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September 2023, Volume 32, Number 3 [DOI: 10.13164/re.2023-3]

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D. Chen, S. Xiong, L. Guo [references] [full-text] [DOI: 10.13164/re.2023.0299] [Download Citations]
Research on Detection Method for Tunnel Lining Defects Based on DCAM-YOLOv5 in GPR B-Scan

This paper presents a detection method of DCAM-YOLOv5 for ground penetrating radar (GPR) to address the difficulty of identifying complex and multi-type defects in tunnel linings. The diversity of tunnel-lining defects and the multiple reflections and scattering caused by water-bearing defects make GPR images quite complex. Although existing methods can identify the position of underground defects from B-scans, their classification accuracy is not high. The DCAM-YOLOv5 adopts YOLOv5 as the baseline model and integrates deformable convolution and convolutional block attention module (CBAM) without adding a large number of parameters to improve the adaptive learning ability for irregular geometric shapes and boundary fuzzy defects. In this study, dielectric constant models of tunnel linings are established based on the electromagnetic simulation software (GPRMAX), including rebar and various structural defects. The simulated and field GPR B-scan images show that the DCAM-YOLOv5 method has better results for detecting different types of defects than other methods, which validates the effectiveness of the proposed detection method.

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Keywords: Ground penetrating radar, tunnel-lining defects, YOLOv5, deformable convolution, CBAM, GPRMAX

R. Mutlu, T. D. Kumru [references] [full-text] [DOI: 10.13164/re.2023.0312] [Download Citations]
A Zeno Paradox: Some Well-known Nonlinear Dopant Drift Memristor Models Have Infinite Resistive Switching Time

There are nonlinear drift memristor models utilizing window functions in the literature. The resistive memories can also be modeled using memristors. If the memristor’s resistance switches from its minimum value to its maximum value or from its maximum value to its minimum value, the transition phenomenon is called resistive or memristive switching. The value of the time required for this transition is especially important for resistive computer memory applications. The switching time is measured by experiments and should be calculatable from the parameters of the memristor model used. In the literature, to the best of our knowledge, the resistive switching times have not been calculated except for the HP memristor model and a piecewise linear memristor model. In this study, the memristive switching times of some of the well-known memristor models using a window function are calculated and found to be infinite. This is not feasible according to the experiments in which a finite memristive switching time is reported. Inspired by these results, a new memristor window function that results in a finite switching time is proposed. The results of this study and the criteria given here can be used to make more realistic memristor models in the future.

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Keywords: Memristor, memristor models, nonlinear dopant drift, window function, memristive switching, Zeno paradox

C. L. Ng, S. Soeung, S. Cheab, K. Y. Leong [references] [full-text] [DOI: 10.13164/re.2023.0325] [Download Citations]
A Modified Vector Fitting Technique to Extract Coupling Matrix from S-parameters

In this paper, a modified vector fitting technique to extract coupling matrix from S-parameters is introduced. This work allows designers to extract the coupling matrix of different or any pre-defined topologies from the simulated or measured S-parameter data. A study on vector fitting (VF) equations that can extract the rational polynomial of bandpass filter responses is carried out. The rational polynomials are formed by applying the VF process to S-parameter responses without having to remove the phase offset and de-embedding the transmission lines. The desired coupling matrix configuration is generated directly from the extracted polynomials using unconstrained and finitely bounded non-linear polynomials (NLP) optimization. Without the need for matrix transformation, the matrix elements are still able to show a one-to-one relationship in coupling values of resonators. Two bandpass filters are shown as examples to illustrate the performance of the new variation of VF.

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  15. ZHANG, C., JIN, J., NA, W., et al. Multivalued neural network inverse modeling and applications to microwave filters. IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques, 2018, vol. 66, no. 8, p. 3781–3797. DOI: 10.1109/TMTT.2018.2841889
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Keywords: Coupling matrix, microwave filter, S-parameter extraction, vector fitting

S. Q. Lv, X. Y. Cao, J. Gao, R. Z. Xue [references] [full-text] [DOI: 10.13164/re.2023.0332] [Download Citations]
Study on the Generation of Vortex Waves Based on Coding Metasurfaces and Genetic Algorithms

In this paper, the mechanism of vortex electromagnetic wave generated by coding metasurface is studied, and the shortcomings of this method are found through the research, what is more, the reasons for its production are analyzed and summarized. The genetic algorithm is proposed to optimize the arrangement of the encoded metasurface, to improve the angle convergence between the main lobes of the vortex electromagnetic wave, which is conducive to the next transmission detection work. In order to verify this method, two units with phase difference of 180° are designed, and the vortex electromagnetic wave with orbital angular momentum of 1 is produced. Finally, the fabricated sample is measured, and the results are in good agreement with the simulation results.

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Keywords: Vortex electromagnetic wave, coded metasurface, genetic algorithm

M. G. Nguyen, C. T. N. Nguyen, T. H. Nguyen, H. Morishita [references] [full-text] [DOI: 10.13164/re.2023.0338] [Download Citations]
Design of a Dual-Band Three-Way Power Divider with Unequally High Power Split Ratio

In this paper, a dual-band three-way power divider with unequally high power split ratio is proposed. The dual-band operation is achieved by using a two-section impedance transformer, and to reach a high split ratio, transmission lines with impractical high characteristic impedances are replaced with dual–band T-shaped structures. The design is conducted with a thorough analysis and systematic design procedure for facilitating the rapid development of the prototypes. To verify the effectiveness of the proposed design method, an example of a power divider with a power split ratio of 7:5:1 is investigated, fabricated, and measured on a Rogers RO4003C substrate. Good agreements between the simulation and measurement results are obtained. Compared with several three-way unequal dual-band power dividers in previous works of the others, our proposed power divider delivered the highest power split ratio while still retaining good performance of insertion loss, return loss, and isolation between output ports.

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Keywords: Wilkinson power divider, dual-band, high power split ratio, dual-band T-shaped structure, unequal division

H. Manai, L. Ben Hadj Slama, R. Bouallegue [references] [full-text] [DOI: 10.13164/re.2023.0345] [Download Citations]
A Hybrid Adaptive Beamforming Algorithm for SINR Enhancement in Massive MIMO Systems

With the extreme density of devices and fast change of their directions in massive MIMO networks, a fast adaptive beamforming algorithm is required to provide high directivity and an enhanced signal-to-interference and noise ratio (SINR). Blind adaptive beamforming is suitable but less efficient, while non-blind adaptive beamforming is more efficient but requires significant training time. This study proposes a hybrid adaptive beamforming algorithm that addresses these issues. The algorithm integrates an improved direction-finding method to estimate the directions of arrival (DoAs) of incident signals at the antenna array, even in coherent signals cases, and a cascading combination of a blind and non-blind algorithms. The proposed algorithm generates an accurate main beam toward the desired direction and deep nulls in the direction of interfering signals, resulting in enhanced SINR. Compared to other algorithms, our approach achieves better performance without requiring additional antenna elements.

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Keywords: Massive MIMO, adaptive beamforming, interference cancellation, direction-of-arrival estimation, SINR enhancement

X. Cheng, H. Ji, Y. Zhang [references] [full-text] [DOI: 10.13164/re.2023.0356] [Download Citations]
Extended Target Fast Labeled Multi-Bernoulli Filter

Focusing on the real-time tracking of the extended target labeled multi-Bernoulli (ET-LMB) filter, this paper proposes an extended target fast labeled multi-Bernoulli (ET-FLMB) filter based on beta gamma box particle (BGBP) and Gaussian process (GP), called ET-BGBP-GP-FLMB filter. First, a new ET-FLMB filter is derived to reduce the computational complexity of the ET-LMB filter. Then, by modeling the target state as an augmented state including detection probability, measurement rate, kinematic state and extension state, the BGBP-GP implementation of the ET-FLMB filter is presented. Compared with the traditional sequential Monte Carlo (SMC) implementation, the proposed implementation can not only greatly reduce the number of particles and the amount of computation, but also estimate the detection probabilities, measurement rates and extension states while estimating the number and kinematic states of extended targets. Finally, the simulation results show that the proposed filter can significantly reduce the computational burden and improve the real-time performance.

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Keywords: Extended target tracking, fast labeled multi-Bernoulli filter, beta gamma box particle, Gaussian process

M. H. Liu, J. T. Shi, Y. Wang [references] [full-text] [DOI: 10.13164/re.2023.0371] [Download Citations]
Dual-Template Siamese Network with Attention Feature Fusion for Object Tracking

In order to alleviate the adverse effects resulted from complex scenes for object tracking, such as fast movement, mottled background, interference of similar objects, and occlusion etc., an algorithm using dual-template Siamese network with attention feature fusion, named SiamDT, is proposed in this paper. The main idea include that the original ResNet-50 network is improved to extract deep semantic information and shallow spatial information, which are effectively fused using the attention mechanism to achieve accurate feature representation of objects. In addition, a template branch is added to the traditional Siamese network in which a dynamic template is generated together with the first frame image to solve the problems of template failure and model drift. Experimental results on OTB100 dataset and VOT2018 dataset show that the proposed approach obtains the excellent performance compared with the state-of-the-art tracking algorithms, which verifies the feasibility and effectiveness of the proposed approach.

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  19. DANELLJAN, M., BHAT, G., KHAN, F. S., et al. ECO: Efficient Convolution Operators for tracking. In Proceedings of IEEE Conference on Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition. Honolulu (HI, USA), 2017, p. 6931–6939. DOI: 10.1109/CVPR.2017.733
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Keywords: Object tracking, Siamese network, feature extraction, feature fusion, attention mechanism

M. Ilic, Z. Stankovic, N. Males-Ilic [references] [full-text] [DOI: 10.13164/re.2023.0381] [Download Citations]
Spatial Localization of Electromagnetic Radiation Sources by Cascade Neural Network Model with Noise Reduction

In this paper, the Direction of Arrival - DoA estimation for two mobile sources was performed by using the Single Multilayer Perceptron (MLP) neural network model (SMLP-DoA) and the Cascade MLP model(CMLP). The latter model consists of two neural networks connected in a cascade where the outputs of the first MLP that rejects noise represent the inputs to the second network in a cascade. The outputs of the neural network models determine the direction of arrival of the incoming signals. Two cases were considered, in the first case the neural networks were trained on the samples that were without noise, and in the second with samples containing noise. Both considered neural network models were tested with noisy samples. The results of these two neural models are compared to the results achieved by the RootMUSIC algorithm. The presented results show that the proposed CMLP model has a higher accuracy in determining the angular positions of sources compared to the classical SMLP-DoA model and the RootMUSIC algorithm. Moreover, the CMLP model executes significantly faster compared to the model based on the RootMUSIC algorithm.

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Keywords: The direction of Arriva (DoA) estimation, artificial neural networks, Multilayer Perceptron (MLP), single MLP, cascade MLP, RootMUSIC algorithm

X. Guan, C. Lv, G. Zheng, Z. Pan, K. Cai [references] [full-text] [DOI: 10.13164/re.2023.0391] [Download Citations]
Software-Defined 1550-nm Full-Fiber Doppler Lidar for Contactless Vibration Measurement of High Voltage Power Equipment

In this work, a 1550-nm full-fiber Doppler lidar via software-defined platform is built to realize flexible and low-cost contactless vibration measurement of high-voltage power equipment. A 1550-nm fiber layout is designed to generate optical interference between vibration signal and carrier wave. The reflected vibration signal is collected by an optical transceiver and the carrier wave is generated by an acousto-optic modulator (AOM). The optical beat signal is collected by a balanced detector (BD) then sent into a general software defined radio (SDR) receiver. By GNU developing platform, the target mechanical vibration signal is demodulated and several flexible functions such as speed-acceleration trans, harmonic component analysis and fault diagnosis is realized. Performance of Doppler lidar is first verified on mechanical vibration source by PZT vibration actuator, results show that the designed lidar could retrieve 50 Hz–20 kHz mechanical vibration signals within the working distance is up to 20 m. Further case application scenarios on the power transformer and gas-insulated switchgear (GIS) are also conducted to verify the feasibility of proposed lidar.

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Keywords: Doppler, lidar, vibration detection, power equipment, software-defined

J. Acharjee, A. Pathak, G. S. Paul, K. Mandal [references] [full-text] [DOI: 10.13164/re.2023.0400] [Download Citations]
Polarization–Insensitive Angularly Stable Compact Triple Band Stop Frequency Selective Surface for Shielding Electromagnetic Radiations

A compact single-layer, polarization-insensitive, and angularly stable frequency selective surface (FSS) based multi-stop band filter is reported for shielding three useful frequency bands covering 1.82–2.86 GHz Industrial, scientific, and medical (ISM), 3.52–4.06 GHz Worldwide Interoperability for Microwave Access (WiMAX), and 7.42–8.72 GHz (satellite downlink), centered at 2.4 GHz, 3.6 GHz, and 8.1 GHz, respectively. The proposed unit cell (15 mm × 15 mm) contains four equal-sized square-headed dumbbell (SHD) shaped resonators surrounded by two square ring resonators. The outer and inner square rings offer the first and second stop bands, while the SHD resonators provide the third stop band. A highly polarization-insensitive response is realized owing to the four-fold symmetry in the proposed structure. The unique arrangements of the SHD resonators help to realize higher angular stability under transverse electric (TE), transverse magnetic (TM), and diagonally polarized incident electromagnetic (EM) waves for incidence angles up to 80°, 80°, and 70°, respectively. A detailed analysis in terms of equivalent circuit and parametric variation is carried out to illustrate the higher to lower frequency band ratio. A prototype is fabricated and tested through a proper measurement setup to validate its performance, and it shows good agreement with the simulated results. The proposed FSS unit cell offers better angular stability under diagonally polarised incident waves, attenuation level, minimum higher to lower frequency band ratio, good fractional bandwidth, and compactness. So the designed multi-stopband FSS can be considered a potential candidate for shielding EM radiation across the useful bands

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Keywords: Frequency selective surface (FSS), polarization-insensitive, angular stability, multi-stopband, square ring, ISM, WiMAX, X-band

P. S. Tomar, M. S. Parihar [references] [full-text] [DOI: 10.13164/re.2023.0408] [Download Citations]
A Miniaturized Low Pass Filter with Extended Stopband and High Passband Selectivity

In this work, an ultra-wide stopband low pass filter (LPF) with high selectivity is proposed using coupled stepped impedance resonators (SIRs), open shunt stubs and circular slots in the ground plane. The proposed LPF has been modeled using a lumped equivalent circuit which is extracted from the EM model. The design has been validated through the simulation and experimental results. The fabricated prototype has a 3-dB cutoff frequency (fc) of 2.44 GHz and an ultra-wide stopband extended up to 20.5 GHz (8.4 fc) with an attenuation level > 20 dB. The transition bandwidth (from 3 dB to 20 dB) is 0.09 GHz and the roll-off rate is 225 dB / GHz (reference to 30 dB). The passband insertion loss is 0.35 dB at 1.22 GHz and the normalized circuit size of the filter is 0.045.

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Keywords: Ground slot with via, open shunt stubs, roll-off rate, step impedance resonator, ultra-wide stopband

J. Yang, C. Liu, J. Huang, D. Hu, C. Zhao [references] [full-text] [DOI: 10.13164/re.2023.0415] [Download Citations]
Overcoming Unknown Measurement Noise Powers in Multistatic Target Localization: A Cyclic Minimization and Joint Estimation Algorithm

This paper investigates the issue of multistatic target localization using measurements including angle of arrival (AOA), time delay (TD), and Doppler shift (DS). We delve into a practically driven nonideal localization scenario where the measurement noise powers remain unknown. An algorithm that jointly estimates target position-velocity and measurement noise powers is proposed. Initially, an optimization model for the joint estimation is developed following the maximum likelihood estimation criterion. Subsequently, we cyclically minimize the optimization model to yield estimates for target position-velocity and measurement noise powers. The Cramer-Rao lower bound (CRLB) for this joint estimation is also derived. Contrary to existing algorithms, our proposed method eliminates the need for prior knowledge of measurement noise powers, simultaneously estimating the target position-velocity and measurement noise powers. Simulation results indicate superior localization accuracy with our algorithm, particularly in scenarios with unknown measurement noise powers. Furthermore, at moderate noise levels, the algorithm's estimation accuracy for target position-velocity and measurement noise powers meets the CRLB.

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Keywords: Multistatic target localization, angle of arrival, time delay, Doppler shift, measurement noise power

H. M. Shwetha, S. Anuradha [references] [full-text] [DOI: 10.13164/re.2023.0425] [Download Citations]
Performance Analysis of Novel Index Modulation-Based Non-Orthogonal Multiple Access Systems over Nakagami-m Fading Channels with Imperfect CSI

In this paper, a novel index modulation-based non-orthogonal multiple access (IM-NOMA) system is proposed and investigated for both perfect and imperfect channel state information (CSI) uncertainty over Nakagami-m fading channel. The proposed system has added advantages of NOMA and IM systems. NOMA supports more users by allowing all users to utilize the same resources simultaneously whereas IM boosts spectral efficiency by conveying information to the users through both constellation domain and index domain symbols. Maximum likelihood (ML) and successive interference cancellation (SIC) detectors are used at the receiver side to detect index and data symbols. The proposed system is analyzed for different values of Nakagami-m channel parameters as well as for three different CSI conditions - perfect, fixed, and MMSE-based variable CSI uncertainty. The simulation results for the bit error rate and spectral efficiency parameters show that the proposed system outperforms the existing NOMA and OMA schemes.

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Keywords: Non-orthogonal multiple access, index modulation, Nakagami-m fading channel, imperfect CSI, bit error rate, spectral efficiency

G. Baruffa, L. Rugini [references] [full-text] [DOI: 10.13164/re.2023.0438] [Download Citations]
Improved Channel Estimation and Equalization for Single-Carrier IEEE 802.11ad Receivers

IEEE 802.11ad uses mmWave technology for multi-gigabit wireless access networks. Multipath with large delay spread severely reduces performance due to insufficient guard interval. In this paper, we improve single-carrier IEEE 802.11ad receivers by proposing channel estimation and equalization methods for a frequency domain equalizer. Channel estimation is improved by leveraging on sparsity of the channel impulse response, while equalization is combined with an interference cancellation algorithm. The log-likelihood ratio demapper is also improved by correct power estimation of signal, interference, and noise. Simulation results show that the proposed methods are effective on channels whose length exceeds the guard interval.

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Keywords: 802.11ad, MMSE equalization, sparse channel estimation, channel shortening, interference cancellation

R. Feng, H. Ji, Z. Zhu, L. Wang [references] [full-text] [DOI: 10.13164/re.2023.0451] [Download Citations]
A Wasserstein Distance-Based Cost-Sensitive Framework for Imbalanced Data Classification

Class imbalance is a prevalent problem in many real-world applications, and imbalanced data distribution can dramatically skew the performance of classifiers. In general, the higher the imbalance ratio of a dataset, the more difficult it is to classify. However, it is found that standard classifiers can still achieve good classification results on some highly imbalanced datasets. Obviously, the class imbalance is only a superficial characteristic of the data, and the underlying structural information is often the key factor affecting the classification performance. As implicit prior knowledge, structural information has been validated to be crucial for designing a good classifier. This paper proposes a Wasserstein-based cost-sensitive support vector machine (CS-WSVM) for class imbalance learning, incorporating prior structural information and a cost-sensitive strategy. The Wasserstein distance is introduced to model the distribution of majority and minority samples to capture the structural information, which is employed to weight the majority and minority samples. Comprehensive experiments on synthetic and real-world datasets, especially on the radar emitter signal dataset, demonstrated that CS-WSVM can achieve outstanding performance in imbalanced scenarios.

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Keywords: Imbalanced classification, cost-sensitive, structural information, Wasserstein distance, radar emitter signal