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June 2012, Volume 21, Number 2

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A. Muñoz-Acevedo, M. Sierra-Castañer [references] [full-text] [Download Citations]
Signal to Noise Ratio Maximization in Quiet Zone Acquisitions for Range Assessment at Sub-millimeter Wavelengths

This paper proposes a quiet zone probing approach which deals with low dynamic range quiet zone acquisitions. Lack of dynamic range is a feature of millimeter and sub-millimeter wavelength technologies. It is consequence of the gradually smaller power generated by the instrumentation, that follows a f^α law with frequency, being α≥1 variable depending on the signal source’s technology. The proposed approach is based on an optimal data reduction scenario which redounds in a maximum signal to noise ratio increase for the signal pattern, with minimum information losses. After theoretical formulation, practical applications of the technique are proposed.

  1. OLVER, A. D. Compact antenna test ranges. In Seventh International Conference on Antennas and Propagation ICAP 91. 15-18 Apr 1991, vol. 1, p. 99-108.
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  3. JENSEN, F., HEIGHWOOD NIELSEN, P., SALGHETTI DRIOLI, L., PAQUAY, M. Best-Fit Adjustment on the reflectors in a compact range. In Proc. Antenna Measurement Techniques Association Symposium. Salt Lake City (USA), 2009.
  4. MUÑOZ-ACEVEDO, A., SIERRA-CASTANER, M. An efficient hybrid GO-PWS algorithm to analyze conformal serrated-edge reflectors for millimeter- wave compact range. IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation, 2012, vol. 60, no. 2, p.1192-1197.
  5. SALGHETTI, L., PAQUAY, M., ALLART, X. How large is your quiet zone? In Proc. Antenna Measurement Techniques Association Symposium. Atlanta (USA), 2010.
  6. MUÑOZ-ACEVEDO, A., ROLO, L., PAQUAY, M., SIERRACASTAÑER, M. Accurate and time efficient quiet zone acquisition technique for the assessment of ESA’s CATR at millimeter wavelengths. In Proc. Antenna Measurement Techniques Association Symposium. Englewood, October 16-21 2011.
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Keywords: Sub-millimeter wavelengths, signal to noise ratio, antenna measurements, compact antenna test range, range assessment.

S.Khanal, T. Kiuru, J. Mallat, O. Luukkonen, A.V. Raisanen [references] [full-text] [Download Citations]
Measurement of Dielectric Properties at 75 - 325 GHz using a Vector Network Analyzer and Full Wave Simulator

This paper presents a fast and easy to use method to determine permittivity and loss tangent in the frequency range of 75 to 325 GHz. To obtain the permittivity and the loss tangent of the test material, the reflection and transmission S-parameters of a waveguide section filled with the test material are measured using a vector network analyzer and then compared with the simulated plots from a full wave simulator (HFSS), or alternatively the measurement results are used in mathematical formulas. The results are coherent over multiple waveguide bands.

  1. AFSAR, M. N. Dielectric measurement of millimeter-wave materials. IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques, 1984, vol. MTT-32, no. 12, p. 1598-1609.
  2. JARVIS, J. B., JANEZIC, M. D., RIDDLE, B. F., KABOS, P., HOLLOWAY, C. L., GEYER, R. G., GROSVENOR, C. A. Measuring the Permittivity and Permeability of Lossy Materials: Solids, Liquids, Metal, Building Materials, and Negative-Index Materials. National Institute of Standards and Technology, NIST Technical Note 1536, 2005.
  3. LUUKKONEN, O., MASLOVSKI, S. I., TRETYAKOV, S. A. A stepwise Nicolson–Ross–Weir-based material parameter extraction method. IEEE Antennas and Wireless Propagation Letters, 2011, vol.10, p. 1295-1298.
  4. JARVIS, J. B. Transmission/Reflection and Short-Circuit Line Permittivity Measurements. National Institute of Standards and Technology, NIST Technical Note 1341, 1990.
  5. JIN, Y. S., KIM, G. J, JEON, S. G. Terahertz dielectric properties of polymers. Journal of the Korean Physical Society, 2006, vol. 49, no. 2, p.513-517. Available at:

Keywords: Dielectric constant, Permittivity, Loss tangent, S-parameters, Material measurement.

M. Stella, M. Russo, D. Begusić [references] [full-text] [Download Citations]
RF Localization in Indoor Environment

In this paper indoor localization system based on the RF power measurements of the Received Signal Strength (RSS) in WLAN environment is presented. Today, the most viable solution for localization is the RSS fingerprinting based approach, where in order to establish a relationship between RSS values and location, different machine learning approaches are used. The advantage of this approach based on WLAN technology is that it does not need new infrastructure (it reuses already and widely deployed equipment), and the RSS measurement is part of the normal operating mode of wireless equipment. We derive the Cramer-Rao Lower Bound (CRLB) of localization accuracy for RSS measurements. In analysis of the bound we give insight in localization performance and deployment issues of a localization system, which could help designing an efficient localization system. To compare different machine learning approaches we developed a localization system based on an artificial neural network, k-nearest neighbors, probabilistic method based on the Gaussian kernel and the histogram method. We tested the developed system in real world WLAN indoor environment, where realistic RSS measurements were collected. Experimental comparison of the results has been investigated and average location estimation error of around 2 meters was obtained.

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Keywords: Indoor localization, Received Signal Strength (RSS), Cramer-Rao Lower Bound (CRLB), location fingerprints

O. Moravek, K. Hoffmann [references] [full-text] [Download Citations]
Measurement and Simulation of Coaxial to Microstrip Transitions' Radiation Properties and Substrate Influence

A radiation and electro-magnetic (EM) field analysis of coaxial-to-microstrip transitions is presented. Radiation is quantified by simulation and measurement of a crosstalk between two Omni-Spectra's transitions using microstrip 'open' calibration standards at different positions. Simulation results are compared to the measured data and good agreement is reported on two different substrates. The evaluation method which is used to analyze quality of the transition and its radiation properties was already developed and verified on a grounded coplanar waveguide (CPWG) transmission line. Results can be used to estimate uncertainty budget of the calibrated measurement with respect to the measured radiation. Results on different substrates show interesting behaviour and can prove useful when choosing suitable substrate for specific test-fixture.

  1. ENGEN, G. F., HOER, C. A. Thru-reflect-line: An improved technique for calibrating the dual six-port automatic network analyzer. IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques, 1979, vol. 27, no. 12, p. 987 - 993.
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Keywords: Microstrip, measurement standards, microwave measurement, microwave propagation, electromagnetic fields, radiation effects.

J. Podzemsky, V. Papez, J. Urbanek, K. Dusek [references] [full-text] [Download Citations]
Influence of Intermetallic Compounds on RF Resistance of Joints Soldered with Lead Free Alloys

During soldering process intermetallic compounds as a reaction between solder and substrate are created. Physical properties of those compounds are different to properties of solder and substrate. The influence of intermetallic compounds (IMC) on radio frequency resistance of soldered joint has been identified. Tested solders were lead free Sn-1Cu, Sn-4Ag and Sn-3.8Ag-0.7Cu and lead containing Sn-37Pb (all in weight percent). Samples were annealed up to 3000 hours at 150 °C to accelerated growing of IMC. Radio frequency measuring method has been developed and is described. Influence of IMC on resistance of joint is growing with growing frequency because IMC with slightly different resistivity to base solder is creating barrier to current. Resistance of joints has been measured up to 3 GHz.

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  9. KWON, D., AZARIAN, M. H., PECHT, M. G. Detection of solder joint degradation using RF impedance analysis. In Proceedings of 58th Electronic Components and Technology Conference. Florida (USA), 2008, p. 606 - 610.
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Keywords: RF resistance, intermetallic compounds, lead free alloys

M. M. Riaz, A. Ghafoor [references] [full-text] [Download Citations]
Fuzzy Logic and Singular Value Decomposition based Through Wall Image Enhancement

Singular value decomposition based through wall image enhancement is proposed which is capable of discriminating target, noise and clutter signals. The overlapping boundaries of clutter, noise and target signals are separated using fuzzy logic. Fuzzy inference engine is used to assign weights to different spectral components. K-means clustering is used for suitable selection of fuzzy parameters. Proposed scheme significantly works well for extracting multiple targets in heavy cluttered through wall images. Simulation results are compared on the basis of mean square error, peak signal to noise ratio and visual inspection.

  1. BARANOSKI, E. Through-wall imaging: Historical perspective and future directions Journal of the Franklin Institute, 2008, vol. 345, no. 6, p. 556 - 569.
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  4. AMIN, M. G. Through the Wall Radar Imaging. Boca Raton (USA): CRC press, 2011.
  5. AFTANAS, M., DRUTAROVSKY, M. Imaging of the building contours with through the wall UWB radar system. Radioengineering, 2009, vol. 18, no. 3, p. 258 - 264.
  6. ROVNAKOVA, J., KOCUR, D. Compensation of wall effect for through wall tracking of moving targets. Radioengineering, 2009, vol. 18, no. 2, p. 189 - 195.
  7. SCHEJBAL, V., CERMAK, D., NEMEC, Z., PIDANIC, J., KONECNY, J., BEZOUSEK, P., FISER, O. Multipath propagation of UWB through-wall radar and EMC phenomena. Radioengineering, 2006, vol. 15, no. 4, p. 52 - 57.
  8. SCHEJBAL, V., BEZOUSEK, P., CERMAK, D., NEMEC, Z., FISER, O., HAJEK, M. UWB propagation through walls. Radioengineering, 2006, vol. 15, no. 1, p. 17 - 24.
  9. MOULTON, J., KASSAM, S. A., AHMAD, F., AMIN, M. G., YEMELYANOV, K. Target and change detection in synthetic aperture radar sensing of urban structures. In Proceedings of IEEE Radar Conference. Rome (Italy), 2009, p. 1 - 6.
  10. YOON, Y. S., AMIN, M. G. Spatial filtering for wall clutter mitigation in through-the-wall radar imaging. IEEE Transactions on Geosciences and Remote Sensing, 2009, vol. 47, no. 9, p. 3192 - 3208.
  11. DEHMOLLAIAN, M., SARABANDI, K. Refocusing through building walls using synthetic aperture radar. IEEE Transactions on Geosciences and Remote Sensing, 2008, vol. 46, no. 6, p. 1589 - 1599.
  12. SMITH, G., MOBASSERI, B. G. Robust through-the-wall radar image classification using a target-model alignment Procedure. IEEE Transactions on Image Processing, 2012, vol. 21, no. 2, p. 754 - 767.
  13. RAM, S. S., CHRISTIANSON, C., YOUNGWOOK, K., HAO, L. Simulation and analysis of human micro-dopplers in through-wall environments. IEEE Transactions on Geosciences and Remote Sensing, 2010, vol. 48, no. 4, p. 2015 - 2023.
  14. DEBES, C. Advances in Detection and Classification for Through the Wall Radar Imaging. PhD Dissertation. Darmstadt (Germany): Technische Universit¨at Darmstadt, 2010.
  15. GAIKWAD, A. N., SINGH, D., NIGAM, M. J. Recognition of target in through wall imaging using shape feature extraction. In IEEE International Geosciences and Remote Sensing Symposium. Vancouver (Canada), 2011, p. 957 - 960.
  16. CHANDRA, R., GAIKWAD, A. N., SINGH, D., NIGAM, M. J. An approach to remove the clutter and detect the target for ultrawideband through-wall imaging. Journal of Geophysics and Engineering, 2008, vol. 5, no. 4.
  17. VERMA, P. K., GAIKWAD, A. N., SINGH, D., NIGAM, M. J. Analysis of clutter reduction techniques for through wall imaging in UWB range. Progress In Electromagnetics Research B, 2009, vol. 17, p. 29 - 48.
  18. GAIKWAD, A. N., SINGH, D., NIGAM, M. J. Application of clutter reduction techniques for detection of metallic and low dielectric target behind the brick wall by stepped frequency continuous wave radar in ultra-wideband range. IET Radar Sonar Navigation, 2011, vol. 5, no. 4, p. 416 - 425.
  19. GAIKWAD, A. N., SINGH D., NIGAM, M. J. Study of effect of room window on through wall imaging in UWB range. In International Conference on Emerging Trends in Electronic and Photonic Devices and Systems. Varanasi (India), 2009, p. 395 - 398.
  20. TIVIVE, F. H., AMIN, M. G., BOUZERDOUM, A.Wall clutter mitigation based on eigen analysis in through the wall radar imaging. 17th Internetional Conference on Digital Signal Processing. Corfu (Greece), 2011, p. 1-8.
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Keywords: Through wall imaging, Image enhancement, Singular value decomposition, Fuzzy logic, K-means clustering

A. A. Kucharski [references] [full-text] [Download Citations]
Wideband Characteristic Basis Functions in Radiation Problems

In this paper, the use of characteristic basis function (CBF) method, augmented by the application of asymptotic waveform evaluation (AWE) technique is analyzed in the context of the application to radiation problems. Both conventional and wideband CBFs are applied to the analysis of wire and planar antennas.

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  8. REDDY, C. J., DESHPANDE, M. D., COCKRELL, C. R., BECK, F. B. Fast RCS computation over a frequency band using method of moments in conjunction with asymptotic waveform evaluation technique. IEEE Trans. Antennas Propagat., Aug. 1998, vol. 46, no. 8, p.1229–1233.
  9. CHEW, W. C., MICHIELSSEN, E., SONG, J. M., JIN, J. M. Fast and Efficient Algorithms in Computational Electromagnetics. Boston, London: Artech House, 2001.
  10. TESCHE, F. M. The effect of the thin-wire approximation and the source gap model on the high-frequency integral equation solution of radiating antenna. IEEE Trans. Antennas Propagat., March 1972, vol. 20, no. 2, p. 210–211.
  11. RAO, S. M., WILTON, D. R., GLISSON, A. W. Electromagnetic scattering by surfaces of arbitrary shape. IEEE Trans. Antennas Propagat., May 1982, vol. AP-30, p. 409-418.

Keywords: Asymptotic waveform evaluation, characteristic basis functions, integral equations, moment methods

T. Hongnara, C. Mahattanajatuphat, P. Akkaraekthalin, M. Krairiksh [references] [full-text] [Download Citations]
A Multiband CPW-Fed Slot Antenna with Fractal Stub and Parasitic Line

This paper presents a multiband CPW-fed slot antenna with fractal stub and parasitic line. The conventional wideband slot antenna with fractal stub is modified by inserting the parasitic line surrounding the fractal stub that affects the attribution to be a multiband operation suitable for some applications in wireless communication systems. The parasitic line surrounding the fractal stub can generate a dual-notched frequency that can be controlled by varying the parameters of the parasitic structure. The lengths of slit and stub on both sides of the parasitic line can control the lower and higher notched frequencies, respectively. Additionally, the prototype of the proposed antenna can operate and cover the applications of DCS 1800, WiMAX IEEE 802.16, WLAN IEEE 802.11a/b/g, and IMT advance systems

  1. LIU, Z.-Y., YIN, Y.-Z., ZHENG, S.-F., HU, W., WEN, L.-H. A compact CPW-fed monopole antenna with a U-shaped strip and a pair of L-slits ground for WLAN and WIMAX application. Progress In Electromagnetic Research Letters, 2010, vol. 16, p. 11-19.
  2. MAHATTHANAJATUPHAT, C., WONGSIN, N., AKKARAETHALIN, P. A multiband monopole antenna with modified fractal loop parasitic. In International Symposium on Antenna and Propagation. November 2010, p. 57-74.
  3. HSIEH, H.-W., LEE, Y.-C., TIONG, K.-K., SUN, J.-S. Design of a multiband antenna for mobile handset operations. IEEE Antennas and Wireless Propagation Letter, 2009, vol. 8, p. 200 – 203.
  4. KRISHNA, D. D., GOPIKRISHNA, M., AANAMDAN, C. K. A CPW-fed triple band monopole antenna for WiMAX/WLAN applications. In Proceeding of the 38th European Microwave Conference. 2008, p. 897-900.
  5. LEE, W.-S., KIM, D.-Z., KIM, K.-J., YO, J.-W. Wideband planar monopole antennas with dual band-notched characteristics. IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques, 2006, vol. 54, no. 6, p. 2800-2806.
  6. LEE, K.-F., YANG, S. L. S., KISHK, A. A. Dual – and multiband U-slot patch antennas. IEEE Antennas and Wireless Propagation Letter, 2008, vol. 7, p. 645-647.
  7. QI LUO, SALGADO, H. M., PEREIRA, J. R. Printed fractal monopole antenna array for WLAN. In Proceeding of International Workshop on Antenna Technology (iWAT), 2010, p. 1-4.
  8. MURTAZA, N., HEIN, M. A. Folded Sierpinski monopole antenna with self-similar radiation properties. In Proceeding of the 3rd European Wireless Technology Conference. September 2010, p. 189 - 192.
  9. MAHATTHANAJATUPHAT, M., SALEEKAW, S., AKKARAETHALIN, P. A rhombic patch monopole antenna with modified Minkowski fractal geometry for UMTS, WLAN, and mobile WIMAX application. Progress In Electromagnetics Research, 2009, vol. 89, p. 57-74.
  10. CHAIMOOL, S., AKKARAETHALIN, P., VIVEK, V. Dual-band CPW-fed slot antennas using loading metallic strips and a widened tuning stub. IEICE Trans. ELECTRON, December 2005, vol. E88- C, no. 12, p. 2258-2265.
  11. KRISHNA, D. D., GOPIKRISHNA, M., ANNANDAN, C. K., MOHANAN, P., VASUDENAN, K. Compact wideband Koch fractal printed slot antenna. IET Microw. Antennas Propag., 2009, vol.3, no. 5, p. 782 – 789.
  12. HONGNARA, T., MAHATTHANAJATUPHAT, M., AKKARAETHALIN, P. Study of CPW-fed slot antenna with fractal stub. Proceeding of Electrical Engineering/Electronics, Computer, Telecommunications and Information Technology Conference (ECTI-CON). 2011, p. 188 – 191.
  13. YANG, Y., YIN, Y.-Z., WEI, Y.-Q., LIU, B.-W., SUN, A.-F. A circular wide-slot antenna with dual band-notched characteristics for UWB applications. Progress In Electromagnetic Research Letters, 2011, vol. 23, p. 237-145.
  14. TAHERI, M. M. S., HASSANI, H. R., NEZHAD, S. M. A. UWB printed slot antenna with Bluetooth and dual notch bands. IEEE Antennas and Wireless Propagation Letter, 2011, vol. 10, p. 254 to 258.

Keywords: Multiband slot antenna, fractal stub, parasitic line.

Hui-yong Zeng, Guang-ming Wang, Zhong-wu Yu, Xiao-kuan Zhang, Tian-peng Li [references] [full-text] [Download Citations]
Miniaturization of Branch-Line Coupler Using Composite Right/Left-Handed Transmission Lines with Novel Meander-shaped-slots CSSRR

A novel compact-size branch-line coupler using composite right/left-handed transmission lines is proposed in this paper. In order to obtain miniaturization, composite right/left-handed transmission lines with novel complementary split single ring resonators which are realized by loading a pair of meander-shaped-slots in the split of the ring are designed. This novel coupler occupies only 22.8% of the area of the conventional approach at 0.7 GHz. The proposed coupler can be implemented by using the standard printed-circuit-board etching processes without any implementation of lumped elements and via-holes, making it very useful for wireless communication systems. The agreement between measured and stimulated results validates the feasible configuration of the proposed coupler.

  1. POZAR, D. M. Microwave Engineering. 3rd ed. New York, 2005.
  2. ECCLESTON, K. W., ONG, S. H. M. Compact planar microstripline branch-line and rat-race couplers. IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques, 2003, vol. 51, no. 10, p. 2119 to 2125.
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  4. TANG, C. W., CHEN, M. G. Synthesizing microstrip branch-line couplers with predetermined compact size and bandwidth. IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques, 2007, vol. 55, no. 9, p. 1926 - 1934.
  5. CHEN, W. L., WANG, G. M., ZHANG, C. X. Miniaturization of wideband branch-line couplers using fractal-shaped geometry. Microwave and Optical Technology Letters, 2009, vol. 51, no. 1, p. 26 - 29.
  6. ELEFTHERIADES, G. V., IYER, A. K., KREMER, P. C. Planar negative refractive index media using periodically L-C loaded transmission lines. IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques, 2002, vol. 50, no. 12, p. 2702 - 2712.
  7. SANADA, A., CALOZ, C., ITOH, T. Planar distributed structures with negative refractive index. IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques, 2004, vol. 52, no. 4, p. 1252 - 1263.
  8. FALCONE, F., LOPETEGI, T., LASO, M. A. G. Babinet principle applied to the design of metasurfaces and metamaterials. Physical Review Letters, 2004, vol. 93, no. 19, p. 197401.
  9. ZENG, H. Y., WANG, G. M., ZHANG, C. X., ZHU, L. Compact microstrip low-pass filter using complementary split ring resonators with ultra-wide stopband and high selectivity. Microwave and Optical Technology Letters, 2010, vol. 52, no. 2, p. 430 – 433.

Keywords: Branch-line coupler, complementary split single ring resonators, composite right/left-handed transmission lines, meander-shaped-slots, miniaturization.

S. Chaimool, P. Akkaraekthalin [references] [full-text] [Download Citations]
Miniaturized Wideband Bandpass Filter with Wide Stopband using Metamaterial-based Resonator and Defected Ground Structure

This paper presents a miniaturized wideband bandpass filter with wide stopband performance. It is shown that the coupled metamaterial-based resonators (MBRs) incorporating with the defected ground structure (DGS) can significantly increase the coupling value to achieve wideband bandpass filter. This technique has been extended to realize wideband bandpass filter having fractional bandwidth of 63 % and low insertion loss in the passband. To further suppress the spurious harmonics and upper stopband, the combining of the zero-degree feed structure and embedded slot-loaded resonators in both input and output ports is introduced. The proposed filter has not only compact size but also good out-of-band response. The experimental results are demonstrated and discussed.

  1. HSIEH, L.-H., CHANG, K. Compact, low insertion loss, sharp rejection wideband bandpass filters using dual-mode ring resonators with tuning stubs. Electronics Letters, 2001, vol. 37, no. 22, p. 1345 - 1347.
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  3. CAI, P., MA, Z., GUAN, X., KOBAYASHI, Y., ANADA, T., HAGIWARA, G. A novel compact ultra-wideband bandpass filter using a microstrip stepped-impedance four modes resonator. In IEEE MTTS International Microwave Symposium Digest. Honolulu (USA), 2007, p. 751 - 754.
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  8. JANG, S.-H., Lee, J.-C. Design of novel cross-coupling elliptic function filters with the miniaturized edge-coupled split ring resonators. Microwave and Optical Technology Letters, 2005, vol. 45, no. 6, p. 495 - 499.
  9. BONACHE. J., MARTIN. F., GARCIA-GARCIA, J., GIL, I., MARQUES, R., SOROLLA, M. Ultra wide band pass filters (UWBPF) based on complementary split rings resonators. Microwave and Optical Technology Letters, 2005, vol. 46, no. 3, p. 283 - 286.
  10. GIL, M., BONACHE, J., GARCIA-GARCIA, J., MARTEL, J., MARTIN, F. Composite right/left-handed metamaterial transmission lines based on complementary split-rings resonators and their applications to very wideband and compact filter design. IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques, 2007, vol. 55, no. 6, p. 1296 - 1304.
  11. VELEZ, A., AZNAR, F., BONACHE, J., VELAZQUEZAHUMADA, M. C., MARTEL, J., MARTIN, F. Open complementary split ring resonators (OCSRRs) and their application to wideband cpw band pass filters. IEEE Microwave and Wireless Components Letters, 2009, vol. 19, no. 4, p. 197 - 199.
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  15. AZNAR, F., GARCIA-GARCIA, J., GIL, M., BONACHE, J., MARTIN, F. Strategies for the miniaturization of metamaterial resonators. Microwave and Optical Technology Letters, 2008, vol. 50, no. 5, p. 1263 - 1270.
  16. GARCIA-GARCIA, J., BONACHE, J., GIL, I., MARTIN, F., VELAZQUEZ-AHUMADA, MD. C., MARTEL, J., Miniaturized microstrip and CPW filters using coupled metamaterial resonators. IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques, 2006, vol. 54, no. 6, p. 2628 - 2635.
  17. SISO, G., GIL, M., ARANDA, M., BONACHE, J., MARTIN, F. Miniaturization of planar microwave devices by means of complementary spiral resonators (CSRs): design of quadrature phase shifters. Radioengineering, 2009, vol. 18, no. 2, p. 144 - 148.
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  19. ALI, A., ZHIRUN HU Metamaterial resonator based wave propagation notch for Ultrawideband filter applications. IEEE Antennas and Wireless Propagation Letters, 2008, vol. 7, p. 210 - 212.
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  21. HONG, J. -S. LANCASTER, M. J. Microstrip filters for RF/microwave applications. New York (USA): Wiley, 2001.
  22. TSAI, C. M., LEE, S. Y., TSAI., C. C. Performance of a planar filter using a 0 feed structure. IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques, 2002, vol. 50, no. 10, p. 2362 -2367.
  23. MEELOON, M., CHAIMOOL, S., AKKARAEKTHALIN, P. A broadband bandpass filter with a notch-band using step-impedance resonator and embedded slots . IEEE Asia Pacific Microwave Conference, APMC. Singapore, 2009, p. 1446 - 1449.
  24. AHAMADI, B., FARAJI-DANA, R. A miniaturised monopole antenna for ultrawide band applications with band-notch filter. IET Microwaves, Antennas & Propagation, 2009, vol. 3, no. 8, p. 1224 - 1231.
  25. YANG, G.-M., JIN, R., VITTORIA, C., HARRIS, V. G., SUN, N. X. Small ultra-wideband (UWB) bandpass filter with notched band. IEEE Microwave and Wireless Componenets Letters, 2008, vol. 18, no. 3, p. 176 - 178.

Keywords: Wideband bandpass filter, Metamaterial, Suppress harmonics, Upper stopband, Defected ground structure

E. S. Ahmed [references] [full-text] [Download Citations]
Dual-Mode Dual-Band Microstrip Bandpass Filter Based on Fourth Iteration T-Square Fractal and Shorting Pin

A new class of dual mode microstrip fractal resonator is proposed and developed for miniaturization of the dual band bandpass filter. The perimeter of the proposed resonator is increased by employing fourth iteration T-square fractal shape. Consequently the lower resonant frequency of the filter is decreased without increasing the usable space. The self similarity of the usable structure enables it to produce the two degenerate modes which are coupled using the proper perturbation technique. The shorting pin is placed at the null in the surface current distribution at the center of the resonator. This shorting pin is coactively coupled to the resonant circuit of the resonator, effectively coupled to the lower degenerate mode and reduces the lower edge band resonant frequency. By adjusting the resonator dimensions and the size of the shorting pin, the resonant frequency and the out-of-band rejection around the transmission bands can be controlled to meet the design requirements. The simulated response of the designed filter has two transmission bands, the first band is from 2.34-3.65 GHz with resonant frequencies at 2.47GHz and 3.55GHz, the second band is from 4.37-5.324GHz with resonant frequencies at 4.5GHz and 5.13GHz. In the pass bands, the group delay is less than 0.65 ns. The proposed filter can be applied to WLAN (2.4 GHz and 5.2 GHz) and WiMAX (3.5 GHz) and Bluetooth and ZigBee (4.9 GHz).

  1. GORUR, A. Description of coupling between degenerate modes of a dual-mode microstrip loop resonator using a novel perturbation arrangement and its dual-mode bandpass filter applications. IEEE Trans. on Microwave Theory and Techniques, 2004, vol. 52, no. 2, p. 671-677.
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  6. MAW, R. J., TANG, X. H. Novel dual-mode bandpass filters using hexagonal loop resonator. IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech., 2006, vol. 54, no. 9, p. 3526-3533.
  7. ESFEH, B. K., ISMAIL, A., AZMIR, R. S. Narrowband elliptic bandpass filter using dual-mode microstrip square loop resonator for WiMAX application. CCSE Modern Applied Science, 2009, vol. 3, no. 9, p. 2-10.
  8. FOK, S. W., CHEONG, P., TAM, K. W., MARTINS, R. P. A novel microstrip square-loop dual-mode bandpass filter with simultaneous size reduction and spurious response suppression. IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech., 2006, vol. 54, no. 5, p. 2033-2041.
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Keywords: Microstrip filter, fractals, dual-mode filter, dual-band filter, shorting pin

S. Sheikh Muhammad, H. Mehmood, A. Naseem, A. Abbas [references] [full-text] [Download Citations]
Hybrid Coding Technique for Pulse Detection in an Optical Time Domain Reflectometer

The paper introduces a novel hybrid coding technique for improved pulse detection in an optical time domain reflectometer. The hybrid schemes combines Simplex codes with signal averaging to articulate a very sophisticated coding technique that considerably reduces the processing time to extract specified coding gains in comparison to the existing techniques. The paper quantifies the coding gain of the hybrid scheme mathematically and provide simulative results in direct agreement with the theoretical performance. Furthermore, the hybrid scheme has been tested on our self-developed OTDR.

  1. JONES, M. D. Using Simplex codes to improve OTDR sensitivity. IEEE Photonics Technology Letters, 1993, vol. 15, no. 7.
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  5. LEE, D., YOON, H. et al. Optimization of SNR improvement in the noncoherent OTDR based on Simplex codes. Journal of Lightwave Technology, 2006, vol. 24, no. 1.
  6. SAHU, P. K., GOWRE, S. C. et al. Optical Time Domain Reflectometer performance improvement using complementary correlated Prometheus orthonormal sequence. IET Optoelectronics, 2008, vol. 2, no.3.
  7. PARK, N., LEE, J. et al. Coded Optical Time Domain Reflectometry: principle and applications. Proceedings of SPIE, 2007, vol. 6781.
  8. LEE, D., YOON, H. et al. SNR enhancement of OTDR using biorthogonal codes and generalized inverses. IEEE Photonics Technology Letters, 2005, vol. 17, no. 1.
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  12. NASEEM, A., MEHMOOD, H. et al. Composite coding scheme for OTDR SNR enhancement. In Proceedings of the 11th International Conference on Telecommunication ConTEL. Graz (Austria), 2011, p. 321 - 324.

Keywords: Optical Time Domain Reflectometer (OTDR), signal averaging, Golay codes , Simplex codes , pulse detection, composite coding scheme.

V. Jenik, P. Hudec, P. Panek [references] [full-text] [Download Citations]
Noise Parameters of CW Radar Sensors Used in Active Defense Systems

Active defense represents an innovative way of protecting military vehicles. It is based on the employment of a set of radar sensors which detect an approaching threat missile and activate a suitable counter-measure. Since the radar sensors are supposed to detect flying missiles very fast and, at the same time, distinguish them from stationary or slow-moving objects, CW Doppler radar sensors can be employed with a benefit. The submitted article deals with a complex noise analysis of this type of sensors. The analysis considers the noise of linear and quasi-linear RF components, phase-noise of the local oscillator as well as the noise of low-frequency circuits. Since the incidence of the phase-noise depends strongly upon the time delay between the reference and the cross-talked signals, a new method of measuring noise parameters utilizing a reflecting wall has been developed and verified. The achieved results confirm potentially high influence of the phase-noise on the noise parameters of the mentioned type of radar sensors. Obtained results can be used for the analysis of noise parameters of the similar but even more complex sensors.

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  3. KIM, J. G., SIM, S. H., CHEON, S., HONG, S. 24 GHz circularly polarized Doppler radar with a single antenna. In 35th European Microwave Conference, Paris (France), 2005, CD, p. 1383-1386.
  4. KIM, S. G., KIM, H., LEE, Y., KHO, I. S., YOOK, J. G. 5.8 GHz vital signal sensing Doppler radar using isolation-improved brachline coupler. In 3rd European Radar Conference, Manchester (UK), 2006, CD, p. 249-252.
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  9. HUDEC, P., PLASIL, J., DOHNAL, P. Digital signal processing applied to radar sensors operated in active defense systems. In Proceedings of the EuRAD Conference. Paris (France), 2010.
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Keywords: CW radar sensor, noise parameters, noise measurement, active defense

A. H. Muqaibel., N. M. Iya, U. M. Johar [references] [full-text] [Download Citations]
Wall Compensation for Ultra Wideband Applications

Due to their low frequency contents, ultra wideband (UWB) signals have the ability to penetrate walls and obstacles. As the signal propagates through these obstacles, it gets attenuated, slows down, and gets dispersed. This paper demonstrates wall compensation for through-wall imaging, localization and communication receiver design purposes by first characterizing wave propagation through various building materials in the UWB frequency range. Knowledge of the walls obtained from the wall characterization is used to estimate and correct the position accuracy of a target object located behind the walls using three proposed methods namely; constant amplitude and delay (CDL), frequency dependent data (FFD), and data fitting methods (FIT). The obtained results indicated relatively acceptable measure of wall compensation for the three methods. Results from such work provide insight on how to develop algorithms for effective target position estimation in imaging and localization applications. They are also useful for channel modelling and link budget analysis.

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Keywords: Wall compensation; localization; UWB; through-wall imaging.

O. Jakubov, P. Kacmarik, P. Kovar, F. Vejrazka [references] [full-text] [Download Citations]
Universality and Realistic Extensions to the Semi-Analytic Simulation Principle in GNSS Signal Processing

Semi-analytic simulation principle in GNSS signal processing bypasses the bit-true operations at high sampling frequency. Instead, signals at the output branches of the integrate&dump blocks are successfully modeled, thus making extensive Monte Carlo simulations feasible. Methods for simulations of code and carrier tracking loops with BPSK, BOC signals have been introduced in the literature. Matlab toolboxes were designed and published. In this paper, we further extend the applicability of the approach. Firstly, we describe any GNSS signal as a special instance of linear multi-dimensional modulation. Thereby, we state universal framework for classification of differently modulated signals. Using such description, we derive the semi-analytic models generally. Secondly, we extend the model for realistic scenarios including delay in the feed back, slowly fading multipath effects, finite bandwidth, phase noise, and a combination of these. Finally, a discussion on connection of this semi-analytic model and position-velocity-time estimator is delivered, as well as comparison of theoretical and simulated characteristics, produced by a prototype simulator developed at CTU in Prague.

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Keywords: AltBOC, BPSK, BOC, GNSS, post-correlation modeling, semi-analytic simulation, tracking loops

H. H. Chen, W. M. Jia, M. L. Yao [references] [full-text] [Download Citations]
Cross-Correlation-Function-Based Multipath Mitigation Method for Sine-BOC Signals

Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS) positioning accuracy indoor and urban canyons environments are greatly affected by multipath due to distortions in its autocorrelation function. In this paper, a cross-correlation function between the received sine phased Binary Offset Carrier (sine-BOC) modulation signal and the local signal is studied firstly, and a new multipath mitigation method based on cross-correlation function for sine-BOC signal is proposed. This method is implemented to create a cross-correlation function by designing the modulated symbols of the local signal. The theoretical analysis and simulation results indicate that the proposed method exhibits better multipath mitigation performance compared with the traditional Double Delta Correlator (DDC) techniques, especially the medium/long delay multipath signals, and it is also convenient and flexible to implement by using only one correlator, which is the case of low-cost mass-market receivers.

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Keywords: GNSS, Multipath, BOC, DDC

J. Spacek, M. Kasal [references] [full-text] [Download Citations]
The Model of the Low Rate Telemetry Communication System for Matlab-Simulink

This article is dedicated to the model of low rate telemetry system, which has been developed for Matlab-Simulink environment. The purpose of this model is a research of the low rate telemetry transmission reliability in those cases where the modulation scheme carrier-subcarrier is used. This modulation scheme is widely used in case of the interplanetary spacecrafts. The main purpose of the model is a research of the effects of AWGN and phase noise especially for very low value of Eb/N0. Effects can be evaluated for the whole transmission system or for its components parts. The model described is very versatile and it can be easily modified or expanded.

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Keywords: Simulation, data transmission system, telemetry, carrier-subcarrier, BPSK/BPSK, very low Eb/No, AWGN, phase noise

Zs. A. Polgar, M. P. Stef, Zs. I. Kiss, A. Hosu, V. Bota [references] [full-text] [Download Citations]
Improving Link Reliability through Network Coding in Cooperative Cellular Networks

The paper proposes a XOR-based network coded cooperation protocol for the uplink transmission of relay assisted cellular networks and an algorithm for selection and assignment of the relay nodes. The performances of the cooperation protocol are expressed in terms of network decoder outage probability and Block Error Rate of the cooperating users. These performance indicators are analyzed theoretically and by computer simulations. The relay nodes assignment is based on the optimization, according to several criteria, of the graph that describes the cooperation cluster formed after an initial selection of the relay nodes. The graph optimization is performed using Genetic Algorithms adapted to the topology of the cooperation cluster and the optimization criteria considered.

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Keywords: Cooperative transmission, genetic algorithms, graph optimization, network coding, relay assignment

N. Tafaghodi Khajavi, S. M. S. Sadough [references] [full-text] [Download Citations]
Achievable Outage Rates In Cognitive Radio Networks under Imperfect Spectrum Sensing

In this paper, we aim at deriving the outage rates achieved by the primary user due spectrum sensing in a cognitive radio network, that we call sensing-induced primary outage rates. To reach this goal, in the first step, instead of classical spectrum sensing techniques that evaluate sensing performance only based on correct detection of the presence of the primary user’s signal, we propose a modified framework that also takes into account the correct detection of the absence of primary user’s signal for spectrum sensing performance evaluation. In a second step, we derive the information rates achieved by the coexistence of a primary and a cognitive network. In the last step, assuming slow fading sensing channels, we derive the sensing-induced primary outage rates, i.e., outage rates achieved by the primary network in the presence of a CR with imperfect spectrum sensing, characterized by a given miss-detection probability. Numerical results show that the proposed spectrum sensing outperforms conventional spectrum sensing techniques in terms of primary signal outage rates and total achievable throughputs, without any increase in the cognitive radio complexity.

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Keywords: Cognitive Radio, outage capacity, imperfect spectrum sensing, achievable throughputs

U.A.K. Chude-Okonkwo, R. Ngah, C.Y. Leow, T.A. Rahman [references] [full-text] [Download Citations]
Time-Scale Domain Characterization of Time-Varying Ultrawideband Infostation Channel

The time-scale domain geometrical-based method for the characterization of the time varying ultrawideband (UWB) channel typical of an infostation channel is presented. Compared to methods that use Doppler shift as a measure of time-variation in the channel this model provides a more reliable measure of frequency dispersion caused by terminal mobility in the UWB infostation channel. Particularly, it offers carrier frequency independent method of computing wideband channel responses and parameters which are important for ultrawideband systems. Results show that the frequency dispersion of the channel depends on the frequency and not on the choice of bandwidth. And time dispersion depends on bandwidth and not on the frequency. It is also shown that for time-varying UWB, frame length defined over the coherence time obtained with reference to the carrier frequency results in an error margin which can be reduced by using the coherence time defined with respect to the maximum frequency in a given frequency band. And the estimation of the frequency offset using the time-scale domain (wideband) model presented here (especially in the case of multiband UWB frequency synchronization) is more accurate than using frequency offset estimate obtained from narrowband models.

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Keywords: Ultrawideband, time-scale, geometrical model, time-varying, coherence time, frequency offset

J.-M. Wu, C.-H. Yeh, C.-J. Chuang [references] [full-text] [Download Citations]
High Dynamic Range RF Front End with Noise Cancellation and Linearization for WiMAX Receivers

This research deals with verification of the high dynamic range for a heterodyne radio frequency (RF) front end. A 2.6 GHz RF front end is designed and implemented in a hybrid microwave integrated circuit (HMIC) for worldwide interoperability for microwave access (WiMAX) receivers. The heterodyne RF front end consists of a low-noise amplifier (LNA) with noise cancellation, an RF bandpass filter (BPF), a downconverter with linearization, and an intermediate frequency (IF) BPF. A noise canceling technique used in the low-noise amplifier eliminates a thermal noise and then reduces the noise figure (NF) of the RF front end by 0.9 dB. Use of a downconverter with diode linearizer also compensates for gain compression, which increases the input-referred third-order intercept point (IIP3) of the RF front end by 4.3 dB. The proposed method substantially increases the spurious-free dynamic range (DRf) of the RF front end by 3.5 dB.

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  17. WU, J.-M. Low-noise amplifier design using intermodulation nulling and noise canceling for WiMAX receivers. International Journal of Microwave and Optical Technology, 2010, vol. 5, no. 6, p. 369 - 374.
  18. GODARA, B., FABRE, A. A new application of current conveyors: the design of wideband controllable low-noise amplifiers. Radioengineering, 2008, vol. 17, no. 4, p. 91 - 100.
  19. WU, J. M., YE, R. F., LI, S. C. A highly linear mixer design with a Schottky diode linearizer for WiMAX applications. In Proceedings of the 37th European Microwave Conference. Munich (Germany), 2007, p. 644 - 647.
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Keywords: Front end, low-noise amplifier (LNA), mixer, downconverter, heterodyne, receiver, radio frequency (RF)

M. Jain, M. Gupta, N. Jain [references] [full-text] [Download Citations]
Linear Phase Second Order Recursive Digital Integrators and Differentiators

In this paper, design of linear phase second order recursive digital integrators and differentiators is discussed. New second order integrators have been designed by using Genetic Algorithm (GA) optimization method. Thereafter, by modifying the transfer function of these integrators appropriately, new digital differentiators have been obtained. The proposed digital integrators and differentiators accurately approximate the ideal ones and have linear phase response over almost entire Nyquist frequency range. The proposed operators also outperform the existing operators in terms of both magnitude and phase response.

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Keywords: Linear optimization, Genetic Algorithm optimization, digital integrator, digital differentiator

B. Metin, N. Herencsar, K. Vrba [references] [full-text] [Download Citations]
A CMOS DCCII with a Grounded Capacitor Based Cascadable All-Pass Filter Application

The differential current conveyor (DCCII) is a versatile current-mode active element, which has a current differencing capability. In this study, a new CMOS DCCII implementation is introduced. As an application example, a novel voltage-mode (VM) first-order all-pass filter (APF) is presented. The proposed VM APF employs two resistors, grounded capacitor and has high-input impedance for cascadability. Simulation and experimental results are given to verify the operation of the circuit.

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  6. METIN, B., TOKER, A., TERZIOGLU, H., CICEKOGLU, O. A new all-pass section for high-performance signal processing with a single CCII–. Frequenz, 2003, vol. 57, no. 11-12, p. 241 - 243.
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  11. METIN, B., PAL, K., CICEKOGLU, O. All-pass filters using DDCC- and MOSFET-based electronic resistor. International Journal of Circuit Theory and Applications, 2011, vol. 39, no. 8, p. 881 - 891.
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Keywords: All-pass filter, analog filter, differential current conveyor, DCCII, voltage-mode circuit

F. Khateb, N. Khatib, D. Kubanek [references] [full-text] [Download Citations]
Low-Voltage Ultra-Low-Power Current Conveyor Based on Quasi-Floating Gate Transistors

The field of low-voltage low-power CMOS technology has grown rapidly in recent years; it is an essential prerequisite particularly for portable electronic equipment and implantable medical devices due to its influence on battery lifetime. Recently, significant improvements in implementing circuits working in the low-voltage low-power area have been achieved, but circuit designers face severe challenges when trying to improve or even maintain the circuit performance with reduced supply voltage. In this paper, a low-voltage ultra-low-power current conveyor second generation CCII based on quasi-floating gate transistors is presented. The proposed circuit operates at a very low supply voltage of only ±0.4 V with rail-to-rail voltage swing capability and a total quiescent power consumption of mere 9.5 µW. Further, the proposed circuit is not only able to process the AC signal as it's usual at quasi-floating gate transistors but also the DC which extends the applicability of the proposed circuit. In conclusion, an application example of the current-mode quadrature oscillator is presented. PSpice simulation results using the 0.18 µm TSMC CMOS technology are included to confirm the attractive properties of the proposed circuit.

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Keywords: Quasi-floating gate MOST, low-voltage low-power MOST, CCII, quadrature oscillator.

N. Merz, W. Kiranon, C. Wongtachathum, P. Pawarangkoon, W. Narksarp [references] [full-text] [Download Citations]
A Modified Bipolar Translinear Cell with Improved Linear Range and Its Applications

This paper presents a technique to extend the linear input voltage range of a sinh mixed translinear cell proposed by Fabre [1]. This technique extends the linear operation range of the circuit by inserting common-anode-connected pairs into the mixed translinear cell. Then the relationship between the output current and the input voltage is developed to be linear. The transconductance gain can be adjusted electronically while keeping its linearity. The performance of the proposed circuit is verified by mathematical analysis and by SPICE simulations. Finally, applications of the proposed cell in a floating resistor and a CCCII for designing an instrumentation amplifier are presented.

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Keywords: Analog Integrated Circuit, Translinear Circuit, Linearization, Transconductance

J. H. Jung, C. H. Kwak, J. S. Lee [references] [full-text] [Download Citations]
Third-order Intermodulation Reduction in Mobile Power Amplifiers by the First Stage Bias Control

In this paper, the third order intermodulation distortion (IMD3) of three-stage power amplifier (PA) is analyzed using the Volterra series. The analysis explains how the total IMD3 of the three-stage power amplifier can be reduced by the first-stage bias condition. The three-stage PA, which is fabricated using InGaP/GaAs hetero-junction bipolar transistor (HBT), operates with an optimized first driver stage bias for higher P1dB and good gain flatness. The power amplifier has been designed for 1626.5 MHz~1660.5 MHz satellite mobile communications. With π/4 DQPSK modulation signals, this PA can deliver a highly linear output power of 33 dBm from 3.6V supply voltage. At 33 dBm output power, it shows a gain of 31.9 dB, a power-added efficiency (PAE) of 39.8%, an adjacent channel power ratio (ACPR) of -28.2 dBc at a 31.25 KHz offset frequency.

  1. LEE, S. Y., JEON, K. I., LEE, Y. S., LEE, K. S., JEONG, Y. H. The IMD sweet spots varied with gate bias voltages and input powers in RF LDMOS power amplifier. In Proc. of the 33rd European Microwave Conference. Munich (Germany), 2003, p. 1353–1356.
  2. CHOI, K. G., KIM, M. S., KIM, H. C., JUNG, S. C., CHO, J. Y., YOO, S. C., KIM, Y. H., YOO, H. M., YANG, Y. G. A highly linear two-stage amplifier integrated circuit using InGaP/GaAs HBT. IEEE Journal of Solid-State Circuits, 2010, vol. 45, no. 10, p. 2038-2043.
  3. AOKI, Y., KUNIHIRO, K., MIYAZAKI, T., HIRAYAMA, T., HIDA, H. A 20mA quiescent current two-stage W-CDMA power amplifier using anti-phase intermodulation distortion. In IEEE Radio Frequency Integrated Circuits (RFIC) Symp. Dig., 2004, p. 357-360.
  4. CLARK, C. J., SILVA, C. P., MOULTHROP, A., MUHA, M. S. Power-amplifier characterization using a two-tone measurement technique. IEEE Trans. on Microwave Theory and Techniques, 2002, vol. 50, no. 6, p. 1590-1602.
  5. YANG, Y. G., YI, J. H., WOO, Y. Y., KIM, B. M. Optimum design for linearity and efficiency of a microwave Doherty amplifier using a new load matching technique. Microwave Journal, 2001, vol. 44, no.12, p. 20-36.
  6. Freescale Semiconductor, MW4IC001MR4 (datasheet). 16 pages. [Online] Cited 2006-5. Available at:

Keywords: Satellite mobile phone, first driver stage bias, three-stage power amplifier (PA), high 1 dB gain compression point, IMD reduction

Q.Z. Wan, C.H. Wang, F. Yu [references] [full-text] [Download Citations]
Design of a 2.4 GHz High-Performance Up-Conversion Mixer with Current Mirror Topology

In this paper, a low voltage low power up-conversion mixer, designed in a Chartered 0.18 μm RFCMOS technology, is proposed to realize the transmitter front-end in the frequency band of 2.4 GHz. The up-conversion mixer uses the current mirror topology and current-bleeding technique in both the driver and switching stages with a simple degeneration resistor. The proposed mixer converts an input of 100 MHz intermediate frequency (IF) signal to an output of 2.4 GHz radio frequency (RF) signal, with a local oscillator (LO) power of 2 dBm at 2.3 GHz. A comparison with conventional CMOS up-conversion mixer shows that this mixer has advantages of low voltage, low power consumption and high-performance. The post-layout simulation results demonstrate that at 2.4 GHz, the circuit has a conversion gain of 7.1 dB, an input-referred third-order intercept point (IIP3) of 7.3 dBm and a noise figure of 11.9 dB, while drawing only 3.8 mA for the mixer core under a supply voltage of 1.2 V. The chip area including testing pads is only 0.62×0.65 mm2.

  1. ZOLFAGHARI, A., RAZAVI, B. A low-power 2.4-GHz transmitter/receiver CMOS IC. IEEE Journal of Solid-State Circuits, 2003, vol. 38, no. 2, p. 176-183.
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  3. LIANG, K.-H., CHANG, H.-Y., CHAN, Y.-J. A 0.5–7.5 GHz ultra low-voltage low-power mixer using bulk-injection method by 0.18-μm CMOS technology. IEEE Microwave and Wireless Components Letters, 2007, vol. 17, no. 7, p. 531-533.
  4. LIANG, K.-H., CHANG, H.-Y. 0.5-6 GHz low-voltage low-power mixer using a modified cascode topology in 0.18 μm CMOS technology. IET Microwaves, Antennas & Propagation, 2011, vol. 5, no. 2, p. 167-174.
  5. GILBERT, B. A precise four-quadrant multiplier with subnanosecond response. IEEE Journal of Solid-State Circuits, 1968, vol. 3, no. 4, p. 365–373.
  6. LIN, C.-M., WEI, H.-J., WANG, Y.-T., WANG, S.-C., WANG, Y.-H. A novel doubly-balanced folded mixer for low supply voltage and direct up-conversion system. In International Conference on Solid-State and Integrated Circuit Technology, ICSICT. 2006, p. 1562-1564.
  7. CHEN, C.-H., CHIANG, P.-Y., JOU, C.F. A low voltage mixer with improved noise figure. IEEE Microwave and Wireless Components Letters, 2009, vol. 19, no. 2, p. 92–94.
  8. PARK, J., LEE, C.-H., KIM, B.-S., LASKAR, J. Design and analysis of low flicker-noise CMOS mixers for direct-conversion receivers. IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques, 2006, vol. 54, no. 12, p. 4372-4380.
  9. HOSSAIN, M., FRANK, B. M., ANTAR, Y. M. A low voltage highly linear 24-GHz down conversion mixer in 0.18-μm CMOS. Microwave and Optical Technology Letters, 2007, vol. 49, no. 10, p. 2547–2552.
  10. LIM, Y.-W., NAM, I., KIM, H.-T., LEE, K. A highly linear wideband up-conversion differential CMOS micromixer using IMD3 cancellation for a digital TV tuner IC. IEEE Microwave and Wireless Components Letters, 2009, vol. 19, no. 2, p. 89–91.
  11. KIM, J.-H., AN, H.-W., YUN, T.-Y. A low-noise WLAN mixer using switched biasing technique. IEEE Microwave and Wireless Components Letters, 2009, vol. 19, no. 10, p. 650-652.
  12. HO, S. S. K., SAAVEDRA, C. E. A CMOS broadband low-noise mixer with noise cancellation. IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques, 2010, vol. 58, no. 5, p. 1126-1132.
  13. SAPONE, G., PALMISANO, G. A 1.5-V 0.25-μm CMOS upconverter for 3–5 GHz low-power WPANs. Microwave and Optical Technology Letters, 2007, vol. 49, no. 9, p. 2209–2212.
  14. WAN, Q.Z., WANG, C.H. A low-voltage low-power CMOS transmitter front-end using current mode approach for 2.4 GHz wireless communications. Microelectronics Journal, 2011, vol. 42, no. 5, p. 766-771.
  15. KWON, I., LEE, K. An integrated low power highly linear 2.4- GHz CMOS receiver front-end based on current amplification and mixing. IEEE Microwave and Wireless Components Letters, 2005, vol. 15, no. 1, p. 36-38.

Keywords: CMOS, up-conversion mixer, current mirror, current-bleeding, low voltage, low power.

V. Banoci, G. Bugar, D. Levicky, Z. Klenovicova [references] [full-text] [Download Citations]
A novel JPEG steganography method based on modulus function with histogram analysis

In this paper, we present a novel steganographic method for embedding of secret data in still grayscale JPEG image. In order to provide large capacity of the proposed method while maintaining good visual quality of stego-image, the embedding process is performed in quantized transform coefficients of Discrete Cosine transform (DCT) by modifying coefficients according to modulo function, what gives to the steganography system blind extraction predisposition. After-embedding histogram of proposed Modulo Histogram Fitting (MHF) method is analyzed to secure steganography system against steganalysis attacks. In addition, AES ciphering was implemented to increase security and improve histogram after-embedding characteristics of proposed steganography system as experimental results show.

  1. BANOCI, V., BUGAR, G., LEVICKY, D. Steganography system using by CDMA techniques. In Proc. of the 19st International Conference Radioelektronika. Bratislava (SR), 2009, p. 183-186.
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  3. BOHME, R. Advanced Statistical Steganalysis. Springer, 2010.
  4. BRAZIL, A. L., SANCHEZ, A., CONCI, A., BEHLILOVIC, N. Hybridizing genetic algorithms and path relinking for steganography. In Proc. of ELMAR. Zadar (Croatia), 2011, p. 285–288.
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  6. COX, I. J., MILLER, M. L., BLOOM, J. A., FRIDRICH, J., KALKER, T. Digital Watermarking and Steganography. USA, 2008. ISBN 978-0-12-372585-1.
  7. FRIDRICH, J., GOLJAN, M., HOGEA, D. New methodology for breaking steganographic techniques for JPEGs. Proc. SPIE, 2003, vol. 5020, p. 143–155.
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  12. UPHAM, D. JPEG-JSTEG Steganography Method, 1997. Available at: .

Keywords: 2D-DCT, modulo function, JPEG, steganography, histogram, AES encryption.

J. Zhang, Y. Lin, Q. Wu, W. Che [references] [full-text] [Download Citations]
Watermarking FPGA Bitfile for Intellectual Property Protection

Intellectual property protection (IPP) of hardware designs is the most important requirement for many Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) intellectual property (IP) vendors. Digital watermarking has become an innovative technology for IPP in recent years. Existing watermarking techniques have successfully embedded watermark into IP cores. However, many of these techniques share two specific weaknesses: 1) They have extra overhead, and are likely to degrade performance of design; 2) vulnerability to removing attacks. We propose a novel watermarking technique to watermark FPGA bitfile for addressing these weaknesses. Experimental results and analysis show that the proposed technique incurs zero overhead and it is robust against removing attacks.

  1. CUI, A., CHANG, C. H., TAHAR, S. A robust FSM watermarking scheme for IP protection of sequential circuit design. IEEE Transactions on Computer-Aided Design of Integrated Circuits and Systems, 2011, vol. 30, no. 5, p. 678-690.
  2. KILTS, S. Advanced FPGA Design, Architecture, Implementation and Optimization. San Francisco: Wiley-IEEE Press, 2007.
  3. CUI, A., CHANG, C. H. Intellectual property authentication by watermarking scan chain in design-for-testability flow. In IEEE International Symposium on Circuits and Systems. Seattle (USA), 2008, p. 2645–2648.
  4. IWLS_2005_benchmarks_V_1.0. [Online]. Available at:
  5. LACH, J., MANGIONE-SMITH, W. H., POTKONJAK, M. Signature hiding techniques for FPGA intellectual property protection. In IEEE/ACM International Conference on Computer- Aided Design. San Jose (USA), 1998, p. 186–189.
  6. LACH, J., MANGIONE-SMITH, W. H., POTKONJAK, M. Robust FPGA intellectual property protection through multiple small watermarks. In Proceedings of Design Automatic Conference. New Orleans (USA), 1999, p. 831–836.
  7. KAHNG, A B., LACH, J., MANGIONE-SMITH, W. H., MANTIK, S., MARKOV, I. L., POTKONJAK, M., TUCKER, P., WANG, H., WOLFE, G. Constraint-based watermarking techniques for design IP protection. IEEE Transactions on Computer- Aided Design of Integrated Circuits and Systems, 2001, vol. 20, no. 10, p. 1236-1252.
  8. KOUSHANFAR, F., HONG, I., POTKONJAK, M. Behavioral synthesis techniques for intellectual property protection, ACM Transactions Design Automation of Electronic Systems, 2005, vol. 10, no. 3, p. 523-545.
  9. CUI, A., CHANG, C. H. Stego-signature at logic synthesis level for digital design IP protection. In Proceedings of IEEE International Symposium on Circuits and Systems. Kos (Greece), 2006, p. 4611- 4614.
  10. ABDEL-HAMID, A. T., TAHAR, S., ABOULHAMID, E. M. A public-key watermarking technique for IP designs. In Proceedings of Design, Automation and Test in Europe. Munich (Germany), 2005, vol. 1, p. 330-335.
  11. NIE, T., KISAKA, T., TOYONAGA, M. A watermarking system for IP protection by a post layout incremental router. In Proceedings of Design Automation Conference. San Diego (USA), 2005, p. 218-221.
  12. CUI, A., CHANG, C. H., TAHAR S. IP watermarking using incremental technology mapping at logic synthesis level. IEEE Transactions on Computer-Aided Design of Integrated Circuits and Systems, 2008, vol. 27, no. 9, p. 1565-1570.
  13. NI, M., GAO, Z. Constraint-based watermarking technique for hard IP core protection in physical layout design level. In Proceedings of 7th International Conference on Solid-State and Integrated Circuits Technology. Beijing (China), 2004, vol. 2, p. 1360-1363.
  14. OLIVEIRA, A. L. Robust techniques for watermarking sequential circuit designs. In Proceedings of Design Automation Conference. New Orleans (USA), 1999, p. 837-842.
  15. JAIN, A. K., YUAN, L., PARI, P. R., QU, G. Zero overhead watermarking technique for FPGA designs. In Proceedings of the 13th ACM Great Lakes Symposium on VLSI. New York (USA), 2003, p. 147–152.
  16. ZIENER, D., ASSMUS, S., TEICH, J. Identifying FPGA IP-cores based on lookup table content analysis. In International Conference on Field Programmable Logic and Applications. Madrid (Spain), 2006, p. 481–486
  17. SCHMID, M., ZIENER, D., TEICH, J. Netlist-level IP protection by watermarking for LUT-based FPGAs. In Proceedings of IEEE International Conference on Field-Programmable Technology. Taipei (Taiwan), 2008, p. 209–216.
  18. Virtex-5 FPGA User Guider UG190. (2010) [Online]. Available at:
  19. DEHON, A. Balancing interconnect and computation in a reconfigurable computing array (or, why you don't really want 100% LUT utilization). In Proceedings of the 1999 ACM/SIGDA 7th International Symposium on Field Programmable Gate Arrays. Monterey (USA), 1999, p. 69-78.
  20. LI, Q., MEMON, N., SENCAR, H. T. Security issues in watermarking applications - A deeper look. In Proceedings of the 4th ACM International Workshop on Contents Protection and Security. New York (USA), 2006, p. 23–28.
  21. OLIVEIRA, A. L. Techniques for the creation of digital watermarks in sequential circuit designs. IEEE Transactions on Computer-Aided Design of Integrated Circuits and Systems, 2001, vol. 20, no. 9, p. 1101-1117.

Keywords: Field programmable gate array (FPGA), Intellectual property protection (IPP), watermarking.

S. Pejoski, V. Kafedziski [references] [full-text] [Download Citations]
Downlink Video Streaming for Users Non-Equidistant from Base Station

We consider multiuser video transmission for users that are non-equidistantly positioned from base station. We propose a greedy algorithm for video streaming in a wireless system with capacity achieving channel coding, that implements the cross-layer principle by partially separating the physical and the application layer. In such a system the parameters at the physical layer are dependent on the packet length and the conditions in the wireless channel and the parameters at the application layer are dependent on the reduction of the expected distortion assuming no packet errors in the system. We also address the fairness in the multiuser video system with non-equidistantly positioned users. Our fairness algorithm is based on modified opportunistic round robin scheduling. We evaluate the performance of the proposed algorithms by simulating the transmission of H.264/AVC video signals in a TDMA wireless system.

  1. SCHAAR, M., SHANKAR, S. Cross-layer wireless multimedia transmission: Challenges, principles and new paradigms. IEEEWireless Communications, 2005, vol. 12, no. 4, p. 50 - 58.
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Keywords: Multiuser video streaming, non-equidistant users, cross-layer, outage probability, fairness, H.264/AVC