formulation, practical applications of the technique are proposed.

  1. OLVER, A. D. Compact antenna test ranges. In Seventh International Conference on Antennas and Propagation ICAP 91. 15-18 Apr 1991, vol. 1, p. 99-108.
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  3. JENSEN, F., HEIGHWOOD NIELSEN, P., SALGHETTI DRIOLI, L., PAQUAY, M. Best-Fit Adjustment on the reflectors in a compact range. In Proc. Antenna Measurement Techniques Association Symposium. Salt Lake City (USA), 2009.
  4. MUÑOZ-ACEVEDO, A., SIERRA-CASTANER, M. An efficient hybrid GO-PWS algorithm to analyze conformal serrated-edge reflectors for millimeter- wave compact range. IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation, 2012, vol. 60, no. 2, p.1192-1197.
  5. SALGHETTI, L., PAQUAY, M., ALLART, X. How large is your quiet zone? In Proc. Antenna Measurement Techniques Association Symposium. Atlanta (USA), 2010.
  6. MUÑOZ-ACEVEDO, A., ROLO, L., PAQUAY, M., SIERRACASTAÑER, M. Accurate and time efficient quiet zone acquisition technique for the assessment of ESA’s CATR at millimeter wavelengths. In Proc. Antenna Measurement Techniques Association Symposium. Englewood, October 16-21 2011.
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Keywords: Sub-millimeter wavelengths, signal to noise ratio, antenna measurements, compact antenna test range, range assessment.

S.Khanal, T. Kiuru, J. Mallat, O. Luukkonen, A.V. Raisanen [references] [full-text]
Measurement of Dielectric Properties at 75 - 325 GHz using a Vector Network Analyzer and Full Wave Simulator

This paper presents a fast and easy to use method to determine permittivity and loss tangent in the frequency range of 75 to 325 GHz. To obtain the permittivity and the loss tangent of the test material, the reflection and transmission S-parameters of a waveguide section filled with the test material are measured using a vector network analyzer and then compared with the simulated plots from a full wave simulator (HFSS), or alternatively the measurement results are used in mathematical formulas. The results are coherent over multiple waveguide bands.

  1. AFSAR, M. N. Dielectric measurement of millimeter-wave materials. IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques, 1984, vol. MTT-32, no. 12, p. 1598-1609.
  2. JARVIS, J. B., JANEZIC, M. D., RIDDLE, B. F., KABOS, P., HOLLOWAY, C. L., GEYER, R. G., GROSVENOR, C. A. Measuring the Permittivity and Permeability of Lossy Materials: Solids, Liquids, Metal, Building Materials, and Negative-Index Materials. National Institute of Standards and Technology, NIST Technical Note 1536, 2005.
  3. LUUKKONEN, O., MASLOVSKI, S. I., TRETYAKOV, S. A. A stepwise Nicolson–Ross–Weir-based material parameter extraction method. IEEE Antennas and Wireless Propagation Letters, 2011, vol.10, p. 1295-1298.
  4. JARVIS, J. B. Transmission/Reflection and Short-Circuit Line Permittivity Measurements. National Institute of Standards and Technology, NIST Technical Note 1341, 1990.
  5. JIN, Y. S., KIM, G. J, JEON, S. G. Terahertz dielectric properties of polymers. Journal of the Korean Physical Society, 2006, vol. 49, no. 2, p.513-517. Available at: http://jkps.kps.or.kr/home/journal/library/journal.asp

Keywords: Dielectric constant, Permittivity, Loss tangent, S-parameters, Material measurement.

M. Stella, M. Russo, D. Begusić [references] [full-text]
RF Localization in Indoor Environment

In this paper indoor localization system based on the RF power measurements of the Received Signal Strength (RSS) in WLAN environment is presented. Today, the most viable solution for localization is the RSS fingerprinting based approach, where in order to establish a relationship between RSS values and location, different machine learning approaches are used. The advantage of this approach based on WLAN technology is that it does not need new infrastructure (it reuses already and widely deployed equipment), and the RSS measurement is part of the normal operating mode of wireless equipment. We derive the Cramer-Rao Lower Bound (CRLB) of localization accuracy for RSS measurements. In analysis of the bound we give insight in localization performance and deployment issues of a localization system, which could help designing an efficient localization system. To compare different machine learning approaches we developed a localization system based on an artificial neural network, k-nearest neighbors, probabilistic method based on the Gaussian kernel and the histogram method. We tested the developed system in real world WLAN indoor environment, where realistic RSS measurements were collected. Experimental comparison of the results has been investigated and average location estimation error of around 2 meters was obtained.

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Keywords: Indoor localization, Received Signal Strength (RSS), Cramer-Rao Lower Bound (CRLB), location fingerprints

O. Moravek, K. Hoffmann [references] [full-text]
Measurement and Simulation of Coaxial to Microstrip Transitions' Radiation Properties and Substrate Influence

A radiation and electro-magnetic (EM) field analysis of coaxial-to-microstrip transitions is presented. Radiation is quantified by simulation and measurement of a crosstalk between two Omni-Spectra's transitions using microstrip 'open' calibration standards at different positions. Simulation results are compared to the measured data and good agreement is reported on two different substrates. The evaluation method which is used to analyze quality of the transition and its radiation properties was already developed and verified on a grounded coplanar waveguide (CPWG) transmission line. Results can be used to estimate uncertainty budget of the calibrated measurement with respect to the measured radiation. Results on different substrates show interesting behaviour and can prove useful when choosing suitable substrate for specific test-fixture.

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Keywords: Microstrip, measurement standards, microwave measurement, microwave propagation, electromagnetic fields, radiation effects.

J. Podzemsky, V. Papez, J. Urbanek, K. Dusek [references] [full-text]
Influence of Intermetallic Compounds on RF Resistance of Joints Soldered with Lead Free Alloys

During soldering process intermetallic compounds as a reaction between solder and substrate are created. Physical properties of those compounds are different to properties of solder and substrate. The influence of intermetallic compounds (IMC) on radio frequency resistance of soldered joint has been identified. Tested solders were lead free Sn-1Cu, Sn-4Ag and Sn-3.8Ag-0.7Cu and lead containing Sn-37Pb (all in weight percent). Samples were annealed up to 3000 hours at 150 °C to accelerated growing of IMC. Radio frequency measuring method has been developed and is described. Influence of IMC on resistance of joint is growing with growing frequency because IMC with slightly different resistivity to base solder is creating barrier to current. Resistance of joints has been measured up to 3 GHz.

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Keywords: RF resistance, intermetallic compounds, lead free alloys

M. M. Riaz, A. Ghafoor [references] [full-text]
Fuzzy Logic and Singular Value Decomposition based Through Wall Image Enhancement

Singular value decomposition based through wall image enhancement is proposed which is capable of discriminating target, noise and clutter signals. The overlapping boundaries of clutter, noise and target signals are separated using fuzzy logic. Fuzzy inference engine is used to assign weights to different spectral components. K-means clustering is used for suitable selection of fuzzy parameters. Proposed scheme significantly works well for extracting multiple targets in heavy cluttered through wall images. Simulation results are compared on the basis of mean square error, peak signal to noise ratio and visual inspection.

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Keywords: Through wall imaging, Image enhancement, Singular value decomposition, Fuzzy logic, K-means clustering

A. A. Kucharski [references] [full-text]
Wideband Characteristic Basis Functions in Radiation Problems

In this paper, the use of characteristic basis function (CBF) method, augmented by the application of asymptotic waveform evaluation (AWE) technique is analyzed in the context of the application to radiation problems. Both conventional and wideband CBFs are applied to the analysis of wire and planar antennas.

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Keywords: Asymptotic waveform evaluation, characteristic basis functions, integral equations, moment methods

T. Hongnara, C. Mahattanajatuphat, P. Akkaraekthalin, M. Krairiksh [references] [full-text]
A Multiband CPW-Fed Slot Antenna with Fractal Stub and Parasitic Line

This paper presents a multiband CPW-fed slot antenna with fractal stub and parasitic line. The conventional wideband slot antenna with fractal stub is modified by inserting the parasitic line surrounding the fractal stub that affects the attribution to be a multiband operation suitable for some applications in wireless communication systems. The parasitic line surrounding the fractal stub can generate a dual-notched frequency that can be controlled by varying the parameters of the parasitic structure. The lengths of slit and stub on both sides of the parasitic line can control the lower and higher notched frequencies, respectively. Additionally, the prototype of the proposed antenna can operate and cover the applications of DCS 1800, WiMAX IEEE 802.16, WLAN IEEE 802.11a/b/g, and IMT advance systems

  1. LIU, Z.-Y., YIN, Y.-Z., ZHENG, S.-F., HU, W., WEN, L.-H. A compact CPW-fed monopole antenna with a U-shaped strip and a pair of L-slits ground for WLAN and WIMAX application. Progress In Electromagnetic Research Letters, 2010, vol. 16, p. 11-19.
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  3. HSIEH, H.-W., LEE, Y.-C., TIONG, K.-K., SUN, J.-S. Design of a multiband antenna for mobile handset operations. IEEE Antennas and Wireless Propagation Letter, 2009, vol. 8, p. 200 – 203.
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  7. QI LUO, SALGADO, H. M., PEREIRA, J. R. Printed fractal monopole antenna array for WLAN. In Proceeding of International Workshop on Antenna Technology (iWAT), 2010, p. 1-4.
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  11. KRISHNA, D. D., GOPIKRISHNA, M., ANNANDAN, C. K., MOHANAN, P., VASUDENAN, K. Compact wideband Koch fractal printed slot antenna. IET Microw. Antennas Propag., 2009, vol.3, no. 5, p. 782 – 789.
  12. HONGNARA, T., MAHATTHANAJATUPHAT, M., AKKARAETHALIN, P. Study of CPW-fed slot antenna with fractal stub. Proceeding of Electrical Engineering/Electronics, Computer, Telecommunications and Information Technology Conference (ECTI-CON). 2011, p. 188 – 191.
  13. YANG, Y., YIN, Y.-Z., WEI, Y.-Q., LIU, B.-W., SUN, A.-F. A circular wide-slot antenna with dual band-notched characteristics for UWB applications. Progress In Electromagnetic Research Letters, 2011, vol. 23, p. 237-145.
  14. TAHERI, M. M. S., HASSANI, H. R., NEZHAD, S. M. A. UWB printed slot antenna with Bluetooth and dual notch bands. IEEE Antennas and Wireless Propagation Letter, 2011, vol. 10, p. 254 to 258.

Keywords: Multiband slot antenna, fractal stub, parasitic line.

Hui-yong Zeng, Guang-ming Wang, Zhong-wu Yu, Xiao-kuan Zhang, Tian-peng Li [references] [full-text]
Miniaturization of Branch-Line Coupler Using Composite Right/Left-Handed Transmission Lines with Novel Meander-shaped-slots CSSRR

A novel compact-size branch-line coupler using composite right/left-handed transmission lines is proposed in this paper. In order to obtain miniaturization, composite right/left-handed transmission lines with novel complementary split single ring resonators which are realized by loading a pair of meander-shaped-slots in the split of the ring are designed. This novel coupler occupies only 22.8% of the area of the conventional approach at 0.7 GHz. The proposed coupler can be implemented by using the standard printed-circuit-board etching processes without any implementation of lumped elements and via-holes, making it very useful for wireless communication systems. The agreement between measured and stimulated results validates the feasible configuration of the proposed coupler.

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Keywords: Branch-line coupler, complementary split single ring resonators, composite right/left-handed transmission lines, meander-shaped-slots, miniaturization.

S. Chaimool, P. Akkaraekthalin [references] [full-text]
Miniaturized Wideband Bandpass Filter with Wide Stopband using Metamaterial-based Resonator and Defected Ground Structure

This paper presents a miniaturized wideband bandpass filter with wide stopband performance. It is shown that the coupled metamaterial-based resonators (MBRs) incorporating with the defected ground structure (DGS) can significantly increase the coupling value to achieve wideband bandpass filter. This technique has been extended to realize wideband bandpass filter having fractional bandwidth of 63 % and low insertion loss in the passband. To further suppress the spurious harmonics and upper stopband, the combining of the zero-degree feed structure and embedded slot-loaded resonators in both input and output ports is introduced. The proposed filter has not only compact size but also good out-of-band response. The experimental results are demonstrated and discussed.

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Keywords: Wideband bandpass filter, Metamaterial, Suppress harmonics, Upper stopband, Defected ground structure

E. S. Ahmed [references] [full-text]
Dual-Mode Dual-Band Microstrip Bandpass Filter Based on Fourth Iteration T-Square Fractal and Shorting Pin

A new class of dual mode microstrip fractal resonator is proposed and developed for miniaturization of the dual band bandpass filter. The perimeter of the proposed resonator is increased by employing fourth iteration T-square fractal shape. Consequently the lower resonant frequency of the filter is decreased without increasing the usable space. The self similarity of the usable structure enables it to produce the two degenerate modes which are coupled using the proper perturbation technique. The shorting pin is placed at the null in the surface current distribution at the center of the resonator. This shorting pin is coactively coupled to the resonant circuit of the resonator, effectively coupled to the lower degenerate mode and reduces the lower edge band resonant frequency. By adjusting the resonator dimensions and the size of the shorting pin, the resonant frequency and the out-of-band rejection around the transmission bands can be controlled to meet the design requirements. The simulated response of the designed filter has two transmission bands, the first band is from 2.34-3.65 GHz with resonant frequencies at 2.47GHz and 3.55GHz, the second band is from 4.37-5.324GHz with resonant frequencies at 4.5GHz and 5.13GHz. In the pass bands, the group delay is less than 0.65 ns. The proposed filter can be applied to WLAN (2.4 GHz and 5.2 GHz) and WiMAX (3.5 GHz) and Bluetooth and ZigBee (4.9 GHz).

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Keywords: Microstrip filter, fractals, dual-mode filter, dual-band filter, shorting pin

S. Sheikh Muhammad, H. Mehmood, A. Naseem, A. Abbas [references] [full-text]
Hybrid Coding Technique for Pulse Detection in an Optical Time Domain Reflectometer

The paper introduces a novel hybrid coding technique for improved pulse detection in an optical time domain reflectometer. The hybrid schemes combines Simplex codes with signal averaging to articulate a very sophisticated coding technique that considerably reduces the processing time to extract specified coding gains in comparison to the existing techniques. The paper quantifies the coding gain of the hybrid scheme mathematically and provide simulative results in direct agreement with the theoretical performance. Furthermore, the hybrid scheme has been tested on our self-developed OTDR.

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Keywords: Optical Time Domain Reflectometer (OTDR), signal averaging, Golay codes , Simplex codes , pulse detection, composite coding scheme.

V. Jenik, P. Hudec, P. Panek [references] [full-text]
Noise Parameters of CW Radar Sensors Used in Active Defense Systems

Active defense represents an innovative way of protecting military vehicles. It is based on the employment of a set of radar sensors which detect an approaching threat missile and activate a suitable counter-measure. Since the radar sensors are supposed to detect flying missiles very fast and, at the same time, distinguish them from stationary or slow-moving objects, CW Doppler radar sensors can be employed with a benefit. The submitted article deals with a complex noise analysis of this type of sensors. The analysis considers the noise of linear and quasi-linear RF components, phase-noise of the local oscillator as well as the noise of low-frequency circuits. Since the incidence of the phase-noise depends strongly upon the time delay between the reference and the cross-talked signals, a new method of measuring noise parameters utilizing a reflecting wall has been developed and verified. The achieved results confirm potentially high influence of the phase-noise on the noise parameters of the mentioned type of radar sensors. Obtained results can be used for the analysis of noise parameters of the similar but even more complex sensors.

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Keywords: CW radar sensor, noise parameters, noise measurement, active defense

A. H. Muqaibel., N. M. Iya, U. M. Johar [references] [full-text]
Wall Compensation for Ultra Wideband Applications

Due to their low frequency contents, ultra wideband (UWB) signals have the ability to penetrate walls and obstacles. As the signal propagates through these obstacles, it gets attenuated, slows down, and gets dispersed. This paper demonstrates wall compensation for through-wall imaging, localization and communication receiver design purposes by first characterizing wave propagation through various building materials in the UWB frequency range. Knowledge of the walls obtained from the wall characterization is used to estimate and correct the position accuracy of a target object located behind the walls using three proposed methods namely; constant amplitude and delay (CDL), frequency dependent data (FFD), and data fitting methods (FIT). The obtained results indicated relatively acceptable measure of wall compensation for the three methods. Results from such work provide insight on how to develop algorithms for effective target position estimation in imaging and localization applications. They are also useful for channel modelling and link budget analysis.

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Keywords: Wall compensation; localization; UWB; through-wall imaging.

O. Jakubov, P. Kacmarik, P. Kovar, F. Vejrazka [references] [full-text]
Universality and Realistic Extensions to the Semi-Analytic Simulation Principle in GNSS Signal Processing

Semi-analytic simulation principle in GNSS signal processing bypasses the bit-true operations at high sampling frequency. Instead, signals at the output branches of the integrate&dump blocks are successfully modeled, thus making extensive Monte Carlo simulations feasible. Methods for simulations of code and carrier tracking loops with BPSK, BOC signals have been introduced in the literature. Matlab toolboxes were designed and published. In this paper, we further extend the applicability of the approach. Firstly, we describe any GNSS signal as a special instance of linear multi-dimensional modulation. Thereby, we state universal framework for classification of differently modulated signals. Using such description, we derive the semi-analytic models generally. Secondly, we extend the model for realistic scenarios including delay in the feed back, slowly fading multipath effects, finite bandwidth, phase noise, and a combination of these. Finally, a discussion on connection of this semi-analytic model and position-velocity-time estimator is delivered, as well as comparison of theoretical and simulated characteristics, produced by a prototype simulator developed at CTU in Prague.

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Keywords: AltBOC, BPSK, BOC, GNSS, post-correlation modeling, semi-analytic simulation, tracking loops

H. H. Chen, W. M. Jia, M. L. Yao [references] [full-text]
Cross-Correlation-Function-Based Multipath Mitigation Method for Sine-BOC Signals

Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS) positioning accuracy indoor and urban canyons environments are greatly affected by multipath due to distortions in its autocorrelation function. In this paper, a cross-correlation function between the received sine phased Binary Offset Carrier (sine-BOC) modulation signal and the local signal is studied firstly, and a new multipath mitigation method based on cross-correlation function for sine-BOC signal is proposed. This method is implemented to create a cross-correlation function by designing the modulated symbols of the local signal. The theoretical analysis and simulation results indicate that the proposed method exhibits better multipath mitigation performance compared with the traditional Double Delta Correlator (DDC) techniques, especially the medium/long delay multipath signals, and it is also convenient and flexible to implement by using only one correlator, which is the case of low-cost mass-market receivers.

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Keywords: GNSS, Multipath, BOC, DDC

J. Spacek, M. Kasal [references] [full-text]
The Model of the Low Rate Telemetry Communication System for Matlab-Simulink

This article is dedicated to the model of low rate telemetry system, which has been developed for Matlab-Simulink environment. The purpose of this model is a research of the low rate telemetry transmission reliability in those cases where the modulation scheme carrier-subcarrier is used. This modulation scheme is widely used in case of the interplanetary spacecrafts. The main purpose of the model is a research of the effects of AWGN and phase noise especially for very low value of Eb/N0. Effects can be evaluated for the whole transmission system or for its components parts. The model described is very versatile and it can be easily modified or expanded.

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Keywords: Simulation, data transmission system, telemetry, carrier-subcarrier, BPSK/BPSK, very low Eb/No, AWGN, phase noise

Zs. A. Polgar, M. P. Stef, Zs. I. Kiss, A. Hosu, V. Bota [references] [full-text]
Improving Link Reliability through Network Coding in Cooperative Cellular Networks

The paper proposes a XOR-based network coded cooperation protocol for the uplink transmission of relay assisted cellular networks and an algorithm for selection and assignment of the relay nodes. The performances of the cooperation protocol are expressed in terms of network decoder outage probability and Block Error Rate of the cooperating users. These performance indicators are analyzed theoretically and by computer simulations. The relay nodes assignment is based on the optimization, according to several criteria, of the graph that describes the cooperation cluster formed after an initial selection of the relay nodes. The graph optimization is performed using Genetic Algorithms adapted to the topology of the cooperation cluster and the optimization criteria considered.

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Keywords: Cooperative transmission, genetic algorithms, graph optimization, network coding, relay assignment

N. Tafaghodi Khajavi, S. M. S. Sadough [references] [full-text]
Achievable Outage Rates In Cognitive Radio Networks under Imperfect Spectrum Sensing

In this paper, we aim at deriving the outage rates achieved by the primary user due spectrum sensing in a cognitive radio network, that we call sensing-induced primary outage rates. To reach this goal, in the first step, instead of classical spectrum sensing techniques that evaluate sensing performance only based on correct detection of the presence of the primary user’s signal, we propose a modified framework that also takes into account the correct detection of the absence of primary user’s signal for spectrum sensing performance evaluation. In a second step, we derive the information rates achieved by the coexistence of a primary and a cognitive network. In the last step, assuming slow fading sensing channels, we derive the sensing-induced primary outage rates, i.e., outage rates achieved by the primary network in the presence of a CR with imperfect spectrum sensing, characterized by a given miss-detection probability. Numerical results show that the proposed spectrum sensing outperforms conventional spectrum sensing techniques in terms of primary signal outage rates and total achievable throughputs, without any increase in the cognitive radio complexity.

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Keywords: Cognitive Radio, outage capacity, imperfect spectrum sensing, achievable throughputs

U.A.K. Chude-Okonkwo, R. Ngah, C.Y. Leow, T.A. Rahman [references] [full-text]
Time-Scale Domain Characterization of Time-Varying Ultrawideband Infostation Channel

The time-scale domain geometrical-based method for the characterization of the time varying ultrawideband (UWB) channel typical of an infostation channel is presented. Compared to methods that use Doppler shift as a measure of time-variation in the channel this model provides a more reliable measure of frequency dispersion caused by terminal mobility in the UWB infostation channel. Particularly, it offers carrier frequency independent method of computing wideband channel responses and parameters which are important for ultrawideband systems. Results show that the frequency dispersion of the channel depends on the frequency and not on the choice of bandwidth. And time dispersion depends on bandwidth and not on the frequency. It is also shown that for time-varying UWB, frame length defined over the coherence time obtained with reference to the carrier frequency results in an error margin which can be reduced by using the coherence time defined with respect to the maximum frequency in a given frequency band. And the estimation of the frequency offset using the time-scale domain (wideband) model presented here (especially in the case of multiband UWB frequency synchronization) is more accurate than using frequency offset estimate obtained from narrowband models.

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Keywords: Ultrawideband, time-scale, geometrical model, time-varying, coherence time, frequency offset

J.-M. Wu, C.-H. Yeh, C.-J. Chuang [references] [full-text]
High Dynamic Range RF Front End with Noise Cancellation and Linearization for WiMAX Receivers

This research deals with verification of the high dynamic range for a heterodyne radio frequency (RF) front end. A 2.6 GHz RF front end is designed and implemented in a hybrid microwave integrated circuit (HMIC) for worldwide interoperability for microwave access (WiMAX) receivers. The heterodyne RF front end consists of a low-noise amplifier (LNA) with noise cancellation, an RF bandpass filter (BPF), a downconverter with linearization, and an intermediate frequency (IF) BPF. A noise canceling technique used in the low-noise amplifier eliminates a thermal noise and then reduces the noise figure (NF) of the RF front end by 0.9 dB. Use of a downconverter with diode linearizer also compensates for gain compression, which increases the input-referred third-order intercept point (IIP3) of the RF front end by 4.3 dB. The proposed method substantially increases the spurious-free dynamic range (DRf) of the RF front end by 3.5 dB.

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Keywords: Front end, low-noise amplifier (LNA), mixer, downconverter, heterodyne, receiver, radio frequency (RF)

M. Jain, M. Gupta, N. Jain [references] [full-text]
Linear Phase Second Order Recursive Digital Integrators and Differentiators

In this paper, design of linear phase second order recursive digital integrators and differentiators is discussed. New second order integrators have been designed by using Genetic Algorithm (GA) optimization method. Thereafter, by modifying the transfer function of these integrators appropriately, new digital differentiators have been obtained. The proposed digital integrators and differentiators accurately approximate the ideal ones and have linear phase response over almost entire Nyquist frequency range. The proposed operators also outperform the existing operators in terms of both magnitude and phase response.

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Keywords: Linear optimization, Genetic Algorithm optimization, digital integrator, digital differentiator

B. Metin, N. Herencsar, K. Vrba [references] [full-text]
A CMOS DCCII with a Grounded Capacitor Based Cascadable All-Pass Filter Application

The differential current conveyor (DCCII) is a versatile current-mode active element, which has a current differencing capability. In this study, a new CMOS DCCII implementation is introduced. As an application example, a novel voltage-mode (VM) first-order all-pass filter (APF) is presented. The proposed VM APF employs two resistors, grounded capacitor and has high-input impedance for cascadability. Simulation and experimental results are given to verify the operation of the circuit.

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Keywords: All-pass filter, analog filter, differential current conveyor, DCCII, voltage-mode circuit

F. Khateb, N. Khatib, D. Kubanek [references] [full-text]
Low-Voltage Ultra-Low-Power Current Conveyor Based on Quasi-Floating Gate Transistors

The field of low-voltage low-power CMOS technology has grown rapidly in recent years; it is an essential prerequisite particularly for portable electronic equipment and implantable medical devices due to its influence on battery lifetime. Recently, significant improvements in implementing circuits working in the low-voltage low-power area have been achieved, but circuit designers face severe challenges when trying to improve or even maintain the circuit performance with reduced supply voltage. In this paper, a low-voltage ultra-low-power current conveyor second generation CCII based on quasi-floating gate transistors is presented. The proposed circuit operates at a very low supply voltage of only ±0.4 V with rail-to-rail voltage swing capability and a total quiescent power consumption of mere 9.5 µW. Further, the proposed circuit is not only able to process the AC signal as it's usual at quasi-floating gate transistors but also the DC which extends the applicability of the proposed circuit. In conclusion, an application example of the current-mode quadrature oscillator is presented. PSpice simulation results using the 0.18 µm TSMC CMOS technology are included to confirm the attractive properties of the proposed circuit.

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Keywords: Quasi-floating gate MOST, low-voltage low-power MOST, CCII, quadrature oscillator.

N. Merz, W. Kiranon, C. Wongtachathum, P. Pawarangkoon, W. Narksarp [references] [full-text]
A Modified Bipolar Translinear Cell with Improved Linear Range and Its Applications

This paper presents a technique to extend the linear input voltage range of a sinh mixed translinear cell proposed by Fabre [1]. This technique extends the linear operation range of the circuit by inserting common-anode-connected pairs into the mixed translinear cell. Then the relationship between the output current and the input voltage is developed to be linear. The transconductance gain can be adjusted electronically while keeping its linearity. The performance of the proposed circuit is verified by mathematical analysis and by SPICE simulations. Finally, applications of the proposed cell in a floating resistor and a CCCII for designing an instrumentation amplifier are presented.

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Keywords: Analog Integrated Circuit, Translinear Circuit, Linearization, Transconductance

J. H. Jung, C. H. Kwak, J. S. Lee [references] [full-text]
Third-order Intermodulation Reduction in Mobile Power Amplifiers by the First Stage Bias Control

In this paper, the third order intermodulation distortion (IMD3) of three-stage power amplifier (PA) is analyzed using the Volterra series. The analysis explains how the total IMD3 of the three-stage power amplifier can be reduced by the first-stage bias condition. The three-stage PA, which is fabricated using InGaP/GaAs hetero-junction bipolar transistor (HBT), operates with an optimized first driver stage bias for higher P1dB and good gain flatness. The power amplifier has been designed for 1626.5 MHz~1660.5 MHz satellite mobile communications. With π/4 DQPSK modulation signals, this PA can deliver a highly linear output power of 33 dBm from 3.6V supply voltage. At 33 dBm output power, it shows a gain of 31.9 dB, a power-added efficiency (PAE) of 39.8%, an adjacent channel power ratio (ACPR) of -28.2 dBc at a 31.25 KHz offset frequency.

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Keywords: Satellite mobile phone, first driver stage bias, three-stage power amplifier (PA), high 1 dB gain compression point, IMD reduction

Q.Z. Wan, C.H. Wang, F. Yu [references] [full-text]
Design of a 2.4 GHz High-Performance Up-Conversion Mixer with Current Mirror Topology

In this paper, a low voltage low power up-conversion mixer, designed in a Chartered 0.18 μm RFCMOS technology, is proposed to realize the transmitter front-end in the frequency band of 2.4 GHz. The up-conversion mixer uses the current mirror topology and current-bleeding technique in both the driver and switching stages with a simple degeneration resistor. The proposed mixer converts an input of 100 MHz intermediate frequency (IF) signal to an output of 2.4 GHz radio frequency (RF) signal, with a local oscillator (LO) power of 2 dBm at 2.3 GHz. A comparison with conventional CMOS up-conversion mixer shows that this mixer has advantages of low voltage, low power consumption and high-performance. The post-layout simulation results demonstrate that at 2.4 GHz, the circuit has a conversion gain of 7.1 dB, an input-referred third-order intercept point (IIP3) of 7.3 dBm and a noise figure of 11.9 dB, while drawing only 3.8 mA for the mixer core under a supply voltage of 1.2 V. The chip area including testing pads is only 0.62×0.65 mm2.

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Keywords: CMOS, up-conversion mixer, current mirror, current-bleeding, low voltage, low power.

V. Banoci, G. Bugar, D. Levicky, Z. Klenovicova [references] [full-text]
A novel JPEG steganography method based on modulus function with histogram analysis

In this paper, we present a novel steganographic method for embedding of secret data in still grayscale JPEG image. In order to provide large capacity of the proposed method while maintaining good visual quality of stego-image, the embedding process is performed in quantized transform coefficients of Discrete Cosine transform (DCT) by modifying coefficients according to modulo function, what gives to the steganography system blind extraction predisposition. After-embedding histogram of proposed Modulo Histogram Fitting (MHF) method is analyzed to secure steganography system against steganalysis attacks. In addition, AES ciphering was implemented to increase security and improve histogram after-embedding characteristics of proposed steganography system as experimental results show.

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Keywords: 2D-DCT, modulo function, JPEG, steganography, histogram, AES encryption.

J. Zhang, Y. Lin, Q. Wu, W. Che [references] [full-text]
Watermarking FPGA Bitfile for Intellectual Property Protection

Intellectual property protection (IPP) of hardware designs is the most important requirement for many Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) intellectual property (IP) vendors. Digital watermarking has become an innovative technology for IPP in recent years. Existing watermarking techniques have successfully embedded watermark into IP cores. However, many of these techniques share two specific weaknesses: 1) They have extra overhead, and are likely to degrade performance of design; 2) vulnerability to removing attacks. We propose a novel watermarking technique to watermark FPGA bitfile for addressing these weaknesses. Experimental results and analysis show that the proposed technique incurs zero overhead and it is robust against removing attacks.

  1. CUI, A., CHANG, C. H., TAHAR, S. A robust FSM watermarking scheme for IP protection of sequential circuit design. IEEE Transactions on Computer-Aided Design of Integrated Circuits and Systems, 2011, vol. 30, no. 5, p. 678-690.
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  7. KAHNG, A B., LACH, J., MANGIONE-SMITH, W. H., MANTIK, S., MARKOV, I. L., POTKONJAK, M., TUCKER, P., WANG, H., WOLFE, G. Constraint-based watermarking techniques for design IP protection. IEEE Transactions on Computer- Aided Design of Integrated Circuits and Systems, 2001, vol. 20, no. 10, p. 1236-1252.
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  12. CUI, A., CHANG, C. H., TAHAR S. IP watermarking using incremental technology mapping at logic synthesis level. IEEE Transactions on Computer-Aided Design of Integrated Circuits and Systems, 2008, vol. 27, no. 9, p. 1565-1570.
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  20. LI, Q., MEMON, N., SENCAR, H. T. Security issues in watermarking applications - A deeper look. In Proceedings of the 4th ACM International Workshop on Contents Protection and Security. New York (USA), 2006, p. 23–28.
  21. OLIVEIRA, A. L. Techniques for the creation of digital watermarks in sequential circuit designs. IEEE Transactions on Computer-Aided Design of Integrated Circuits and Systems, 2001, vol. 20, no. 9, p. 1101-1117.

Keywords: Field programmable gate array (FPGA), Intellectual property protection (IPP), watermarking.

S. Pejoski, V. Kafedziski [references] [full-text]
Downlink Video Streaming for Users Non-Equidistant from Base Station

We consider multiuser video transmission for users that are non-equidistantly positioned from base station. We propose a greedy algorithm for video streaming in a wireless system with capacity achieving channel coding, that implements the cross-layer principle by partially separating the physical and the application layer. In such a system the parameters at the physical layer are dependent on the packet length and the conditions in the wireless channel and the parameters at the application layer are dependent on the reduction of the expected distortion assuming no packet errors in the system. We also address the fairness in the multiuser video system with non-equidistantly positioned users. Our fairness algorithm is based on modified opportunistic round robin scheduling. We evaluate the performance of the proposed algorithms by simulating the transmission of H.264/AVC video signals in a TDMA wireless system.

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Keywords: Multiuser video streaming, non-equidistant users, cross-layer, outage probability, fairness, H.264/AVC