December 2005, Volume 14, Number 4
Electromagnetic field simulators have become a widely used tool in a design process of microwave circuits and systems. A proper usage of electromagnetic (EM) field simulators allows substantial reduction of the design time providing reliable results. In such case the required parameters of the designed circuit can be reached even at the first manufactured prototype in spite of high complexity of the structure. However, EM simulation as a numerical process suffers from systematic and random errors similar to measurement using real equipment. Thus the setting of the EM-field simulator such as a frequency range, mesh properties, usage of PEC and PMC walls etc. has to be done with the highest attention and the simulation results have to be always verified using well-established techniques. The aim of the paper is to demonstrate the selected capability of EM-field simulators with a few examples of antenna and circuit modeling. Also an issue of reliability and simulation errors will be discussed.
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In the paper, four different planar multi-band antennas are
designed, modeled, fabricated, and measured. Parameters of the antennas
are in detail compared to demonstrate advantages and disadvantages of
different solutions. Discussions are supported by results of the modal
and full-wave analyses of antennas.
The classical patch antenna is a basic building block of compared antennas. The multi-band behavior is achieved by etching perturbation slots to the patch, which influence resonant current distributions.
The antennas are designed for GSM bands (900 MHz, 1 800 MHz), and for the Bluetooth band (2 400 MHz).
- GARG, B., BAHL, I. Microstrip Antenna Design Handbook. Norwood:Artech House, 2001.
- KUMAR, G., RAY, K. P. Broadband Microstrip Antennas. Norwood:Artech House, 2003.
- WONG, K. L. Compact and Broadband Microstrip Antennas. NewYork: J. Wiley and Sons, 2002.
- NAKANO, H., SATO, Y., HIROAKI, M., YAMAUCHI, J. An invertedFL antenna for dual-frequency operation. IEEE Transactionson Antennas and Propagation. 2005, vol. 53, no. 8, p. 2417-2421.
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- http://www.cst.com/ - the home site of Computer Simulation TechnologyLtd.
- http:://www.zeland.com - the home site of Zeland Software Inc.
This paper deals with simulations of a radio interface of third generation (3G) mobile systems operating in the WCDMA FDD mode including propagation predictions in macro and microcells. In the radio network planning of 3G mobile systems, the quality of coverage and the system capacity present a common problem. Both macro and microcellular concepts are very important for implementing wireless communication systems, such as Universal Mobile Telecommunication Systems (UMTS) in dense urban areas. The aim of this paper is to introduce different impacts - selected bit rate, uplink (UL) loading, allocation and number of Nodes B, selected propagation prediction models, macro and microcellular environment - on system capacity and quality of coverage in UMTS networks. Both separated and composite simulation scenarios of macro and microcellular environments are presented. The necessity of an iteration-based simulation approach and site-specific propagation modeling in microcells is proven.
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- HOLMA, H., TOSKALA, A. WCDMA for UMTS radio access forthird generation mobile networks. New York: John Wiley & Sons,2000.
- HOLIS, J., PECHAC, P. Iteration-based simulations of UMTS capacityand quality of coverage in high altitude platform basic scenarios.COST 297. Athens (Greece), 2005.
Two studies of the outdoor propagation of 60 GHz microwaves are described. The focus of this paper is the relationship between rainfall and measured attenuation of the microwave signal. Experimental data are presented and the measured statistics are compared with the Recommendations of the ITU-R. Measured rain intensity statistics at the two sites were found to be in good agreement with the ITU-R Recommendations, however measured attenuations were higher than those calculated using the models provided by the ITU-R.
- ASEN, W., TJELTA, T. A novel method for predicting site dependentspecific rain attenuation of millimeter radio waves. IEEETrans. on Antennas and Prop., 2003, vol. 51, no. 10, p. 2987-2999.
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- Rec. ITU-R P.530-11 Propagation data and prediction methodsrequired for the design of terrestrial line-of-sight systems. ITU, [CDROM],Geneva (Switzerland), March 2005.
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The design of an active integrated antenna with negative resistance transistor oscillator has been described. Simple but reasonably accurate analysis of oscillation start-up and steady state operating frequency prediction is presented. The active antenna prototype was manufactured and its operating frequency, EIRP and radiation patterns were measured. Two of these antennas were integrated in active arrays coupled in E- and H-planes. The inter-element distance in the arrays was optimized to obtain in-phase operation and mutual injection locking. Very good power combining efficiency was measured and beam scanning capabilities were demonstrated for both arrays.
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The paper presents a brief overview of the development of so called collinear types of antenna arrays. A new type of this structure in microstrip technology is further introduced. The principle of the antenna operation is explained via surface current distribution of excited modes. Such distribution is reached via geometrical perturbation of a radiating element by slots introduced in such a way that they e liminate radiation from even half current wavelengths . The initial design and optimization of the prototype operating in RFID band (869 MHz) has been performed in planar simulator Zeland IE3D. A prototype has been realized and measured. The reached results show that the presented antenna has directional character as it can be expected due to the proposed technology and the presence of a planar ground plane.
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In the paper selected problems of computer simulations of a broadband antenna containing large metallic surfaces with the Method of Moments have been discussed. A novel broadband combined spiral-discone antenna, built of a complementary spiral and a cone has been analyzed. Since the antenna contains large metallic surfaces wire-grid models had to be developed in order to simulate the antenna with the thin-wire kernel method of moments. Several wire-grid models of the antenna have been proposed and analyzed. The simulation results for input impedance have been compared to those obtained from measurements and the best model of the antenna has been identified.
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The paper deals with the broadband modeling of microwave structures
by finite-element methods. The attention is turned to original
enhancements of accuracy, efficiency and stability of finite-element
The partial improvements are based on novel approximations both in the spatial domain and in the time one, in the adoption of complex frequency hopping, fast frequency sweep and envelope finite-element techniques. In the paper, a possible hybridization of approaches is discussed.
Proposed finite-element schemes are applied to the analysis of canonical longitudinally homogeneous transmission lines in order to demonstrate their advantages.
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- MOTL, M. Analysis of Microwave Structures by Variational Approaches.Dissertation Thesis. Brno: Brno University of Technology,2005.
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This paper provides a principal overview of the time domain measurement instrumentation and information about the implementation of the time domain option in the Agilent PNA microwave network analyzer E8364A. The paper also presents practical experiences with antenna measurements realized by sweep mode of a vector network analyzer with data processing in a time domain. The new single antenna methods of gain and antenna radiation patterns measurements are presented. These mirror methods with gating in a time domain are based on the reflection coefficient measurements realized in the frequency domain with time domain data processing. These methods seem to be promising for measurements of gain and radiation patterns of ultra-wideband linearly polarized antennas. The paper compares the results of the new methods with the results of standard measurements.
- BRUMLEY S. Pulsed and chirped measurement techniques. AMTAEurope Short Course, Munich (Germany), 2004.
- PNA Series Network Analyzer Help, Agilent Technologies, 2003.
- Double Ridged Waveguide Horn - Model DRH20, www.rfspin.cz,2005.
- Microwave Antenna Measurements, Scientific-Atlanta, Inc., Atlanta,USA 1985.
- BARTIK, H. Antenna gain measurement using the mirror method intime domain. WSEAS Transactions on Computers, 2004, vol. 3, p.1882-1883.
- Double Ridged Waveguide Horn - Model DRH18E, www.rfspin.cz,2005.
The paper presents a new approach to the radiation pattern reconstruction from near-field amplitude only measurement over a two planar scanning surfaces. This new method for antenna pattern reconstruction is based on the global optimization PSO (Particle Swarm Optimization). The paper presents appropriate phaseless measurement requirements and phase retrieval algorithm together with a brief description of the particle swarm optimization method. In order to examine the methodologies developed in this paper, phaseless measurement results for two different antennas are presented and compared to results obtained by a complex measurement (amplitude and phase).
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In this paper we propose an analytical study in the spectral domain of cylindrical layered structures filled with general bianisotropic media and fed by a 3D electric source. The integrated structure is characterized in terms of transmission matrices leading to an equivalent circuit representation of the whole multilayered structure. Within the framework of this two-port formalism, we present a new contribution to the computation of the Green's function arising in the analysis of multilayered conformal integrated antennas loaded with general bianisotropic materials. We also propose an analytical study of the shielding effectiveness of general bianisotropic materials located in multilayered, cylindrical configuration. The expression of the shielded fields sustained both by plane wave and arbitrary sources is obtained in a closed analytical form. Numerical results are also presented showing effects of electromagnetic parameters on radiation pattern, matching properties and radar cross section of the integrated structure.
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A detailed analysis of the assembly influence on the small-signal parameters of a packaged transistor is presented. A new method, based on 3D field simulation and mixed-mode scattering parameters approach is proposed. Differences in scattering parameters caused by assembly change are computed using the new proposed method and compared to the standard method based on admittance matrix. The differences, accuracy, error sources and suitability of both methods are discussed. Results are verified experimentally in microstrip line for two fundamental assembly changes of a transistor in SOT 343 package in frequency range 45 MHz - 18 GHz.
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In the next generation of mobile communication networks (B3G) the using of effective handling of radio resources is supposed (channels, power and transmission rate) with simultaneous delivery of required services, in which the quality of service (QoS) is guaranteed. In this article we have described and simulated new BER based, SIR-frame based and SIR-slot based link adaptation algorithms. Algorithms were designed to increase efficiency of data transmission among user equipment and base stations (uplink) expressed by throughput and the outage probability for each link. Simulation results of hybrid adaptation (power and modulation BPSK, QPSK, 16-QAM, 64-QAM) are compared and expressed as data throughput and outage probability for different simulation environments (pedestrian channel with mobile subscriber speed 10 km/s and vehicular channel with speed 120 km/h).
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A new, seven-state switched perturbation two-port (PTP) for vector reflection measurement based on scalar measurement only was designed and realized in microstrip structure using PIN diodes. The structure was experimentally tested by means of vector measurements of different impedances in frequency band with relative bandwidth of 2.5 octaves. Good agreement with data obtained using a precise vector network analyzer was achieved. The new calibration method for the PTP was designed and tested on real measured data.
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The paper is aimed to the multi-objective optimization of wire
multi-band antennas. Antennas are numerically modeled using time-domain
integral-equation method. That way, the designed antennas can be
characterized in a wide band of frequencies within a single run of the
analysis. Antennas are optimized to reach the prescribed matching, to
exhibit the omni-directional constant gain and to have the satisfactory
polarization purity. Results of the design are experimentally verified.
The multi-objective cost function is minimized by the genetic algorithm and by the particle swarm optimization. Results of the optimization by both the multi-objective methods are in detail compared.
The combination of the time domain analysis and global optimization methods for the broadband antenna design and the detailed comparison of the multi-objective particle swarm optimization with the multi-objective genetic algorithm are the original contributions of the paper.
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Refraction phenomena that occur in the lower atmosphere significantly influence the performance of wireless communication systems. This paper provides an overview of corresponding computational methods. Basic properties of the lower atmosphere are mentioned. Practical guidelines for radiowave propagation modeling in the lower atmosphere using ray-tracing and parabolic equation methods are given. In addition, a calculation of angle-of-arrival spectra is introduced for multipath propagation simulations.
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Some characteristics of materials with negative permittivity and permeability, i.e., with a negative refrative index, known as metamaterials, are presented in this paper. Dispersion characteristics of left-handed parallel strips calculated by different methods are compared with each other. The calculated and measured dispersion and transmission characteristics of a newly proposed left-handed coplanar waveguide and of a novel volume metmaterial are shown. Simple equivalent circuits of both structures are presented together with elements values. The structures exhibit a negative refractive index in a wide frequency band.
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