September 2002, Volume 11, Number 3
Electromagnetic Wave Propagation Modeling Using the Ant Colony Optimization Algorithm
The Ant Colony Optimization algorithm - a multi-agent approach to combinatorial optimization problems - is introduced for a simple ray tracing performed on only an ordinary bitmap describing a two-dimensional scenario. This bitmap can be obtained as a simple scan where different colors represent different mediums or obstacles. It is shown that using the presented algorithm a path minimizing the wave traveling time can be found according to the Fermat's principle. An example of practical application is a simple ray tracing performed on only an ordinary scanned bitmap of the city map. Together with the Berg's recursive model a non-line-of-sight path loss could be calculated without any need of building database. In this way the coverage predictions for urban microcells could become extremely easy and fast to apply.
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S. Gona, Z. Raida
Design of Planar Reflector Antennas
A design of single and folded reflector antennas is presented. We focus in the use of an optimization during the design process. In comparison to existing papers, possibility of realization of folded antenna at X band frequencies is demonstrated. Further more, an original procedure of phase center extraction of antennas and scatters is described. The procedure is applied in the design of simple reflector antenna incorporating a non-hyperbolic, electrically small reflector.
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Z. Tobes, Z. Raida
Use of the Analog Neural Networks in the Adaptive Antenna Control Systems
In the paper, original control system of adaptive antennas, which is based on Kalman filter, is presented and compared with earlier approaches to this problem. The designed control circuit eliminates some disadvantages of the control circuits based on the classical Kalman neural network and the Wang one, and enables a real time processing of quickly changing signals processed by adaptive antennas. Especially, the dependence of the convergence rate on ratio of eigenvalues and the risk of instability are significantly reduced.
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Investigating the Rossler Attractor Using Lorentz Plot and Lyapunov Exponents
To investigate the Rossler attractor, introduced in 1976 by O.E. Rossler , we used Lorenz plot to show deterministic character and designated the Lyapunov exponent to show the chaotic character of the system.
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Correctness of Velocity Evaluation of System Using Spatial Filter
In this paper, a velocity measurement method using the spatial filter is presented. Luminous emitance of the surface passing through the moving spatial filter and optical set is projected to the active area of photo-detector. The velocity determination is based on the frequency spectrum evaluation of the photo-detector output signal. The formula for velocity computing is derived first. Then, correctness of velocity evaluation in dependence on the surface and measuring system properties is discussed.
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J. Turan, L. Ovsenik, M. Benca, E. F. Carome
Laboratory Equipment Type Fiber Optic Refractometer
Using fiber optics and micro optics technologies we designed an innovative fiber optic index of refraction transducer that has unique properties. On the base of this transducer a laboratory equipment type fiber optic refractometer was developed for liquid index of refraction measurements. Such refractometer may be used for medical, pharmaceutical, industrial fluid, petrochemical, plastic, food, and beverage industry applications. For example, it may be used for measuring the concentrations of aqueous solutions: as the concentration or density of a solute increase, the refractive index increases proportionately. The paper describes development work related to design of laboratory type fiber optic refractometer and describes experiments to evaluation of its basic properties.
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3-D Center-Weighted Vector Directional Filters for Noisy Color Sequences
This paper focuses on a noise filtering in color image sequences, where a new class of center-weighted vector directional filters is provided. According to high dimensionality of color image sequences, where besides the spatial frequencies in the frames it is necessary to consider the temporal correlation of an image sequence and the correlation between color channels too, the processing of color image sequences represents very important and interesting problem. Clearly, the color image sequences represent three-dimensional (3-D) vector-valued image signals and thus, the 3-D vector filters provide optimal approach, only. Novelty of this paper lies in the impulse noise suppression by a new class of center-weighted vector directional filters, where the influence of the filter parameter to filter performance is analyzed. The interesting behavior of a new filter class is illustrated by a number of experimental results and comparisons with the well-known filtering algorithms for color image sequences.
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A. Usakova, J. Kotuliakova, M. Zajac
Walsh - Hadamard Transformation of a Convolution
A convolution is mathematical operation used in signal processing, in the homomorphous signal processing and digital image processing (e.g. image interpolation). In regard of computational complexity of the convolution in the time domain, it used to calculate in the other domain. Exp. x(n) * h(n) R X(W) × H(W), resp. X(W) × H(W), shows that a convolution in the time domain corresponds to multiplication in the Z domain, respectively frequency domain. This paper shows utilization of Walsh-Hadamard orthogonal transformations for convolution.
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- Grant project No. 1/7625/20 of the Ministry of Education of the Slovak Republic
P. Alexova, P. Kosut, J. Polec, K., Kotuliakova
A Comparison of Selected GBN ARQ Schemes for Variable-Error-Rate Channel Using QAM
In non-stationary channels, error rates vary considerably. The paper compares Yao's Adaptive Go-back-N (GBN) Automatic-Repeat-Request (ARQ) scheme with Adaptive go-back-N with sliding window mechanism which both estimate the channel state in a simple manner, and adaptively switch their operation mode. The throughput of these schemes is compared in conditions of Additive White Gauss Noise (AWGN) channel with independent errors using 16-QAM modulation.
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