December 2003, Volume 12, Number 4
An Accuracy Comparison of the Digital Filter Poles-Zeros Analysis
In the paper, a comparison of MATLAB and CIA procedures for computing the poles and zeros of digital filters is performed. The accuracy of both tools is tested using finite impulse response filters of a higher order - the first was designed by "remez" algorithm and the second came from the area of psychoacoustics.
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- DOBES, J., MICHAL, J. Using the variable-length arithmetic for anaccurate poles-zeros analysis. Radioengineering, 2003, vol. 12,no. 3, p. 1 - 5.
- MITRA, S. K., KAISER, J. F. Handbook for digital signal processing.New Jersey: John Wiley & Sons, 1993.
- LOBOVSKY, J. Digital psychoacoustic filter design. MastersThesis, Czech Technical University in Prague, Dept. of RadioElectronics, 2001.
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- DOBES, J. An accurate poles-zeros analysis for large-scale analogand digital circuits. In Proceedings of the IEEE InternationalConference on Electronics, Circuits and Systems. St.Julians (Malta),2001, p. 1027 - 1030.
Utilization of MATLAB in Simulation of Linear Hybrid Circuits
In the paper a MATLAB-based method for simulating transient phenomena in linear hybrid circuits containing parts with both lumped and distributed parameters is presented. Distributed parts of the circuit are multiconductor transmission lines, which can generally be nonuniform, with frequency-dependent parameters, and under nonzero initial voltage and/or current distributions. In principle a solution is formulated using the modified nodal analysis method in the frequency domain. Subsequently an improved fast method of the numerical inversion of Laplace transforms in the vector or matrix form is applied to obtain solution in the time domain.
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- BRANCIK, L. Time-Domain Simulation of Multiconductor Transmission Line Systems under Nonzero Initial Conditions. In Proc.of the 15th ECCTD'01. Espoo, Finland, 2001, vol. 1, p. 73-76.
- BRANCIK, L. Time-Domain Simulation of Nonuniform Multicon-ductor Transmission Lines under Nonzero Initial Conditions Using Matlab Language. In Proc. of the 14th ECCTD´99. Stresa, Italy, 1999, vol. 2, p. 1135-1138.
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- BRANCIK, L. Utilization of Quotient-Difference Algorithm in FFT-based Numerical ILT Method. In Proc. 11th Radioelektronika'2001. Brno, Czech Republic, 2001, p. 352-355.
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- BRANCIK, L. Improved Numerical Inversion of Laplace Transforms Applied to Simulation of Distributed Circuits. In Proc. XI. ISTET01. Linz, Austria, 2001, p. 51-54.
- BRANCIK,L. Matlab Oriented Matrix Laplace Transforms Inversion for Distributed Systems Simulation. In CD ROM Proc. of 12th Radioelektronika'2002. Bratislava, Slovakia, 2002, paper no. 114.
Mobile Radio Channels Modeling in MATLAB
In this paper, a MATLAB based approach for mobile radio channels modeling is presented. Specifically, the paper introduces the basic concepts for modeling flat fading channels in MATLAB by means of user-defined m-files. Typical small-scale fading channel models are derived such as uncorrelated Rician fading channel and Rayleigh fading channel with Doppler shift. Further, simple and useful MATLAB constructions for approximation of cumulative distribution functions (CDFs) and probability density functions (PDFs) are also given. Finally, a MATLAB based Monte Carlo simulation example is presented, which comprises performance estimation of phase shift keying (PSK) signaling over a Rician fading channel.
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T. Fryza, S. Hanus
Image Compression Algorithms Optimized for MATLAB
This paper describes implementation of the Discrete Cosine Transform (DCT) algorithm to MATLAB. This approach is used in JPEG or MPEG standards for instance. The substance of these specifications is to remove the considerable correlation between adjacent picture elements. The objective of this paper is not to improve the DCT algorithm it self, but to re-write it to the preferable version for MATLAB thus allows the enumeration with insignificant delay. The method proposed in this paper allows image compression calculation almost two hundred times faster compared with the DCT definition.
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- FRYZA, T. Two Dimensional Discrete Cosine Transform 2D-DCT. PhD course project. Dept. of Radio Electronics, Brno University of Technology (Czech Republic), 2003.
- BLANCHET, G., CHARBIT, M., LIEBENGUTH, D. TP JPEG mo-dule SVA. Travaux Pratiques. Dept. of Signal and Image Processing. Ecole Nationale des Telecommunications, Paris (France), 2000.
- PRADO, J., NICOLAS, J.M. Techniques Numeriques en Traitement de Signal. Elective course papers. Dept. of Signal and Image Processing. Ecole Nationale des Telecommunications, Paris (France), 1999.
- DE VRIES, E. F., KUMARA, G. P. Operations on JPEG Images. Diploma Thesis. Universiteit Leiden, 1994.
- SAAVEDRA, E., GRAUEL, A., MORTON, D. Combined Methods for Image Compression. In Recent Advances in Intelligent Systems and Signal Processing. Kanoni (Greece), 2003, p.233 - 235.
- FRYZA, T. HANUS, S. DCT Velocity Test in Dissimilar Programming Environments. In Conference Proceedings of the 17th International Conference on Applied Electromagnetics and Communica-tions 2003. Dubrovnik (Croatia), 2004, p. 117 - 119.
H. Ymeri, B. Nauwelaers, K. Maex, D. de Roest
Modeling the Substrate Skin Effects in Mutual RL Characteristics.,
The goal of this work was to model the influence of the substrate skin effects on the distributed mutual impedance per unit length parameters of multiple coupled on-chip interconnects. The proposed analytic model is based on the frequency-dependent distribution of the current in the silicon substrate and the closed form integration approach. It is shown that the calculated frequency-dependent distributed mutual inductance and the associated mutual resistance are in good agreement with the results obtained from CAD-oriented circuit modeling technique.
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- RUSSER, P., BIEBL, E., HEINRICH, W. Planar Millimeter Wave Circuits on Silicon. Proceedings of the German IEEE Joint MTT/AP Chapter International Workshop on Silicon-Based High-Frequency Devices and Circuits, Gunzburg, 1994, pp. 1 - 16.
- YMERI, H., NAUWELAERS, B., MAEX, K. Distributed Inductance and Resistance Per-Unit-Length Formulas for VLSI Interconnects on Silicon Substrate. Microwave Opt. Technol. Lett., 2001, vol. 30, pp. 302 - 304.
- CHANG, L., CHENG, K., MATHEWS, T. Simulating Frequency-Dependent Current Distribution for Inductance Modeling of On-Chip Copper Interconnects. Proc. Int. Symp. Physical Design, 2000, pp. 117 - 120.
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- YMERI, H., NAUWELAERS, B., MAEX, K., DE ROEST, D., VANDENBERGHE, S. Accurate Analytic Expressions for Frequency-Dependent Inductance and Resistance of Single On-Chip Interconnects on Conductive Silicon Substrate. Physics Letters A, 2002, vol. 293, pp. 195-198.
- ZHENG, J., HAHM, Y.-C., TRIPATHI,V. K., WEISSHAAR, A. CAD-Oriented Equivalent-Circuit Modeling of On-Chip Interconnects on Lossy Silicon Substrate. IEEE Trans. MTT., 2000, vol. 48, pp. 1443-1451.
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D.Orel, J. Rozman
A Computer Simulation of Ultrasound Thermal Bio-Effect in Embryonic Model
At the present time, the usage of ultrasound diagnostic equipment has become an inseparable part of diagnosis for a number of medical investigations. Several scientific studies published in the last years showed that when applying a diagnostic ultrasound system on animals it is possible to create negative changes in tissues. New ultrasound technologies and higher output acoustic powers have brought a possible risk connected to the usage of ultrasound in diagnostics. The knowledge of risk level and exploration of limiting factors is an important point for the assessment of marginal ultrasound exposure values of medical investigation during pregnancy, especially in the first trimester. The contribution presents a MATLABZ application for modeling of tissue heating in human embryos at the developmental age of seven and eight weeks. Recent calculations of US fields, which are generated by several types of various unfocused single transducers (rectangular, circular, and annular), represent maximum temperature elevation of 0.4 °C in embryonic model tissues for the exposure of 1 min. The models of embryonic tissue heating provide comparative studies of possible bio-effect with the purpose to explore limiting factors of ultrasound exposure.
- BARR, L., L. Clinical Concerns in the Ultrasound Exposure of the Developing Central Nervous System. Ultrasound in Med.& Biol., 2001, vol. 27, p. 889 - 892.
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- British Medical Ultrasound Society: Guidelines for the safe use of diagnostic ultrasound equipment. http://www.bmus.org/BMUS Safety Guidelines final.htm, August 2003.
- European Federation of Societies for Ultrasound in Medicine and Biology: Clinical Safety Statement for Diagnostic Ultrasound. http://www.efsumb.org/statemflo.htm, August 2003.
Utilization of MATLAB for Digital Image Transmission Simulation.,
The paper deals with the utilization of Matlab for simulation and analysis of the digital image transmission and transmission distortions in DTV (Digital Television) and DVB (Digital Video Broadcasting) area. The simulation model that covers selected phenomena of DVB standard baseband signal processing applied in Matlab is presented and features of the protection against transmission errors are outlined. The practical results of FEC (Forward Error Correction) codes efficiency are presented and at the end the GUI application for experimental simulation and education is outlined with a simulation example.
- RIEMERS, U. Digital Video Broadcasting. New York, Berlin Heildeberger:Springer - Verlag, 2001.
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- KRATOCHVIL, T. Simulation of the Digital Real TransmissionChannel Characteristics. Research report of the grant project of theCzech Ministry of Education no. 156/2001. Brno: Brno University ofTechnology, 2001 (in Czech).
- KRATOCHVIL, T., HRDINA, J. Utilization of Matlab for educationof the digital image transmission. In Proceedings of the 10th ConferenceMatlab 2002. Prague: Humusoft, 2002, p. 261 - 264.
M. Karafiat, F. Grezl
Using MATLAB for Analysis of TRAP System
This article describes a Matlab function for reading and processing file outputs from a structure of classifiers. These classifiers - neural nets - are used in speech recognition based on temporal trajectories (TRAP) of energy in frequency bands. This nonstandard approach is introduced and the program is presented. The utility of resulting figures is enhanced by the possibility of reading and displaying results from all critical bands at once. Resulting analyses are more focused on the reliability of classifiers than on the basic accuracy measure. The first uses colors and their depth to display both cues, reliability and accuracy, in one informative picture. Others are focused on more precise measures, where it is possible to precisely define classifier mistakes.
- ADAMI, A., BURGET, L., DUPONT, S., GARUDADRI, H., GRE-ZL, F., HERMANSKY, H., JAIN, P., KARAJEKAR, S., MORGAN, N., SIVADAS, S., Qualcomm-ICSI-OGI features for ASR. In Pro-ceedings of International Conference on Spoken Language Proces-sing, ICSLP 2002, Denver, Colorado, USA, 2002.
- GREZL, F., HERMANSKY, H., Local averaging and differentiating of spectral plane for trap-based ASR. In Proceedings of Eurospeech 2003, Geneva, Switzerland, 2003.
- KINGSBURY, B., JAIN, P., ADAMI, A., A hybrid HMM/TRAPS model for robust voice activity detection. In Proceedings of International Conference on Spoken Language Processing, ICSLP 2002, Denver, Colorado, USA, 2002.
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- CERNOCKY, J., Temporal processing for feature extraction in speech recognition. Habilitation thesis. Brno: Brno Univ. of Technology, 2002. http://www.fit.vutbr.cz/~cernocky/publi/2002/habil.pdf
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S. Zvanovec, P. Pechac, M. Klepal
Wireless LAN Network Design: Site Survey or Propagation Modeling?
There are two basic ways to deploy wireless LAN access points in an indoor scenario: manual deployment using a site survey based on empirical measurements or planning using a software tool with built-in signal propagation models. In this paper advantages and disadvantages of both ways are discussed. The planning based on propagation modeling is recognized as a highly preferable approach for design of large WLANs. Experimental data in this paper were processed in MATLAB.
- OHRTMAN, F., ROEDER, K. Wi-Fi Handbook: Building 802.11bWireless Networks. McGraw-Hill, 2003.
- IEEE 802.11 Working Group,http://grouper.ieee.org/groups/802/11/index.html
- ITU-T Recommendation E.800: Terms and definitions related toquality of service and network performance including dependability.
- Symbol Technologies, http://www.symbol.com.
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- ANDERSON, CH. R. Design and Implementation of anUltrabroadband Millimetre-Wavelength Vector Sliding CorrelatorChannel Sounder and In-Building Multipath Measurements at 2.5 &60 GHz. Diploma thesis, Virginia Polytechnic Institute, 2002.
- Architect/One automated planning tool, www.strixsystems.com.
M. Grabner, V. Kvicera
Clear-Air Propagation Modeling using Parabolic Equation Method
Propagation of radio waves under clear-air conditions is affected by the distribution of atmospheric refractivity between the transmitter and the receiver. The measurement of refractivity was carried out on the TV Tower Prague to access evolution of a refractivity profile. In this paper, the parabolic equation method is used in modeling propagation of microwaves when using the measured data. This paper briefly describes the method and shows some practical results of simulation of microwave propagation using real vertical profiles of atmospheric refractivity.
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S. Vitek, J. Hozman
Modeling of Imaging Systems in MATLAB
For many applications in image processing it is necessary to know model of imaging system, which has been used for image data obtain. Knowledge about system can be used for the simulation of an image data in astronomy (telescope and CCD camera, for example in near IR band) or we can treat the compression algorithm as any other imaging system and perform objective image quality measurement.
- HOLST, G.C. CCD arrays, Cameras and Displays. 2nd ed. Bellingham: SPIE Press, 1998.
- YALID-PECHT Geometrical MTF for Different Pixel Active Area Shapes. Optical Engineering, 2000, 34, p. 859 - 865.
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Compatibility of Data Transfer between CAD Applications
Compatibility of data transfers between individual CAD programs is topical when in another program we need to use a drawing or a 3D model created in a program that uses a different modeling kernel. The paper characterizes features and structures of existing CAD formats, problems in their transfer, it notes the export/import conversion through the IGES, SAT, STEP and STL formats. It takes a closer look at using the STL format for visualization and animation.
- TOMIS, M. Datove prenosy mezi CAD/CAM aplikacemi. itCAD Journal, 2001, vol. 10. no.3, p.3-5.
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Modification of Ordinary Differential Equations MATLAB Solver
Various linear or nonlinear electronic circuits can be described by the set of ordinary differential equations (ODEs). The ordinary differential equations can be solved in the MATLAB environment in analytical (symbolic toolbox) or numerical way. The set of nonlinear ODEs with high complexity can be usually solved only by use of numerical integrator (solver). The modification of ode23 MATLAB numerical solver has been suggested in this article for the application in solution of some special cases of ODEs. The main feature of this modification is that the solution is found at every prescribed point, in which the special behavior of system is anticipated. The extrapolation of solution is not allowed in those points.
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Z. Raida et al.
Electronic Textbook of Electromagnetic Waves
Teaching university courses, which deal with the phenomena of the electromagnetic (EM) substantiality and their applications, is rather difficult due to their abstract nature. Therefore, teaching has to be accompanied by clear explanations and by simulations illustrating the examined topics. This is why an electronic textbook (ET) of EM waves and applications was developed. The ET presents theoretical descriptions of selected EM phenomena on two levels - on a bachelor's one and a master's one. Descriptive parts of the ET are completed by computer programs, which enable the reader to simulate the studied phenomena. Moreover, the ET explains the practical implementation of simulation routines in MATLAB, which helps students to understand a relationship between rather complicated mathematics and a relatively simple source code of its software implementation. Since the ET is freely accessible on the web, students can use it whenever as a classical textbook, a handbook or a software package. This fact positively influences the students' knowledge and understanding as proven by our experience.
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P. Ledl, P. Pechac
Comparative Evaluation of UMTS, WLAN, BWA, MBWA, and UWB Systems
UMTS, WLAN, BWA and UWB systems are compared in this paper. The comparative analysis covers system capacity, QoS, and radiowave propagation.
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D. Rezacova, O. Fiser, L. Ramon Saez
Statistics of Radio Refractivity Derived from Prague Radiosounding Data
Vertical gradient of radio refractivity in the lowest 100 m is derived from the meteorological radio-sounding data of the Prague-Libus station. The data cover the measurements at the terms 00, 06, 12, and 18UTC, and the extent of data is 20 years. Diurnal, monthly, and annual distributions are presented and the relative role of the dry and wet components of the refractivity gradient is discussed. The b0 values, expressing the percentage of the time with the refractivity gradient below -100 km-1, are presented. This work should enable the effective radio-relay link design with respect to the radiowave bending.
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