September 2010, Volume 19, Number 3
The paper deals with efficiency comparison of two global evolutionary optimization methods implemented in MATLAB. Attention is turned to an elitist Non-dominated Sorting Genetic Algorithm (NSGA-II) and a novel multi-objective Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO). The performance of optimizers is compared on three different test functions and on a cavity resonator synthesis. The microwave resonator is modeled using the Finite Element Method (FEM). The hit rate and the quality of the Pareto front distribution are classified.
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- JOHNSON, J. M., RAHMAT-SAMII, Y. Genetic algorithms in engineering electromagnetics. IEEE Antennas and Propagation Magazine, 1997, vol. 39, no. 4, p. 7-21.
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- ROBINSON, J., RAHMAT-SAMII, Y. Particle swarm optimization in electromagnetics. IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation, 2004, vol. 52, no. 2, p. 397-407.
- JIN, Y., OKABE, T., SENDHOFF, B. Solving three-objective optimization problems using evolutionary dynamic weighted aggregation: Results and analysis. [Online] Available at: http://www.soft-computing.de/moo3D.pdf.
Keywords: Multi-objective optimization, binary genetic algorithm, particle swarm optimization, Pareto front, finite element method.
The paper studies fabrication errors influence on the radiation pattern of a spherical antennas array. The developed Moment Method (MoM) program analyzes a particular influence of an azimuth and elevation position and local angle errors of antenna elements as well as model dimension errors on the radiation pattern. The spectral domain approach to the analysis of the spherical antenna arrays is applied here. Finally, results obtained from the theoretical investigation are verified by comparison with measured results.
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Keywords: Radiation pattern, antenna array, aperture antenna, spherical array, fabrication errors, experimental model errors
In this study, the effective patch radius expression for the circular microstrip antennas is improved by means of several manipulations. Departing from previously proposed equations in the literature, one of the most accurate equations is picked up, and this equation is fine-tuned by means of Particle Swarm Optimization technique. Throughout the study, impacts of other parameters (such as the definition of the fitness/objective function, the degree-of-freedom in the proposed effective patch radius expression, the number of measured resonant frequency values) are observed in a controlled manner. Finally, about 3% additional improvement is achieved over a very accurate formula, which was proposed earlier.
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Keywords: Circular microstrip patch antenna, Closed-form expression, Effective patch radius, Particle swarm optimization, Resonant frequency.
This paper deals with a defected ground structure (DGS) open-loop resonator analysis and bandpass filter design, using coupled DGS and microstrip resonators. The combination of DGS and microstrip resonators allows using top and bottom sides of the microwave substrate, therefore the resonators can partially overlap and a desired coupling coefficient can be easily achieved. The open-loop DGS resonator properties are investigated, as well as coupling types between the resonators. Finally, two bandpass filters are designed and simulated. The sixth order filter is fabricated and the results are compared with measurement. The introduced structure represents an alternative to a conventional parallel-coupled half wavelength microstrip resonator bandpass filter.
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- HONG, J. S., LANCASTER, M. J. Microstrip Filters for RF/Microwave Applications. John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2001. 460 pages. ISBN 0-471-38877-7.
Keywords: Defected ground structure (DGS), bandpass filter, DGS resonator, slot resonator, open-loop resonator, half-wavelength microstrip resonator, Chebyshev prototype filter
Universal mobile telecommunications system (UMTS) is one of the 3rd generation (3G) cell phone technologies. The capacity of UMTS is interference limited. Radio resources management (RRM) functions are therefore used. They are responsible for supplying optimum coverage, ensuring efficient use of physical resources, and providing the maximum planned capacity. This paper deals with admission control techniques for UMTS. An own UMTS simulation program and several versions of proposed admission control algorithms are presented in this paper. These algorithms are based on fuzzy logic and genetic algorithms. The performance of algorithms is verified via simulations.
- ROMERO, J., SALLENT, O., AGUSTI, R., DIAZ-GUERRA, M. Radio Resources Management Strategies in UMTS. Wiley & Sons, 2005, 345 p. ISBN 978-0-470-02277-1.
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- CAPONE, A., REDANA, S. I3E: A novel call admission control scheme for W-CDMA systems. Wireless Personal Communication. Springer Netherlands, Oct. 2006, vol. 39, no. 1, p. 81-97. ISSN 1572-834X.
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- SHEN, S., CHANG, C., HUANG, C., BI, Q. Intelligent call admission control for wideband CDMA cellular systems. IEEE Transactions on Wireless Communications, Sept. 2004, vol. 3, no. 5.
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- KARABUDAK, D., HUNG, C., BING, B. A call admission control scheme using genetic algorithms. In Proceedings of the 2004 ACM symposium on Applied Computing, 2004. ISBN 1-58113-812-1.
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- CHANG, CH., KUO, L., CHEN, Y., SCHEN, S. Neural fuzzy call admission and rate controller for WCDMA cellular systems providing multirate services. In Proceedings of the 2006 International Conference on Wireless Communications and Mobile Computing. Canada, p. 383-388. ISBN 1-59593-306-9.
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Keywords: UMTS, CDMA, admission control, fuzzy logic, genetic algorithms
Multiple access interference encountered in multicarrier direct sequence-code division multiple access (MC DS-CDMA) is the most important difficulty that depends mainly on the correlation properties of the spreading sequences as well as the shape of the chip waveforms employed. In this paper, bit error rate (BER) performance of the generalized MC DS-CDMA system that employs time-limited Blackman chip waveform is presented for Nakagami-m fading channels. Simulation results show that the use of Blackman chip waveform can improve the BER performance of the generalized MC DS-CDMA system, as compared to the performances achieved by using timelimited chip waveforms in the literature.
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Keywords: BER performance simulation, Generalized MC DS-CDMA system, Blackman chip waveform
Routing of multipoint connections plays an important role in final cost and quality of a found connection. New algorithms with better results are still searched. In this paper, a possibility of using the evolution strategies (ES) for routing is presented. Quality of found connection is evaluated from the view of final cost and time spent on a searching procedure.
First, parametrical analysis of results of the ES are discussed and compared with the Prim’s algorithm, which was chosen as a representative of the deterministic routing algorithms.
Second, ways for improving the ES are suggested and implemented. The obtained results are reviewed. The main improvements are specified and discussed in conclusion.
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Keywords: Evolution strategies (ES), routing of multipoint connections, optimization
In this paper method available for generating ternary sequences is discussed. These sequences are useful in many applications but specifically in synchronization of block codes and pulse compression in radar. The ternary sequences are derived from chaotic maps. It is feasible to achieve simultaneously superior performances in detection range and range resolution using the proposed ternary sequences. The properties of these sequences like autocorrelation function, Peak Side Lobe Ratio (PSLR), ambiguity diagram and performance under AWGN noise background has been studied. The generation of these sequences is much simpler, and the available number of sequences is virtually infinite and not limited by the length of the sequence.
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Keywords: Pulse Compression, Autocorrelation, Peak side lobe ratio
The paper deals with a video compression method based on the multi-dimensional discrete cosine transform. In the text, the encoder and decoder architectures including the deﬁnitions of all mathematical operations like the forward and inverse 3-D DCT, quantization and thresholding are presented. According to the particular number of currently processed pictures, the new quantization tables and entropy code dictionaries are proposed in the paper. The practical properties of the 3-D DCT coding chain compared with the modern video compression methods (such as H.264 and WebM) and the computing complexity are presented as well. It will be proved the best compress properties could be achieved by complex H.264 codec. On the other hand the computing complexity - especially on the encoding side - is lower for the 3-D DCT method.
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Keywords: Video signal processing, data compression, discrete cosine transform, multidimensional coding, digital signal processors.
R. Stukavec, T. Kratochvil
Simulation and Measurement of the Transmission Distortions of the Digital Television DVB-T/H Part 2: Hierarchical Modulation Performance
The paper deals with the second part of results of the Czech Science Foundation research project that was aimed into the simulation and measurement of the transmission distortions of the digital terrestrial television according to DVB-T/H standards. In this part the hierarchical modulation performance characteristics and its simulation and laboratory measurements are presented. The paper deals with the hierarchical oriented COFDM modulator for the digital terrestrial television transmission and DVB-T/H standards and possible utilization of this technique in real broadcasting scenarios – fixed, portable and mobile digital TV, all in one TV channel. Impact of the hierarchical modulation on Modulation Error Rate from I/Q constellations and Bit Error Rates before and after Viterbi decoding in DVB-T/H signal decoding are evaluated and discussed.
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Keywords: Hierarchical modulation, high priority path, low priority path, stream, HP, LP, COFDM, DVB-T/H.
Precision rectifiers are important building blocks for analog signal processing. The traditional approach based on diodes and operational amplifiers (OpAmps) exhibits undesirable effects caused by limited OpAmp slew rate and diode commutations. In the paper, a full-wave rectifier based on one CDTA and two Schottky diodes is presented. The PSpice simulation results are included.
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Keywords: Current-mode rectifier, CDTA.
The paper deals with sinusoidal oscillator employing two controlled second-generation negative-current conveyors and two capacitors. The proposed oscillator has a simple circuit configuration. Electronic (voltage) adjusting of the oscillation frequency and condition of oscillation are possible. The presented circuit is verified in PSpice utilizing macro models of commercially available negative current conveyors. The circuit is also verified by experimental measurements. Important characteristics and drawbacks of the proposed circuit and influences of real active elements in the designed circuit are discussed in detail.
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Keywords: Current conveyors, electronic adjusting, sinusoidal oscillator.
This paper proposes a new floating gate MOSFET (FGMOS) based voltage-controlled grounded resistor. In the proposed circuit FGMOS operating in the ohmic region is linearized by another conventional MOSFET operating in the saturation region. The major advantages of FGMOS based voltage-controlled grounded resistor (FGVCGR) are simplicity, low total harmonic distortion (THD), and low power consumption. A simple application of this FGVCGR as a tunable high-pass filter is also suggested. The proposed circuits operate at the supply voltages of +/-0.75 V. The circuits are designed and simulated using SPICE in 0.25-µm CMOS technology. The simulation results of FGVCGR demonstrate a THD of 0.28% for the input signal 0.32 Vpp at 45 kHz, and a maximum power consumption of 254 µW.
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Keywords: Floating gate MOSFETs, low-voltage, voltage-controlled grounded resistor, Spice.
M. S. Khan, M. S. Awan, S. Sheikh Muhammad, M. Faisal, Marzuki, F. Nadeem, E. Leitgeb
Probabilistic Model for Free-Space Optical Links Under Continental Fog Conditions
The error characteristics of a free-space optical (FSO) channel are signiﬁcantly different from the ﬁber based optical links and thus require a deep physical understanding of the propagation channel. In particular different fog conditions greatly inﬂuence the optical transmissions and thus a channel model is required to estimate the detrimental fog effects. In this paper we shall present the probabilistic model for radiation fog from the measured data over a 80 m FSO link installed at Graz, Austria. The fog events are classiﬁed into thick fog, moderate fog, light fog and general fog based on the international code of visibility range. We applied some probability distribution functions (PDFs) such as Kumaraswamy, Johnson SB and Logistic distribution, to the actual measured optical attenuations. The performance of each distribution is evaluated by Q-Q and P-P plots. It is found that Kumaraswamy distribution is the best ﬁt for general fog, while Logistic distribution is the optimum choice for thick fog. On the other hand, Johnson SB distribution best ﬁts the moderate and light fog related measured attenuation data. The difference in these probabilistic models and the resultant variation in the received signal strength under different fog types needs to be considered in designing an efﬁcient FSO system.
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Keywords: Free Space Optics (FSO), optical attenuations, Mie scattering, Probability Density Function (PDF), visibility, channel modeling.
In  I used assumptions which proved to be wrong in further research. Corrections are given in this comment.
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Keywords: Atomic Force Microscopy, electrical mechanical analogs, circuit theory