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Radioengineering

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Proceedings of Czech and Slovak Technical Universities

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September 2013, Volume 22, Number 3

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A. A. Kucharski [references] [full-text]
Application of the CBF Method to the Scattering by Combinations of Bodies of Revolution and Arbitrarily Shaped Structures

In this paper, an algorithm is described which enables efficient analysis of electromagnetic scattering by configurations consisting of arbitrarily shaped conducting bodies and conducting bodies of revolution (BoR). The well-known problem resulting from the loss of azimuthal mode decoupling, when in addition to BoR geometry there exists a body that does not belong to the rotational symmetry of the BoR, is circumvented by the use of characteristic basis function (CBF) method. This however requires careful implementation of the method in order to obtain stable and efficient procedure.

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  5. KUCHARSKI, A. A. A method of moments solution for electromagnetic scattering by inhomogeneous dielectric bodies of revolution. IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation, 2000, vol. 48, no. 8, p. 1202 - 1210.
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  10. SULLIVAN, A., CARIN, L. Scattering from complex bodies using a combined direct and iterative technique. IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation, 1999, vol. 47, no. 1, p. 33 - 39.
  11. PRAKASH, V. V. S., MITTRA, R. Characteristic basis function method: a new technique for efficient solution of method of moments matrix equation. Microwave and Optical Technology Letters, 2003, vol. 36, no. 2, p. 95 - 100.
  12. MITTRA, R., DU, K. Characteristic basis function method for iteration-free solution of large method of moments problems. Progress In Electromagnetics Research B, 2008, vol. 6, p. 307 - 336.
  13. MITTRA, R., LI, S., MA, J.-F. Solving large Body of Revolution (BOR) problems using the Characteristic Basis Function Method and the FFT-based matrix generation. In IEEE Antennas and Propagation Society International Symposium. Albuquerque (NM, USA), 2006, p. 3879 - 3882.
  14. WILTON, D. R. Computational Methods. PIKE, R., SABATIER, P. (Eds.) Scattering, ch. 1.5.5, Academic Press, 2002.
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  19. ERGUL, O ., GUREL, L. Iterative Solution of Composite Problems with the Combined-Field Integral Equation. In Proceedings of the 36th European Microwave Conference, 2006, p. 239 - 240.
  20. KUCHARSKI, A. A. Wideband characteristic basis functions in radiation problems. Radioengineering, 2012, vol. 21, no. 2, p. 590 - 596.

Keywords: Method of moments, characteristic basis functions, body of revolution.

R. Kopru, H. Kuntman, B. S. Yarman [references] [full-text]
Novel Approach to Design Ultra Wideband Microwave Amplifiers: Normalized Gain Function Method

In this work, we propose a novel approach called as “Normalized Gain Function (NGF) method” to design low/medium power single stage ultra wide band microwave amplifiers based on linear S parameters of the active device. Normalized Gain Function TNGF is defined as the ratio of T and |S21|^2, desired shape or frequency response of the gain function of the amplifier to be designed and the shape of the transistor forward gain function, respectively. Synthesis of input/output matching networks (IMN/OMN) of the amplifier requires mathematically generated target gain functions to be tracked in two different nonlinear optimization processes. In this manner, NGF not only facilitates a mathematical base to share the amplifier gain function into such two distinct target gain functions, but also allows their precise computation in terms of TNGF=T/|S21|^2 at the very beginning of the design. The particular amplifier presented as the design example operates over 800-5200 MHz to target GSM, UMTS, Wi-Fi and WiMAX applications. An SRFT (Simplified Real Frequency Technique) based design example supported by simulations in MWO (MicroWave Office from AWR Corporation) is given using a 1400mW pHEMT transistor, TGF2021-01 from TriQuint Semiconductor.

  1. KOPRU, R., KUNTMAN, H., YARMAN, B. S. Design of an ultra wideband microwave amplifier using simplified real frequency technique. In 12th Mediterranean Microwave Symposium MMS2012. Doğuş University, Istanbul (Turkey), September 2–5 2012.
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  7. YARMAN, B. S. Design of Ultra Wideband Power Transfer Networks. John Wiley & Sons Ltd., UK, 2010.
  8. YARMAN, B. S. Design of Ultra Wideband Antenna Matching Networks Via Simplified Real Frequency Techniques. Springer, 2008.
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Keywords: Ultra wideband microwave amplifiers, Simplified Real Frequency Technique (SRFT), small signal scattering parameters, matching networks, Chebyshev approximation,nonlinear optimization, Matlab, Microwave Office (AWR)

P. Kumar, C. C. Tripathi [references] [full-text]
Design of a New Step-like Frame FBAR for Suppression of Spurious Resonances

Film bulk acoustic wave resonators (FBARs) are of great interest for wireless applications due to its inherent advantages at microwave frequencies. However, the presence of spurious modes near the main resonance degrades the performance of resonators and requires development of new methods to suppress such unwanted modes. Different techniques are used to suppress these spurious modes. In this paper, we present design of a new step-like frame structure film bulk acoustic wave resonator operating near 1.5 GHz. The simulated results are compared with simple frame-like structure. The spurious resonances are eliminated effectively and smooth pass band is obtained with effective coupling coefficient of 5.68% and quality factor of 1800. The equivalent electrical mBVD model of the FBAR based on impedance response is also presented. These highly smooth phase response and passband skirt steepness resonators are most demanding for the design of low cost, small size and high performance filters, duplexers and oscillators for wireless systems.

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  2. MAHON, S., AIGNER, R. Bulk acoustic wave devices – why, how, and where they are going. In CS MANTECH Conference. Austin, Texas (USA), May 14 - 17, 2007, p. 15 – 18.
  3. VERDU, J., PACO, P., MENENDEZ, O. Electric equivalent circuit for the thickended edge load solution in a bulk accoustic wave resonator. Progress in Electromagnetics Research M, 2010, vol. 11, p. 13 – 23.
  4. LARSON, J., RUBY, R., BRADLEY, P. Method for reducing lateral modes in FBARs. U.S. Patent 6215375.
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  6. KAITILA, J., YLILAMMI, M., ELLA, J., AIGNER, R. Spurious resonance free bulk acoustic wave resonators. In Proceeding of IEEE Ultrasonics Symposium, 2003, p. 84 – 87.
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  8. OHARA, R., YANASE, N., YASUMOTO, T., KAWASE, M., MASUKO, S., OHNO, T., SANO, K. Suppression of acoustic energy leakage in FBARs with Al bottom electrode: FEM simulation and experimental results. In IEEE Ultrasonics Symposium, 2007, p. 1657 - 1660.
  9. YANG, W., TAM, W. Spurious wave suppression in BAW resonators with frame-like airgap. In IEEE International Frequency Control Symposium, June 1 - 4, 2010, p. 656 – 660.
  10. ROSEN, D., BJURSTROM, J., KATARDJIEV, I. Suppression of spurious lateral modes in thickness-excited FBAR resonators. IEEE Transactions on Ultrasonics, Ferroelectrics and Frequency Control, July, 2005, vol. 52, no. 7, p. 1189 – 1192.
  11. LEE, S. Y. Optimum resonant conditions of stepped impedance resonators. In European Microwave Conference, 2005.
  12. LANZ, R., MURALT, P. Bandpass filters for 8 GHz using solidly mounted bulk acoustic wave resonators. IEEE Transactions on Ultrasonics, Ferroelectrics and Frequency Control, June 2005, vol. 52, no. 6, p. 936 – 946.
  13. CAMPANELLA, H. Acoustic Wave and Electromechanical Resonators: Concept to Key Applications. Norwood: Artech House, 2010.

Keywords: Film Bulk Acoustic Wave Resonator, step-like frame, spurious resonance, effective coupling coefficient, COMSOL Multiphysics

C. Y. Pan, J. Y. Jan, L. C. Wang [references] [full-text]
Compact and Broadband Microstrip-Line-Fed Modified Rhombus Slot Antenna

The printed microstrip-line-fed broadband rhombus slot antenna is investigated in this paper. With the use of the offset microstrip feed line and the corner-truncated protruded ground plane, the bandwidth enhancement and the slot size reduction for the proposed slot antenna can be obtained. The experimental results demonstrate that the impedance bandwidth for 10 dB return loss reaches 5210 MHz (108.2%, 2210-7420 MHz), which is about 2.67 times of a conventional microstrip-line-fed rhombus slot antenna. This bandwidth can provide with the wireless communication services operating in wireless local area network (WLAN) and worldwide interoperability for microwave access (WiMAX) bands. Under the use of the protruded ground plane, the slot size can be reduced by about 52%. Details of simulated and measured results are presented and discussed.

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  8. LUI, W. J., CHENG, C. H., ZHU, H. B. Compact frequency notched ultra-wideband fractal printed slot antenna. IEEE Microwave and Wireless Components. Lett., 2003, vol. 16, no. 4, p. 224-226.
  9. TANG, I. T., LIN, D. B., LIOU, G. H., HORNG, J. H., LI, C. M. A compact slot UWB antenna with CPW-fed. In IEEE Antennas and Propagation International Symposium, June 2007, p. 5143 to 5146.
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  11. VERBIEST, J. R., VANDENBOSCH, G. A. E. Low-cost smallsize tapered slot antenna for lower band UWB applications. Electron. Lett., 2006, vol. 42, no. 12, p. 670-671.
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  14. YOON, J. H., LEE, Y. C. Modified bow-tie slot antenna for the 2.4/5.2/5.8 GHz WLAN bands with a rectangular tuning stub. Microw. Opt. Technol. Lett., 2011, vol. 53, no. 1, p. 126–130.
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Keywords: Rhombus slot antenna, protruded ground plane, WLAN/WiMAX.

J.W. Jayasinghe, J. Anguera , D. N. Uduwawala [references] [full-text]
Genetic Algorithm Optimization of a High-Directivity Microstrip Patch Antenna Having a Rectangular Profile

A single high-directivity microstrip patch antenna (MPA) having a rectangular profile, which can substitute a linear array is proposed. It is designed by using genetic algorithms with the advantage of not requiring a feeding network. The patch fits inside an area of 2.54λ x 0.25λ, resulting in a broadside pattern with a directivity of 12 dBi and a fractional impedance bandwidth of 4%. The antenna is fabricated and the measurements are in good agreement with the simulated results. The genetic MPA provides a similar directivity as linear arrays using a corporate or series feeding, with the advantage that the genetic MPA results in more bandwidth.

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Keywords: Directive antennas, genetic algorithms, linear antenna arrays, microstrip patch antennas, optimization.

M. H. Jamaluddin, T. A. Rahman, H. Mohamad, N. Ramli, M. T. Islam [references] [full-text]
Wideband Planar U-shaped Monopole Antenna with Meandering Technique for TV White Space Application

A novel wideband planar U-shaped antenna with meandering technique is proposed for TV White Space operation at 470 -798 MHz band. The antenna consists of a U-shaped antenna backed by a partial ground plane. The meandering technique is applied by inserting several slots at the bottom part of the U-shaped for bandwidth enhancement. An impedance bandwidth of 95.2% is achieved when the planar U-shaped antenna is added with 21 slots. The radiation pattern confirms that a good pattern stability are obtained. The antenna gain of 2.2dBi up to 4.6 dBi is achieved for the operational frequency from 470 MHz to 798 MHz.

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Keywords: U-shaped antenna, meandering technique, UHF antenna, TV white space, microstrip antenna

L. Aluigi, F. Alimenti, D. Pepe, L. Roselli, D. Zito [references] [full-text]
MIDAS: Automated Approach to Design Microwave Integrated Inductors and Transformers on Silicon

The design of modern radiofrequency integrated circuits on silicon operating at microwave and millimeter-waves requires the integration of several spiral inductors and transformers that are not commonly available in the process design-kits of the technologies. In this work we present an auxiliary CAD tool for Microwave Inductor (and transformer) Design Automation on Silicon (MIDAS) that exploits commercial simulators and allows the implementation of an automatic design flow, including three-dimensional layout editing and electromagnetic simulations. In detail, MIDAS allows the designer to derive a preliminary sizing of the inductor (transformer) on the bases of the design entries (specifications). It draws the inductor (transformer) layers for the specific process design kit, including vias and underpasses, with or without patterned ground shield, and launches the electromagnetic simulations, achieving effective design automation with respect to the traditional design flow for RFICs. With the present software suite the complete design time is reduced significantly (typically 1 hour on a PC based on Intel® Pentium® Dual 1.80GHz CPU with 2-GB RAM). Afterwards both the device equivalent circuit and the layout are ready to be imported in the Cadence environment.

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Keywords: Electromagnetic simulations, electronic design automation, inductors, integrated circuits, microwaves, silicon, transformers.

T. Stander, E. Diniz, S. Sinha [references] [full-text]
Experimental Study of Electrophoretic Deposited Carbon Nanotubes on Microstrip Transmission Line Resonators and Filters

The electrical properties of single-walled carbon nanotube electrophoreses deposition on different types of gold-plated microstrip devices are investigated. Simple transmission lines, transmission line resonators and filters were subjected to deposition of functionalized tubes in an aqueous solution. It is found that the process lowers the resonant frequency of the resonators and filters compared to the untreated devices, at the cost of increased insertion loss and reduced resonator Q-factor.

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Keywords: Carbon nanotubes, frequency response, microstrip filters, resonator filters, surface treatment

K. Annaram, S. Nithya [references] [full-text]
Investigation of Compact Low Pass Filter with Sharp Cut–Off using Metamaterial

In this paper a new compact microstrip Bessel low pass filter (LPF) is experimentally validated using complementary split ring resonator (CSRR) which has sharper cut-off and improved spurious band suppression characteristics. The Richard’s transformation and Kuroda’s identities are used for realizing distributed Bessel LPF from the lumped element Bessel LPF. Traditionally Butterworth and Chebyshev LPFs are used in communication systems. Those LPFs exhibits high reflection in the pass-band and it is also very difficult to achieve sharper cut-off. Because of its poor cut-off and non linear phase characteristics, it will create cross talk between microwave systems. In order to overcome the above issues our proposed LPF which has linear phase and sharper cut-off behavior is on ideal subsystem in future microwave systems. Furthermore, to prove its practical viability of the proposed design, a compact microstrip Bessel LPF was designed, simulated, fabricated and measured. It was observed from the experimentally compared results of the proposed Bessel LPF with CSRR has better sharper cut-off characteristic than the without CSRR structure.

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Keywords: Low-pass filter, spurious rejection, linear phase, complementary split ring resonators, resonators, microstrip filters, Bessel filter, microwave filters.

Guo-cheng Wu, Guang-ming Wang, Ya-wei Wang, Li-zhong Hu [references] [full-text]
A Compact Microstrip Low-Pass Filter Using D-CRLH Transmission Line with Ultra-Wide Stopband and High Selectivity

A novel structure of dual-composite right/left-handed transmission line (D-CRLH TL) is proposed and analyzed in this paper. The simulated reaults show that there is a stopband between the first right-handed passband and the left-handed passband of the proposed D-CRLH TL. This stopband characteristic is applied to improve the electromagnetic performances of low-pass filter (LPF). A planar compact microstrip LPF with ultra-wide stopband (UWSB) and high selectivity is designed, fabricated and measured. The measured and simulated results are in good agreement with each other, indicating that this design method is effective and successful. The measured results show that the cut-off frequency of the LPF in this paper is 3.68 GHz, the stopband with insertion loss of more than 20 dB is from 3.84GHz to 20.21GHz (136.1%), and the sharpness is 106.25dB/GHz. Compared with the previous works of references, the LPF in this paper has less insertion loss, greater stop-bandwidth and better sharpness. Besides, this LPF also realizes a 73% size reduction in comparison with the same work in reference [14].

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Keywords: Dual-composite right/left-handed transmission line (D-CRLH-TL), low-pass filter (LPF), ultra-wide stopband (UWSB), high selectivity, miniaturization.

Z. Wang, S. Fang [references] [full-text]
ACPW Dual-Band Bandpass Filter with Independently Controllable Transmission Zeros

Compact dual-band bandpass filters with stepped-impedance conductor-backed asymmetric coplanar waveguide resonators are proposed, and synthesis formulas are derived to facilitate the design. By using an asymmetric topology, two additional transmission zeros are obtained. To further improve the selectivity, an embedded coplanar waveguide resonator is proposed to achieve two independently controllable transmission zeros. Two dual-band bandpass filters are designed and fabricated. The measured results validate the proposed design.

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Keywords: Dual-band bandpass filter, asymmetric coplanar waveguide, asymmetric topology, embedded CPW resonator, independently controllable transmission zeros.

D.N.A. Zaidel, S.K.A. Rahim, N. Seman, T.A. Rahman, R. Dewan, S.F. Ausordin, P.S. Hall [references] [full-text]
Mountain-Shaped Coupler for Ultra Wideband Applications

This paper demonstrates a novel mountain-shaped design for a compact 3-dB coupler operating at ultra-wideband (UWB) frequencies from 3.1GHz to 10.6 GHz. The proposed design was accomplished using multilayer technology in which the structure is formed by three layers of conductors interleaved by a layer of substrate between each conductor layer. Simulation was carried out using CST Microwave Studio; the result was then compared with results from rectangular and star-shaped couplers that implemented the same technique. The results obtained show that the proposed new coupler has better performance compared to both rectangular and star-shaped coupler designs in terms of return loss, isolation, and phase difference. The coupler was fabricated and measured; the measurement results satisfactorily agree with the simulation results.

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Keywords: Ultra-wideband frequency, coupler design, beam-forming, Butler matrix, multilayer technology

V. Prajzler, M. Neruda, J.Spirkova [references] [full-text]
Planar Large Core Polymer Optical 1x2 and 1x4 Splitters Connectable to Plastic Optical Fiber

We report about new approach to design and fabricate multimode 1 x 2 and 1 x 4 Y optical planar power splitter suitable for low-cost short distance optical network. The splitters were designed by beam propagation method using BeamPROP™ software. The dimensions of the splitters were optimized for connecting standard plastic optical fibre with 1 mm diameter. New Norland Optical Adhesives 1625 glues were used as optical waveguide layers and the design structures were completed by CNC engraving on poly(methyl methacrylate) substrate. The best parameters that were achieved with 1x2 splitter were insertion loss around 4.1dB at 650 nm and the coupling ratio 52:48; the best one of the 1x4 splitters had at 650 nm insertion loss around 17.6 dB.

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Keywords: Multimode 1x4 coupler, optical planar waveguide, polymer, beam propagation method

G. Horvat, S. Rimac-Drlje, D. Zagar [references] [full-text]
Fade Depth Prediction Using Human Presence for Real Life WSN Deployment

Current problem in real life WSN deployment is determining fade depth in indoor propagation scenario for link power budget analysis using (fade margin parameter). Due to the fact that human presence impacts the performance of wireless networks, this paper proposes a statistical approach for shadow fading prediction using various real life parameters. Considered parameters within this paper include statistically mapped human presence and the number of people through time compared to the received signal strength. This paper proposes an empirical model fade depth prediction model derived from a comprehensive set of measured data in indoor propagation scenario. It is shown that the measured fade depth has high correlations with the number of people in non-line-of-sight condition, giving a solid foundation for the fade depth prediction model. In line-of-sight conditions this correlations is significantly lower. By using the proposed model in real life deployment scenarios of WSNs, the data loss and power consumption can be reduced by the means of intelligently planning and designing Wireless Sensor Network.

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Keywords: Fade depth prediction, human presence, human density, received strength signal indicator, wireless sensor networks, ZigBee

N. M. Jizat, S.K.A.Rahim, M. Z. M. Nor, Y. Abdulrahman, M. I. Sabran, M. F. Jamlos [references] [full-text]
Beamforming Network Using Dual Band-Dual Beam Reduced Size Butler Matrices

The results of reduced- size cascaded Butler matrices developed for dual-band and dual-beam applications are presented in this paper. The meander-line technique, an acceptable approach for reducing the size of the radio frequency element, was proposed for reducing the size of coupler design. The proposed system is capable of covering wireless local area network (WLAN) frequencies operating at 2.45 GHz and 5.8 GHz. Compared to the conventional size, the proposed couplers were reduced in size by 63 % and 56 % at 2.45 GHz and 5.8 GHz, respectively. The proposed, cascaded Butler matrices have the ability to exhibit two types of beams, i.e., narrow and broad, by feeding the signal into the respective input port of the Butler matrix. The proposed design was etched from an inexpensive FR4 substrate. The methodology enabled the reduction of the area of the Butler matrix. A meander line with an area of 96 mm × 125 mm was used to replace the conventional, straight transmission line. This reduced the area of the Butler matrix by 36% compared to the conventional matrix. The actual measurements showed very good agreement with the results obtained from simulations.

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Keywords: Branch-line coupler, Butler matrix, cascaded Butler matrices, dual band, meander line, wireless communication.

O. Jakubov, P. Kovar, P. Kacmarik, F. Vejrazka [references] [full-text]
Distributed Extended Kalman Filter for Position, Velocity, Time, Estimation in Satellite Navigation Receivers

Common techniques for position-velocity-time estimation in satellite navigation, iterative least squares and the extended Kalman filter, involve matrix operations. The matrix inversion and inclusion of a matrix library pose requirements on a computational power and operating platform of the navigation processor. In this paper, we introduce a novel distributed algorithm suitable for implementation in simple parallel processing units each for a tracked satellite. Such a unit performs only scalar sum, subtraction, multiplication, and division. The algorithm can be efficiently implemented in hardware logic. Given the fast position-velocity-time estimator, frequent estimates can foster dynamic performance of a vector tracking receiver. The algorithm has been designed from a factor graph representing the extended Kalman filter by splitting vector nodes into scalar ones resulting in a cyclic graph with few iterations needed. Monte Carlo simulations have been conducted to investigate convergence and accuracy. Simulation case studies for a vector tracking architecture and experimental measurements with a real-time software receiver developed at CTU in Prague were conducted. The algorithm offers compromises in stability, accuracy, and complexity depending on the number of iterations. In scenarios with a large number of tracked satellites, it can outperform the traditional methods at low complexity.

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Keywords: Factor graph, GNSS, Kalman filter, PVT, sum-product algorithm

N. Nouri, N. Noori [references] [full-text]
Directional Relays for Multi-Hop Cooperative Cognitive Radio Networks

In this paper, we investigate power allocation and beamforming in a relay assisted cognitive radio (CR) network. Our objective is to maximize the performance of the CR network while limiting interference in the direction of the primary users (PUs). In order to achieve these goals, we first consider joint power allocation and beamforming for cognitive nodes in direct links. Then, we propose an optimal power allocation strategy for relay nodes in indirect transmissions. Unlike the conventional cooperative relaying networks, the applied relays are equipped with directional antennas to further reduce the interference to PUs and meet the CR network requirements. The proposed approach employs genetic algorithm (GA) to solve the optimization problems. Numerical simulation results illustrate the quality of service (QoS) satisfaction in both primary and secondary networks. These results also show that notable improvements are achieved in the system performance if the conventional omni-directional relays are replaced with directional ones.

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Keywords: Cognitive radio network, cooperative communication, power allocation, beamforming, directional transmission

S. Homayouni, S. A. Ghorashi [references] [full-text]
Modeling and Analysis of Sub-Banding the Secondary Users’ Channel in Cognitive Radio Networks

Modern cognitive radio systems employ dynamic spectrum access techniques and these networks allow more efficient usage of scarce spectrum. Secondary users are supposed to operate in primary users’ channels without interfering them. In this paper we propose, model and analyze a channel sub-banding scheme for an opportunistic spectrum sharing system in which two secondary users are allowed to coexist in a channel. In the proposed sharing scheme when all the channels are occupied by the primary and/or secondary users, the channels of the secondary users are divided into two sub bands allowing both of the secondary users exploit the same channel concurrently. The proposed model is analyzed through a two-dimensional Markov chain model and evaluated by different derived metrics including blocking probability and dropping rate. Although using the proposed scheme reduces the quality of service for secondary users because of sub-banding, simulation results show significant reduction in the blocking probability and dropping rate of the secondary users.

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Keywords: Dynamic spectrum access, cognitive radio, channel sub-banding, Markov chain, blocking probability, dropping rate

H. Fathi, S. M.-S. Sadough [references] [full-text]
Robust Power and Subcarrier Allocation for OFDM-based Cognitive Radio Networks Considering Spectrum Sensing Uncertainties

‎In this paper‎, ‎we address power and subcarrier allocation for cooperative cognitive radio (CR) networks in the presence of spectrum sensing errors‎. ‎First‎, ‎we derive the mutual interference of primary and secondary networks affecting each other by taking into account spectrum sensing errors‎. ‎Then‎, ‎taking into account the interference constraint imposed by the cognitive network to the primary user and the power budget constraint of cognitive network‎, ‎we maximize the achievable data rates of secondary users‎. ‎Besides‎, ‎in a multi secondary user scenario‎, ‎we propose a suboptimal but low complexity power and subcarrier allocation algorithm to solve the formulated optimization problem‎. ‎Our numerical results indicate that the proposed power loading scheme increases the cognitive achievable data rates compared to classical power loading algorithms that do not consider spectrum sensing errors‎.

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Keywords: Cognitive radio (CR)‎, ‎imperfect spectrum sensing‎, robust algorithm‎, ‎subcarrier allocation‎, ‎power allocation.

J. Kenyeres, M. Kenyeres, M. Rupp, P. Farkas [references] [full-text]
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Efficient localization methods are among the major challenges in wireless sensor networks today. In this paper, we present our so-called connectivity based approach i.e, based on local connectivity information, to tackle this problem. At first the method fragments the network into larger groups labeled as packs. Based on the mutual connectivity relations with their surrounding packs, we identify border nodes as well as the central node. As this first approach requires some a-priori knowledge on the network topology, we also present a novel segment-based fragmentation method to estimate the central pack of the network as well as detecting so-called corner packs without any a-priori knowledge. Based on these detected points, the network is fragmented into a set of even larger elements, so-called segments built on top of the packs, supporting even more localization information as they all reach the central node.

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Keywords: WSN, distributed algorithms, border nodes, virtual coordinates

M. Ahmed, T. Rahman, Y. Abdalla [references] [full-text]
HAPS Gateway Link in the 5850-7075 MHz and Coexistence with Fixed Satellite Service

Gateway link is essential to connect HAPS platform to terrestrial based networks. This crucial link is incorporated in HAPS fixed service spectrum allocation in considerably high frequencies, renders the link for more attenuations by atmospheric gases, and rain effects, especially when the regional climate is not favorable. However, under the agenda item 1.20 of World Radio Conference-2012 (WRC-12) new HAPS allocation in the 5850-7075 MHz band is proposed. Although, spectrum features are incomparably reliable, on the contrary, Fixed Satellite Service (FSS) uplink transmissions will have signal levels much higher than those in HAPS systems and have the potential for causing interference at the HAPS gateway receiver. In this article a key aspect of co-channel interference phenomena is investigated to facilitate optimum frequency sharing in the band in question. By proposing mitigation techniques and statistical method this generic prediction model enhances the capability of the HAPS spectrum sharing and provides flexibility in spectrum planning for different fixed services.

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Keywords: Co-channel interference, minimum coupling loss, carrier-to-interference ratio, interference mitigation techniques, Monte-Carlo approach.

L. Sun, H.-L. Wang, G.-J, Xu [references] [full-text]
An Efficient Sparse Representation Algorithm for Direction-of-Arrival Estimation

This paper presents an efficient sparse representation approach to direction-of-arrival (DOA) estimation using uniform linear arrays. The proposed approach constructs the jointly sparse model in real domain by exploiting the properties of centro-Hermitian matrices. Subsequently, DOA estimation is realized via the sparse Bayesian learning (SBL) algorithm. Further, the pruning threshold of SBL is adaptively selected to speed up the basis pruning rate. Simulation results demonstrate that the proposed approach achieves an improved performance and enjoys computational efficiency as compared to the state-of-the-art l1-norm-based DOA estimators especially in scenarios with small sample size and low signal-to-noise ratio.

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Z. Yang, Z. Huang, S. Geng [references] [full-text]
Codes Cross-Correlation Impact on S-curve Bias and Data-Pilot Code Pairs Optimization for CBOC Signals

The aim of this paper is to analyze the impact of spreading codes cross-correlation on code tracking performance, and to optimize the data-pilot code pairs of Galileo E1 Open Service (OS) Composite Binary Offset Carrier (CBOC) signals. The distortion of the discriminator function (i.e., S-curve), due to data and pilot spreading codes cross-correlation properties, is evaluated when only the data or pilot components of CBOC signals are tracked, considering the features of the modulation schemes. Analyses show that the S-curve bias also depends on the receiver configuration (e.g., the tracking algorithm and correlator spacing). In this paper, two methods are proposed to optimize the data-pilot code pairs of Galileo E1 OS. The optimization goal is to obtain minimum average S-curve biases when tracking only the pilot components of CBOC signals for the specific correlator spacing. The S-curve biases after optimization processes are analyzed and compared with the un-optimized results. It is shown that the optimized data-pilot code pairs could significantly mitigate the intra-channel (i.e., data and pilot) codes cross-correlation,and then improve the code tracking performance of CBOC signals.

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Keywords: Code cross-correlation, CBOC, S-curve bias, data-pilot code pair optimization

Zaixing He, Takahiro Ogawa, Miki Haseyama, Xinyue Zhao, Shuyou Zhang [references] [full-text]
A Compressed Sensing-Based Low-Density Parity-Check Real-Number Code

In this paper, we propose a novel low-density parity-check real-number code, based on compressed sensing. A real-valued message is encoded by a coding matrix (with more rows than columns) and transmitted over an erroneous channel, where sparse errors (impulsive noise) corrupt the codeword. In the decoding procedure, we apply a structured sparse (low-density) parity-check matrix, the Permuted Block Diagonal matrix, to the corrupted output, and the errors can be corrected by solving a compressed sensing problem. A compressed sensing algorithm, Cross Low-dimensional Pursuit, is used to decode the code by solving this compressed sensing problem. The proposed code has high error correction performance and decoding efficiency. The comparative experimental results demonstrate both advantages of our code. We also apply our code to cryptography.

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Keywords: Real-number error correcting codes, compressed sensing, sparse recovery, cross low-dimensional pursuit, cryptography.

J.G. Wang, Y.H. Shen, H. Li, H. Y. Wei, S.M. Xu [references] [full-text]
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Unlike conventional blind source separation (BSS) deals with independent identically distributed (i.i.d.) sources, this paper addresses the separation from mixtures of sources with temporal structure, such as linear autocorrelations. Many sequential extraction algorithms have been reported, resulting in inevitable cumulated errors introduced by the deflation scheme. We propose a robust separation algorithm to recover original sources simultaneously, through a joint diagonalizer of several average delayed covariance matrices at positions of the optimal time delay and its integers. The proposed algorithm is computationally simple and efficient, since it is based on the second-order statistics only. Extensive simulation results confirm the validity and high performance of the algorithm. Compared with related extraction algorithms, its separation signal-to-noise rate for a desired source can reach 20dB higher, and it seems rather insensitive to the estimation error of the time delay.

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Keywords: Blind source separation (BSS), blind source extraction (BSE), linear autocorrealtion, joint diagonalization, second-order statistics

J. Nouza, P. Cerva, M. Kucharova [references] [full-text]
Cost-Efficient Development of Acoustic Models for Speech Recognition of Related Languages

When adapting an existing speech recognition system to a new language, major development costs are associated with the creation of an appropriate acoustic model (AM). For its training, a certain amount of recorded and annotated speech is required. In this paper, we show that not only the annotation process, but also the process of speech acquisition can be automated to minimize the need of human and expert work. We demonstrate the proposed methodology on Croatian language, for which the target AM has been built via cross-lingual adaptation of a Czech AM in 2 ways: a) using commercially available GlobalPhone database, and b) by automatic speech data mining from HRT radio archive. The latter approach is cost-free, yet it yields comparable or better results in LVCSR experiments conducted on 3 Croatian test sets.

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S. Guney, A. Atasoy, R. Burget [references] [full-text]
Electronic Nose Odor Classification with Advanced Decision Tree Structures

Electronic nose (e-nose) is an electronic device which can measure chemical compounds in air and consequently classify different odors. In this paper, an e-nose device consisting of 8 different gas sensors was designed and constructed. Using this device, 104 different experiments involving 11 different odor classes (moth, angelica root, rose, mint, polis, lemon, rotten egg, egg, garlic, grass, and acetone) were performed. The main contribution of this paper is the finding that using the chemical domain knowledge it is possible to train an accurate odor classification system. The domain knowledge about chemical compounds is represented by a decision tree whose nodes are composed of classifiers such as Support Vector Machines and k-Nearest Neighbor. The overall accuracy achieved with the proposed algorithm and the constructed e-nose device was 97.18 %. Training and testing data sets used in this paper are published online.

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A. Krupka, K. Riha, L. Krizova [references] [full-text]
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Keywords: Image segmentation, sedimentary grains, split-and-merge, watershed, gradient, markers.

M.A Al-Absi, S. A. Mahemood, M. T. Abuelma'atti [references] [full-text]
A New CMOS Current-Mode Folding Amplifier

In this paper, a new CMOS current-mode folding amplifier is proposed. The circuit is designed using MOSFETs operating in strong inversion. The design produces a nearly ideal saw-tooth input-output characteristic which is a mandatory requirement in folding analog-to-digital converters. The functionality of the proposed circuit was confirmed using Tanner simulation tools in 0.35 µm CMOS technology. Simulation results are in excellent agreement with the theory.

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Keywords: Current-mode, saw-tooth generator, folding amplifier, Flash analog-to-digital converter

M. Fakhfakh, M. Pierzchala [references] [full-text]
A Novel (DDCC-SFG)-Based Systematic Design Technique of Active Filters

This paper proposes a novel idea for the synthesis of active filters that is based on the use of signal-flow graph (SFG) stamps of differential difference current conveyors (DDCCs). On the basis of an RLC passive network or a filter symbolic transfer function, an equivalent SFG is constructed. DDCCs’ SFGs are identified inside the constructed ‘active’ graph, and thus the equivalent circuit can be easily synthesized. We show that the DDCC and its ‘derivatives’, i.e. differential voltage current conveyors and the conventional current conveyors, are the main basic building blocks in such design. The practicability of the proposed technique is showcased via three application examples. Spice simulations are given to show the viability of the proposed technique.

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Keywords: Signal-flow graphs, SFG-stamps, DDCC, DVCC, current conveyors, active filters.

W. Kongnun, A. Aurasopon [references] [full-text]
A Novel Electronically Controllable of Current-mode Level Shifted Multicarrier PWM Based on MO-CFTA

This paper proposes the application of an electronically controlled current-mode for a level shifted multicarrier PWM generator. The proposed circuit consists of two multiple-output current follower transconductance amplifiers (MO-CFTAs) for the multiple-output triangular generator and four current follower transconductance amplifiers (CFTAs) for the signal comparator. The characteristics of the circuit are as follows: the current output can be controlled by bias current, the maximum amplitude deviation due to temperature variation is less than 1.37% and the power consumption is approximately 0.744 microwatt, at ±1.5V supply voltages. The proposed PWM has been verified through PSpice simulation results which are in consistent with the theoretical analysis.

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Keywords: Current-mode, level shifted multicarrier PWM, MO-CFTA

A. Diaz-Sanchez, J. Lemus-Lopez, J. M Rocha Perez, J. Ramirez-Angulo, J. E. Molinar Solis, H. Vazquez-Leal [references] [full-text]
Ultra Low-Power Analog Median Filters

The design and implementation of three analog median filter topologies, whose transistors operate in the deep weak-inversion region, is described. The first topology is a differential pairs array, in which drain currents are driven into two nodes in a differential fashion, while the second topology is based on a wide range OTA, which is used to maximize the dynamic range. Finally, the third topology uses three range-extended OTAs. The proposed weak-inversion filters were designed and fabricated in ON Semiconductor 0.5 micrometer technology through MOSIS. Experimental results of three-input fabricated prototypes for all three topologies are show, where power consumptions of 90nW in the first case, and 270nW in the other two cases can be noticed. A dual power supply +/-1.5 Volts were used.

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Keywords: Nonlinear filters, median filters, weak-inversion region, analog circuits, MOS transistors.

M. Kubar, J. Jakovenko [references] [full-text]
A Powerful Optimization Tool for Analog Integrated Circuits Design

This paper presents a new optimization tool for analog circuit design. Proposed tool is based on the robust version of the differential evolution optimization method. Corners of technology, temperature, voltage and current supplies are taken into account during the optimization. That ensures robust resulting circuits. Those circuits usually do not need any schematic change and are ready for the layout.. The newly developed tool is implemented directly to the Cadence design environment to achieve very short setup time of the optimization task. The design automation procedure was enhanced by optimization watchdog feature. It was created to control optimization progress and moreover to reduce the search space to produce better design in shorter time. The optimization algorithm presented in this paper was successfully tested on several design examples.

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Keywords: Analog circuit synthesis, optimization tool, differential evolution, search space, optimization watchdog.

V. Silaruam, A. Lorsawatsiri, C. Wongtaychatham [references] [full-text]
Novel Resistorless Mixed-Mode PID Controller with Improved Low-Frequency Performance

This paper introduces a new resistorless mixed-mode proportional-integral-derivative (PID) controller. It employs six simple transconductors and only two grounded capacitors. The proposed PID controller offers several advantageous features of resistorless configuration, use of grounded capacitors, independent electronic-tuning characteristic of its parameters, and mixed-mode operation such as current, transimpedance, transadmittance, and voltage modes. The parasitic element effects of the transconductors on the proposed controller are investigated and the improved low-frequency performance of the proposed controller is then discussed. As applications, the proposed controller is demonstrated on two closed-loop systems. The PSPICE simulations with TSMC 0.18µm CMOS process and ±0.9V supply voltage verify the theoretical analysis.

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Keywords: PID controller, grounded capacitor, resistorless, mixed-mode, electronic tunability