June 2010, Volume 19, Number 2
Over the last two decades free-space optical communication (FSO) has become more and more interesting as an adjunct or alternative to radio frequency communication. This article gives an overview of the challenges a system designer has to consider while implementing an FSO system. Typical gains and losses along the path from the transmitter through the medium to the receiver are introduced in this article. Detailed discussions of these topics can be found in this special issue of the Radioengineering Journal.
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Keywords: Free-space optical communications, link budget, turbulence, fading.
A technique for modeling the fog droplet size distributions using modified gamma distribution has been demonstrated by considering two separate radiation fog events recorded in Graz (Austria) and Prague (Czech Republic). The measurement of liquid water content (LWC) and the optical attenuations at visible wavelength are used to form equations to obtain the three parameters of the modified gamma distribution i.e., the slope (Λ), the intercept (N0 ) and the shape parameter (m). Calculated attenuation or LWC from the retrieved parameters are in excellent agreement with attenuation or LWC obtained from the measurement. Hence this method is useful in the study of fog microphysics and in modeling the fog attenuations for terrestrial FSO links in situations when our measurement data contains values of attenuations only, or liquid water content only or both at a particular location. For the two case studies, Graz and Prague, we obtained the DSD parameters Λ=3.547 ± 1.935, N0 =3.834 ± 2.239, m=6.135 ± 2.692 and Λ=5.882 ± 2.889, N0 =13.41 ± 3.875, m=5.288 ± 3.113, respectively. It is evident that the observed behavior of computed modified gamma distribution parameters for Graz and Prague is closely the same and is consistent with the previous literature for the radiation (continental) fog. Moreover, we observed the variation of the computed DSD parameters at the different stages of fog (formation, maturity and dissipation phases) indicating different microphysical processes at each stage.
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Keywords: Free-space optics, optical attenuations, continental fog, droplet size distribution, modeling
The benefits of Free Space Optics (FSO) motivate to use it for future high data rate demanding communication applications. However, widespread growth of the technology has been hampered by reduced availability due to weather influences on the link. The fog has been analyzed as the most detrimental for FSO communication. There are some models that predict fog attenuation in terms of visibility. These models are compared with measured attenuation data of dense maritime fog. The comparison has been in terms of Sum of Square Error (SSE) and Root Mean Square Error (RMSE). A new model has been proposed that gives the least SSE and RMSE for the measured data.
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Keywords: FSO, Attenuation, Simulation, Fog, Model comparison
Terrestrial Free-space optical communication (FSO) links have yet to achieve a mass market success due to the ever elusive 99.999% availability requirement. The terrestrial FSO links are heavily affected by atmospheric fog. To design systems which can achieve high availability and reliability in the presence of fog, accurate and better models of fog attenuation need to be developed. The current article puts forth appropriate probability density function estimates for received signal strength (hereafter RSS) under fog conditions, where variations in the RSS during foggy events have been statistically characterized. Moreover, from the surface observations of fog density, liquid water content (hereafter LWC) of fog is estimated. The actual measured optical attenuations are then compared with the optical attenuations estimated from LWC. The results presented suggest that fog density measurements carried out are accurate representation of the fog intensity and the attenuation predictions obtained by the LWC estimate match the actual measured optical attenuations. This suggests that the LWC is a useful parameter besides visibility range to predict optical attenuations in the presence of hydrometeors.
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Keywords: Free Space Optics (FSO), Fog Modeling, Probability Density Function (PDF), Liquid Water Content (LWC), Drop Size Distribution (DSD)
This study is focused on the experimental research of the atmosphere impact on FSO link attenuation. Experiment is performed on a mountain observatory Milesovka of severe weather conditions. The empirical relationships on 830 nm only between FSO attenuation A on one hand and atmospheric visibility V or wind turbulent energy ET on the other hand are presented and discussed. In the fog case it was found A= 401.4V-0.5738- 1.462 dB/60m (V in meters) while for the attenuation due to the wind turbulence ET it holds A = 2.112 - 2.213 exp(-0.2867ET) dB/60m (ET in m2s-2, it was derived for 830 nm wave length). A discussion concerning problems of the “clear air attenuation,” atmospheric turbulences and sun shine impact, which was observed as a maximum 2 dB attenuation for a few minutes with a period of 24 hours is added.
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Keywords: Free Space Optics propagation, fog attenuation, wind turbulence attenuation, turbulent energy
In free-space optical communication between mobile terminals relative motion of the terminals requires an active mechanism to maintain optical alignment between the stations. Cooperative optical beam tracking could be used to address this problem. In this alignment scheme, each station tracks the arrival direction of its impinging beam to employ it as a guide to precisely point its own beam toward the opposite station. Tracking is achieved at each station by a quadrant photodetector which generates simultaneous azimuth and elevation error voltages. In this study a Kalman filtering assisted cooperative optical beam tracking has been proposed and its suitability to cooperative beam tracking is discussed. In this method, Kalman filter is employed to predict the alignment error that is used to produce appropriate control signals for re-alignment. Performance of the proposed method has been demonstrated through simulations.
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Keywords: Free space optical communication, Kalman filtering, cooperative beam tracking, fine pointing
The accessible probability of a low-orbit satellite from ground is estimated by using images taken by a meteorological satellite and by analyzing visible passes of the satellite. The study indicates that the blockage by clouds in satellite-ground laser communications is almost avoidable by properly distributing several optical ground stations. For the calculation, we use an orbit information of a low-earth orbit satellite, the Optical Inter-orbit Communications Engineering Test Satellite (OICETS), as the counterpart of the optical ground stations. The calculation of the cumulative accessible probability shows the required time to achieve over 99% accessibility between the low orbit satellite and the optical ground stations.
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- WILSON, K., KOVALIK, M., BISWAS, A., WRIGHT, M., ROBERTS, T., TAKAYAMA, Y., YAMAKAWA, S. Preliminary results of the OCTL to OICETS optical link experiment (OTOOLE). In Proceedings of SPIE Free-Space Laser Communication Technologies. San Francisco (USA), 2010, vol. 7587, 758703, p. 1-13.
- TAKAYAMA, Y., TOYOSHIMA, M., SHOJI, Y., KOYAMA, Y., KUNIMORI, H., SAKAUE, M., YAMAKAWA, S., TASHIMA, Y., KURA, N. Expanded laser communications demonstrations with OICETS and ground stations. In Proceedings of SPIE Free-Space Laser Communication Technologies. San Francisco (USA), 2010, vol. 7587, 758712, p. 1-8.
Keywords: Satellite-ground laser communications, optical ground stations, low earth orbit, OICETS
V. Kvicera, M. Grabner, O. Fiser
Propagation Characteristics and Availability Performance Assessment for Simulated Terrestrial Hybrid 850 nm/58 GHz System
Results of a propagation study on a free space optical link at 850 nm on a path 853 meters long and on a parallel 58 GHz radio link obtained over a 3-year period of observation are presented. The cumulative distributions of attenuation due to all of the hydrometeors combined as well as due to individual hydrometeors were obtained for both paths. The availability performances of the FSO link, the RF link and the simulated hybrid FSO/RF system were assessed. Significantly higher availability performance was achieved for the simulated hybrid FSO/RF system than for the FSO link alone. The diversity improvement factor reached significant values for attenuation greater than 5 dB and a significant diversity gain was obtained for the percentages of time smaller than 2%.
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- NADEEM, F., KVICERA, V., AWAN, M. S., LEITGEB, E., MUHAMMAD, S. S., KANDUS, G. Weather effects on hybrid FSO/RF communication link. IEEE Journal on Selected Areas in Communications, 2009, vol. 27, no. 9, p. 1687-1697.
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- Rec. ITU-R P.1814 Prediction methods required for the design of terrestrial free-space optical links. ITU, Geneva (Switzerland), 2008.
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- Rec. ITU-R P.530-12 Propagation data and prediction methods required for the design of terrestrial line-of-sight systems. ITU, Geneva (Switzerland), 2008.
- Rec. ITU-R P.1410-3 Propagation data and prediction methods required for the design of terrestrial broadband millimetric radio access systems operating in a frequency range of about 20-50 GHz. ITU, Geneva (Switzerland), 2006.
Keywords: free space optical link, radio link, hybrid system, availability performance
The increased interest in long lasting wireless sensor networks motivates to use Free Space Optics (FSO) link along with radio frequency (RF) link for communication. Earlier results show that RF/FSO wireless sensor networks have life time twice as long as RF only wireless sensor networks. However, for terrestrial applications, the effect of weather conditions such as fog, rain or snow on optical wireless communication link is major concern, that should be taken into account in the performance analysis. In this paper, life time performance of hybrid wireless sensor networks is compared to wireless sensor networks using RF only for terrestrial applications and weather effects of fog, rain and snow. The results show that combined hybrid network with three threshold scheme can provide efficient power consumption of 6548 seconds, 2118 seconds and 360 seconds for measured fog, snow and rain events respectively resulting in approximately twice of the life time with only RF link.
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Keywords: FSO, Fog, Hybrid network, Wireless sensor networks, Simulation.
This paper presents a channel-adaptive video streaming scheme which adjusts video bit rate according to channel conditions and transmits video through a hybrid RF/free space optical (FSO) laser communication system. The design criteria of the FSO link for video transmission to 2.9 km distance have been given and adaptive bit rate video streaming according to the varying channel state over this link has been studied. It has been shown that the proposed structure is suitable for uninterrupted transmission of videos over the hybrid wireless network with reduced packet delays and losses even when the received power is decreased due to weather conditions.
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Keywords: Free space laser communication, link availability, adaptive video streaming.
T. Drizdal, P. Togni, L. Visek, J. Vrba
Comparison of Constant and Temperature Dependent Blood Perfusion in Temperature Prediction for Superficial Hyperthermia
The purpose of this study was to determine whether prediction of the 3D temperature profile for superficial hyperthermia using constant blood perfusion model could be matched to one with a temperature dependent blood perfusion. We compared three different constant blood perfusion scenarios with one temperature dependent blood perfusion using a layered model of biological tissue consisting of skin (2 mm), fat (10 mm) and muscle (108 mm). For all four scenarios the maximum temperature of 43 °C was found in the muscle tissue in the close proximity (1 – 3 mm) of fat layer. Cumulative histograms of temperature versus volume were identical for the region of 100x100x40 mm3 under the applicator aperture for the three constant blood perfusion models. For temperature dependent blood perfusion model, 85 % of the studied region was covered with the temperature equal or higher than 40 °C in comparison with 43 % for the constant blood perfusion models. Hence this study demonstrates that constant blood perfusion scenarios cannot be matched to one with a temperature dependent blood perfusion.
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Keywords: Superficial hyperthermia, bioheat equation, blood perfusion, SAR, temperature prediction
In this paper, digital filters are used for the stabilization of the marching-on-in-time (MOT) method. A methodology of designing a proper filter using optimization techniques is proposed here. Since the proposed procedure considers the important part of the spectrum of the excitation signal, the designed filter does not degrade the accuracy of the MOT method. Further, the procedure for the efficient stabilization of the MOT method by a set of filters is proposed and verified on the examples.
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Keywords: Time domain electric field integral equation, method of moments, marching on in time method, stability, filtering technique.
The novel approach exploits the principle of the conventional two-plane amplitude measurements for the reconstruction of the unknown electric field distribution on the antenna aperture. The method combines a global optimization with a compression method. The global optimization method (GO) is used to minimize the functional, and the compression method is used to reduce the number of unknown variables. The algorithm employs the Real Coded Genetic Algorithm (RCGA) as the global optimization approach. The Discrete Cosine Transform (DCT) and the Discrete Wavelet Transform (DWT) are applied to reduce the number of unknown variables. Pros and cons of methods are investigated and reported for the solution of the problem. In order to make the algorithm faster, exploitation of amplitudes from a single scanning plane is also discussed. First, the algorithm is used to obtain an initial estimate. Subsequently, the common Fourier iterative algorithm is used to reach global minima with sufficient accuracy. The method is examined measuring the dish antenna.
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Keywords: Planar near-field scanning, near-field far-field transform (NF-FF), global optimization, compression method, Fourier iterative algorithm
In order to compensate losses in metal strips, an active microstrip line on a semiconductor substrate is proposed, and its finite element model is presented. The active medium is provided by A3B5 semiconductor in highintensity electric field. The simple model of the active media is developed and used for calculation of the propagation properties of the fundamental mode and for the thermal analysis of the device. The problem of system self-oscillation is discussed and empirical stability criteria are introduced. A proper heat-sink is proposed to provide the operation in a continuous regime.
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Keywords: GaAs, active, mictrostrip, millimeter-wave, Gunn’s effect, thermal, COMSOL
The paper deals with the EMI filter models for the calculation of the insertion loss characteristics. The insertion loss is in fact the basic EMI filter property. Unfortunately it is not easy to precisely define and measure this parameter in a wide frequency range due to variability of terminating impedances. The uncertainty of the potential impedance termination really complicates the measurements and also comparison of the performance of filters. A model with spurious components is introduced in this paper. The procedure model design is also added up. The spurious components make together with the real ones form resonant circuits. The resonance frequencies make breakages in the insertion loss characteristic. Their resonance frequencies were identified by the analysis of equivalent circuits of the filter for different measuring systems. The calculation of the values of spurious components, based on knowledge of resonance frequencies, is mentioned at the end of the paper.
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Keywords: Insertion loss, EMI filter, current compensated inductor, spurious component, MNVM, Modified Nodal Voltage Method
We present an accurate approach to compute the attenuation of waves, propagating in circular waveguides with lossy and superconducting walls. A set of transcendental equation is developed by matching the fields at the surface of the wall with the electrical properties of the wall material. The propagation constant kz is found by numerically solving for the root of the equation. The complex conductivity of the superconductor is obtained from the Mattis-Bardeen equations. We have compared the loss of TE11 mode computed using our technique with that using the perturbation and Stratton’s methods. The results from the three methods agree very well at a reasonable range of frequencies above the cutoff. The curves, however, deviate below cutoff and at millimeter wave frequencies. We attribute the discrepancies to the dispersive effect and the presence of the longitudinal fields in a lossy waveguide. At frequencies below the gap, the superconducting waveguide exhibits lossless transmission behavior. Above the gap frequency, Cooper-pair breaking becomes dominant and the loss increases significantly.
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Keywords: Circular waveguides, superconductor, propagation constant, dispersive effect, Cooper-pair
A current/voltage-mode third-order quadrature oscillator based on current differencing transconductance amplifiers (CDTAs) is presented in this paper. Outputs of two current-mode and two voltage-mode sinusoids each with 90o phase difference are available in the quadrature oscillator circuit. The oscillation condition and oscillation frequency are independently controllable. The proposed circuit employs only grounded capacitors and is ideal for integration. Simulation results are included to confirm the theoretical analysis.
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Keywords: Current differencing transconductance amplifiers, quadrature oscillator, current-mode, voltage-mode, active circuit
There are many error concealment techniques for image processing. In the paper, the focus is on restoration of image with missing blocks or macroblocks. Different methods can be optimal for different kinds of images. In recent years, great attention was dedicated to textures, and specific methods were developed for their processing. Many of them use classification of textures as an integral part. It is also of an advantage to know the texture classification to select the best restoration technique. In the paper, selection based on texture classification with advanced local binary patterns and spatial distribution of dominant patterns is proposed. It is shown, that for classified textures, optimal error concealment method can be selected from predefined ones, resulting then in better restoration. For testing, three methods of extrapolation and texture synthesis were used.
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Keywords: Error concealment, re-synthesis, inpainting, texture, extrapolation, classification
R. Stukavec, T. Kratochvil
Simulation and Measurement of the Transmission Distortions of the Digital Television DVB-T/H (Part 1: Modulator for Digital Terrestrial Television)
The paper deals with the first part of results of the Czech Science Foundation research project that was aimed into the simulation and measurement of the transmission distortions of the digital terrestrial television according to DVB-T/H standards. In this part the modulator performance characteristics and its simulation and laboratory measurements are presented with focus on typical DVB-T/H broadcasting scenario – large SFN network for fixed reception. The paper deals with the COFDM modulator imperfections and I/Q errors influence on the DVB-T/H signals and the related I/Q constellation analysis. Impact of the modulator imperfections on Modulation Error Rate from I/Q constellation and Bit Error Rates before and after Viterbi decoding in DVB-T/H signal decoding are evaluated and discussed.
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Keywords: I/Q modulator, I/Q modulation error, Amplitude Imbalance, Phase Error, Carrier Suppression, COFDM, DVB-T/H
Orthogonal frequency-division multiplexing (OFDM) is well-known as a high-bit-rate transmission technique, but the Doppler frequency offset due to the high speed movement destroys the orthogonality of the subcarriers resulting in the intercarrier interference (ICI), and degrades the performance of the system at the same time. In this paper a novel OFDM channel estimation algorithm with ICI mitigation based on the ICI self-cancellation scheme is proposed. With this method, a more accurate channel estimation is obtained by comb-type double pilots and then ICI coefficients can be obtained to mitigate the ICI on each subcarrier under the assumption that the channel impulse response (CIR) varies in a linear fashion. The theoretical analysis and simulation results show that the bit error rate (BER) and spectral efficiency performances are improved significantly under high-speed mobility conditions (350 km/h – 500 km/h) in comparison to ZHAO’s ICI self-cancellation scheme.
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Keywords: OFDM system, channel estimation, high-speed mobility, ICI mitigation
An improved Quasi Cyclic Low Density Parity Check code (QC-LDPC) is proposed to reduce the complexity of the Low Density Parity Check code (LDPC) while obtaining the similar performance. The proposed QC-LDPC presents an improved construction at high SNR with circulant sub-matrices. The proposed construction yields a performance gain of about 1 dB at a 0.0003 bit error rate (BER) and it is tested on 4 different decoding algorithms. Proposed QC-LDPC is compared with the existing QC-LDPC and the simulation results show that the proposed approach outperforms the existing one at high SNR. Simulations are also performed varying the number of horizontal sub matrices and the results show that the parity check matrix with smaller horizontal concatenation shows better performance.
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Keywords: Low Density Parity Check codes, Quasi Cyclic Low Density Parity Check codes, SNR, bit error rate, circulant sub matrix, parity check matrix, generator matrix
The paper presents an innovative solution in the field of RFID (Radio-Frequency IDentification) smartcard authentication. Currently the smartcards are used for many purposes - e.g. employee identification, library cards, student cards or even identity credentials. Personal identity is revealed to untrustworthy entities every time we use these cards. Such information could later be used without our knowledge and for harmful reasons like shopping pattern scanning or even movement tracking. We present a communication scheme for keeping one’s identity private in this paper. Although our system provides anonymity, it does not allow users to abuse this feature. The system is based on strong cryptographic primitives that provide features never available before. Besides theoretical design of the anonymous authentication scheme and its analysis we also provide implementation results.
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Keywords: RFID, privacy, anonymity, cryptography, authentication, smartcards