# September 2022, Volume 31, Number 3 [DOI: 10.13164/re.2022-3]

**S. M. Feng, S. Y. Wang, L. F. Wang**
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[DOI: 10.13164/re.2022.0255]
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Two-Dimensional Signal Detection Algorithm for Omni-Directional Signal Receiving Using Low-Frequency Orthogonal Magnetic Antenna

This paper proposes a two-dimensional signal detection algorithm for low-frequency signal receiving using orthogonal magnetic antenna. According to the directional properties of a single antenna, the direction coefficient is introduced into the model. The algorithm based on Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) method can accurately estimate the direction coefficient and parameters of the noise in order to perform signal detection. The results show that the proposed algorithm is less affected by the direction of arrival and performs better, in terms of bit error rate, than that based on one-dimensional model. This study provides a valuable reference to omni-directional receiving of signals in low-frequency communication.

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Keywords: Orthogonal antenna, omni-directional receiving, parameters estimation, non-Gaussian noise

**H. S. Zhu, W. H. Hu, B. F. Guo, X. X. Zhu, D. F. Xue, C. A. Zhu**
[references] [full-text]
[DOI: 10.13164/re.2022.0262]
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Bistatic ISAR sparse aperture maneuvering target translational compensation imaging algorithm

For bistatic inverse synthetic aperture radar (Bi-ISAR), the non-uniform motion state of maneuvering target and the time-varying bistatic angle make the traditional imaging method of moving target face the problem of translation compensation, and the traditional translation compensation method is not suitable for the return wave in the case of sparse aperture. In this paper, a compensation imaging method combining two-dimension joint linearized Bregman iteration and image contrast search is proposed. The translation compensation problem can be transformed into two-dimension joint compressed sensing sparse reconstruction and moving target motion parameter estimation. The proposed algorithm makes use of the gain of echo two-dimension compression, greatly improves the accuracy of translation compensation and the quality of target image and has strong robustness to noise. The processing results of simulation data verify the effectiveness and superiority of the algorithm.

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Keywords: Bistatic-ISAR, maneuvering target, sparse aperture, translational compensation

**B. Minnaert**
[references] [full-text]
[DOI: 10.13164/re.2022.0273]
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Unified Expression of the Conjugate Image Impedances for Two-port Representations

Conjugate image impedances are used to minimize power reflections in a variety of domains, including amplifier design, microwave engineering, wireless power transfer, antenna design and millimeter wave applications. For a two-port network, they can be described as function of different parameters including impedance, admittance, hybrid, inverse hybrid, chain, scattering and chain scattering parameters. In this work, a general unified structure for the conjugate image impedances is provided, valid for each of the two-port representations. It highlights its close relationship with the Rollett stability factor and provides insight into the structure of conjugate image impedances.

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Keywords: Circuit theory, conjugate image, two-port networks

**E. M. Cheng, K. Y. Lee, S. F. Khor, N. F. Mohd Nasir, C. W. S. R. Mohamad, N. A. Abdul Aziz, E. Z. Mohd Tarmizi, S. A. Baharuddin**
[references] [full-text]
[DOI: 10.13164/re.2022.0281]
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Microwave Dielectric and Reflection Analysis on Pure and Adulterated Trigona Honey and Honey Gold

Honey adulteration is common in food industry, as it provides cheaper alternative for user to consume honey. However, it has been abused by industry runners with unsavory practices. It leads to business fraudulency. Pure honey is very precious due to its powerful health-giving properties. It rises attention of beekeeper, wholesaler, food manufacturer, retailer and consumer because this issue has been sensationally reported in media mass. Enforcement of law is initiated to mitigate the abuse and fraudulency. Apart from that, it motivates scientists, technologists and engineers to strive for an effective solution. Microwave sensing method is well known in agricultural product and food. Hence, dielectric and reflection response is explored for the potential of development of instrumentation system in gauging edible honeys. In this work, the dielectric and reflection measurement were conducted using Agilent E8362B PNA Network Analyzer in conjunction with Agilent 85070E Performance Probe from 0.5 GHz to 4.5 GHz. Dielectric and reflection measurement were conducted to investigate its dielectric behavior and mismatch impedance due to water and sucrose content in honey. It can be noticed that dielectric constant, ε’ decreases when frequency increases. In the meantime, ε’ decreases with increment of water and sucrose content for Honey Gold and Trigona Honey. Meanwhile, for water adulterated Honey Gold and Trigona Honey, loss factor, ε” decrease when frequencies increases. In addition, ε” decreases when water content < 36% and < 43% for Honey Gold and Trigona Honey, respectively. It can be found that at 1 GHz to 4 GHz, ε” increases when sucrose content increases which applicable for Honey Gold and Trigona Honey. In reflection measurement, magnitude of reflection coefficient, |Γ| decrease when frequency increases for all percentage of water and sucrose content for both honeys. Withal, phase, -φ increases as frequency increases for both water adulterated honeys. -φ varies insignificantly when sucrose content increases for both sucrose adulterated honeys.

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Keywords: Honey, sucrose, water, dielectric, reflection

**H. Jiang, X. Y. Cao, H. H. Yang, J. Gao, L. Ji-Di**
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[DOI: 10.13164/re.2022.0295]
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Single-Layer Broadband Endfire Antenna with High-Gain and Stable Beams Based on Spoof Surface Plasmon Polaritons

A single-layer broadband endfire antenna with high-gain and stable beams based on the spoof surface plasmon polaritons (SSPPs) is proposed in this letter. The amplitude and phase of the surface wave are controlled by asymmetric protrusions on both sides. The anti-symmetric structure is added to balance the upper and lower electric fields while adjusting the impedance matching at the same time. Eventually, endfire radiation is generated with a stable beam to the free space within 5.25-7.94 GHz to form a relative bandwidth of 40.8%. The maximum achieved gain is 11.7 dBi at 7.1 GHz. The experimental results are basically consistent with the simulations. The antenna with high-gain, broadband and a stable beam can be effectively used in wireless communication systems.

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Keywords: Spoof surface plasmon polaritons (SSPPs), endfire antennas, stable beams, broadband antennas

**W. Jlassi, R. Haddad, R. Bouallegue, R. Shubair**
[references] [full-text]
[DOI: 10.13164/re.2022.0301]
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Increase of the Lifetime of Wireless Sensor Network using Clustering Algorithm and Optimal Path Selection Method

By the recent improvement of the internet of things (IoT), the need to implement wireless networks is increasing. It is a challenge to balance between battery lifetime of the different sensors and network lifetime. Many studies proved the importance of using clustering and mobile data collectors (MDCs) to extend the operating time of sensor nodes. A mobile data collector is used to gather the data recorded by the nodes over a short transmission range. The proposed approach aims to decrease the energy consumption of each sensor node by using the Genetic Algorithm (GA) and mobile data collector. So, we suggest a clustering algorithm to find suitable Cluster Heads and form clusters. Then, we employ the Genetic algorithm to construct an optimal data gathering path for MDC. Computer simulation proves that the proposed approach outperforms existing ones.

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Keywords: Wireless sensor network, genetic algorithm, hierarchical agglomerative clustering algorithm, clustering, mobile data collector

**S. Sreenu, N. Kalpana**
[references] [full-text]
[DOI: 10.13164/re.2022.0312]
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Innovative Power Allocation Strategy for NOMA Systems by Employing the Modified ABC Algorithm

Non-Orthogonal Multiple Access (NOMA) technique is a remarkable component of 5G wireless networks; since NOMA immensely augments the spectral efficiency and serves all users fairly. To accomplish these, efficient power allocation is crucial for improving the NOMA system's performance. Accordingly, in this article, we formulate a power allocation optimization issue, which concentrates on enriching the system sum-throughput, by realizing the transmitted power constraint and also fulfilling the minimum throughput for each user. However, to tackle this mentioned optimization problem, a Modified Artificial Bee Colony (MABC) algorithm is proposed. Besides, the designed MABC algorithm obtains optimal powers among multiplexed users on every sub-channel. Further, simulation results illustrate that the presented power allocation scheme-based NOMA system's sum throughput is higher than the original ABC-based power allocation and other state-of-the-art power allocation schemes. Moreover, the MABC method swiftly converges to optimal solutions compared to the original ABC algorithm under selected control parameters.

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Keywords: NOMA, artificial bee colony, power allocation, sum rate

**H. Rayat, R. Dastanian**
[references] [full-text]
[DOI: 10.13164/re.2022.0323]
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A 2V, 32.13nA, fully MOSFET Voltage Limiter for Low Power Applications

This paper presents a fully MOSFET DC voltage limiter with low current consumption. In the proposed voltage reference structure to reduce power consumption, transistors are biased in the sub-threshold region. To generate complementary to absolute temperature (CTAT) voltage in the voltage reference circuit, only a PMOS transistor is used, in which its drain, gate, and source terminals are connected together and acts as a diode that reduces the layout area occupation. To further reduce power consumption, a part of the rectifier output voltage is compared with the reference voltage by the sampling circuit. Also, four stage inverters are used as buffers to provide the I-V limiting characteristic closer to the ideal situation. The use of series pass-gate transistors in the first inverter also reduces power consumption as much as possible. The results of post-layout simulation based on 0.18μm CMOS technology depict that the suggested voltage reference circuit has a reference voltage equivalent to 0.579V with a TC of 37.2ppm/℃ in the temperature range of -50°C to 50°C. LR and PSRR attained 0.008%/V and 45dB, respectively. The output voltage and current consumption of the limiter circuit are 2V and 32.13nA, respectively. The total layout area of the proposed limiter is 3249µm2.

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Keywords: Limiter, voltage reference, temperature coefficient, low power, voltage sampler, OPA, buffer

**X. Wang, B. Jin, L. Huang, M. Zhang, M. Fang**
[references] [full-text]
[DOI: 10.13164/re.2022.0331]
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A Novel High-Sensitivity Broadband Rectifier for Ambient RF Energy Harvesting

In this paper, a novel high-sensitivity broadband rectifier is proposed aiming at ambient radio frequency (RF) energy harvesting. Traditionally, voltage doubling rectifying circuit is used to design high-sensitivity rectifier. But when the input power is lower, the rectifying efficiency is significantly reduced. Therefore, a improved parallel half-wave rectifying circuit is proposed in this article which can convert RF energy in the whole period. And the proposed rectifying circuit can work better in lower power environment and has a higher efficiency level. Besides, the impedance match is also important component of rectifier. Due to the nonlinearity and complexity of rectifying circuit, achieving wideband matching network is a challenge. Thus, a design approach of broadband impedance circuit is given in this study. Combining with the proposed high-sensitivity rectifying circuit, a high-sensitivity wideband rectifier can be generated, when the input power is -15dBm, -20dBm, -25dBm, the efficiency is 43%, 32%, 20%, respectively. Finally, a second-order wideband rectifier with high sensitivity is realized, and the range of bandwidth can cover four main frequency bands of GSM 900 MHz, GSM 1800 MHz, UMTS 2100 MHz, WLAN 2400 MHz. To verify the validity, the rectifier is fabricated and measured, and the measurement has a good agreement with simulation results.

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Keywords: High-sensitivity, broadband rectifier, RF energy harvesting

**X. W. Dai, D. L. Mi, H. T. Wu, Y. H. Zhang**
[references] [full-text]
[DOI: 10.13164/re.2022.0339]
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Design of Compact Patch Antenna Based on Support Vector Regression

In this paper, support vector regression (SVR) algorithm is used for compact patch antenna design. By etching three T-shaped slots on the ground plane of a rectangle patch antenna, the current distribution on the ground plane is changed and the resonant frequency is reduced. However, there is no reliable formula between the physical parameters of slots and the resonant frequency for antenna design. In this paper, the SVR algorithm is innovatively used to establish the mapping relationship between four parameters and the resonant frequency. In order to reduce the data samples required to train the SVR model, these four parameters are divided into three groups. This grouping method ensures the reasonable distribution of data samples, and greatly reduces the training data samples and reduces the time to collect data by simulator software. The hyperparameters are optimized by using 10-fold cross validation. 108 antenna models (data samples) with different geometrical and electrical parameters are designed and simulated for the initial dataset. The SVR model is trained on the 75 data samples with the coefficient of determination (R2) of 0.9736 and is tested on the remainder 33 data samples. With the computation of the SVR model, the size of the proposed antenna decreases by 19.18% compared with that of the conventional rectangle patch antenna. The proposed structure is fabricated and measured. The results show that the proposed SVR model has good generalization on the real antenna model.

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Keywords: Support Vector Regression (SVR), compact design, patch antenna, T-shaped slots

**L. Ge, C. Qi, Y. Guo, L. Qian, J. Tong, P. Wei**
[references] [full-text]
[DOI: 10.13164/re.2022.0346]
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Classification Weighted Deep Neural Network Based Channel Equalization for Massive MIMO-OFDM Systems

Massive multi-input multi-output (MIMO) has attracted significant interest in academia and industry, which can efficiently increase the transmission rate. However, the error rate of conventional channel equalizations in massive MIMO systems may be high owing to the dynamic channel states in practical conditions. To solve this problem, in this paper, we propose an improved channel equalization framework based on the deep neural network (DNN). Based on the analyzed relationship between the input and output of the DNN, the data can be recovered without the channel state information. Furthermore, aiming at reducing the convergence time and enhancing the learning ability of the DNN, a classification weighted algorithm is proposed to optimize the cost function of the DNN, which is named as classification weighted deep neural network (CW-DNN). Simulation results demonstrate that compared to conventional counterparts, the proposed CW-DNN based equalizer can achieve a better normalized mean square error (NMSE). Upon approximating the optimal neural network parameters with the significantly improved convergence speed and reduced training time of the network, under the condition of the fixed learning rate.

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Keywords: Channel equalization, classification weighted, deep neural network, massive MIMO, optimization algorithm

**M. M. Shaheen, N. M. Mahmoud, M. A. Ali, M. E. Nasr, A. H. Hussein**
[references] [full-text]
[DOI: 10.13164/re.2022.0357]
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Implementation of a Highly Selective Microstrip Diplexer with Low Insertion Loss Using Square Open-Loop Resonators and a T-Junction Combiner

In this paper, the design and hardware implementation of a squared open-loop resonator (SOLR)-based microstrip diplexer with high isolation, low insertion loss, and high selectivity are introduced. We employed four SOLRs, with each pair of coupled SOLRs used to build a high selectivity bandpass filter (BPF). To assemble the proposed diplexer, the designed BPFs are linked together via a T-junction combiner that is matched to the two filters and the antenna port. For transmit and receive modes, the proposed diplexer has two resonance frequencies of ft = 1.81 GHz and fr = 2.03 GHz, respectively achieving a small frequency space ratio of R = 0.114. The simulated structure exhibits good insertion losses of about 1.98 dB and 1.9 dB for the two channels, respectively, with fractional bandwidths of 2.25% at 1.81 GHz and 3% at 2.03 GHz. For 1.81 GHz and 2.03 GHz, the simulated isolation values are 58 dB and 46 dB, respectively. While the fabricated structure exhibits better insertion losses of about 1.25 dB and 1.22 dB at the measured transmit and receive frequencies of 1.801 GHz and 2.001 GHz, respectively, with smaller fractional bandwidths of 2.23% at 1.801 GHz and 2.98% at 2.001 GHz. For 1.801 GHz and 2.001 GHz, the measured isolation values are 48.99 dB and 57.02 dB, respectively.

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Keywords: Band-pass filter (BPF), microstrip diplexer, square open loop resonator (SOLR), T-junction combiner

**C. L. Zhao, F. F. Yang, D. K. Waweru, C. Chen, H. J. Xu**
[references] [full-text]
[DOI: 10.13164/re.2022.0362]
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Distributed QC-LDPC Coded Spatial Modulation for Half-Duplex Wireless Communications

The bit error rate (BER) performance of spatial modulation (SM) can be further improved by applying quasi-cyclic low-density parity-check (QC-LDPC) codes recommended in 5G to SM. It motivates us to propose a QC-LDPC coded SM (QC-LDPCC-SM) scheme, where SM signals are protected by QC-LDPC codes. To estimate the channel state information at the receiver, a novel iterative joint channel estimation and data detection based on variable block length (IJCEDD-VBL) for SM is presented. In standard 5G LDPC codes, the parity-check matrix contains multiple submatrices, and then we can construct two different QC-LDPC codes by suitably selecting the submatrices. Thus, the QC-LDPCC-SM scheme can be effectively extended to cooperative scenarios when deploying the generated LDPC codes at the source and relay, respectively. We develop an analytical approach for the BER performance of the proposed schemes. The simulation and theoretical results are in good agreement at high signal-to-noise ratio (SNR). Furthermore, the proposed coded cooperative scheme outperforms its corresponding non-cooperative counterpart and the existing scheme. The numerical results also validate the effectiveness of the proposed channel estimation scheme.

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Keywords: Quasi-Cyclic Low-Density Parity-Check (QC-LDPC) codes, coded cooperation, Spatial Modulation (SM), half-duplex

**K. Bhardwaj, M. Srivastava**
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[DOI: 10.13164/re.2022.0374]
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On the Investigation of Frequency-Related Fingerprints of Meminductor/Capacitor and Their Duals Realized by Circuit Emulators

This article investigates the frequency-related fingerprints of the meminductor/capacitors and their duals realized by the circuit emulators. The direct dependency of the hysteresis loop area on the inverse of operating frequency is an important property of the memristor confirming its resistive memory nature. This works shows that not all such elements (which exhibit hysteresis characteristics) seem to follow this fingerprint on subjected to the sinusoidal current/voltage excitation signal when they are realized by the emulator circuits. It is found that in some cases PHL (Pinched Hysteresis Loop) characteristics of the memcapacitor/inductor and their elements, may seem to create a fallacy in their appearance. Although this behaviour is natural (but distinct from the memristor), it does produce some challenges during the measurements of these memelements and non-memelements. The behaviour has been demonstrated in the MATLAB generated plots and also verified in the experimental and simulation results obtained for the designed emulators for the memcapacitor/meminductor and their duals. The paper also attempts to propose potential solutions to avoid this delusion perceived in the PHL characteristics of memcapacitor/meminductor and their duals, due to conventional measuring methods.

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Keywords: Memelement, memcapacitor, meminductor, PHL

**S. Pejoski, Z. Hadzi-Velkov, T. Shuminoski**
[references] [full-text]
[DOI: 10.13164/re.2022.0382]
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Lyapunov Drift-Plus-Penalty Based Resource Allocation in IRS-Assisted Wireless Networks with RF Energy Harvesting

We propose a resource allocation policy for intelligent reflective surface (IRS)-assisted wireless powered communication network (WPCN) where the energy harvesting (EH) users (EHUs) have finite energy storage and data buffers, for storing the harvested energy and the input (sensory) data, respectively. The IRS reflecting coefficients for uplink and downlink are chosen to focus the beam towards a specific EHU, but have additional constant phase offsets (different for uplink and downlink) in order to account for the direct link between the base station and the IRS targeted EHU, and the influence to the EH process of other EHUs in downlink. The EHUs acquire data from their sensors, receive energy in downlink and send information in uplink. We maximize the overall average amount of sensor information in the WPCN by optimizing the IRS reflecting coefficients for the downlink transmissions, the amount of acquired sensor information and the duration of the information transmission period for each EHU in each epoch using the Lyapunov drift-plus-penalty optimization technique. The simulation results demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed solution.

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Keywords: Intelligent reflecting surfaces, Lyapunov drift-plus-penalty optimization, wireless powered networks

**V. Karsky, M. Tuma**
[references] [full-text]
[DOI: 10.13164/re.2022.0390]
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Design PID Controllers Using Generalized Laguerre Functions

This paper deals with a method of designing PID controllers. Generalized Laguerre functions were used for this task. Generalized Laguerre functions generate an orthogonal base in the time domain and the operator domain. This property of generalized Laguerre functions is beneficially used for the design of the PID controller. Parameters for generalized Laguerre function PID controllers are computed from the Laguerre series of the open loop and the Laguerre series of the ideal open loop. To satisfy this goal, the plant transfer function, the controller transfer function, and the ideal open loop transfer function are transformed into a generalized Laguerre functions base. Three examples are shown to present this method.

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Keywords: PID controller, PI controller, PD controller, fractional order systems, generalized Laguerre functions, orthogonal functions

**N. Jali, P. Muralidhar, S. R. Patri**
[references] [full-text]
[DOI: 10.13164/re.2022.0398]
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Low Latency SC Decoder Architecture for Interleaved Polar Codes

Interleaved polar (I-Polar) codes, a new facet of polar codes to achieve better channel capacity, is designed by placing the interleaver and deinterleaver blocks midway between the stages of the polar codes. Low latency hardware optimization makes their implementation even more suitable for ultra-reliable low latency applications. This study proposes an optimal hardware design for low latency interleaved polar codes by reframing the last stage of the interleaved successive cancellation decoder. A high-speed adder-subtractor is used to reduce the latency further, thus increasing the speed of operation. Interleaving data in the proposed polar codes augment BER performance compared to conventional (n, k) polar codes. The proposed I-Polar codes are synthesized using Synopsys design compiler (SDC) in CMOS 65-nm technology. Results show that the latency is reduced by 50.5% on average compared to the conventional polar codes as high-speed adder and merged processing elements are used. Moreover, the average gate count and power are reduced by 14% and 40.56%, respectively.

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Keywords: BER, deinterleaver, interleaver, I-Polar, latency, ultra-reliable low latency applications

**M. T. Mushtaq, S. M. A. Shah, S. Munir, M. Hussain, J. Iqbal, U. H. Khan**
[references] [full-text]
[DOI: 10.13164/re.2022.0406]
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Dual Band Microstrip Semicircular Slot Patch Antenna for WLAN and WIMAX Applications

A dual band microstrip antenna for WIMAX and WLAN applications is analyzed and presented in this paper. The proposed antenna has semicircular slot in patch and Defected Ground Surface (DGS) technique for the improvement of its bandwidth and gain. Computer Simulation Technology (CST) software is used to design and simulate the performance characteristics. The proposed antenna has the dimensions as 28 x 26.6 mm2. The fabricated antenna provides a good reflection coefficient of -48dB and -44.5dB at a center frequency of 3.4GHz and 5.5GHz. Gain achieved by the antenna is 2.72dB and 3.87dB for WLAN and WIMAX application. Good agreements have been found between simulated and measured results. These results confirm that the fabricated antenna is very promising for WLAN and WIMAX applications.

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- HABIBA, H. U., BABU, A. S. P., BALASUBRAMANIAN, A. N., et al. Design of a 3.3 GHz monopole antenna for WiMAX portable device. In International Conference on Wireless Communications, Signal Processing and Networking (WiSPNET). Chennai (India), 2017, p. 268–270. DOI: 10.1109/WiSPNET.2017.8299760
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- KUMAR, R., CHAUDHARY, R. K. A new bidirectional wideband circularly polarized cylindrical dielectric resonator antenna using modified J-shaped ground plane for WiMAX/LTE applications. Radioengineering, 2019, vol. 28, no. 2, p. 391–398. DOI: 10.13164/re.2019.0391
- KHAN,U. H., ASLAM, B., AZAM, M., et al. Compact RFID enabled moisture sensor. Radioengineering, 2016, vol. 25, no. 3, p. 449–456. DOI: 10.13164/re.2016.0449

Keywords: WLAN, WIMAX, dual-band, DGS, CST

**D. Krolak, P. Horsky**
[references] [full-text]
[DOI: 10.13164/re.2022.0413]
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An EMC Susceptibility Study of Integrated Basic Bandgap Voltage Reference Cores

This paper presents a comparative EMC susceptibility study of various integrated bandgap voltage reference cores. Conventional well-known bandgap references based on Kuijk, Brokaw and Tsividis concepts with reduced count of bipolar junction transistors in the core were analyzed. On top of the EMC susceptibility comparison, basic parameters like temperature drift, sensitivity to an operational amplifier input offset and line regulation are also discussed. The influence of a collector leakage current compensation at high temperatures is investigated as well.

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Keywords: Bandgap voltage reference, Brokaw, BCD, EMC, HF immunity, Kuijk, offset, temperature drift, Tsividis

**Z. Ding, J. Zhang, Y. Liu, J. Wang, G. Chen, L. Cao**
[references] [full-text]
[DOI: 10.13164/re.2022.0422]
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Spectrum Map Construction Based on Optimized Sensor Selection and Adaptive Kriging Model

Spectrum map (SM) is an important tool to reflect the spectrum usage in the electromagnetic environment. To address the problems of low precision and poor efficiency in the SM construction, this paper develops a novel SM construction approach based on the artificial bee colony enabled sensor layout optimization and an adaptive Kriging model based on spatial autocorrelation. Considering the significant autocorrelation between sensor attributes caused by the exponentially decaying shadow fading of signal propagation, the sensor estimation groups are established, and the estimation results are obtained by the Kriging model. The simulation results show that the proposed SM construction scheme can not only effectively reduce the overhead of sensor resources but also obtain a high SM construction accuracy. Extensive simulation results show that the proposed method can reduce the RMSE of SM construction by 37.56%, 25.32% and 12.89% respectively compared with Random-OK when the standard deviation of shadow fading is 1 dB, 3 dB and 6 dB. Erratum to Fig. 7 of this paper is available via link: https://www.radioeng.cz/fulltexts/2023/23_01_0185_0185.pdf

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Keywords: Spectrum map, sensor layout optimization, adaptive Kriging model, spatial autocorrelation, artificial bee colony

**S. Chatterjee, B. Bandyopadhyay, S. Chatterjee, A. Majumdar**
[references] [full-text]
[DOI: 10.13164/re.2022.0431]
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Least Perturbation Based Method of Multi-Objective Null Placement in Linear Antenna Array Using Evolutionary Algorithms

The paper proposes a novel least perturbation based method of constrained null placement for a non-uniformly excited linear antenna array. Synthesis of am¬plitude and phase of edge element using least perturbation based analytical technique for required null placement leads to degradation of pattern in terms of increased side lobe level and beam broadening. Further computation capability of the method of least perturbation has been enhanced using an evolutionary algorithm. Subsequently, suitable evolutionary algorithms have been employed to find the optimum value of excitation and phase of edge elements subject to constraints of side lobe level reduction, beamwidth narrowing, and main beam control. Design of 8 and 15 elements linear array with a 95% reduction in com-putation time elucidates the capabilities of the proposed method. Further 3D electromagnetic solver -based valida¬tion process has been used to ascertain the practical acceptability of the method.

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Keywords: Null placement, beam steered linear array, minimum perturbation, excitation distribution, evolutionary algorithms

**G. Y. Wang, A. Dhaka, T. Teng, K. Yu**
[references] [full-text]
[DOI: 10.13164/re.2022.0440]
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Energy Efficiency Optimization for D2D Underlay Communication in Distributed Antenna System over Composite Fading Channels

Device-to-Device (D2D) communication is a potential technology to improve the spectral and energy efficiency (EE) of communication networks. In this paper, we study energy-efficient power allocation (PA) schemes in uplink distributed antenna system (DAS) with device-to-device underlay communication. Our goal is to maximize the total EE of all D2D pairs while guaranteeing the data rate and transmit power requirements of the cellular user and D2D links. To solve this non-convex constrained optimization problem, we propose an energy-efficient near-optimal PA algorithm based on the concave-convex procedure and fractional programming theory. This near-optimal algorithm can achieve the EE performance close to the optimal exhaustive search. To reduce the complexity, we furthermore present an efficient sub-optimal algorithm with the antenna selection method which can obtain the closed-form power allocation expressions. Simulation results demonstrate the significant EE performance of our proposed PA schemes.

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Keywords: Device-to-Device (D2D) communication, energy efficiency, power allocation, distributed antenna system, rate constraint