# April 2019, Volume 28, Number 1 [DOI: 10.13164/re.2019-1]

**V. Prajzler, M. Knietel, P. Jasek**
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[DOI: 10.13164/re.2019.0001]
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Properties of Large Core Polymer Optical Bend Waveguides

We report about properties of large core plastic planar optical bend waveguides. The dimensions of the waveguides were to be compatible with the commonly used plastic optical fiber with diameter 750 µm and the bend radii of the waveguides varied from 30 to 1 mm. The waveguides were made by engraving of a U-groove by using CNC machining into poly(methyl methacrylate) substrate; the waveguide core layers were made of Norland Optical Adhesive UV photopolymer. We experimentally confirmed that fabricated bends may have the total bend losses A for radii 30 mm 4.1 dB/cm at 850 nm, 4.8 dB/cm at 650 nm and 5.63 dB/cm at 532 nm. These bend waveguides are viable for short reach visible and infrared optical communication with easy and low cost installations.

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Keywords: Optical bend waveguides, multimode waveguides, pPolymer

**M. Marek, P. Kadlec**
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[DOI: 10.13164/re.2019.0009]
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Using a Tolerance-based Surrogate Method for Computer Resources Saving in Optimization

This paper presents a very simple surrogate optimization method - a Tolerance-based Surrogate Method. A surrogate optimization in general is essential to more and more frequently used optimization in the development process of new technologies. Fitness functions of such systems are often costly, therefore keeping a number of evaluations of the fitness functions at minimum is of a great importance in order to save computer and time resources, i.e. the overall cost of design. Unlike other complex surrogate optimization methods, the tolerance-based surrogate method does not require excessive computational resources, is easy to implement, and is flexible for all types of optimization algorithms. Behaviour of the tolerance-based surrogate method is demonstrated on several modified benchmark problems. Afterwards, our method is verified on a real-world time-demanding optimization task.

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Keywords: Optimization, surrogate optimization, tolerance-based surrogate method, resources saving

**U. Ullah, S. Koziel**
[references] [full-text]
[DOI: 10.13164/re.2019.0019]
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Design and Optimization of a Novel Compact Broadband Linearly/Circularly Polarized Wide-Slot Antenna for WLAN and WiMAX Applications

A novel topologically modified structure of a compact low profile wide-slot antenna for broadband applications is presented. The antenna comprises a modified E-shaped slot with unequal arm lengths in the ground plane, and a parasitic quasi-rectangular loop placed coplanar with the feedline. For exciting orthogonal modes with equal amplitude, a single-point feeding technique with an asymmetrical geometry of the coplanar waveguide is used to feed the antenna. A multi-stage EM-driven optimization is used to rigorously optimize all the parameters for best impedance bandwidth and axial ratio bandwidth. The total footprint of the antenna is only 0.71 λg^2 and a 41% impedance bandwidth along with 33% axial ratio bandwidth has been achieved which covers several WLAN and WiMAX bands.

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Keywords: Broadband antenna, wide-slot antenna, circular polarization, WLAN antenna, WiMAX antenna, EM-driven optimization

**E. K. I. Hamad, G. Nady**
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[DOI: 10.13164/re.2019.0025]
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Bandwidth Extension of Ultra-wideband Microstrip Antenna Using Metamaterial Double-side Planar Periodic Geometry

A compact extended bandwidth UWB microstrip antenna is designed utilizing metamaterial (MTM) double-side planar periodic structures. The proposed antenna comprises two MTM unit cells made by etching X-shaped slots on the main radiating patch, and four slots at the vertices of a square periodically repeated in two-dimensions on the ground plane. The proposed antenna fabricated on 1.6 mm low-cost FR4 substrate is compact, measuring 27.6 mm ×32 mm, with relative permittivity of 4.5 and loss tangent of 0.02. It has broad bandwidth covering 3.2 to 23.9 GHz, with a peak gain of 6.2 dB at 8.7 GHz. The antenna has good radiation characteristics for UWB applications. The measured return loss (S11) of the test antenna fabricated for this study was in good agreement with the simulated results.

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Keywords: Antennas, metamaterial, microstrip Antenna, MTM, periodic structure, ultra-wideband, UWB

**J. Acharjee, A. K. Singh, K. Mandal, S. K. Mandal**
[references] [full-text]
[DOI: 10.13164/re.2019.0033]
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Defected Ground Structure toward Cross Polarization Reduction of Microstrip Patch Antenna with Improved Impedance Matching

A new approach based on the incorporation of Z-shaped defected ground structure (DGS) in microstrip antenna (MSA) for improving impedance matching and cross polarization (XP) performances is proposed in this paper. Through detail analysis of the surface current densities, and input impedance, the proposed DGS is integrated into a rectangular MSA (RMSA) to realize flat relative XP reduction of 22 dB in the H-plane around broadside angular range of ±60 degrees. Further, an equivalent circuit model (ECM) for the proposed antenna is introduced by considering the mutual coupling in between the DGS and patch and the model is verified using circuit-system-EM co-simulation software, Advanced Design System (ADS). A prototype has been fabricated and tested for the validation of simulated results and it shows good agreement with each other. The antenna operates over 2.32-2.58 GHz with good far-field radiation characteristics and a peak gain of 2.8 dBi at the resonating frequency 2.4 GHz. Hence, the proposed design can be useful for the IEEE 802.11b applications.

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Keywords: Impedance matching, cross-polarization, defected ground structure, microstrip patch antenna, equivalent circuit

**K. Djafri, M. Challal, R. Aksas, F. Mouhouche, M. Dehmas**
[references] [full-text]
[DOI: 10.13164/re.2019.0039]
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Miniaturized Concentric Hexagonal Fractal Rings Based Monopole Antenna for WLAN/WiMAX Application

In this paper a new antenna design technique is introduced in order to achieve tri-band operation as well as antenna miniaturization. The technique consists of using two concentric first-iterative hexagonal rings connected to each other as a radiating patch fed with a Y-shaped microstrip line. The proposed antenna operates at three frequency bands to cover 2.4/5.8 GHz WLAN and 3.5GHz WiMAX bands. The numerical analysis and simulation are carried out with CST MWS. The measured return losses of the proposed antenna show good performance and good agreement with the simulated results. Consequently the proposed antenna with compact size of 9.77 mm x 17 mm x 1.63 mm is well suited for wireless applications.

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- DJAFRI, K., CHALLAL, M., AKSAS, R., et al. A compact ACSfed tri-band microstrip monopole antenna for WLAN/WiMAX applications. Presented at the International Conference on Electronics and New Technologies. M’sila, Algeria, 2017.
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Keywords: Fractal antenna, tri-band, miniaturization, WLAN, WiMAX

**Y. Ge, Y. J. Zhao, J. Q. Chen**
[references] [full-text]
[DOI: 10.13164/re.2019.0045]
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Wideband RCS Reduction and Gain Enhancement for a Patch Antenna with Broadband AMC Structure

In this paper, a simultaneous improvement of radiating and scattering performance for a patch antenna is realized. For achieving the wideband low-scattering property, a broadband AMC structure with orthogonally slot-embedding is proposed and analyzed, which is arranged around the antenna with another square ring unit in a chessboard configuration for phase cancellation. Meanwhile, a gain increment is also achieved due to the coupling between the radiation patch and the broadband AMC structure. Measured results indicate that at least a 10 dB RCS reduction is obtained from 11 GHz to 17.8 GHz. Additionally, the gain of the antenna has also been increased for more than 2 dB between 12 GHz and 13 GHz.

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Keywords: Artificial Magnetic Conductor (AMC), gain, Radar Cross Section Reduction (RCSR)

**X. W. Dai, G. Q. Luo, H. Y. Jin, Z. Liao, Z. C. Hao**
[references] [full-text]
[DOI: 10.13164/re.2019.0053]
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A Novel Tri-Beam Antenna System Based on U-Shaped Dipole

Consisting of 6 radiating elements and a 3×3 Butler matrix, a novel tri-beam antenna system is proposed in this paper. The radiating element consists of two U-shaped arms and coupled strips, which shows a wide impedance characteristic. Three branch line couplers and four -90° phase shifters are combined into 3×3 Butler matrix as a beam-forming network (BFN). In order to avoid the crossover of transmission lines, one main line of a 1.76dB coupler is designed and located between two 3dB couplers. With this arrangement, the signal from one input port can be divided into three output signal with equal amplitude and specify phase differences of 0°, +120° and -120°. Furthermore, a 2×3 antenna array is connected with this BFN for three orthogonal beams. Measured results show that three beams at θ=0°, 40° and -40° are produced when different input ports are excited.

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Keywords: U-shaped arm, Butler matrix, tri-beam antenna

**L. S. Yang, M. Xu, C. Li**
[references] [full-text]
[DOI: 10.13164/re.2019.0060]
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Four-Element MIMO Antenna System for UWB Applications

A four element multiple input multiple output (MIMO) antenna system for UWB applications is presented. The system consists of two identical slot dipoles and two identical planar monopoles. Polarization diversity between different kinds of antennas can realize lower coupling between antenna elements, and by using a couple of inverted L-shaped stubs and an inverted Z-shaped stub as decoupling structures, isolation can be further improved. For both simulation and measurement, higher than 17dB isolation between antenna elements can be obtained through the whole UWB band (3.1-10.6 GHz). The envelope correlation coefficient, antenna gain, efficiency and other performances are also provided.

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Keywords: MIMO, UWB, polarization diversity, planar monopole, slot dipole

**L. Y. Chen, J. S. Hong, M. Amin**
[references] [full-text]
[DOI: 10.13164/re.2019.0068]
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A Twelve-Ports Dual-Polarized MIMO Log-Periodic Dipole Array Antenna for UWB Applications

A twelve-port dual-polarized multiple-input–multiple-output (MIMO) log-periodic dipole array (LPDA) antenna for ultra-wideband (UWB) applications is proposed in this paper. In the MIMO antenna, there are 12 antennas, six for horizontal polarization and six for vertical polarization. In order to achieve dual linear polarizations and beam switching, six horizontal antennas are placed in a sequential, rotating arrangement on a horizontal substrate panel with an equal inclination angle of 60 to form a symmetrical structure, while the other six antennas for vertical polarization are inserted through slots made on the horizontal substrate panel. In addition, all twelve antennas share a hexagon common ground on the back of substrate and feed by micro-strip line. A prototype of the MIMO antenna is manufactured and the reﬂection coefﬁcients, coupling isolation, radiation pattern and peak gain are measured. The MIMO performance of the MIMO LPDA antenna is predicted and evaluated by envelope correlation coefficient (ECC) and total active reﬂection coefﬁcient (TARC).

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- ZHENG, W. C., ZHANG, L., LI, Q. X., et al. Dual-band dualpolarized compact bowtie antenna array for anti-interference MIMO WALN. IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation, 2014, vol. 62, no. 1, p. 237–246. DOI: 10.1109/TAP.2013.2287287
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- GAO, Y., CHEN, X. D., YING, Z. N., et al. Design and performance investigation of a dual-element PIFA array at 2.5 GHz for MIMO terminal. IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation, 2007, vol. 55, no. 12, p. 3433–3441. DOI: 10.1109/TAP.2007.910353

Keywords: UWB, MIMO, LPDA

**A. Arce, E. Stevens-Navarro, M. Cardenas-Juarez, U. Pineda-Rico, D. H. Covarrubias**
[references] [full-text]
[DOI: 10.13164/re.2019.0074]
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A Coherent Multiple Beamforming Network for a Non-uniform Circular Antenna Array

This work proposes and describes a modular and innovative beamforming network (BFN) to feed a nonequally spaced circular antenna array. The structure is based on a set of alternated power combiners and dividers that delivers a Gaussian-like amplitude distribution and coherent (in-phase) signals. A multiple beam antenna system to generate two main beams in the same aperture with a coherent network for a nonuniform array with beam shaping and beam steering properties is simulated and analyzed. Furthermore, a comparative analysis based on uniform and nonuniform circular antenna arrays fed by the proposed coherent network is conducted. The complex signals and the nonuniform circular aperture are optimized using the well known differential evolution technique. Numerical experiments show the efficiency and improvement of the coherent network with a nonuniform aperture over uniform, with an advantage in average equal to 1.8dB of directivity and -2dB of side lobe level. Moreover, the simulation results exhibit an aperture reuse and complexity reduction of the proposed coherent network configuration compared with a conventional antenna array with direct feeding, where each main beam is shaped and steered with the half of control signal inputs.

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Keywords: Multiple beamforming network, non-uniform circular array, differential evolution, coherent beamforming network, multiple beams

**H. Aliakbarian, M. Khak, M. Shahpari, A. Nooraei Yeganeh, F. Mazlumi, S. H. Najmolhoda, R. Baghlani, R. Salimi Nejad**
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[DOI: 10.13164/re.2019.0084]
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An Efficient Multi-Beam Array Architecture for L-Band Secondary Surveillance Radars

In this paper, the design and fabrication of a large array antenna with three required, Sum, Difference and Control beams for a monopulse Secondary Surveillance Radar (SSR) is presented. A special array element, which is a high gain dual dipole structure, is designed and tested. This element has 9.6 dB gain in 1060 MHz and does not need any balun. The main challenge of extracting three beams out of one beam feeding networks (BFN) has been resolved efficiently by maximum integration of all three in one network, reducing the number of required modules to one half. The complete 33-element array, working in 1030 MHz and 1090 MHz is designed based on the Taylor array factor. The complex feed network of this 6-meter long array has successfully been synthesized as modular as possible. Sum pattern was designed for 2.7o azimuth beam width and -20 dB side lobe level and Diff pattern with a deep null in the boresight of the Sum pattern. The Ctrl beam was also designed in order to cover the Sum beam except in the direction of the main lobe.

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Keywords: Secondary Surveillance Radar, beam forming network, monopulse array, Taylor distribution

**M. Biancheri-Astier, A. Diet, Y. le Bihan, M. Grzeskowiak**
[references] [full-text]
[DOI: 10.13164/re.2019.0092]
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UWB Vivaldi Antenna Array Lower Band Improvement for Ground Penetrating Radar Applications

This paper concerns a ground penetrating radar system (GPR) presenting beam forming ability. This ability is due to a great flexibility in the emission of wavefronts. The innovative concept is to use an array of antennas which can reconfigure itself dynamically, in order to focus on a desired target. This antennas system can act as a new microwave sensor to detect and characterize buried targets in an inhomogeneous medium which is the case study in various application fields such as geophysics, medical, planetology… Its electronics are in development with the DORT (Time reversal technique) method integration for optimizing the localization of buried target. This paper aims are to present the antenna optimization used in the GPR applications. Typical antennas used in GPR are generally Vivaldi ones directly on the ground. Especially, in the context of the space mission ExoMars 2020, the radar antenna is set on a mobile station at a distance of about 30 cm from the ground to avoid any contact. However, they are limited by their important size, due to the lowest frequency of their bandwidth. Results of this work concern an increase of the antenna bandwidth by shifting the lower-band limit, making it a UWB type [500 MHz - 4 GHz] without changing its size. As low frequency waves can spread deeper into probed medium, this optimization can improve the radar data inversion performances.

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Keywords: Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR), Ultra Wideband (UWB), Vivaldi antenna

**X. W. Zhu, J. Gao, X. Y. Cao, T. Li, Y. J. Zheng, L. L. Cong, L. R. Ji-Di, B. W. Zhu**
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[DOI: 10.13164/re.2019.0099]
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A Novel Low-RCS and Wideband Circularly Polarized Patch Array Based on Metasurface

In this paper, a novel circularly polarized (CP) array antenna based on metasurface (MS) is designed to realize wideband radar cross section (RCS) reduction, wideband operation and high gain. The MS is composed of compact polarization-dependent artificial magnetic conductors (PDAMCs), by regularly arranging the PDAMCs like chessboard directly on the top of the patch antenna, the MS can significantly bring RCS down. On the other hand, due to the compact structure of MS and the driven array patches, surface wave propagates on the MS and generates additional resonances to achieve wide operation band and high gain. Both the simulated and measured results indicate that the RCS at bore-sight is reduced more than 6dB from 5.08 GHz to 11.46 GHz (77.15%) except for some frequency points, The antenna yielded a good broadside left-hand CP radiation, the ǀS11ǀ<-10 dB impedance bandwidth is from 5.03 GHz to 7.4 GHz (38.13%) and the 1-dB axial ratio bandwidth is from 4GHz to 8GHz. Both the radiating and scattering performances have been obviously improved.

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Keywords: Low RCS, high-gain, wideband, metasurface antenna

**H. P. Li , Y. Wang , Q. S. Cao**
[references] [full-text]
[DOI: 10.13164/re.2019.0108]
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Late-time Instability for UPML and Periodic Boundary in Elongated Multilayer Thin Plate Simulations

In this article, we examine the late-time instability properties of hybrid boundary conditions in the discontinuous Galerkin time-domain (DGTD) simulations of an elongated multilayer thin plate. The hybrid boundary is combined by uniaxial perfectly matched layer (UPML) and periodic boundary condition (PBC). Herein, the PBC is employed to approximate an infinite long target. For the target studied, when implementing the UPML within the discrete DGTD domain, late-time instabilities would occur. These instable or spurious information can severely corrupt the solution of a physical problem in time domain. To suppress them, two effective ways are proposed, i.e., increasing the size of the air space (the distance away from the interface between the target studied and the UPML) and decreasing the conductivity of the UPML. The numerical experiments verify that the instability characteristics can be efficiently attenuated by proposed two methods in this paper.

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Keywords: Late-time instability, DGTD, elongated multilayer thin plate, hybrid boundary conditions

**B. Doken, M. Kartal**
[references] [full-text]
[DOI: 10.13164/re.2019.0114]
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An Active Frequency Selective Surface Design Having Four Different Switchable Frequency Characteristics

Mutual interference between indoor adjacent wireless networks is becoming an important issue due to reducing the communication speed significantly. Controlling the isolation of wireless networks by using frequency selective surfaces (FSSs) can be an efficient solution for such interference problems. Therefore, a switchable band-stop FSS design is presented in this work for unlicensed 2.4 and 5.8 GHz ISM (Industrial, Scientific and Medical) bands. In order to achieve desired frequency switch performance, a new theory is proposed in this paper by using PIN diodes. According to the proposed theory, PIN diodes should be placed in positions where high current densities are observed or where charges are collected. By using the proposed theory, a new FSS geometry design was carried out to control the targeted ISM bands. According to our best knowledge, there is no similar FSS work in the literature with four different frequency responses for 2.4 and 5.8 GHz ISM bands.

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Keywords: Frequency selective surface (FSS), periodic structures, wireless communication, wireless local area network (WLAN), indoor propagation, interference, active FSS

**P. Sittithai, K. Phaebua, T. Lertwiriyaprapa, P. Akkaraekthalin**
[references] [full-text]
[DOI: 10.13164/re.2019.0121]
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Magnetic Field Shaping Technique for HF-RFID and NFC Systems

In this paper, magnetic field shaping technique designed for antenna in high frequency radio frequency identification (HF-RFID) system and near-field communications (NFCs) system is proposed. This research aims to improve the communication area on the market passive HF-RFID and NFC reader antennas by employing the proposed magnetic field repeater. The multiple rectangular loop resonators cooperating with low loss air variable capacitors are employed to construct the magnetic field repeater. The proposed magnetic field repeater is installed on top of the off-the-shelf HF-RFID reader antenna without any direct connection to shape the magnetic field distribution of original reader antenna. The HF-RFID reader for laundry application is chosen to verify the performance of the proposed magnetic field repeater. We found that the communication area between tag and off-the-shelf HF-RFID reader antenna is improved. The proposed technique is suitable for improving off-the-shelf HF-RFID antenna in many applications such as laundry application, product tacking, etc. where a short range with wide detected area are required.

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Keywords: High frequency (HF) radio frequency identification (RFID), magnetic field repeater, HF-RFID reader antenna, magnetic resonance technique

**S. Tantiviwat, S. Z. Ibrahim, M. S. Razalli**
[references] [full-text]
[DOI: 10.13164/re.2019.0129]
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Design of Quad-Channel Diplexer and Tri-band Bandpass Filter Based on Multiple-Mode Stub-Loaded Resonators

Multiple-mode stub-loaded resonator with quad channel diplexer and tri-band bandpass ﬁlter are presented and analyzed theoretically in this paper. The multi-mode stub-loaded resonator employs the basic structure of a triple mode resonator. Herein, the triple-mode resonator is modiﬁed by introducing a mid-coupled line between the odd mode resonances to produce a quad-mode resonator. The proposed resonator is applied in the quad-channel diplexer design, composing of two independent dual-band bandpass ﬁlters. In turn, the triple-band bandpass ﬁlter based on a parallel quad-mode and a dual-mode stub-loaded resonator is developed. To validate the performance of the proposed resonators, two experimental examples, including a quad-channel diplexer and a triple-band bandpass ﬁlter are fabricated and measured. Each of the designed circuits occupies small area i.e. about 0.32lambda*0.22lambda and 0.18lambda*0.20lambda respectively. Good agreements between simulated and measured results are achieved.

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Keywords: Stub-loadedresonator, multi-moderesonator, diplexer, multi-band BPF

**Y.H. Ma , Y. Yuan , W. Yuan , W. Wu, N. Yuan**
[references] [full-text]
[DOI: 10.13164/re.2019.0136]
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A Novel Method to Design Stub-loaded Microstrip Filters with Arbitrary Passband Based on the Reflection Theory and Monte Carlo Method

In this paper, a novel method for microstrip filters with arbitrary passband design is proposed. A kind of stub-loaded microstrip filter with asymmetric structure is proposed. The mathematic function of total reflection coefficient at the input port of the filter is derived based on the reflection theory, an ultra-wide-band (UWB) filter which can work from 11GHz to 39GHz is fabricated and measured to verify that our function can calculate the reflection coefficient precisely. The procedure to design stub-loaded microstrip filters with arbitrary passbands is given in this paper, this design procedure is based on the Monte Carlo method. A bandpass filter (BPF) which can work on 7--9.5GHz is designed and measured as an example. The comparison between calculated dimensions and practical dimensions of this filter shows a satisfactory fitting degree. A low-pass filter (LPF) which can work below 4GHz is designed and compared with some prior arts in order to show that our proposed filter is simple in structure and small in size. By using our proposed method, the stub-loaded microstrip filter can be designed quickly and easily. Based on the results mentioned above, we can count that the method proposed in this paper has a good application in microstrip filter design.

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Keywords: Electromagnetic reflection, microstrip filters, Monte Carlo methods, reflection coefficient

**A. Kocakaya, S. Çimen, G. Çakır**
[references] [full-text]
[DOI: 10.13164/re.2019.0147]
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Novel Angular and Polarization Independent Band-Stop Frequency Selective Surface for Ultra-Wide Band Applications

A novel compact band-stop frequency selective surface (FSS) with angular and polarization stability performance for ultra-wide band (UWB) applications is presented in this paper. The presented FSS consists of square loop element and a crossed dipole with ring aperture element. The novel unit cell size is miniaturized to 0.047λ × 0.047λ, where λ is free-space wavelength corresponding to the lowest frequency of the UWB band. The -3dB bandwidth of the proposed FSS is between 3.05 GHz and 10.73 GHz frequencies which are cover the whole UWB band that is defined by FCC. Due to compact size of unit cell, the presented FSS has good angular stability up to 60° incident angles both perpendicular (TE) and parallel (TM) polarization. The resonance frequency deviation is maximum 1.75% for TE polarization. In addition, proposed FSS has excellent stable resonant frequency. The designed FSS is fabricated and experimental measurements are done. There is consistency between numerical simulations with measurement results.

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Keywords: Angular stability; frequency selective surface; ultra-wide band; miniaturization.

**G. W. Zhang, J. Gao, X. Y. Cao, S. J. Li, H. H. Yang**
[references] [full-text]
[DOI: 10.13164/re.2019.0154]
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Wideband Miniaturized Metamaterial Absorber Covering L-Frequency Range

Using a metallic incurved structure, a wideband miniaturized metamaterial absorber (MMA) covering L-ferquency range (1-2GHz) is proposed in this paper. Simulated results show that the bandwidth of the MMA with absorptivity more than 90% is 1–2.74 GHz, and its relative bandwidth is over 93%. The size of the unit cell is miniaturized to 20 mm × 20 mm, and the profile is only 0.078λ (at the lower frequency of 1 GHz). Both simulated and experimental results show that high absorptivity for TE and TM polarization over a certain range of incident angles can be gained. By analyzing the effective impedance and the current distribution, the mechanism of the proposed MMA to attain broadband absorption is analyzed. The proposed MMA has a good application on UHF-RFID systems and 4G communications.

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Keywords: Miniaturized metamaterial absorber, wideband, L-frequency

**K. Rajagopal, C. Li, F. Nazarimehr, A. Karthikeyan, P. Duraisamy, S. Jafari**
[references] [full-text]
[DOI: 10.13164/re.2019.0165]
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Chaotic Dynamics of Modified Wien Bridge Oscillator with Fractional Order Memristor

In this paper a modified third order Wien bridge oscillator with fractional order memristor is proposed. Various dynamical properties of the proposed oscillator are investigated such as equilibrium points, Eigenvalues, Lyapunov exponents and bifurcation diagrams. The Lyapunov spectrum of the system for various values of fractional order is derived. Using forward and backward continuation methods of plotting bifurcation diagram, the multistability of the oscillator is investigated. The proposed oscillator is realized using Field Programmable Gate Arrays and the experiment is conducted using hardware-software co-simulation.

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Keywords: Wien bridge oscillator, memristor, bifurcation, multistability, fractional order

**P. Galajda , S. Slovak, M. Sokol, M. Pecovsky, M. Kmec**
[references] [full-text]
[DOI: 10.13164/re.2019.0175]
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Integrated M-Sequence Based Transceiver for UWB Sensor Networks

This paper deals with the realization, measure- mentsandtestingofanintegratedUWBradarheadoperating in the continuously transmitted stimulation signal mode. The term UWB is derived from the exploited system bandwidth. Practically, the frequency bands nearly from DC to 14 GHz or those specified by the Electronic Communication Committee (ECC) or the Federal Communications Commission (FCC) regulations are used. The stimulation signal is generated by modulation of the carrier by a binary sequence which spreads the frequency spectrum of the signal. Thanks to the parameters of the resulting signal, it is not the source of interference for other radio services, but it can be observed only as an increase in noise. In the context of the UWB radars emitting the spread-spectrum signal, the term noise radar is often used, where the generated spreading signal is the result of generation of a pseudorandom noise modulation signal. Theprincipleofgenerationofsuchasignalaswellas the description of the transmitter is described in this article in more details. The reception of the UWB signals is not a trivial task. Hence in this paper, we deal with the topic of the UWB radar transceiver, relying on the equivalent time sampling approach, with attention to the receiver section. The measurements focused on qualitative parameters of the given UWB radar are evaluated as well, concentrating on the innovative integrated front-end. The main tested parameters include reliability across the whole frequency range, dynamic range, as well as crosstalk in the proposed structure.

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Keywords: UWB Radar, M-Sequence, transceiver, ASIC

**D. Krolak, P. Horsky**
[references] [full-text]
[DOI: 10.13164/re.2019.0183]
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A Passive Network Synthesis from Two-Terminal Measured Impedance Characteristic

A linear high-frequency lumped-element model extraction from a two-terminal measured impedance by an improved element-by-element extraction method is described. This extraction method is extended to series and shunt resistors extraction as lossy elements of passive (linear) circuit network. The extracted linear circuit models from the two-terminal impedance of ideal and realistic passive networks is validated by SPICE simulations in a frequency domain. The extracted model can be used for more accurate electrical environment modeling and SPICE simulations of integrated circuits including external passive networks. An example of passive network synthesis from the two-terminal measured impedance by a proposed software is also presented.

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Keywords: Element-by-element extraction, EMC, impedance measurement, lumped-element model, passive network synthesis, transmission line

**Z. Z. Su, H. B. Ji, Y. Q. Zhang**
[references] [full-text]
[DOI: 10.13164/re.2019.0191]
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An Improved Measurement-Oriented Marginal Multi-Bernoulli/Poisson Filter

The measurement-oriented marginal multi-Ber-noulli/Poisson (MOMB/P) filter is an attractive approach for multi-target tracking. However, the effect of measure¬ment on predicted target states may be weakened when the hypothesized tracks are separated, even if the measurement is close to the predicted target state. This is due to the inaccuracy of the missed detection hypothesis probabilities in the marginal association probabilities. To solve this problem, an improved MOMB/P (IMOMB/P) filter is pro¬posed in this paper, by considering the measurement infor¬mation in the missed detection hypotheses. Simulation results reveal a favorable comparison to the MOMB/P filter in terms of the Optimal Subpattern assignment (OSPA) distance and cardinality estimation.

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Keywords: Multi-target tracking, random finite set, MOMB/P filter, missed detection hypothesis

**N. Daneshmandpour, H. Danyali, M. S. Helfroush**
[references] [full-text]
[DOI: 10.13164/re.2019.0199]
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Scalable Image Self-Embedding Based on Dual-Rate SPIHT-LDPC Reference Generation Scheme

Image Self-Embedding is a method of embedding two sets of data into the original image, authentication data for tamper detection and reference data for image recovery. In this paper, a scalable self-embedding method is proposed based on dual-rate source-channel coding for reference data generation. The proposed method uses Set Partitioning in Hierarchical Tree (SPIHT) algorithm for source coding and Low-Density Parity Check (LDPC) for channel coding. Accordingly, the proposed recovery system provides higher reconstruction quality at low tampering rates, while it can handle higher tampering rates with less reconstruction quality. Therefore, the proposed method has the ability of both preserving the image quality and recovering higher tampering rates. Simulation results show noticeable improvements compared with the related self-embedding methods in the literature.

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Keywords: Tamper Detection, Image Recovery, Self-Embedding, Source-channel Coding, SPIHT, LDPC

**J. Kufa, O. Kaller, O. Zach, L. Polak, T. Kratochvil**
[references] [full-text]
[DOI: 10.13164/re.2019.0207]
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Objective Models for Performance Comparison of Compression Algorithms for 3DTV

Efficient video compression algorithms in advanced multimedia broadcasting systems are in high demand. In the last decades, different video compression tools have been developed which can influence the final Quality of Experience in different ways. This paper has two goals. The first goal is to present a study of different compression algorithms available for stereoscopic 3D videos. The second goal is to present the possibilities in the creation of new stereoscopic models. The well-established video codecs (AVC, MVC, HEVC and MV-HEVC) are considered as encoders. Generic objective video quality metrics are used to analyze the compression efficiencies of the considered codecs, extended with results from subjective tests. The correlations between the objective and subjective scores are analyzed statistically. Due to unsatisfactory results of generic 2D metrics for the stereoscopic sequences used in the test, new objective models are presented. Such models show improved correlation with subjective stereoscopic video quality. The validation, verification and a description of models are presented in detail.

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Keywords: 3D video coding, AVC, MVC, HEVC, MV-HEVC, objective and subjective video quality metrics, MOS, Spearman and Pearson rank correlation

**K. Wang, L. Wang, J. Xie, M. Tao**
[references] [full-text]
[DOI: 10.13164/re.2019.0220]
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Classification and Localization of Mixed Sources Using Uniform Circular Array under Unknown Mutual Coupling

In this paper, the authors propose an effective classification and localization algorithm of mixed far-field and near-field sources using a uniform circular array under the unknown mutual coupling. In practice, the assumption of an ideal receiving sensor array is rarely satisfied. The effects of unknown mutual coupling would degrade the performance of most high resolution algorithms. Firstly, according to rank reduction type method, the direction of arrival of far-field sources is estimated directly without mutual coupling elimination. Then, these estimates are adopted to reconstruct the mutual coupling matrix. Finally, both direction and range parameters of near-field sources are obtained through MUSIC search after mutual coupling effects and far-field components elimination. The proposed algorithm only requires the second order cumulant and any three dimensional spectrum search is circumvented. Some simulation results would prove that the proposed algorithm can reduce more than eighty percent estimating error of mixed sources localization compared to those algorithms without mutual coupling compensation.

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Keywords: Uniform circular array, direction of arrival, far-field, near-field, mutual coupling

**N. Rabiee, H. Azad, N. Parhizgar**
[references] [full-text]
[DOI: 10.13164/re.2019.0230]
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Enhancement DPT Method in Terms of Estimation Chirp Rate and Central Frequency Parameters of the LFM Signal

The discrete polynomial-phase transform (DPT) method estimate chirp rate and central frequency of LFM signal based on sequential estimation of polynomial phase parameters. This method uses Nonlinear Least Squares (NLS) technique (based on FFT) to estimate phase parameters of the LFM signal. Although NLS enjoys a high level of statistical accuracy, it entails a lot of calculations. In this paper, in order to enhance the precision of estimation and also to reduce the calculations in DPT method, a technique called "combined" is proposed and used in DPT method in order to estimate chirp rate and central frequency of LFM signal .The combined technique firstly provides an initial estimate of frequency interval based on NLS criterion in single-exponential mode, then using initial estimation and Random Basis Functions method (RBF). Simulation results are presented to demonstrate better performance of DPT method by combined technique in order to estimate phase parameters of LFM signal as compared with the existing techniques.

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Keywords: Discrete Polynomial Phase Transform (DPT), Nonlinear Least Square (NLS), Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR), Linear Frequency Modulation (LFM)

**R. Yao, L. Yao, J. Xu, X. Zuo, H. Liu**
[references] [full-text]
[DOI: 10.13164/re.2019.0238]
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Optimized Time Splitting to Maximize the Lower Bound of Rate with Channel Estimation in An Interference Alignment Based Network

In this paper, for an interference alignment (IA) based network, a time splitting scheme for transmitting training and data symbols is optimized. The time allocated for transmitting training symbol will affect the precision of channel estimation (CE) and thus the achievable rate as well as the duration for data symbol transmission. With the least square (LS) and relaxed minimum mean square error (RMMSE) CE algorithm, the lower bounds of achievable rate are carefully derived, respectively. Then we formulate an optimization problem to maximize the lower bounds of achievable rate by optimizing the time splitting factor (TSF). The existence of optimum is first proved. Then, regarding the complexity of solution, Taylor expansion is adopted to find the approximated optimal TSF. Numerical results are presented to show the optimal TSF can achieve larger lower bound of achievable rate over other fixed TSFs due to its adaptivity to the channel characteristics and its statistics of CE errors. Numerical results also validate that the approximation just brings out some small and acceptable errors on the system rate. In addition, RMMSE CE algorithm shows better performance than LS CE because RMMSE considers noise statistics as modification.

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- NOSRAT-MAKOUEI, B., ANDREWS, J. G., HEATH, R. W. MIMO interference alignment over correlated channels with imperfect CSI. IEEE Transactions on Signal Processing, 2011, vol. 59, no. 6, p. 2783–2794. ISSN: 1053-587X. DOI: 10.1109/TSP.2011.2124458
- LI, X., ZHAO, N., SUN, Y., et al. Interference alignment based on antenna selection with imperfect channel state information in cognitive radio networks. IEEE Transactions on Vehicular Technology, 2016, vol. 65, no. 7, p. 5497–5511. ISSN: 0018-9545. DOI: 10.1109/TVT.2015.2439300
- AQUILINA, P., RATNARAJAH, T. Linear interference alignment in full-duplex MIMO networks with imperfect CSI. IEEE Transactions on Communications, 2017, vol. 65, no. 12, p. 5226–5243. ISSN: 0090-6778. DOI: 10.1109/TCOMM.2017.2744647
- AYACH, O. E., LOZANO, A., HEATH, R. W. On the overhead of interference alignment: Training, feedback, and cooperation. IEEE Transactions on Wireless Communications, 2012, vol. 11, no. 11, p. 4192–4203. ISSN: 1536-1276. DOI: 10.1109/TWC.2012.092412120588
- GUIAZON, R. F., WONG, K. K., WISELY, D. Capacity analysis of interference alignment with bounded CSI uncertainty. IEEE Wireless Communications Letters, 2014, vol. 3, no. 5, p. 505–508. ISSN: 2162-2337. DOI: 10.1109/LWC.2014.2344656
- GUIAZON, R. F., WONG, K. K., FITCH, M. Capacity distribution for interference alignment with CSI errors and its applications. IEEE Transactions on Wireless Communications, 2016, vol. 15, no. 1, p. 1–10. ISSN: 1536-1276. DOI: 10.1109/TWC.2015.2477298
- KHAN, M. N., GILANI, S. O., JAMIL, M., et al. Maximizing Throughput of Hybrid FSO-RF Communication System: An Algorithm. IEEE Access, 2018, vol. 6, p. 30039–30048. ISSN: 2169-3536. DOI: 10.1109/ACCESS.2018.2840535
- HASSAN, H., KHAN, M. N., GILANI, S. O., et al. H.264 Encoder Parameter Optimization for Encoded Wireless Multimedia Transmissions. IEEE Access, 2018, vol. 6, p. 22046–22053. ISSN: 2169-3536. DOI: 10.1109/ACCESS.2018.2824835
- MALIK, M. H., JAMIL, M., KHAN, M. N., et al. Formal modelling of TCP congestion control mechanisms ECN/RED and SAP-LAW in the presence of UDP traffic. EURASIP Journal on Wireless Communications and Networking, 2016, vol. 2016, no. 1, p.22046–22053. ISSN: 1687-1499. DOI: 10.1186/s13638-016-0646-9
- YAO, R., LU, Y., TSIFTSIS, T. A., et al. Secrecy rate-optimum energy splitting for an untrusted and energy harvesting relay network. IEEE Access, 2018, vol. 6, p. 19238–19246. ISSN: 2169-3536. DOI: 10.1109/ACCESS.2018.2819639
- WU, Y., WANG, T., SUN, Y., et al. Time allocation optimisation for multi-antenna wireless information and power transfer with training and feedback. IET Communications, 2017, vol. 11, no. 3, p. 414–420. ISSN: 1751-8628. DOI: 10.1049/iet-com.2016.0425
- YAO, R., GAO, Y., XU, J., et al. Impact of channel estimation error on upper bound of rate loss for macro cell in a VFDM system. In Proceedings of the 26th Wireless and Optical Communications Conference (WOCC). Newark (USA), 2017, p. 1–5. ISSN: 2379-1276. DOI: 10.1109/WOCC.2017.7928999
- ZHENG, G., WONG, K. K., OTTERSTEN, B. Robust cognitive beamforming with bounded channel uncertainties. IEEE Transactions on Signal Processing, 2009, vol. 57, no. 12, p. 4871–4881. ISSN: 1053-587X. DOI: 10.1109/TSP.2009.2027462
- MEKKAWY, T., YAO, R., XU, F., et al. Optimal power allocation in an amplify-and-forward untrusted relay network with imperfect channel state information. Wireless Personal Communications, 2018, vol. 101, no. 3, p. 1281–1293. ISSN: 09296212. DOI: 10.1007/s11277-018-5762-x
- SAHU, A., KHARE, A. A Comparative analysis of LS and MMSE channel estimation, techniques for MIMO-OFDM system. International Journal of Engineering Research and Applications, 2014, vol. 4, no. 6, p. 162–167. ISSN: 2248-9622
- BIGUESH, M., GERSHMAN, A. B. Training-based MIMO channel estimation: a study of estimator tradeoffs and optimal training signals. IEEE Transactions on Signal Processing, 2006, vol. 54, no. 3, p. 884–893. ISSN: 1053-587X. DOI: 10.1109/TSP.2005.863008
- GUIAZON, R. F., WONG, K. K., FITCH M. Evolution of capacity lower bound of interference alignment with leastsquare channel estimation. In Proceedings of the 3th IEEE China Summit and International Conference on Signal and Information Processing (ChinaSIP). Chengdu (China), 2015, p. 582–585. DOI: 10.1109/ChinaSIP.2015.7230470
- SBOUI, L., REZKI, Z., ALOUINI, M. S. Energy-efficient power allocation for MIMO-SVD systems. IEEE Access, 2017, vol. 5, p. 9774–9784. ISSN: 2169-3536. DOI: 10.1109/ACCESS.2017.2707550
- LEI, W. J., JIANG, X., ZUO, L. J., et al. A secure transmission scheme for wireless energy harvesting aystems via energy cooperation and cooperative jamming. Acta Electronica Sinica, 2017, vol. 45, no. 1, p. 67–73. DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.0372-2112.2017.01.010
- YAO, R., LI, T., LIU, Y., et al. Analytical approximation of the channel rate for massive MIMO system with large but finite number of antennas. IEEE Access, 2018, vol. 6, no. 99, p. 6496–6504. ISSN: 2169-3536. DOI: 10.1109/ACCESS.2017.2787668
- YAO, R., MEKKAWY, T., XU, F. Optimal power allocation to increase secure energy efficiency in a two-way relay network. In Proceedings of the 2017 IEEE 86th Vehicular Technology Conference (VTC-Fall). Toronto (Canada), 2017, p. 1–5. DOI: 10.1109/VTCFall.2017.8288198

Keywords: Time splitting, lower bound, interference alignment, Taylor expansion

**F. Li, H. Li, S. Li**
[references] [full-text]
[DOI: 10.13164/re.2019.0247]
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Sparse Channel Estimation for Large-Scale MISO-OFDM System - a Bayesian VMP Approach

The problem of channel estimation, in large-scale multiple input single output orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (MISO-OFDM) systems, is studied in this paper. In order to take full advantage of the sparse property, an intermediate random vector is introduced to control the sparsity of the estimation of the channel state information (CSI) based on the maximum a posteriori estimator. After carefully designing the prior probability density function (PDF) of the intermediate random vector and the unknown CSI conditioned on it, the sparse optimization problem over the CSI is constructed. The Bayesian inference theory is applied to relax the optimization problem by calculating an approximated PDF with simpler form. After that, variational message-passing (VMP) is used to obtain the solution in iterative analytical form. Furthermore, block sparse structure is implemented to improve the performance. Simulation results demonstrate the merit of proposed algorithm over the traditional ones.

- NOSRAT-MAKOUEI, B., ANDREWS, J. G., HEATH, R. W. MIMO interference alignment over correlated channels with imperfect CSI. IEEE Transactions on Signal Processing, 2011, vol. 59, no. 6, p. 2783–2794. ISSN: 1053-587X. DOI: 10.1109/TSP.2011.2124458
- LI, X., ZHAO, N., SUN, Y., et al. Interference alignment based on antenna selection with imperfect channel state information in cognitive radio networks. IEEE Transactions on Vehicular Technology, 2016, vol. 65, no. 7, p. 5497–5511. ISSN: 0018-9545. DOI: 10.1109/TVT.2015.2439300
- AQUILINA, P., RATNARAJAH, T. Linear interference alignment in full-duplex MIMO networks with imperfect CSI. IEEE Transactions on Communications, 2017, vol. 65, no. 12, p. 5226–5243. ISSN: 0090-6778. DOI: 10.1109/TCOMM.2017.2744647
- AYACH, O. E., LOZANO, A., HEATH, R. W. On the overhead of interference alignment: Training, feedback, and cooperation. IEEE Transactions on Wireless Communications, 2012, vol. 11, no. 11, p. 4192–4203. ISSN: 1536-1276. DOI: 10.1109/TWC.2012.092412120588
- GUIAZON, R. F., WONG, K. K., WISELY, D. Capacity analysis of interference alignment with bounded CSI uncertainty. IEEE Wireless Communications Letters, 2014, vol. 3, no. 5, p. 505–508. ISSN: 2162-2337. DOI: 10.1109/LWC.2014.2344656
- GUIAZON, R. F., WONG, K. K., FITCH, M. Capacity distribution for interference alignment with CSI errors and its applications. IEEE Transactions on Wireless Communications, 2016, vol. 15, no. 1, p. 1–10. ISSN: 1536-1276. DOI: 10.1109/TWC.2015.2477298
- KHAN, M. N., GILANI, S. O., JAMIL, M., et al. Maximizing Throughput of Hybrid FSO-RF Communication System: An Algorithm. IEEE Access, 2018, vol. 6, p. 30039–30048. ISSN: 2169-3536. DOI: 10.1109/ACCESS.2018.2840535
- HASSAN, H., KHAN, M. N., GILANI, S. O., et al. H.264 Encoder Parameter Optimization for Encoded Wireless Multimedia Transmissions. IEEE Access, 2018, vol. 6, p. 22046–22053. ISSN: 2169-3536. DOI: 10.1109/ACCESS.2018.2824835
- MALIK, M. H., JAMIL, M., KHAN, M. N., et al. Formal modelling of TCP congestion control mechanisms ECN/RED and SAP-LAW in the presence of UDP traffic. EURASIP Journal on Wireless Communications and Networking, 2016, vol. 2016, no. 1, p.22046–22053. ISSN: 1687-1499. DOI: 10.1186/s13638-016-0646-9
- YAO, R., LU, Y., TSIFTSIS, T. A., et al. Secrecy rate-optimum energy splitting for an untrusted and energy harvesting relay network. IEEE Access, 2018, vol. 6, p. 19238–19246. ISSN: 2169-3536. DOI: 10.1109/ACCESS.2018.2819639
- WU, Y., WANG, T., SUN, Y., et al. Time allocation optimisation for multi-antenna wireless information and power transfer with training and feedback. IET Communications, 2017, vol. 11, no. 3, p. 414–420. ISSN: 1751-8628. DOI: 10.1049/iet-com.2016.0425
- YAO, R., GAO, Y., XU, J., et al. Impact of channel estimation error on upper bound of rate loss for macro cell in a VFDM system. In Proceedings of the 26th Wireless and Optical Communications Conference (WOCC). Newark (USA), 2017, p. 1–5. ISSN: 2379-1276. DOI: 10.1109/WOCC.2017.7928999
- ZHENG, G., WONG, K. K., OTTERSTEN, B. Robust cognitive beamforming with bounded channel uncertainties. IEEE Transactions on Signal Processing, 2009, vol. 57, no. 12, p. 4871–4881. ISSN: 1053-587X. DOI: 10.1109/TSP.2009.2027462
- MEKKAWY, T., YAO, R., XU, F., et al. Optimal power allocation in an amplify-and-forward untrusted relay network with imperfect channel state information. Wireless Personal Communications, 2018, vol. 101, no. 3, p. 1281–1293. ISSN: 09296212. DOI: 10.1007/s11277-018-5762-x
- SAHU, A., KHARE, A. A Comparative analysis of LS and MMSE channel estimation, techniques for MIMO-OFDM system. International Journal of Engineering Research and Applications, 2014, vol. 4, no. 6, p. 162–167. ISSN: 2248-9622
- BIGUESH, M., GERSHMAN, A. B. Training-based MIMO channel estimation: a study of estimator tradeoffs and optimal training signals. IEEE Transactions on Signal Processing, 2006, vol. 54, no. 3, p. 884–893. ISSN: 1053-587X. DOI: 10.1109/TSP.2005.863008
- GUIAZON, R. F., WONG, K. K., FITCH M. Evolution of capacity lower bound of interference alignment with leastsquare channel estimation. In Proceedings of the 3th IEEE China Summit and International Conference on Signal and Information Processing (ChinaSIP). Chengdu (China), 2015, p. 582–585. DOI: 10.1109/ChinaSIP.2015.7230470
- SBOUI, L., REZKI, Z., ALOUINI, M. S. Energy-efficient power allocation for MIMO-SVD systems. IEEE Access, 2017, vol. 5, p. 9774–9784. ISSN: 2169-3536. DOI: 10.1109/ACCESS.2017.2707550
- LEI, W. J., JIANG, X., ZUO, L. J., et al. A secure transmission scheme for wireless energy harvesting aystems via energy cooperation and cooperative jamming. Acta Electronica Sinica, 2017, vol. 45, no. 1, p. 67–73. DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.0372-2112.2017.01.010
- YAO, R., LI, T., LIU, Y., et al. Analytical approximation of the channel rate for massive MIMO system with large but finite number of antennas. IEEE Access, 2018, vol. 6, no. 99, p. 6496–6504. ISSN: 2169-3536. DOI: 10.1109/ACCESS.2017.2787668
- YAO, R., MEKKAWY, T., XU, F. Optimal power allocation to increase secure energy efficiency in a two-way relay network. In Proceedings of the 2017 IEEE 86th Vehicular Technology Conference (VTC-Fall). Toronto (Canada), 2017, p. 1–5. DOI: 10.1109/VTCFall.2017.8288198

Keywords: Channel estimation, multiple-input-single-output (MISO), OFDM, variational Bayesian inference, variational message-passing (VMP)

**X. F. Chi, M. H. Zhang, L. L. Zhao, L. Qian**
[references] [full-text]
[DOI: 10.13164/re.2019.0254]
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Analysis of Access Delay and Delay Jitter for the CSMA/CA Mechanism with Inactive Period

Owing to the distributed features and flexibility, carrier sense multiple access with collision avoidance (CSMA/CA) mechanisms have been widely adopted in wireless networks. Considering energy consumption, we devote to explore an energy efficient carrier sense multiple access with collision avoidance (EE-CSMA/CA) mechanism. The access delay and delay jitter are two of most important quality of service (QoS) metrics. EE-CSMA/CA inevitably experiences the tortures bred from its delay and delay jitter performance, because its frame structure with inactive period brings delay. In this paper, we aim to analyze the access delay and delay jitter of packets for the CSMA/CA with inactive period under the unsaturated conditions. Based on the Markov theory, we model the mechanism of EE-CSMA/CA as a four- dimensional Markov chain, and the fourth variable of Markov chain differentiates the active period and the inactive period of EE-CSMA/CA. Then, deriving in probability generation domain, we get the probability distribution of service time and obtain the access delay. Finally, the queue in a node is decoupled, and two queues with different states of empty and non-empty are configured logically, which helps to enable the complex analysis of delay jitter. Based on the whole probability analysis, the probability distribution of delay jitter is obtained. We show that the active ratio (active time over whole frame time) affects the access delay and delay jitter. When the active ratio is constant, the duration of active period has less effect on the access delay while it deteriorates delay jitter performance.

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Keywords: CSMA/CA mechanism, inactive period, unsaturated conditions, Markov chain, access delay, delay jitter

**W. K. Zhang, K. B. Cui, W. W. Wu, T. Xie, N. C. Yuan**
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[DOI: 10.13164/re.2019.0265]
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DOA Estimation of LFM Signal Based on Single-Source Time-Frequency Points Selection Algorithm by Using the Hough Transform

Direction of arrival (DOA) estimation performance may degrade substantially when linear frequency modulation (LFM) signals are spectrally-overlapped in time-frequency (TF) domain. In order to solve this problem, the single-source TF points selection algorithm based on Wigner-Ville distribution (WVD) and Hough transform is studied in this paper. Firstly, the signal intersections in TF domain can be solved based on the Hough transform. Secondly, by removing multiple-source TF points at intersections according to the empirical threshold value which is calculated by using the statistical experiment method, we can get single-source TF points set. Then, based on the Euclidean distance operator, single-source TF points set belonging to each signal can be obtained according to the property that TF points of the same signal have the same eigenvector. Finally, the averaged spatial TF distribution matrix is constructed and DOA estimation is realized based on the multiple signal classification (MUSIC) algorithm. In this way, the proposed algorithm can resolve the TF non-disjoint LFM signals because it can automatically select single-source TF points set of each signal. Simulation results illustrate that the proposed algorithm possesses higher angular resolution and has pretty good DOA estimation precision compared with existing algorithms.

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Keywords: LFM signal, DOA estimation, time-frequency analysis, single-source time-frequency point, Hough transform; WVD

**Z. Huang, W. Wang**
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[DOI: 10.13164/re.2019.0276]
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Robust Measurement Matrix Design Based on Compressed Sensing for DOA Estimation

It has been well known that Massive multiple-input-multiple-output (MIMO) radar can provide an excellent performance in direction of arrival (DOA) estimation. However, the significant increasing data size will seriously reduce the computational efficiency in practical application. Although compressed measurement can reduce data size and computational complexities, improper compression will enhance the environment noise. In this paper, a robust measurement matrix is designed to reduce data size and environment noise. Different from the general compressed sensing (CS) schemes, the optimization function is established by considering the overall mutual coherence of dictionary and the energy of measurement matrix, which is more suitable for noisy environment. The optimization function is highly non-convex due to the rank shrinkage of measurement matrix. To solve this problem, an alternating minimization scheme based on matrix factorization and Principal Component Analysis (PCA) is proposed. Moreover, the structure of measurement matrix is designed for massive MIMO receiver. Furthermore, numerous results demonstrate this scheme has a better estimation performance than random measurement method and general CS schemes in the noisy environment.

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Keywords: compressed sensing, robust measurement design, DOA estimation, sparse representation, massive MIMO

**Y. Pan, J. Zhang, Z. Qi**
[references] [full-text]
[DOI: 10.13164/re.2019.0283]
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Direction-of-Arrival Estimation for Arbitrary Array: Combining Spatial Annihilating and Manifold Separation

In this paper, we address the problem of direction-of-arrival (DOA) estimation with the arbitrary array. The manifold separation technique (MST) is employed to transform the arbitrary array into a virtual array with Vandermonde manifold on which the spatial annihilating filter reconstruction method can be applied. When building the optimization problem for annihilating filter reconstruction, we propose the general solution modeling which can reduce the truncation error in MST to a negligible level. Finally, the spatial annihilating filter is reconstructed under the structural total least square (STLS) framework with the multiple measurement vectors structural total least norm (MMV-STLN) approach and the DOAs are estimated from the filter coefficients. Numerical simulations have verified the new proposed method adapts well to the low signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), limited snapshots and closely-spaced sources scenarios and can handle the coherent signals.

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Keywords: Direction-of-arrival estimation, manifold separation technique, spatial annihilating, general solution modeling, structural total least square

**J. Ahmed, S. Wyne**
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[DOI: 10.13164/re.2019.0292]
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Ergodic Capacity of D2D Underlay Communication using MC-CDMA

Device to device (D2D) communication that underlay conventional cellular networks can increase their spectrum utilization. However, since D2D users share the frequency band with cellular users, interference between these two network tiers can become a major performance bottleneck. In this scenario, use of a spread spectrum technique can be a good choice for D2D communication, due to its inherent interference mitigation capability. In this work, we analyze the achievable ergodic capacity for a D2D user pair that uses multi-carrier code division multiple access (MC-CDMA). Interference from both cellular users and other D2D users is considered under Rayleigh faded links and carrier frequency offset. Our derived expression requires a single integration and gives a tight lower bound to achievable ergodic capacity.

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Keywords: D2D Communication, ergodic capacity, MC-CDMA, spread spectrum communication, underlay communication

**G. R. George, S. C. Prema,**
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[DOI: 10.13164/re.2019.0298]
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Cyclostationary Feature Detection Based Blind Approach for Spectrum Sensing and Classification

A Spectrum Sensing (SS) device, regardless of its location, should be able to detect the presence of signal over noise. In certain applications, SS should be able to correctly identify and classify the received signal. These functions are to be performed with little or no prior information about the incoming signal or channel noise. Cyclostationary Feature Detection (CFD) can be used to detect primary users (PU) using periodicity in autocorrelation of the modulated signals. These algorithms attempt to differentiate signal from noise based on the uncorrelated nature of noise. CFD is often considered as a semi-blind approach, since it requires prior information about the PU signal for detection. For identification and classification of PU signal, existing algorithms make use of CFD and neural networks. This paper proposes a novel algorithm to obtain completely blind detection performance based on CFD. Classification of PU signals is based on the basic statistics regarding cyclic spectrum. Further, an algorithm is formulated to identify modulation scheme of the signal and classify it without making use of any training algorithms. The proposed approach is capable of detecting PU reliably for SNR as low as –8 dB with no prior information about PU or noise in the channel.

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Keywords: Spectrum Sensing (SS), Cyclostationary Feature Detection (CFD), Spectral Correlation Density function (SCD)

**Q. Yuan, Y. Hu, C. Wang, X. Ma**
[references] [full-text]
[DOI: 10.13164/re.2019.0304]
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3D Beamforming for Improving the Security of UAV-Enabled Mobile Relaying System

In this paper, we consider an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV)-enabled mobile relaying system consists of a ground control station (GCS), a high-mobility UAV for relaying, a destination, and an eavesdropper. To improve the security of the three-dimension (3D) mobile relaying system with delayed channel state information (CSI), we propose a destination-specific (DS) 3D beamforming scheme and an eavesdropper-null (EN) 3D beamforming scheme, in both the horizontal angle and the vertical angle of antenna pattern are adapted instantaneously. In particular, we study the secrecy rate maximization problem via trajectory planning. However, this problem with mobility constraint and location constraint is a non-convex optimization problem. To solve it, we propose a successive trajectory planning algorithm by optimizing the incremental in each time-slot. Simulation results verify that the 3D beamforming schemes can greatly improve the security of UAV-enabled mobile relaying system and the proposed trajectory planning algorithm is also proven become effective.

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Keywords: Unmanned aerial vehicle, physical layer security, 3D beamforming, secrecy rate, trajectory planning.

**Z. Liu, X. H. Chen, Q. Liu**
[references] [full-text]
[DOI: 10.13164/re.2019.0312]
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Research on Passive Troposcatter Location System

Electromagnetic (EM) wave of enemy radar propagated by troposcatter can be utilized for beyond line-of-sight (b-LoS) location. To provide theoretical basis for passive troposcatter location system, channel characteristics including propagation loss, refraction effect and multipath fading are analyzed. Ray tracing method improved by tropospheric model is employed to describe the refraction effect. Correlation coefficient on the basis of transfer function is deduced to evaluate multipath fading. According to troposcatter characteristics, maximum operating range is estimated, cooperative energy detection is introduced to copy with the received signal without priori knowledge. The principle and accuracy of location algorithm based on azimuth is researched. Spatial smoothing is introduced under the situation that uncorrelated and coherent signals coexist. Through analyzing consequences, future directions for developing are suggested.

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Keywords: Passive troposcatter location system, channel characteristics, signal detection, location algorithm, direction-of-arrival (DOA).

**W. Wang, J. Huang, S. Cai, J. Yang**
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[DOI: 10.13164/re.2019.0320]
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Design and Implementation of Synchronization-free TDOA Localization System Based on UWB

At present, indoor localization system based on ultra wideband(UWB) has attracted more and more attention. In UWB system, Time Difference of Arrival (TDOA) and Two-Way Ranging (TWR) are widely used. However, TDOA requires high-accuracy time synchronization between all anchor nodes and even slight noise can cause large localization error. In TWR localization scheme, although two-way communication between anchor nodes and blind nodes can avoid the time synchronization issue effectively, the clock drift and the number of blind nodes will affect the system performance. To overcome these problems, a new synchronizationfree TDOA location algorithm is proposed. Firstly,the clock model is established and the influence of antenna delay is considered. Then, the system signal exchange mechanism and localization model are proposed. In the system, the blind nodes just receive the ranging signals from anchor nodes so that the system has no limit on the number of blind nodes. Finally,the major factor affecting the accuracy of ranging - clock drift, is discussed, and then a clock frequency offset compensation algorithm is proposed. The indoor localization experiment results show that the indoor localization system designed in this paper can achieve 3-D localization.

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Keywords: Indoor localization, Two-Way Ranging (TWR), Time Difference of Arrival (TDOA), time synchronization

**T. N. Ha, H. H. Kha**
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[DOI: 10.13164/re.2019.0331]
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Harvested Energy and Spectral Efficiency Trade-offs in Multicell MIMO Wireless Networks

The paper focuses on designing precoding matrices in multi-cell multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) simultaneous wireless information and power transfer networks (SWIPT) where the sets of users are selected for data transmission in each time slot and the unselected users are dedicated to energy harvesting. The precoding design for the SWIPT problem is formulated as a general multi-objective maximization problem, in which the sum-rate (SR) and sum harvested energy (SHE) are maximized simultaneously under the transmit power constraints. Since the objective function of the maximization problem is not concave in the design matrix variables, it is difficult to directly obtain the optimal solutions. To tackle this challenge, we recast the SR function into one more amenable by applying the connection between the minimum mean square error and achievable data rate. In addition, to deal with the non-concavity of the harvested energy function, we derive its concave minorant. Then, we develop an efficient iterative algorithm based on alternating optimization (AO) to obtain the optimal precoders. We also analyze the convergence and computational complexity of the proposed algorithm. Finally, by numerical simulation results we investigate the trade-offs between the SR and SHE.

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Keywords: Multicell MU-MIMO, SWIPT, spectral efficiency, precoding design

**P. D. Selvam, K. S. Vishvaksenan**
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[DOI: 10.13164/re.2019.0340]
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Antenna Selection and Power Allocation in Massive MIMO

This paper explores the massive multiple-input multiple-output (Ma-MIMO) communication system possessing large number of antennas at the basestation (BS) serving multiple user terminal (UT) in single cell configuration. Due the large number of antennas at the BS, the RF chains used is also increasing with the increase in the total power consumption of the system such as circuit power consumption, filter, mixer and digital to analog converter power consumption. The main aim of this paper is to reduce the transmit power consumption with the proposed antenna selection and power allocation approach. Initially, the equal power is allocated to users to find the optimal number of antenna selection. Then for the number of antennas selected the optimal power allocation is derived to users. An algorithm is proposed to iteratively find the antenna selection and power allocation. The simulation is done to evaluate the average data rate and to find the optimal transmit power of the system.

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Keywords: Massive MIMO, antenna selection, power allocation

**L. H. A. Lolis, P. N. Stroski, E. G. Lima**
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[DOI: 10.13164/re.2019.0347]
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System Level Design of RF Receivers Based on Non Linear Optimization and Power Consumption Models

This work presents a method to optimally distribute the block specifications in an RF receiver in order to reduce power consumption. The parameters are Gain (G), Noise Figure (NF) and Input Third Order Intercept Point (IIP3). The method is based on setting the signal quality per block at the output; Signal to Noise Ratio (SNR) for noise and Signal to Noise plus Distortion Ration (SNDR) for linearity. Both are limited in order to fulfill the sensitivity and intermodulation tests of a given standard. Non linear power models can be used as the method is based on heuristics associated with non linear optimization. First, random valid sets are tested "A" times, while the best candidate is chosen as starting point for a non linear optimization with bounds based on interior point algorithm. The process is repeated "B" times, and the best candidate is chosen. To validate the method, a direct-conversion receiver was dimensioned for the Long Term Evolution (LTE) and Bluetooth Low Energy (B-LE) standards. Two power models were used, labeled PM1 and PM2. First the LTE is considered. When compared to predetermined signal quality distributions, the method reduced the power consumption by 65% and 41%, considering PM1 and PM2, respectively. Then the B-LE is chosen with power PM2. This model is linear and has an analytical minimum derived in the literature. The optimization achieved a precision of 0.2% to the analytical minimum using A=1000 and B=15.

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Keywords: System level design, power consumption model, RF receiver, LTE, non linear optimization