ISSN 1210-2512 (Print)

ISSN 1805-9600 (Online)



Proceedings of Czech and Slovak Technical Universities

About the Journal
Feature Articles
Editorial Board
Publishing Department
Society [CZ]

Log out
Your Profile

December 2021, Volume 30, Number 4 [DOI: 10.13164/re.2021-4]

Show all Hide all

P. Kadera, J. Lacik, H. Arthaber [references] [full-text] [DOI: 10.13164/re.2021.0595] [Download Citations]
Effective Relative Permittivity Determination of 3D Printed Artificial Dielectric Substrates Based on a Cross Unit Cell

This paper proposes closed-form analytical models for the determination of the effective relative permittivity of 3D printed artificial dielectric substrates based on a cross unit cell. The parallel plate capacitor approach is used to describe the real physical shape of the unit cell allowing to include anisotropic properties as well. A detailed comparison of the analytical models and effective medium approximations is carried out for air host material and inclusion materials with relative permittivities in the range from 2.5 to 1000 and the inclusion volume fraction from 0.1 to 1. It is observed that the proposed models predict the effective relative permittivity with much better accuracy than frequently used effective medium theory-based formulas and due to their closed-form expressions provide faster calculations than numerical methods. The proposed models were verified experimentally, achieving a very good agreement with simulations.

  1. MACHAC, J. Microstrip line on an artificial dielectric substrate. IEEE Microwave and Wireless Components Letters, 2006, vol. 16, no. 7, p. 416–418. DOI: 10.1109/LMWC.2006.877120
  2. SIHVOLA, A. Mixing rules with complex dielectric coefficients. Subsurface Sensing Technologies and Applications, 2000, vol. 1, no. 4, p. 395–415. DOI: 10.1023/A:1026511515005
  3. DANKOV, P. I. Uniaxial anisotropy estimation of the modem artificial dielectrics for antenna applications. In 2017 IEEE MTT-S International Microwave Workshop Series on Advanced Materials and Processes for RF and THz Applications (IMWS-AMP). Pavia (Italy), 2017, p. 1–3. DOI: 10.1109/IMWS-AMP.2017.8247430
  4. FORD, S., DESPEISSE, M. Additive manufacturing and sustainability: an exploratory study of the advantages and challenges. Journal of Cleaner Production, 2016, vol. 137, p. 1573–1587. DOI: 10.1016/j.jclepro.2016.04.150
  5. ZHANG, S., WHITTOW, W., VARDAXOGLOU, J. C. Additively manufactured artificial materials with metallic meta-atoms. IET Microwaves, Antennas & Propagation, 2017, vol. 11, no. 14, p. 1955–1961. DOI: 10.1049/iet-map.2016.0952
  6. WANG, J., QU, S., LI, L., et al. All-dielectric metamaterial frequency selective surface. Journal of Advanced Dielectrics, 2017, vol. 7, no. 5, p. 1–11. DOI: 10.1142/S2010135X1730002X
  7. RAMIREZ ARROYAVE, G. A., ARAQUE QUIJANO, J. L. Broadband characterization of 3D printed samples with graded permittivity. In 2018 International Conference on Electromagnetics in Advanced Applications (ICEAA). Cartagena (Colombia), 2018, p. 584–588. DOI: 10.1109/ICEAA.2018.8520349
  8. MRNKA, M., RAIDA, Z. An effective permittivity tensor of cylindrically perforated dielectrics. IEEE Antennas and Wireless Propagation Letters, 2018, vol. 17, no. 1, p. 66–69. DOI: 10.1109/LAWP.2017.2774448
  9. DANKOV, P. I. Characterization of dielectric properties, resultant isotropy and anisotropy of 3D printed dielectrics. In 2018 48th European Microwave Conference (EuMC). Madrid (Spain), 2018, p. 823–826. DOI: 10.23919/EuMC.2018.8541621
  10. MARKEL, V. A. Introduction to the Maxwell Garnett approximation: tutorial. Journal of the Optical Society of America A, 2016, vol. 33, no. 7, p. 1244–1256. DOI: 10.1364/JOSAA.33.001244
  11. MITCHELL, G., NGUYEN, Q. M., ANTHONY, T. K. Simulation of effective medium theory for additive manufacturing of dielectric media. In 2020 14th European Conference on Antennas and Propagation (EuCAP). Copenhagen (Denmark), 2020, p. 1–2. DOI: 10.23919/EuCAP48036.2020.9135222
  12. GARCIA, C. R., CORREA, J., ESPALIN, D., et al. 3D printing of anisotropic metamaterials. Progress In Electromagnetics Research Letters, 2012, vol. 34, p. 75–82. DOI: 10.2528/PIERL12070311
  13. HUANG, J., CHEN, S. J., XUE, Z., et al. Impact of infill pattern on 3D printed dielectric resonator antennas. In 2018 IEEE AsiaPacific Conference on Antennas and Propagation (APCAP). Auckland (Australia), 2018, p. 233–235. DOI: 10.1109/APCAP.2018.8538296
  14. ZHANG, S., NJOKU, C. C., WHITTOW, W. G., et al. Novel 3D printed synthetic dielectric substrates. Microwave and Optical. Technology Letters, 2015, vol. 57, no. 10, p. 2344–2346. DOI: 10.1002/mop.29324
  15. MANZOOR, Z., GHASR, M. T., DONNELL, K. M. Microwave characterization of 3D printed conductive composite materials. In 2018 IEEE International Instrumentation and Measurement Technology Conference (I2MTC). Houston (TX, USA), 2018, p. 1–5. DOI: 10.1109/I2MTC.2018.8409627
  16. TUOVINEN, T., SALONEN, E. T., BERG, M. An artificially anisotropic antenna substrate for the generation of circular polarization. IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation, 2016, vol. 67, no. 11, p. 4937–4942. DOI: 10.1109/TAP.2016.2602381
  17. HUANG, J., CHEN, S. J., XUE, Z., et al. Wideband endfire 3-Dprinted dielectric antenna with designable permittivity. IEEE Antennas and Wireless Propagation Letters, 2018, vol. 17, no. 11, p. 2085–2089. DOI: 10.1109/LAWP.2018.2857497
  18. WANG, S., ZHU, L., WU, W. 3-D printed inhomogeneous substrate and superstrate for application in dual-band and dual-CP stacked patch antenna. IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation, 2018, vol. 66, no. 5, p. 2236–2244. DOI: 10.1109/TAP.2018.2810330
  19. POLAT, E., REESE, R., JOST, M., et al. Liquid crystal phase shifter based on nonradiative dielectric waveguide topology at Wband. In 2019 IEEE MTT-S International Microwave Symposium (IMS), Boston (MA, USA), 2019, p. 184–187. DOI: 10.1109/MWSYM.2019.8700759
  20. TOMASSONI, C., BAHR, R., TENTZERIS, M., et al. 3D printed substrate integrated waveguide filters with locally controlled dielectric permittivity. In 2016 46th European Microwave Conference (EuMC). London (United Kingdom), 2016, p. 253–256. DOI: 10.1109/EuMC.2016.7824326
  21. KNISELY, A., HAVRILLA, M., COLLINS, P. Biaxial anisotropic sample design and rectangular to square waveguide material characterization system. In 2015 9th International Congress on Advanced Electromagnetic Materials in Microwaves and Optics (METAMATERIALS). Oxford (United Kingdom), 2015, p. 346–348. DOI: 10.1109/MetaMaterials.2015.7342445
  22. HIRANO, T., OKADA, K., HIROKAWA, J., et al. Approximate evaluation of effective permittivity for metal dummies in a CMOS chip using electrostatic capacitor model. In 2013 7th European Conference on Antennas and Propagation (EuCAP). Gothenburg (Sweden), 2013, p. 1218–1220. ISBN: 978-88-907018-1-8
  23. DEL RISCO, J. P., BAENA, J. D. Extremely thin Fabry-Perot resonators based on high permittivity artificial dielectric. In 2016 10th International Congress on Advanced Electromagnetic Materials in Microwaves and Optics (METAMATERIALS). Chania (Greece), 2016, p. 40–42. DOI: 10.1109/MetaMaterials.2016.7746420
  24. CHENG, Y. H., JIANG, L., HU, D., et al. Study on the dielectric property of composite materials based on electric network. International Journal of Applied Electromagnetics and Mechanics, 2010, vol. 33, no. 1-2, p. 439–445. DOI: 10.3233/JAE-2010-1143
  25. PATIL, S. K., KOLEDINTSEVA, M. Y., SCHWARTZ, R., et al. Prediction of effective permittivity of diphasic dielectrics using an equivalent capacitance model. Journal of Applied Physics, 2008, vol. 104, no. 7, p. 074108-1–074108-11. DOI: 10.1063/1.2976173
  26. KOLEDINTSEVA, M. Y., PATIL, S. K., SCHWARTZ, R., et al. Prediction of effective permittivity of diphasic dielectrics as a function of frequency. IEEE Transactions on Dielectrics and Electrical Insulation, 2009, vol. 16, no. 3, p. 793–808. DOI: 10.1109/TDEI.2009.5128520
  27. HUANG, J., ZHOU, Y., DONG, L. et al. Modeling of the effective permittivity of insulating presspaper. AIP Advances, 2016, vol. 6, p. 1–6. DOI: 10.1063/1.4959594
  28. IGLESIAS, T. P., REIS, J. C. R. Surface charge density model for predicting the permittivity of liquid mixtures and composites materials. Journal of Applied Physics, 2012, vol. 111, no. 6, p. 1–11. DOI: 10.1063/1.3693024
  29. YANG, S., ZHANG, K., DING, Z., et al. Tailoring the scattering properties of coding metamaterials based on machine learning. EPJ Applied Metamaterials, 2021, vol. 8, no. 15, p. 1–4. DOI: 10.1051/epjam/2021006
  30. KADERA, P., LACIK, J. Performance comparison of W-band Luneburg lens antenna: additive versus subtractive manufacturing. In 2021 20th International Conference on Microwave Techniques (COMITE). Brno (Czech Republic), 2021, p. 1–6. DOI: 10.1109/COMITE52242.2021.9419879
  31. MCGHEE, J. R., WHITTAKER, T., MORIARTY, J. et al. Fabrication of artificial dielectrics via stereolithography based 3Dprinting. In 2020 14th European Conference on Antennas and Propagation (EuCAP). Copenhagen (Denmark), 2020, p. 1–5. DOI: 10.23919/EuCAP48036.2020.9135734
  32. ZECHMEISTER, J., LACIK, J. Complex relative permittivity measurement of selected 3D-printed materials up to 10 GHz. In 2019 Conference on Microwave Techniques (COMITE). Pardubice (Czech Republic), 2019, p. 1–4. DOI: 10.1109/COMITE.2019.8733590
  33. FAOURI, S. S., MOSTAED, A., DEAN, J. S., et al. High quality factor cold sintered Li2MoO4-BaFe12O19 composites for microwave applications. Acta Materialia, 2019, vol. 166, p. 202–207. DOI: 10.1016/j.actamat.2018.12.057
  34. JIMENEZ-SAEZ, A., SCHUESSLER, M., KRAUSE, C., et al. 3D printed alumina for low-loss millimeter wave components. IEEE Access, 2019, vol. 7, p. 40719–40724. DOI: 10.1109/ACCESS.2019.2906034
  35. PENN, S. J., ALFORD, N. M., TEMPLETON, A., et al. Effect of porosity and grain size on the microwave dielectric properties of sintered alumina. Journal of the American Ceramic Society, 1997, vol. 80, no. 7, p. 1885–1888. DOI: 10.1111/j.1151- 2916.1997.tb03066.x
  36. GOULAS, A., CHI-TANGYIE, G., WANG, D., et al. Additively manufactured ultra-low sintering temperature, low loss Ag2Mo2O7 ceramic substrates. Journal of European Ceramic Society, 2021, vol. 41, no. 1, p. 394–401. DOI: 10.1016/j.jeurceramsoc.2020.08.031
  37. WANG, D., ZHANG, S., ZHOU, D., et al. Temperature stable cold sintered (Bi0.95Li0.05)(V0.9Mo0.1)O4-Na2Mo2O7 microwave dielectric composites. Materials, 2019, vol. 12, no. 9, p. 1–10. DOI: 10.3390/ma12091370
  38. KUESTER, E. F., HOLLOWAY, C. L. Comparison of approximations for effective parameters of artificial dielectrics. IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques, 1990, vol. 38, no. 11, p. 1752–1755. DOI: 10.1109/22.60028
  39. JI, J., MA, Y., WANG, J. Inclusion's distribution pattern's influence on mixture's effective permittivity in two dimension utilizing finite difference method (FDM). Optik – International Journal of Light and Electron Optics, 2020, vol. 200, p. 1–8. DOI: 10.1016/j.ijleo.2019.163384
  40. The Original Prusa I3 MK3S Printer. [Online] Cited 2020-08-10. Available at:
  41. Prusament PLA Jet Black 1 kg. [Online] Cited 2020-08-10. Available at: prusament-pla-jet-black-1kg.html
  42. PREPERM® 3D ABS1000 filament 1.75mm 750g. [Online] Cited 2020-08-10. Available at: %C9%9Br-10-0-filament-1-75mm/
  43. SADA, T., TSUJI, K., NDAYISHIMIYE, A., et al. Enhanced high permittivity BaTiO3–polymer nanocomposites from the cold sintering process. Journal of Applied Physics, 2020, vol. 128, no. 8, p. 1–9. DOI: 10.1063/5.0021040
  44. ARLT, G., HENNINGS, D., DE WITH, G. Dielectric properties of finegrained barium titanate ceramics. Journal of Applied Physics, 1985, vol. 58, no. 4, p. 1619–1625. DOI: 10.1063/1.336051
  45. DOMINEC, F., KADLEC, C., NEMEC, H., et al. Transition between metamaterial and photonic-crystal behavior in arrays of dielectric rods. Optics Express, 2014, vol. 22, no. 25, p. 30492 to 30503. DOI: 10.1364/OE.22.030492
  46. BAKER-JARVIS, J., VANZURA, E. J., KISSICK, W. A. Improved technique for determining complex permittivity with the transmission/reflection method. IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques, 1990, vol. 38, no. 8, p. 1096–1103. DOI: 10.1109/22.57336

Keywords: Dielectric substrates, permittivity, analytical models, material characterization, three-dimensional printing

M. H. Ahmad [references] [full-text] [DOI: 10.13164/re.2021.0611] [Download Citations]
Efficient Method for Solving TM-Polarized Plane Wave Scattering from Two-Dimensional Perfect Conductor Surfaces Using Fourier Series Approximation of the Green’s Function

The method of moments generates a matrix which is usually solved using iterative methods due to the high computational complexity of a direct inversion. The cost of matrix-vector multiplications and memory requirement at each iteration step is proportional to O(N2), where N is the number of unknowns in the problem. To reduce the computational complexity, the Green’s function is approximated using Fourier series. This will allow to separate the source points from the observation points. Hence, aggregate all source points and then multiply it with each observation point with a small adjustment in the aggregation term. The proposed method is tested by solving electromagnetic wave scattering from perfect conductor two-dimensional basic canonical shape, i.e., circular cylinder. The results showed that the proposed method is accurate and for large N it has a computational complexity less than the direct matrix-vector multiplication.

  1. HARRINGTON, R. Field Computation by Moment Method. Piscataway, NJ (USA): Wiley–IEEE Press, 1993. ISBN-13: 978- 0780310148
  2. OLSHANSKII, A., TYRTYSHNIKOV, E. Iterative Methods for Linear Systems: Theory and Applications. Philadelphia (USA): SIAM-Society for Industrial and Applied Mathematics, 2014. ISBN: 978-1-61197-345-7
  3. ZHAO, K., VOUVAKIS, M., LEE, J. The adaptive crossapproximation algorithm for accelerated method of moments computations of EMC problems. IEEE Transactions on Electromagnetic Compatibility, 2005, vol. 47, no. 4, p. 763–773. DOI: 10.1109/TEMC.2005.857898
  4. SHAEFFER, J. Direct solve of electrically large integral equations for problem sizes to 1M unknowns. IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation, 2008, vol. 56, no. 8, p. 2306–2313. DOI: 10.1109/TAP.2008.926739
  5. MICHIELSSEN, E., BOAG, A. A multilevel matrix decomposition algorithm for analyzing scattering from large structures. IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation, 1996, vol. 44, no. 8, p. 1086–1093. DOI: 10.1109/8.511816
  6. VOUVAKIS, M., LEE, S., ZHAO, K., et al. A symmetric FEM-IE formulation with a single-level IE-QR algorithm for solving electromagnetic radiation and scattering problems. IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation, 2004, vol. AP-52, no. 11, p. 409–418. DOI: 10.1109/TAP.2004.837525
  7. BOJARSKI, N. K-space formulation of the electromagnetic scattering problem. Air Force Avionics Lab. Technical Report, Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, Ohio (USA), 1971.
  8. SARKAR, T., ARVAS, E., RAO, S. Application of FFT and the conjugate gradient method for the solution of electromagnetic radiation from electrically large and small conducting bodies. IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation, 1986, vol. 34, no. 5, p. 635–640. DOI: 10.1109/TAP.1986.1143871
  9. JIN, J. Theory and Computation of Electromagnetic Fields. New Jersey (USA): Wiley & Sons, 2015. ISBN: 978-1-119-10804-7
  10. BLESZYNSKI, E., BLESZYNSKI, M., JAROSZEWICZ, T. A fast integral-equation solver for electromagnetic scattering problems. In Proceedings of IEEE Antennas and Propagation Society International Symposium and URSI National Radio Science Meeting. Seattle (WA, USA), Jun. 1994, vol. 1, p. 416–419. DOI: 10.1109/APS.1994.407725
  11. BLESZYNSKI, E., BLESZYNSKI, M., JAROSZEWICZ, T. AIM: Adaptive integral method for solving large-scale electromagnetic scattering and radiation problems. Radio Science, 1996, vol. 31, no. 5, p. 1225–1251. DOI: 10.1029/96RS02504
  12. PHILLIPS, J., WHITE, J. A precorrected-FFT method for electrostatic analysis of complicated 3D structures. IEEE Transactions on Computer-Aided Design of Integrated Circuits and Systems, 1997, vol. 16, no. 10, p. 1059–1072. DOI: 10.1109/43.662670
  13. NIE, X., LI, L., YUAN, N., et al. Precorrected-FFT solution of the volume integral equation for 3-D inhomogeneous dielectric objects. IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation, 2005, vol. 53, no. 1, p. 313–320. DOI: 10.1109/TAP.2004.838803
  14. CHAN, C., LIN, C., TSANG, L., et al. A sparse-matrix/canonical grid method for analyzing microstrip structures. IEICE Transactions on Electronics, 1997, vol. E80C, no. 11, p. 1354–1359. ISSN: 0916-8516
  15. SEO, S., WANG, C., LEE, J. Analyzing PEC scattering using an IE-FFT algorithm. ACES Journal, 2009 vol. 24, no. 2, p. 116–128.
  16. ROKHLIN, V. Rapid solutions of integral equations of scattering theory in two dimensions. Journal of Computational Physics, 1990, vol. 86, no. 2, p. 414–439. DOI: 10.1016/0021- 9991(90)90107-C
  17. COIFMAN, R., ROKHLIN, V., WANDZURA, S. The fast multipole method for the wave equation: a pedestrian prescription. IEEE Antennas and Propagation Magazine, 1993, vol. 35, no. 3, p. 7–12. DOI: 10.1109/74.250128
  18. CHEW, W., JIN, J., MICHIELSSEN, E., SONG, J., Fast and Efficient Algorithms in Computational Electromagnetics. Norwood (USA): Artech House, 2001. ISBN: 1-58053-152-0
  19. CHEW, W., CUI, T., SONG, J. A FAFFA-MLFMA algorithm for electromagnetic scattering. IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation, 2002, vol. 50, no. 11, p. 1641–1649. DOI: 10.1109/TAP.2002.802162
  20. VELAMPARAMBIL, S., CHEW, W., SONG, J. 10 million unknowns: Is it that big? [computational electromagnetics]. IEEE Antennas and Propagation Magazine, 2003, vol. 45, no. 2, p. 45–58. DOI: 10.1109/MAP.2003.1203119
  21. TZOULIS, A., EIBERT, T. Efficient electromagnetic near-field computation by the multilevel fast multipole method employing mixed nearfield/far-field translations. IEEE Antennas and Wireless Propagation Letters, 2005, vol. 4, p. 449–452. DOI: 10.1109/LAWP.2005.860195
  22. TZOULIS, A., EIBER, T. Fast computation of electromagnetic nearfields with the multilevel fast multipole method combining near-field and far-field translations. Advanced Radio Science, 2006, vol. 4, p. 111–115. DOI: 10.5194/ars-4-111
  23. SOLIS, D. M., ARAUJO, M. G., GARCIA, S., et al. Multilevel fast multipole algorithm for fields. Journal of Electromagnetic Waves and Applications, 2018, vol. 32, no. 10, p. 1261–1274. DOI: 10.1080/09205071.2018.1431155
  24. LIU, Y., SONG, W., WU, D., et al. Fast and accurate calculation of electromagnetic scattering/radiation fields. IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation, 2019, vol. 67, no. 11, p. 7168–7173. DOI: 10.1109/TAP.2019.2927618
  25. POULARIKAS, A. The Handbook Formulas and Tables for Signal Processing. Florida (USA): CRC Press LLC, 1999. ISBN: 0-8493-8579-2
  26. VOLAKIS, J., SERTEL, K. Integral Equation Methods for Electromagnetics. NC (USA): SciTech Publishing, Inc., 2012. ISBN: 978-1-891121-93-7
  27. GARG, R. Analytical and Computational Methods in Electromagnetics. MA (USA): Artech House, 2008. ISBN-13: 978-1-59693-385-9

Keywords: Electromagnetic wave scattering, Fourier series, method of moments, perfect conductor surfaces, two-dimensional

S. Karamzadeh, V. Rafiei, H. Saygin [references] [full-text] [DOI: 10.13164/re.2021.0617] [Download Citations]
Metasurface Interlaced SR CP Patch with the Capability to Change Polarization Diversity

In this work, an affordable solution for the improved performance of circular polarization diversity array antenna by helping metasurface structure (MTS) is presented. The basic structure includes a multi-input feed network which is ended to a 2×5 sequentially rotated subarray. A layer of MTS has been used to modify basic antenna characteristics of inspiring ref. [5]. This innovation is aimed to increase the bandwidth of basic antenna from 14.7% (5.05-5.85 GHz) to 37.8% (4.5-6.6 GHz), and 3-dB AR about 4%. Employing MTS layer leads to an increase in the gain of the antenna to 15 dBic. More details of the antenna are reported in the text.

  1. RAFIEI, V., KARAMZADEH, S., SAYGIN, H. Millimeter-wave high-gain circularly polarized SIW end-fire bow-tie antenna by utilizing semi-planar helix unit cell. Electronics Letters, 2018, vol. 54, no. 7, p. 411–412. DOI: 10.1049/el.2018.0022
  2. KARAMZADEH, S., RAFIEI, V., SAYGIN, H. Circularly polarized aperture coupled zeroth order resonance antenna for mm-wave applications. Applied Computational Electromagnetics Society (ACES) Journal, 2017, vol. 32, no. 9, p. 789–793.
  3. BAIK, J. W., LEE, T. H., PYO, S., et al. Broadband circularly polarized crossed dipole with parasitic loop resonators and its arrays. IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation, 2011, vol. 59, no. 1, p. 80–88. DOI: 10.1109/TAP.2010.2090463
  4. DENG, C., LI, Y., ZHANG, Z., et al. A wideband sequentialphase fed circularly polarized patch array. IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation, 2014, vol. 62, no. 7, p. 3890–3893. DOI: 10.1109/TAP.2014.2321380
  5. SHEN, Y., ZHOU, S. G., HUANG, G. L., et al. A compact dual circularly polarized microstrip patch array with interlaced sequentially rotated feed. IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation, 2016, vol. 64, no. 11, p. 4933–4936. DOI: 10.1109/TAP.2016.2600747
  6. KARAMZADEH, S., KARTAL, M. Circularly polarized MIMO tapered slot antenna array for C-band application. Electronics Letters, 2015, vol. 51, no. 18, p. 1394–1396. DOI: 10.1049/el.2015.1784
  7. WU, Z., LI, L., LI, Y., et al. Metasurface superstrate antenna with wideband circular polarization for satellite communication application. IEEE Antennas and Wireless Propagation Letters, 2016, vol. 15, p. 374–377. DOI: 10.1109/LAWP.2015.2446505
  8. LIN, F. H., CHEN, Z. N. Low-profile wideband metasurface antennas using characteristic mode analysis. IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation, 2017, vol. 65, no. 4, p. 1706–1713. DOI: 10.1109/TAP.2017.2671036
  9. LEE, Y., HA, J., CHOI, J. Design of an indoor repeater antenna with high isolation using metamaterials. Microwave and Optical Technology Letters, 2012, vol. 54, no. 3, p. 755–761. DOI: 10.1002/mop.26651
  10. TA, S. X., PARK, I. Low-profile broadband circularly polarized patch antenna using metasurface. IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation, 2015, vol. 63, no. 12, p. 5929–5934. DOI: 10.1109/TAP.2015.2487993
  11. TA, S. X., PARK, I. Compact wideband circularly polarized patch antenna array using metasurface. IEEE Antennas and Wireless Propagation Letters, 2017, vol. 16, p. 1932–1936. DOI: 10.1109/LAWP.2017.2689161
  12. SIEVENPIPER, D., ZHANG, L., BROAS, R. F. J., et al. Highimpedance electromagnetic surface with a forbidden frequency band. IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Technique, 1999, vol. 47, no. 11, p. 2059–2074. DOI: 10.1109/22.798001
  13. PARK, I. Application of metasurfaces in the design of performanceenhanced low-profile antennas. EPJ Applied Metamaterials, 2018, vol. 5, p. 1–13. DOI: 10.1051/epjam/2018008

Keywords: Circular polarization (CP), metasurface, polarization diversity

J. Lu, X. Cao, J. Gao, H. H. Yang, L. Jidi, K. Gao [references] [full-text] [DOI: 10.13164/re.2021.0622] [Download Citations]
High-gain and Low-RCS Linear Polarization F-P Resonant Cavity Antenna Based on Metasurface

Fabry-Perot (F-P) resonant cavity antenna is a high-gain antenna, which can increase the gain of microstrip antenna significantly, without a complicated feed network. It has a simple structure and it is easy to process. In this paper, the polarization grid structure and the zigzag structure are combined to design a linear-circular polarization conversion metasurface unit. This unit can convert the linearly polarized incident wave that is perpendicular to the polarization grid into circularly polarized transmitted wave in the range of 9.26~10.84 GHz. The unit and its mirror image unit are arranged in a checkerboard shape as a metasurface and placed above the microstrip antenna. Thus a linear polarized F-P resonant cavity antenna with high gain and low radar cross section (RCS) is proposed. In order to verify the performance of the antenna, the F-P resonant cavity antenna was processed and measured. The measured results and simulated results have shown good consistency. Compared with the original microstrip antenna, the polarization purity of the F-P resonator cavity antenna is enhanced in the range of 9.55~9.85 GHz, and the gain is improved in the working frequency range of 9.50~10.04 GHz with a maximum increase of 5.55 dB, and the RCS reduction was achieved in the range of 9.47~11.97 GHz with a maximum reduction of 17.47 dB.

  1. CUI, T. J. Electromagnetic metamaterials-from effective media to field programmable systems. Scientia Sinica Informationis, 2020, vol. 50, no. 10, p. 1427–1461. (In Chinese) DOI: 10.1360/SSI2020-0123
  2. LI, S. J., LI, Y. B., ZHANG, L., et al. Programmable controls to scattering properties of a radiation array. Laser & Photonics Reviews, 2021, vol. 15, no. 2. DOI: 10.1002/lpor.202000449
  3. LI, S. J., LI, Y. B., LI, H., et al. A thin self-feeding Janus metasurface for manipulating incident waves and emitting radiation waves simultaneously. Annalen der Physik, 2020, vol. 532, no. 5. DOI: 10.1002/andp.202000020
  4. HAN, B. W., LI, S. J., LI, Z. Y., et al. Asymmetric transmission for dual-circularly and linearly polarized waves based on a chiral metasurface. Optics Express, 2021, vol. 29, no. 13, p. 19643 to 19654. DOI: 10.1364/OE.425787
  5. HAN, B. W., LI, S. J., CAO, X. Y., et al. Dual-band transmissive metasurface with liner to dual-circular polarization conversion simultaneously. AIP Advances, 2020, vol. 10, p. 1–9. DOI: 10.1063/5.0034762
  6. GAO, K., CAO, X. Y., GAO, J., et al. Characteristic mode analysis of wideband high-gain and low-profile metasurface antenna. Chinese Physics B, 2021, vol. 30, no. 6, p. 1–7. DOI: 10.1088/1674-1056/abdb23
  7. LI, T., YANG, H. H., LI, Q., et al. Broadband low RCS and high gain microstrip antenna based on concentric ring-type metasurface. IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation, 2021, vol. 69, no. 9, p. 5325–5334. DOI: 10.1109/TAP.2021.3061095
  8. YANG, H. H., LI, T., XU, L., et al. Low in-band-RCS antennas based on anisotropic metasurface using a novel integration method. IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation, 2021, vol. 69, no. 3, p. 1239–1248. DOI: 10.1109/TAP.2020.3016161
  9. YANG, H. H., CAO, X. Y., YANG, F., et al. A programmable metasurface with dynamic polarization, scattering and focusing control. Scientific Reports, 2016, vol. 6, p. 1–11. DOI: 10.1038/srep35692
  10. ZHENG, Q., GUO, C., DING, J., et al. A broadband low-RCS metasurface for CP patch antennas. IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation, 2021, vol. 69, no. 6, p. 3529–3534. DOI: 10.1109/TAP.2020.3030547
  11. HAO, B., YANG, B. F., GAO, J., et al. A coding metasurface antenna array with low radar cross section. Acta Physica Sinica, 2020, vol. 69, no. 24, p. 1–11. (In Chinese) DOI: 10.7498/aps.69.20200978
  12. LIU, Y., JIA, Y., ZHANG, W., et al. An integrated radiation and scattering performance design method of low-RCS patch antenna array with different antenna elements. IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation, 2019, vol. 67, no. 9, p. 6199–6204. DOI: 10.1109/TAP.2019.2925194
  13. PAZOKIAN, M., KOMJANI, N., KARIMIPOUR, M. Broadband RCS reduction of microstrip antenna using coding frequency selective surface. IEEE Antennas and Wireless Propagation Letters, 2018, vol. 17, no. 8, p. 1382–1385. DOI: 10.1109/LAWP.2018.2846613
  14. LIU, Y., LI, N., JIA, Y., et al. Low RCS and high-gain patch antenna based on a holographic metasurface. IEEE Antennas and Wireless Propagation Letters, 2019, vol. 18, no. 3, p. 492–496. DOI: 10.1109/LAWP.2019.2895117
  15. ZHENG, Y., GAO, J., ZHOU, Y., et al. Wideband gain enhancement and RCS reduction of Fabry-Perot resonator antenna with chessboard arranged metamaterial superstrate. IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation, 2017, vol. 66, no. 2, p. 590–598. DOI: 10.1109/TAP.2017.2780896
  16. ZHANG, L., WAN, X., LIU, S., et al. Realization of low scattering for a high-gain Fabry-Perot antenna using coding metasurface. IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation, 2017, vol. 65, no. 7, p. 3374–3383. DOI: 10.1109/TAP.2017.2700874
  17. XIE, P., WANG, G. M., LI, H. P., et al. Circularly polarized Fabry-Perot antenna employing a receiver–transmitter polarization conversion metasurface. IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation, 2020, vol. 68, no. 4, p. 3213–3218. DOI: 10.1109/TAP.2019.2950811
  18. DONG, J., DING, C., MO, J. J., et al. A low-profile wideband linear-to-circular polarization conversion slot antenna using metasurface. Materials, 2020, vol. 13, p. 1–12. DOI: 10.3390/ma13051164
  19. LIU, Y., HUANG, Y. X., LIU, Z. W., et al. Design of a compact wideband CP metasurface antenna. International Journal of RF and Microwave Computer-Aided Engineering, 2020, vol. 30, no. 10. DOI: 10.1002/mmce.22332
  20. GUO, Z. X., CAO, X. Y., GAO, J., et al. A novel composite transmission metasurface with dual functions and its application in microstrip antenna. Journal of Applied Physics, 2020, vol. 127, p. 1–9. DOI: 10.1063/1.5143147

Keywords: F-P resonant cavity antenna, metasurface, high gain, low RCS

S. C. Yadav, V. Sivavenkateswara Rao, S. P. Duttagupta [references] [full-text] [DOI: 10.13164/re.2021.0631] [Download Citations]
A Novel Unidirectional High-Gain Cascaded Square Ring Antenna for WLAN Base Station Applications

This paper designs a unidirectional high gain, low-cost cascading ring antenna with coaxial feeding and metal without the dielectric. The designed antenna suits for high power transfer applications such as Radar communications, wireless local area network (WLAN), and base stations. The use of gap-coupled cascading rings in the design enhances the gain to 13.4 dBi at the resonance frequency of 2.45 GHz, improving the side lobes level and front-to-back ratios. The proposed antenna has symmetrical half power beam width (HPBW) in H-plane and E-plane of 37 degree and 36.5 degree, respectively. The cross-polarization field component of the antenna is below -25 dB in H-plane, and below -45 dB in E-plane is obtained from the measurements. The measured antenna has 10 dB bandwidth of 95 MHz i.e., 2.405-2.50 GHz that covers the ISM 2.45 GHz band. The designed antenna is planar in structure with compact radiating rings of size 1.16λ×0.4λ×0.1λ. The measured and HFFS simulated results are found in good agreement.

  1. ZELENCHUK, D. E., FUSCO, V. F. Planar high-gain WLAN PCB antenna. IEEE Antennas and Wireless Propagation Letters, 2009, vol. 8, p. 1314–1316. DOI: 10.1109/LAWP.2009.2037718
  2. VAN ROOYEN, M., ODENDAAL, J. W., JOUBERT, J. Highgain directional antenna for WLAN and WiMAX applications. IEEE Antennas and Wireless Propagation Letters, 2017, vol. 16, p. 286–289. DOI: 10.1109/LAWP.2016.2573594
  3. TOH, W. K., QING, X., CHEN, Z. N. A planar dual-band antenna array. IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation, 2011, vol. 59, no. 3, p. 833–838. DOI: 10.1109/TAP.2010.2103039
  4. BUFFI, A., SERRA, A. A., NEPA, P., et al. A focused planar microstrip array for 2.4 GHz RFID readers. IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation, 2010, vol. 58, no. 5, p. 1536–1544. DOI: 10.1109/TAP.2010.2044331
  5. LIAN, R., TANG, Z., YIN, Y. Design of a broadband polarizationreconfigurable Fabry–Perot resonator antenna. IEEE Antennas and Wireless Propagation Letters, 2018, vol. 17, no. 1, p. 122–125. DOI: 10.1109/LAWP.2017.2777502
  6. JI, L. Y., QIN, P. Y., GUO, Y. J., et al. A wideband polarization reconfigurable partially reflective surface antenna. IEEE Transactions on Antennas Propagation, 2016, vol. 64, no. 10, p. 4534–4538. DOI: 10.1109/TAP.2016.2593716
  7. DEJEAN, G. R., THAI, T. T., NIKOLAOU, S., et al. Design and analysis of microstrip bi-Yagi and quad-Yagi antenna arrays for WLAN applications. IEEE Antenna and Wireless Propagation Letters, 2007, vol. 6, p. 244–248. DOI: 10.1109/LAWP.2007.893104
  8. TAO, J., FENG, Q., LIU, T. Dual-wideband magnetoelectric dipole antenna with director loaded. IEEE Antennas and Wireless Propagation Letters, 2018, vol. 17, no. 10, p. 1885–1889. DOI: 10.1109/LAWP.2018.2869034
  9. NASIMUDDIN, ESSELLE, K. P. A low-profile compact microwave antenna with high gain and wide bandwidth. IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation, 2007, vol. 55, no. 6, p. 1880–1883. DOI: 10.1109/TAP.2007.898644
  10. PAN, Y. M., ZHENG, S. Y. A low-profile stacked dielectric resonator antenna with high-gain and wide bandwidth. IEEE Antennas and Wireless Propagation Letters, 2016, vol. 15, p. 68–71. DOI: 10.1109/LAWP.2015.2429686
  11. FAKHTE, S., ORAIZI, H., MATEKOVITS, L. Gain improvement of rectangular dielectric resonator antenna by engraving grooves on its side walls. IEEE Antennas and Wireless Propagation Letters, 2017, vol. 16, p. 2167–2170. DOI: 10.1109/LAWP.2017.2702584
  12. MRNKA, M., RAIDA, Z. Enhanced-gain dielectric resonator antenna based on the combination of higher-order modes. IEEE Antennas and Wireless Propagation Letters, 2016, vol. 15, p. 710–713. DOI: 10.1109/LAWP.2015.2470099
  13. RANJBAR NIKKHAH, M., RASHED-MOHASSEL, J., KISHK, A. A. High-gain aperture coupled rectangular dielectric resonator antenna array using parasitic elements. IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation, 2013, vol. 61, no. 7, p. 3905–3908. DOI: 10.1109/TAP.2013.2254451
  14. GUO, S. J., WU, L. S., LEUNG, K. W., et al. Microstrip-fed differential dielectric resonator antenna and array. IEEE Antennas and Wireless Propagation Letters, 2018, vol. 17, no. 9, p. 1736–1739. DOI: 10.1109/LAWP.2018.2864972
  15. HOU, Y., LI, Y., ZHANG, Z., ISKANDER, M. F. All-metal endfire antenna with high gain and stable radiation pattern for the platform-embedded application. IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation, vol. 67, no. 2, p. 730–737. DOI: 10.1109/TAP.2018.2879822
  16. GHOLAMI, M., AMAYA, R. E., YAGOUB, M. C. A Compact and high-gain cavity-backed waveguide aperture antenna in the Cband for high-power application. IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation, 2018, vol. 66, no. 3, p. 1808–1816. DOI: 10.1109/TAP.2018.2794412
  17. ZHAI, H., GAO, Q., LIANG, C., et al. A dual-band high-gain base-station antenna for WLAN and WiMAX applications. IEEE Antennas and Wireless Propagation Letters, 2014, vol. 13, p. 876–879. DOI: 10.1109/LAWP.2014.2321503
  18. LIU, P., FENG, H., LI, Y., et al. Low-profile endfire leaky-wave antenna with air media. IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation, 2018, vol. 66, no. 3, p. 1086–1092. DOI: 10.1109/TAP.2018.2790042
  19. BALANIS, C. A. Antenna Theory: Design and Analysis. 4th ed. New York (USA): Wiley, 2016. ISBN: 9781118642061
  20. CAI, X., GEYI, W., SUN, H. A printed dipole array with high gain and endfire radiation. IEEE Antennas and Wireless Propagation Letters, 2017, vol. 16, p. 1512–1515. DOI: 10.1109/LAWP.2016.2647319
  21. ALHARBI, M., BALANIS, C. A., BIRTCHER, C. R., et al. Hybrid circular ground planes for high-realized-gain low-profile loop antennas. IEEE Antennas and Wireless Propagation Letters, 2018, vol. 17, no. 8, p. 1426–1429. DOI: 10.1109/LAWP.2018.2848840
  22. KUMAR, C., SRINIVASAN, V. V., LAKSHMEESHA, V. K., et al. Design of short axial length high gain dielectric rod antenna. IEEE Transaction on Antennas and Propagation, 2010, vol. 58, no. 12, p. 4066–4069. DOI: 10.1109/TAP.2010.2078457
  23. WANG, H., LIU, S. F., CHEN, L., et al. Gain enhancement for broadband vertical planar printed antenna with H-shaped resonator structures. IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation, 2014, vol. 62, no. 8, p. 4411–4415. DOI: 10.1109/TAP.2014.2325955

Keywords: Cascaded square ring, high gain, metallic structure, symmetrical radiation pattern, wireless local area network (WLAN).

M. Boozari, M. Khalaj-Amirhosseini [references] [full-text] [DOI: 10.13164/re.2021.0639] [Download Citations]
Development of an Analytical Method for Pattern Synthesis of Arbitrary Shaped Planar Arrays

In practice, it is often necessary to design an array that will yield desired radiation pattern. For this purpose, several time-consuming algorithms are introduced in the literature. In this paper, an analytical method is presented to synthesize the radiation pattern of planar and ring arrays. In this method, two new parameters are defined to reconstruct the array factor and simplify the calculation complexity. To accomplish this, we use the double integral to generate two distinct Sinc functions from a bivariate function utilizing the sampling theory notion. This stage generates a set of linear equations that, when solved, yields the complex excitation coefficients. The proposed method is verified by presenting several practical examples. Also, the performance of the method is compared with that of other approaches. The results show that the proposed method is a good candidate for synthesizing a prescribed pattern of planar arrays.

  1. BALANIS, C. A. Antenna Theory: Analysis and Design. 4th ed. USA: John Wiley & Sons, 2016, ISBN: 978-1-118-642060-1
  2. ZOU, L., WANG, X. T., WANG, W., et al. Ku-band high performance monopulse microstrip array antenna based on waveguide coupling slot array feeding network, Radioengineering, 2020, vol. 29, no. 1, p. 59–66, DOI: 10.13164/re.2020.0059
  3. SHARIFI, M., BOOZARI, M., ALIJANI, M. G. H., et al. Development a new algorithm to reduce SLL of an equally spaced linear array. In The 26th Iranian Conference on Electrical Engineering (ICEE). Mashad (Iran), 2018, p. 554–557. DOI: 10.1109/ICEE.2018.8472414
  4. HAMAD, E. K. I., ABDELAZIZ, A. Performance of a metamaterial-based 12 microstrip patch antenna array for wireless communications examined by characteristic mode analysis. Radioengineering, 2019, vol. 24, no. 4, p. 680–688, DOI: 10.13164/re.2019.0680
  5. ALIJANI, M. G. H., NESHATI, M. H., BOOZARI, M. Side lobe level reduction of any type of linear equally spaced array using the method of convolution. Progress In Electromagnetics Research Letters, 2017, vol. 66, no. 1, p. 79–84. DOI: 10.2528/PIERL16121608
  6. BIANCHERI-ASTIER, M., DIET, A., LE BIHAN, Y., et al. UWB Vivaldi antenna array lower band improvement for ground penetrating radar applications. Radioengineering, 2019, vol. 28, no. 1, p. 92–98. DOI: 10.13164/re.2019.0092
  7. STUTZMAN, W. L., THIELE, G. A. Antenna Theory and Design. 3rd ed. USA: John Wiley & Sons, 2013. ISBN: 978-0-470-57664-9
  8. KHALAJ-AMIRHOSSEINI, M. Synthesis of linear and planar arrays with side lobes of individually arbitrary levels. Journal of RF and Microwave Computer-Aided Engineering, 2018, vol. 29, no. 3, p. 1–9. DOI: 10.1002/mmce.21637
  9. KEIZER, W. Large planar array thinning using iterative FFT techniques. IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation, 2009, vol. 57, no. 10, p. 3359–3362. DOI: 10.1109/TAP.2009.2029382
  10. QUIJANO, J. L. A., RIGHERO, M., VECCHI, G. Sparse 2-D array placement for arbitrary pattern mask and with excitation constraints: A simple deterministic approach. IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation, 2014, vol. 62, no. 4, p. 1652–1662. DOI: 10.1109/TAP.2013.2288363
  11. GANESH, M., SUBHASHINI, K. R. Pattern synthesis of circular antenna array with directional element employing deterministic space tapering technique. Progress In Electromagnetics Research B, 2017, vol. 75, p. 41–57. DOI: 10.2528/PIERB17031603
  12. ALIJANI, M. G. H., NESHATI, M. H. Development a new technique based on least square method to synthesize the pattern of equally space linear arrays. International Journal of Engineering, 2019, vol. 32, no. 11, p. 1620–1626. DOI: 10.5829/ije.2019.32.11b.13
  13. GONG, Y., XIAO, S., YANG, B. Z. Synthesis of sparse planar arrays with multiple patterns by the generalized matrix enhancement and matrix pencil. IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation, 2021, vol. 69, no. 2, p. 869–881. DOI: 10.1109/TAP.2020.3016484
  14. IGNACIO ECHEVESTE, J., GONZALEZ DE-AZA, M. A., RUBIO, J., et al. Gradient-based aperiodic array synthesis of real arrays with uniform amplitude excitation including mutual coupling. IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation, 2017, vol. 65, no. 2, p. 541–551. DOI: 10.1109/TAP.2016.2638359
  15. HAUPT, R. L. Antenna Arrays: A Computational Approach. 1st ed. USA: John Wiley & Sons, 2010. ISBN: 978-0-470-40775-2
  16. HANSEN, R. C. Phased Array Antennas. 2nd ed. USA: John Wiley & Sons, 2009. ISBN: 978-0-470-40102-6
  17. ALIJANI, M. G. H., NESHATI, M. H. Development a new array factor synthesizing technique by pattern integration and least square method. IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation, 2018, vol. 66, no. 12, p. 6869–6874. DOI: 10.1109/TAP.2018.2871715
  18. BOOZARI, M. MOHTASHAMI, V. Synthesizing a uniformly spaced array pattern using integral operator for removing progressive phase shift. International Journal of RF and Microwave Computer-Aided Engineering, 2020, vol. 30, no. 8, p. 1–9. DOI: 10.1002/mmce.22238
  19. KHALAJ-AMIRHOSSEINI, M. Synthesis of planar arrays by applying transformations to linear arrays. In The 9th Iranian International Symposium on Telecommunications (IST). Tehran (Iran), 2018, p. 39–44. DOI: 10.1109/ISTEL.2018.8661041
  20. ALIJANI, M. G. H., NESHATI, M. H. A new closed-form expression for dispersion characteristics of fundamental mode of SIW by least squares method. Applied Computational Electromagnetic Society Journal (ACES), 2015, vol. 30, no. 8, p. 930–933. ISSN: 1943-5711 (online)
  21. ALIJANI, M. G. H., NESHATI, M. H. A new non-iterative method for pattern synthesis of unequally spaced linear arrays. International Journal of RF and Microwave Computer-Aided Engineering, 2019, vol. 29, no. 11, p. 1–9. DOI: 10.1002/mmce.21921
  22. KREYSZIG, E., KREYSZIG, H., NORMINTON, E. J. Advanced Engineering Mathematics. 10th ed. USA: John Wiley & Sons, 2016. ISBN: 978-0-470-45836-5
  23. STRANG, G. Introduction to Linear Algebra. 5th ed. USA: Wellesley Cambridge Press, 2016. ISBN: 978-0-9802327-7-6
  24. MAILLOUX, R. J. Phased Array Antenna Handbook. 3th ed. UK: Artech House, 2018. ISBN: 978-1-63081-029-0

Keywords: Array factor, integration, least square method, pattern synthesizing

S. Patra, S. K. Mandal, G. K. Mahanti, N. N. Pathak [references] [full-text] [DOI: 10.13164/re.2021.0646] [Download Citations]
Synthesis of Dual-Beam Patterns by Exploiting Time-Modulation in Unequally Spaced Linear Arrays

In this paper, a novel approach for synthesizing multiple radiation patterns with reduced hardware complexity in the feed network by exploiting the additional degree of freedom ‘time’ in time modulated unequally spaced linear array (TMUSLA) is presented. In the proposed approach, with a suitable common set of element position of TMUSLA, the desired dual-beam pattern with low sidelobe level (SLL) is obtained by simply controlling the ON-OFF time sequence of the RF switches connected to the array elements. To show the effectiveness of the proposed array synthesis method, two dual beam patterns - first one as pencil (sum) beam (PB) and flat-topped beam (FTB) pattern, and the second one as sum and difference pattern with different constraints have been synthesized. For the successful generation of the desired power patterns, differential evolution (DE) algorithm is employed to obtain the optimum possible solution in terms of common element position, time-modulation, switching sequences and applicable excitation phase for the desired shape beam patterns. The superiority of the proposed approach with the favourable improved performance have been demonstrated by comparing the realized patterns with the state-of-the-art relevant reported works.

  1. BARBA, M., PAGE, J. E., ENCINAR, J. A., et al. A switchable multiple beam antenna for GSM-UMTS base stations in planar technology. IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation, 2006, vol. 54, no. 11, p. 3087–3094. DOI: 10.1109/TAP.2006.883991
  2. LAGER, I. E., TRAMPUZ, C., SIMEONI, M., et al. Interleaved array antennas for FMCW radar applications. IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation, 2009, vol. 57, no. 8, p. 2486–2490. DOI: 10.1109/TAP.2009.2024573
  3. WU, L., ZIELINSKI, A., BIRD, J. S. Synthesis of shaped radiation patterns using an iterative method. Radio Science, 1995, vol. 30, no. 5, p. 1385–1392. DOI: 10.1029/95RS01829
  4. BUCKLEY, M. J. Synthesis of shaped beam antenna patterns using implicitly constrained current elements. IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation, 1996, vol. 44, no. 2, p. 192–197. DOI: 10.1109/8.481647
  5. HAUPT, R. L. Phase-only adaptive nulling with a genetic algorithm. IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation, 1997, vol. 45, no. 6, p. 1009–1015. DOI: 10.1109/8.585749
  6. DIAZ, X., RODRIGUEZ, J. A., ARES, F., et al. Design of phase‐differentiated multiple‐pattern antenna arrays. Microwave and Optical Technology Letters, 2000, vol. 26, p. 52–53. DOI: 10.1002/(SICI)1098-2760(20000705)26:1<52::AIDMOP16>3.0.CO;2-0
  7. KUMMER, W., VILLENEUVE, A., FONG, T., et al. Ultra-low sidelobes from time-modulated arrays. IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation, 1963, vol. 11, no. 6, p. 633–639. DOI: 10.1109/TAP.1963.1138102
  8. ZHOU, H. J., SUN, B. H., LI, J. F., et al. Efficient optimization and realization of a shaped-beam planar array for very large array application. Progress In Electromagnetics Research, 2009, vol. 89, p. 1–10. DOI: 10.2528/PIER08112503
  9. SHANKS, H. E., BICKMORE, R. W. Four-dimensional electromagnetic radiators. Canadian Journal of Physics, 1959, vol. 37, no. 3, p. 263–275. DOI: 10.1139/p59-031
  10. BALANIS, C. A. Antenna Theory: Analysis and Design. Hoboken (NJ, USA): Wiley, 2005. ISBN: 978-1-118-64206-1
  11. LEBRET, H., BOYD, S. Antenna array pattern synthesis via convex optimization. IEEE Transactions on Signal Processing, 1997, vol. 45, no. 3, p. 526–532. DOI: 10.1109/78.558465
  12. YANG, Y., LIU, Y., MA, X., et al. Synthesizing unequally spaced pattern-reconfigurable linear arrays with minimum interspacing control. IEEE Access, 2019, vol. 7, p. 58893–58900. DOI: 10.1109/ACCESS.2019.2914767
  13. YANG, K., ZHAO, Z., LIU, Q. H. Fast pencil beam pattern synthesis of large unequally spaced antenna arrays. IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation, 2013, vol. 61, no. 2, p. 627–634. DOI: 10.1109/TAP.2012.2220319
  14. YANG, S., GAN, Y. B., QING, A. Sideband suppression in timemodulated linear arrays by the differential evolution algorithm. IEEE Antennas and Wireless Propagation Letters, 2002, vol. 1, p. 173–175.DOI: 10.1109/LAWP.2002.807789
  15. MANDAL, S. K., MAHANTI, G., GHATAK, R. Differential evolution algorithm for optimizing the conflicting parameters in time-modulated linear array antennas. Progress In Electromagnetics Research B, 2013, vol. 51, p. 101–118. DOI: 10.2528/PIERB13022710
  16. FONDEVILA, J., BREGAINS, J. C., ARES, F., et al. Optimizing uniformly excited linear arrays through time modulation. IEEE Antennas and Wireless Propagation Letters, 2004, vol. 3, p. 298–301. DOI: 10.1109/LAWP.2004.838833
  17. YANG, S., GAN, Y. B., QING, A., et al. Design of a uniform amplitude time modulated linear array with optimized time sequences. IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation, 2005, vol. 53, no. 7, p. 2337–2339. DOI: 10.1109/TAP.2005.850765
  18. POLI, L., ROCCA, P., OLIVERI, G., et al. Harmonic beamforming in time-modulated linear arrays. IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation, 2011, vol. 59, no. 7, p. 2538–2545. DOI: 10.1109/TAP.2011.2152323
  19. POLI, L., ROCCA, P., MANICA, L., et al. Pattern synthesis in time-modulated linear arrays through pulse shifting. IET Microwaves, Antennas and Propagation, 2010, vol. 4, no. 9, p. 1157–1164. DOI: 10.1049/iet-map.2009.0042
  20. BEKELE, E. T., POLI, L., ROCCA, P., et al. Pulse-shaping strategy for time modulated arrays—Analysis and design. IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation, 2013, vol. 61, no. 7, p. 3525–3537. DOI: 10.1109/TAP.2013.2256096
  21. YANG, S., LI, G., HUANG, M., et al. Shaped patterns synthesis in time-modulated antenna arrays with static uniform amplitude and phase excitations. Frontiers of Electrical and Electronic Engineering in China, 2010, vol. 5, no. 2, p. 179–184. DOI: 10.1007/s11460-010-0005-2
  22. PATRA, S., MANDAL, S. K., MAHANTI, G. K., et al. Synthesis of flat-top power pattern in time-modulated unequally spaced linear arrays using DE. In IEEE 2nd International Conference on Recent Trends in Information Systems (ReTIS). Kolkata (India), 2015, p. 104–108. DOI: 10.1109/ReTIS.2015.7232861
  23. MANDAL, S. K., MAHANTI, G., GHATAK, R. Synthesis of simultaneous multiple-harmonic-patterns in time-modulated linear antenna arrays. Progress In Electromagnetics Research M, 2014 vol. 34, p. 135–142. DOI: 10.2528/PIERM13111802
  24. FONDEVILA, J., BREGAINS, J. C., ARES, F., et al. Application of time modulation in the synthesis of sum and difference patterns by using linear arrays. Microwave and Optical Technology Letters, 2006, vol. 48, no. 5, p. 829–832.DOI: 10.1002/mop.21489
  25. YANG, S., CHEN, Y., NIE, Z. Multiple patterns from timemodulated linear antenna arrays. Electromagnetics, 2008, vol. 28, no. 8, p. 562–571. DOI: 10.1080/02726340802428671
  26. LI, G., YANG, S., HUANG, M., et al. Sidelobe suppression in time modulated linear arrays with unequal element spacing. Journal of Electromagnetic Waves and Applications, 2012, vol. 24, no. 5-6, p. 775–783. DOI: 10.1163/156939310791036368
  27. BREGAINS, J. C., FONDEVILA-GOMEZ, J., FRANCESCHETTI, G., et al. Signal radiation and power losses of time-modulated arrays. IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation, 2008, vol. 56, no. 6, p. 1799–1804. DOI: 10.1109/TAP.2008.923345
  28. ROCCA, P., OLIVERI, G., MASSA, A. Differential evolution as applied to electromagnetics. IEEE Antennas and Propagation Magazine, 2011, vol. 53, no. 1, p. 38–49. DOI: 10.1109/MAP.2011.5773566
  29. VAITHEESWARAN, S. M. Dual beam synthesis using element position perturbations and the G3-GA algorithm. Progress In Electromagnetics Research, 2008, vol. 87, p. 43–61. DOI: 10.2528/PIER08091601
  30. DURR, M., TRASTOY, A., ARES, F. Multiple-pattern linear antenna arrays with single prefixed amplitude distributions: Modified Woodward-Lawson synthesis. Electronics Letters, 2000, vol. 36, no. 16, p. 1345–1346. DOI: 10.1049/el:20000980
  31. MAHANTI, G., CHAKRABORTY, A., DAS, S. Phase-only and amplitude-phase only synthesis of dual-beam pattern linear antenna arrays using floating-point genetic algorithms. Progress In Electromagnetics Research, 2007, vol. 68, p. 247–259. DOI: 10.2528/PIER06072301
  32. BUCCI, O. M., MAZZARELLA, G., PANARIELLO, G. Reconfigurable arrays by phase-only control. IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation, 1991, vol. 39, no. 7, p. 919–925. DOI: 10.1109/8.86910
  33. MOHAMMED, J. R. Synthesizing sum and difference patterns with low complexity feeding network by sharing element excitations. International Journal of Antennas and Propagation, 2017, vol. 2017, p. 1–7. DOI: 10.1155/2017/2563901

Keywords: Pattern synthesis, on-time duration, side lobe level, sideband level, differential evolution

D. Krutilek, Z. Raida, J. Drinovsky [references] [full-text] [DOI: 10.13164/re.2021.0654] [Download Citations]
Experimental Characterization of Aircraft Electromagnetic Protections

In the paper, an original construction of a coaxial flange for measurements of shielding efficiency of composite materials is presented. The measurement procedure is conceived as a differential method to suppress influence of a flange. Attention is turned to measurements of carbon composites used in aerospace industry. The studied materials exhibit a significant ability to shield electromagnetic radiation. The shielding efficiency is rising with material thickness and with the number of fiber-to-fiber contacts. The optimal composite structure consists of 4 layers of carbon composite; more layers do not influence the shielding efficiency significantly.

  1. CUTLER, J. Understanding Aircraft Structures. 4th edition. Oxford (UK): Blackwell Scientific Publications, 2006. ISBN: 978- 1-405-12032-6
  2. MILTON, G.W. The Theory of Composites. Cambridge University Press, 2002. ISBN: 9780511613357
  3. CAMPBELL, F. C. Structural Composite Materials. ASM International, 2010. ISBN: 978-1-61503-037-8
  4. BAKER, A., DUTTON, S., KELLY, D. Composite Materials for Aircraft Structures. 2nd ed. AIAA Education Series, 2004. ISBN: 978-1563475405
  5. PETERS, S. T. (Ed.) Handbook of Composites. 2nd ed. London (UK): Chapman & Hall, 1998. ISBN: 978-0-412-54020-2
  6. CHRISTOPOULOS, C. Principles and Techniques of Electromagnetic Compatibility. 2nd ed. Boca Raton: CRC Press, 2007. ISBN: 9781315221960
  7. STEFFAN, P., VRBA, R., DRINOVSKY, J. A new measuring method suitable for measuring shielding efficiency of composite materials with carbon fibers. In The 5th International Conference on Systems. Menuires (France), 2010, p. 186–189. DOI: 10.1109/ICONS.2010.39
  8. —, ASTM F3114-15, Standard Specification for Structures. [Online] Cited 2021-08-10. Available at:
  9. KESKIN, H. I., OZEN, S., ATES, K., et al. Analysis and measurement of the electromagnetic shielding efficiency of the multi-layered carbon fiber composite fabrics. In 2019 Photonics & Electromagnetics Research Symposium - Spring (PIERS-Spring). Rome (Italy), 2019, p. 4354–4360. DOI: 10.1109/PIERSSpring46901.2019.9017787
  10. LEE, J., JUNG, B., LEE, S., et al. FeCoNi coated glass fabric/polycarbonate composite sheets for electromagnetic absorption and shielding. In 2017 IEEE International Magnetics Conference (INTERMAG). Dublin (Ireland), 2017, p. 1–1. DOI: 10.1109/INTMAG.2017.8007811
  11. CHAKRADHARY, V. K., TAHALYANI, J., AKHTAR, M. J. Design of lightweight exfoliated graphite based thin composites for EMI shielding. In 2018 IEEE MTT-S International Microwave and RF Conference (IMaRC). Kolkata (India), 2018, p. 1–4. DOI: 10.1109/IMaRC.2018.8877128
  12. LEE, J., JUNG, B. M., LEE, S. B., et al. FeCoNi-coated glass fabric/polycarbonate composite sheets for slectromagnetic absorption and shielding. IEEE Transactions on Magnetics, 2017, vol. 53, no. 11, p. 1–4. DOI: 10.1109/TMAG.2017.2704663
  13. BARTH, D., CORTESE, G., LEIBFRIED, T. Evaluation of soft magnetic composites for inductive wireless power transfer. In 2019 IEEE PELS Workshop on Emerging Technologies: Wireless Power Transfer (WoW). London (UK), 2019, p. 7–10. DOI: 10.1109/WoW45936.2019.9030664
  14. JOO, K., LEE, K. J., HWANG, J. W., et al. High performance package-level EMI shielding of Ag epoxy composites with spray method for high frequency FCBGA package application. In 2018 IEEE 20th Electronics Packaging Technology Conference (EPTC). Singapore, 2018, p. 674–680. DOI: 10.1109/EPTC.2018.8654311
  15. SAVI, P., CIRIELLI, D., DI SUMMA, D., et al. Analysis of shielding effectiveness of cement composites filled with pyrolyzed biochar. In 2019 IEEE 5th International forum on Research and Technology for Society and Industry (RTSI). Florence (Italy), 2019, p. 376–379. DOI: 10.1109/RTSI.2019.8895522
  16. SURAVARJHULA, V. K., MANAM, S. T., VENKATESAN, J., et al. Cement based composite loaded with medicinal package waste for low profile electromagnetic shielding. In 2018 USNCURSI Radio Science Meeting (Joint with AP-S Symposium). Boston (MA, USA), 2018, p. 29–30. DOI: 10.1109/USNCURSI.2018.8602658
  17. KUHN, M., MESSER, M. Analysis of shielding enclosures based on CFRP materials. In 2019 Joint International Symposium on Electromagnetic Compatibility, Sapporo and Asia-Pacific International Symposium on Electromagnetic Compatibility (EMC Sapporo/APEMC). Sapporo (Japan), 2019, p. 420–423. DOI: 10.23919/EMCTokyo.2019.8893935
  18. VELICU, V., BUTNARIU, V., TRIP, B., et al. Experimental study of shielding composite materials for protection of computer systems. In 2021 12th International Symposium on Advanced Topics in Electrical Engineering (ATEE). Bucharest (Romania), 2021, p. 1–4. DOI: 10.1109/ATEE52255.2021.9425176
  19. RATHI, V., PANWAR, V., ANOOP, G., et al. Flexible, thin composite film to enhance the electromagnetic compatibility of biomedical electronic devices. IEEE Transactions on Electromagnetic Compatibility, 2019, vol. 61, no. 4, p. 1033–1041. DOI: 10.1109/TEMC.2018.2881267
  20. CATRYSSE, J., PISSOORT, D., VANHEE, F. Shielding effectiveness of planar materials: (semi)-standardized measurements from LF to μW. In ESA Workshop on Aerospace EMC (Aerospace EMC). Valencia (Spain), 2016, p. 1–5. DOI: 10.1109/AeroEMC.2016.7504547
  21. GOMEZ DE FRANCISCO, P., POYATOS MARTINEZ, D., GALLARDO, B. P., et al. Limitations in the measurement of the shielding effectiveness of aeronautical multi-ply CFC laminates. In 2019 International Symposium on Electromagnetic Compatibility - EMC EUROPE. Barcelona (Spain), 2019, p. 662–667. DOI: 10.1109/EMCEurope.2019.8872136
  22. GALLARDO, B. P., GOMEZ DE FRANCISCO, P., ROMERO, S. F., et al. Limitations in the shielding effectiveness measurement methods for carbon fiber composites. IEEE Electromagnetic Compatibility Magazine, 2021, vol. 10, no. 1, p. 52–61. DOI: 10.1109/MEMC.2021.9400996
  23. DANIEL, I. M., ISHAI, O. Engineering Mechanics of Composite Materials. 2nd ed. New York (USA): Oxford University Press, 2006. ISBN: 978-0195150971
  24. WILSON, P. F., MA, M. T. A Study of Techniques for Measuring the Electromagnetic Shielding Effectiveness of Materials. NBS Technical Note 1095. [Online] Cited 2021-08-10. Available at:
  25. CERNOHORSKY, D., NOVACEK, Z., RAIDA, Z. Electromagnetic Waves and Lines. Brno (Czech Republic): VUTIUM Publishing, 1999. (In Czech) ISBN: 80-214-1261-5
  26. —, ASTM D4935-10, Standard Test Method for Measuring the Electromagnetic Shielding Effectiveness of Planar Materials. [Online] Cited 2021-08-10. Available at:
  27. ADAMS, J. W., VANZURA, E. J. Shielding Effectiveness Measurements of Plastics. NBS Publications. [Online] Cited 2021- 08-10. Available at:
  28. —, Dexmet Corporation, Manufacture Precision Expanded Metal Foils and Polymers. [Online] Cited 2021-08-10. Available at:

Keywords: Carbon composite, carbon-fiber-reinforced polymer (CFRP), glass-fiber composite (GFC), shielding efficiency, measurements, aerospace applications, coaxial flange

A. Hoseinabadi, M. B. Tavakoli, M. J. Rastegar Fatemi, F. Setoudeh [references] [full-text] [DOI: 10.13164/re.2021.0662] [Download Citations]
A New Method for Designing Modified Compact Microstrip LPF with Sharp Roll-Off and Wide Stopband

A new method for designing a compact microstrip lowpass filter (LPF) with wide stopband width (SBW) and sharp roll off (ROF) is presented. In proposed designing procedure, high impedance microstrip lines are bent to achieve an LPF with compact size. Then, to compensate for the effect of bending microstrip lines, the lengths of the lines are mathematically modified. Moreover, adding a suppressing cell composed of Radial stub resonator and a Butterfly stub resonator increases the SBW. Also, an elliptic filter structure is used to obtain sharp ROF. In this work, an LPF with 1.12 GHz cutoff frequency, 0.147 λg — 0.133 λg filter size; where λg is the guided wavelength at cutoff frequency, the SBW equal to 13.4 GHz, and the ROF more than 201 dB / GHz, is designed, simulated and fabricated to demonstrate efficiency of the proposed method. Also, the other conventional characteristics for the fabricated LPF such as 0.3 dB insertion loss, 14.4 dB return loss, and suppression factor equal to 2.2, are in the appropriate range of their amounts.

  1. POZAR, D. M. Microwave Engineering. 2nd ed. New York (USA): John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 1998. ISBN: 9780471170969
  2. HONG, J.-S., LANCASTER, M. J. Microstrip Filters for RF/Microwave Applications. New York (USA): John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 2001. DOI: 10.1002/0471221619
  3. ABDIPOUR, AS., ABDIPOUR, AR., KOSRAVI, A. A compact microstrip lowpass filter with ultra-wide rejection band and sharp transition band utilizing combined resonators with triangular patches. Radioengineering, 2018, vol. 27, no. 2, p. 417–424. DOI: 10.13164/re.2018.0417
  4. PHANI KUMAR, K. V., KARTHIKEYAN, S. S. Microstrip lowpass filter with flexible roll-off rates. AEU International Journal of Electronics and Communications, 2018, vol. 86, p. 63–68. DOI: 10.1016/j.aeue.2018.01.025
  5. ROSHANI, S., GOLESTANIFAR, A., GHADERI, A., et al. High performance microstrip low pass filter for wireless communications. Wireless Personal Communications, 2017, vol. 99, no. 1, p. 497–507. DOI: 10.1007/s11277-017-5123-1
  6. KUMAR, L., PARIHAR, M. S. A wide stopband low-pass filter with high roll-off using stepped impedance resonators. IEEE Microwave and Wireless Components Letters, 2018, vol. 28, no. 5, p. 404–406. DOI: 10.1109/lmwc.2018.2816520
  7. ZHANG, B., LI, S., HUANG, J. Compact lowpass filter with wide stopband using coupled rhombic stubs. Electronics Letters, 2015, vol. 51, no. 3, p. 264–266. DOI: 10.1049/e1.2014.3490
  8. RAMANUAJAM, P., RAMESH VENKATESAN, P. G., ARUMUGAM, C. Miniaturized low‐pass filter design with wide stopband using complementary split‐ring resonator. Microwave and Optical Technology Letters, 2019, vol. 61, no. 12, p. 2832–2837. DOI: 10.1002/mop.31951
  9. SHEIKHI, A., ALIPOUR, A., ABDIPOUR, A. Design of compact wide stopband microstrip low-pass filter using T-shaped resonator. IEEE Microwave and Wireless Components Letters, 2017, vol. 27, no. 2, p. 111–113. DOI: 10.1109/lmwc.2017.2652862
  10. SHEIKHI, A., ALIPOUR, A., HEMESI, H. Design of microstrip wide stopband lowpass filter with lumped equivalent circuit. Electronics Letters, 2017, vol. 53, no. 21, p. 1416–1418. DOI: 10.1049/el.2017.1715
  11. CHEN, F. C., LI, R. S, CHU, Q. X. Ultra-wide stopband low-pass filter using multiple transmission zeros. IEEE Access, 2017, vol. 5, p. 6437–6443. DOI: 10.1109/access.2017.2693344
  12. HAYATI, M., SHAMA, F. A compact lowpass filter with ultra wide stopband using stepped impedance resonator. Radioengineering, 2017, vol. 26, no. 1, p. 269–274. DOI: 10.13164/re.2017.0269
  13. EKHTERAEI, M., HAYATI, M., KAZEMI, A. H., et al. Design and analysis of a modified rectangular-shaped lowpass filter based on LC equivalent circuit. AEU – International Journal of Electronics and Communications, 2020, vol. 126, p. 1–9. DOI: 10.1016/j.aeue.2020.153290
  14. LOTFI, S., HAYATI, M. Compact low‐pass filter with ultra‐wide stopband using analysed triangular‐shaped resonator. Electronics Letters, 2017, vol. 53, no. 15, p. 1050–1052. DOI: 10.1049/el.2017.1169
  15. SEN, S., MOYRA, T. Compact low‐cost microstrip lowpass filter with sharp roll‐off and wide attenuation band. International Journal of RF and Microwave Computer-Aided Engineering, 2019, vol. 29, no. 11. DOI: 10.1002/mmce.21917
  16. SEN, S., MOYRA, T. A compact lowpass filter using interdigital line resonator with wide stopband. Iranian Journal of Science and Technology, Transactions of Electrical Engineering, 2019, vol. 43, no. 3, p. 469–478. DOI: 10.1007/s40998-019-00191-w
  17. SHI, L., FAN, Z., XIN, D. Miniaturized low‐pass filter based on defected ground structure and compensated microstrip line. Microwave and Optical Technology Letters, 2019, vol. 62, no. 3, p. 1093–1097. DOI: 10.1002/mop.32144
  18. SINGHAL, D., SINGH, S., KAUSHAL, V., et al. Wide band stop response using interdigital capacitor/CSRR DGS in elliptical microstrip low-pass filter. Journal of Microwaves, Optoelectronics and Electromagnetic Applications, 2020, vol. 19, no. 4, p. 495–509. DOI: 10.1590/2179-10742020v19i4945
  19. JIANG, S., XU, J. Sharp roll‐off planar lowpass filter with ultra‐wide stopband up to 40 GHz. Electronics Letters, 2017, vol. 53, no. 11, p. 734–735. DOI: 10.1049/el.2017.1238
  20. SHAMA, F., HAYATI, M., EKHTERAEI, M., et al. Compact microstrip lowpass filter using meandered unequal T-shaped resonator with ultra-wide rejection band. AEU – International Journal of Electronics and Communications, 2018, vol. 85, p. 78–83. DOI: 10.1016/j.aeue.2017.12.038
  21. ABDIPOUR, AS., ABDIPOUR, AR., ALAHVERDI, M. A design of microstrip lowpass filter with wide rejection band and sharp transition band utilizing semi-circle resonators. Radioengineering, 2018, vol. 27, no. 4, p. 1043–1049. DOI: 10.13164/re.2018.1043
  22. GIANNINI, F., PAOLONI, C., RUGGII, M. CAD-oriented lossy models for radial stubs. IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques, 1988, vol. 36, no. 2, p. 305–313. DOI: 10.1109/22.3519
  23. KWON, H., LIM, H., KANG, B. Design of 6–18 GHz wideband phase shifters using radial stubs. IEEE Microwave and Wireless Components Letters, 2007, vol. 17, no. 3, p. 205–207. DOI: 10.1109/lmwc.2006.890481
  24. WADELL, B. C. Transmission Line Design Handbook. Norwood (USA): Artech House, 1991. ISBN: 0890064369
  25. GARG, R., BAHL, I. J. Microstrip discontinuities. International Journal of Electronics, 1978, vol. 45, no. 1, p. 81–87. DOI: 10.1080/00207217808900883

Keywords: Lowpass filter, microstrip, elliptic filter, stopband width, roll off, compact size

K. R. Komatla, S. R. Patri [references] [full-text] [DOI: 10.13164/re.2021.0670] [Download Citations]
A Self-Start-Up Sub-Threshold DC/DC Boost Converter Using Bootstrap Driver for Self-Powered Sensor Nodes

In this paper, a fully autonomous and integrated sub-threshold DC-DC converter is presented for energy harvesting from ambient sources to self-powered IoT nodes. The proposed converter and its clock generator are designed by exploiting body biasing technique for low power operation and operate in sub-threshold regime. This bulk driven technique can dynamically enhance the on-current during conducting state and decrease reverse current during the non-conducting state. A bootstrap driver with dynamic body bias is employed to drive the phase generator at the output of the ring oscillator to decrease the settling time of the charge pump. This further improves the driving capacity of the clock along with extended rail to rail output voltage swing. Also, a novel cross clock scheme is proposed to improve the output voltage's transient response and conversion efficiency of a converter by reducing reverse current loss. The proposed circuit is implemented in CMOS 0.18 μm process. The proposed design requires very low start-up voltage of 400 mV and exhibits output voltage of 1.98 V, settling time of 33 μs, and pumping efficiency of 99% with a total power dissipation limited to just 1.5 μW.

  1. CHOWDHURY, I., DONGSHENG, M. Design of reconfigurable and robust integrated SC power converter for self-powered energyefficient devices. IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics, 2009, vol. 56, no. 10, p. 4018–4028. DOI: 10.1109/TIE.2009.2017092
  2. KADIRVEL, K., RAMADASS, Y., LYLES, U., et al. A 330nA energy-harvesting charger with battery management for solar and thermoelectric energy harvesting. In IEEE International Solid-State Circuits Conference. San Francisco (CA, USA), 2012, p. 106–108. DOI: 10.1109/ISSCC.2012.6176896
  3. CARLSON, E. J., STRUNZ, K., OTIS, P. B. A 20 mV input boost converter with efficient digital control for thermoelectric energy harvesting. IEEE Journal of Solid-State Circuits, 2010, vol. 45, no. 4, p. 741–750. DOI: 10.1109/JSSC.2010.2042251
  4. RAMADASS, Y. K., CHANDRAKASAN, A. P. A batteryless thermoelectric energy-harvesting interface circuit with 35mV startup voltage. In IEEE International Solid-State Circuits Conference. San Francisco (CA, USA), 2010, p. 486–487. DOI: 10.1109/ISSCC.2010.5433835
  5. IM, J. P., WANG, S. W., RYU, S. T., et al. A 40 mV transformer-reuse self-startup boost converter with MPPT control for thermoelectric energy harvesting. IEEE Journal of Solid-State Circuits, 2012, vol. 47, no. 12, p. 3055–3067. DOI: 10.1109/JSSC.2012.2225734
  6. CHEN, P. H., ISHIDA, K., IKEUCHI, K., et al. A 95mV-startup stepup converter with Vth-tuned oscillator by fixed-charge programming and capacitor pass-on scheme. In IEEE International Solid-State Circuits Conference. San Francisco (CA, USA), 2011, p. 216–218. DOI: 10.1109/ISSCC.2011.5746290
  7. CHEN, M., YU, H., WANG, G., et al. A batteryless single-inductor boost converter with 190 mV self-startup voltage for thermal energy harvesting over a wide temperature range. IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems II: Express Briefs, 2019, vol. 66, no. 6, p. 889–893. DOI: 10.1109/TCSII.2018.2869328
  8. BLANCO, A. A., RINCON-MORA, G. A. On-chip starter circuit for switched-inductor DC-DC harvester systems. In IEEE International Symposium on Circuits and Systems (ISCAS). Beijing (China), 2013, p. 2723–2726. DOI: 10.1109/ISCAS.2013.6572441
  9. DICKSON, J. F. On-chip high-voltage generation in MNOS integrated circuits using an improved voltage multiplier technique. IEEE Journal of Solid-State Circuits, 1976, vol. 11, no. 3, p. 374–378. DOI: 10.1109/JSSC.1976.1050739
  10. LEE, D.-H., KIM, D., SONG, H.-J., et al. A modified Dickson charge pump circuit with high efficiency and high output voltage. IEICE Transactions on Electronics, 2008, vol. 91, no. 2, p. 228–231. DOI: 10.1093/ietele/e91-c.2.228
  11. SU, F., KI, W.-H., TSUI, C.-Y. Gate control strategies for high efficiency charge pumps. In IEEE International Symposium on Circuits and Systems. Kobe (Japan), 2005, p. 1907–1910. DOI: 10.1109/ISCAS.2005.1464985
  12. KER, M.-D., CHEN, S.-L., TSAI, C.-S. Design of charge pump circuit with consideration of gate-oxide reliability in low-voltage CMOS processes IEEE Journal of Solid-State Circuits, 2006, vol. 41, no. 5, p. 1100–1107. DOI: 10.1109/JSSC.2006.872704
  13. PELLICONI, R., IEZZI, D., BARONI, A., et al. Power efficient charge pump in deep submicron standard CMOS technology. IEEE Journal of Solid-State Circuits, 2003, vol. 38, no. 6, p. 1068–1071. DOI: 10.1109/JSSC.2003.811991
  14. UMAZ, R., WANG, L. Design of an inductorless power converter with maximizing power extraction for energy harvesting. International Journal of High Speed Electronics and Systems, 2018, vol. 27, no. 1–2, p. 1–13. DOI: 10.1142/S0129156418400074
  15. CHEN, P.-H., ISHIDA, K., ZHANG, X., et al. 0.18-V input charge pump with forward body biasing in startup circuit using 65nm CMOS. In IEEE Custom Integrated Circuits Conference. San Jose (CA, USA), 2010, p. 1–4. DOI: 10.1109/CICC.2010.5617444
  16. PENG, H., TANG, N., YANG, Y., et al. CMOS startup charge pump with body bias and backward control for energy harvesting step-up converters. IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems I: Regular Papers, 2014, vol. 61, no. 6, p. 1618–1628. DOI: 10.1109/TCSI.2013.2290823
  17. SHIRAZI, N. C., JANNESARI, A., TORKZADEH, P. Self-start-up fully integrated DC-DC step-up converter using body biasing technique for energy harvesting applications. AEU-International Journal of Electronics and Communications, 2018, vol. 95, p. 24–35. DOI: 10.1016/j.aeue.2018.07.033
  18. SU, F., KI, W.-H., TSUI, C.-Y. High efficiency cross-coupled doubler with no reversion loss. In IEEE International Symposium on Circuits and Systems. Kos (Greece), 2006, p. 2761–2764. DOI: 10.1109/ISCAS.2006.1693196
  19. MONDAL, S., PAILY, R. Efficient solar power management system for self-powered IoT node. IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems I: Regular Papers. 2017, vol. 64, no. 9, p. 2359–2369. DOI: 10.1109/TCSI.2017.2707566
  20. SEDRA, A. S., SMITH, K. C. Microelectronic Circuits. New York: Oxford University Press, 1998. ISBN: 0195116631
  21. NAGAR, A., PARMAR, V. Implementation of transistor stacking technique in combinational circuits IOSR Journal of VLSI and Signal Processing, 2014, vol. 4, no. 5, p. 1–5. DOI: 10.9790/4200-04510105
  22. KUO, J. B. Evolution of bootstrap techniques in low-voltage CMOS digital VLSI circuits for SOC applications. In International Workshop on System-on-Chip for Real-Time Applications (IWSOC). Banff (Alberta, Canada), 2005, p. 143–148. DOI: 10.1109/IWSOC.2005.59
  23. AL-DALOO, M., YAKOVLEV, A., HALAK, B. Energy efficient bootstrapped CMOS inverter for ultra-low power applications. In IEEE International Conference on Electronics, Circuits and Systems (ICECS). Monte Carlo (Monaco), 2016, p. 516–519. DOI: 10.1109/ICECS.2016.7841252
  24. RABAEY, J. M. Digital Integrated Circuits: A Design Perspective. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall, 2003. ISBN: 0131786091
  25. NOWACKI, B., PAULINO, N., GOES, J. A simple 1 GHz nonoverlapping two-phase clock generators for SC circuits. In Proceedings of the International Conference Mixed Design of Integrated Circuits and Systems (MIXDES). Gdynia (Poland), 2013, p. 174–178.
  26. BALLO, A., GRASSO, A. D., PALUMBO, G. Charge pump improvement for energy harvesting applications by node pre-charging. IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems II: Express Briefs, 2020, vol. 67, no. 12, p. 3312–3316. DOI: 10.1109/TCSII.2020.2991241

Keywords: Bootstrap driver, body biasing, charge transfer switches (CTS), DC-DC converter, internet of things (IOT)

W. Jin , Y. Z. Guo , W. M. Jia , J. W. Zhao [references] [full-text] [DOI: 10.13164/re.2021.0680] [Download Citations]
Null Broadening Robust Beamforming Based on Decomposition and Iterative Second-order Cone Programming

To solve the problem that the performance of adaptive beamformer degrades severely in the presence of steering vector mismatch or non-stationary interference, a null broadening robust beamforming based on decomposition and iterative second-order cone programming (SOCP) is proposed. The width and depth of the nulls is controlled. The magnitude response constraints are applied to control the beamwidth and ripple of mainlobe, so the SV mismatch can be overcame. Due to the decomposition of the non-convex magnitude response constraints, the proposed approach can be solved by decomposition and iterative SOCP. Simulation results show that the proposed approach can effectively broaden the null width and enhance the null depth, and it is also robust against SV mismatch, especially large SV mismatch. The proposed approach is jointly robust against the SV mismatch and non-stationary interference, and is still effective in the case of low snapshot, which enhances the robustness of adaptive beamformer in complex environments.

  1. VOROBYOV, S. A. Principles of minimum variance robust adaptive beamforming design. Signal Processing, 2013, vol. 93, no. 12, p. 3264–3277. DOI: 10.1016/j.sigpro.2012.10.021
  2. ZHU, X., XU, X., YE, Z. Robust adaptive beamforming via subspace for interference covariance matrix reconstruction. Signal Processing, 2020, vol. 167, p. 1–10. DOI: 10.1016/j.sigpro.2019.107289
  3. JIN, W., JIA, W. M., ZHANG, F. G., et al. A user parameter-free robust adaptive beamformer based on general linear combination in tandem with steering vector estimation. Wireless Personal Communications, 2014, vol. 75, no. 2, p. 1447–1462. DOI: 10.1007/s11277-013-1432-1
  4. VOROBYOV, S. A., GERSHMAN, A. B., LUO, Z. Q. Robust adaptive beamforming using worst-case performance optimization: a solution to the signal mismatch problem. IEEE Transactions on Signal Processing, 2003, vol. 51, no. 2, p. 313–324. DOI: 10.1109/tsp.2002.806865
  5. CARLSON, B. D. Covariance matrix estimation errors and diagonal loading in adaptive arrays. IEEE Transactions on Aerospace and Electronic Systems, 1988, vol. 24, no. 4, p. 397–401. DOI: 10.1109/7.7181
  6. FELDMAN, D. D., GRIFFITHS, L. J. A projection approach for robust adaptive beamforming. IEEE Transactions on Signal Processing, 1994, vol. 42, no. 4, p. 867–876. DOI: 10.1109/78.285650
  7. LI, J., STOICA, P., WANG, Z. S. On robust Capon beamforming and diagonal loading. IEEE Transactions on Signal Processing, 2003, vol. 51, no. 7, p. 1702–1715. DOI: 10.1109/tsp.2003.812831
  8. GU, Y., LESHEM, A. Robust adaptive beamforming based on interference covariance matrix reconstruction and steering vector estimation. IEEE Transactions on Signal Processing, 2012, vol. 60, no. 7, p. 3881–3885. DOI: 10.1109/tsp.2012.2194289
  9. HASSANIEN, A., VOROBYOV, S. A., WONG, K. M. Robust adaptive beamforming using sequential quadratic programming: An iterative solution to the mismatch problem. IEEE Signal Processing Letters, 2008, vol. 15, p. 733–736. DOI: 10.1109/lsp.2008.2001115
  10. JIN, W., JIA, W. M., YAO, M. L., et al. A robust adaptive beamforming algorithm using decomposition and iterative secondorder cone programming. Journal of Electronics and Information Technology, 2012, vol. 34, no. 9, p. 2051–2057. (In Chinese) DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1146.2012.00146
  11. MAILLOUX, R. J. Covariance matrix augmentation to produce adaptive array pattern troughs. Electronics Letters, 1995, vol. 31, no. 10, p. 771–772. DOI: 10.1049/el:19950537
  12. ZATMAN, M. Production of adaptive array troughs by dispersion synthesis. Electronics Letters, 1995, vol. 31, no. 25, p. 2141–2142. DOI: 10.1049/el:19951486
  13. GUERCI, J. R. Theory and application of covariance matrix tapers for robust adaptive beamforming. IEEE Transactions on Signal Processing, 1999, vol. 47, no. 4, p. 977–985. DOI: 10.1109/78.752596
  14. GERSHMAN, A. B., NICKEL, U., BOHME, J. F. Adaptive beamforming algorithms with robustness against jammer motion. IEEE Transactions on Signal Processing, 1997, vol. 45, no. 7, p. 1878–1885. DOI: 10.1109/78.599965
  15. GERSHMAN, A. B., SEREBRYAKOV, G. V., BOHME, J. F. Constrained Hung-Turner adaptive beam-forming algorithm with additional robustness to wideband and moving jammers. IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation, 1996, vol. 44, no. 3, p. 361–367. DOI: 10.1109/8.486305
  16. ZATMAN, M. Comments on "Theory and application of covariance matrix tapers for robust adaptive beamforming". IEEE Transactions on Signal Processing, 2000, vol. 48, no. 6, p. 1796–1800. DOI: 10.1109/78.845937
  17. LIU, F. L., CHEN, P. P., WANG, J. K., et al. Null broadening and sidelobe control method based on multi-parametric quadratic programming. Journal of Northeastern University, 2012, vol. 33, no. 11, p. 1559–1562. (In Chinese) DOI: 1005- 3026(2012)33:11<1559:JYDCSE>2.0.TX;2-3
  18. ER, M. H. Technique for antenna array pattern synthesis with controlled broad nulls. IEE Proceedings, 1988, vol. 135, no. 6, p. 375–380. DOI: 10.1049/ip-h-2.1988.0079
  19. AMAR, A., DORON, M. A. A linearly constrained minimum variance beamformer with a pre-specified suppression level over a pre-defined broad null sector. Signal Processing, 2015, vol. 109, p. 165–171. DOI: 10.1016/j.sigpro.2014.11.009
  20. MAO, X. J., LI, W. X., LI, Y. S., et al. Robust adaptive beamforming against signal steering vector mismatch and jammer motion. International Journal of Antennas and Propagation, 2015, p. 1–12. DOI: 10.1155/2015/780296
  21. QIAN, J., HE, Z., XIE, J., et al. Null broadening adaptive beamforming based on covariance matrix reconstruction and similarity constraint. EURASIP Journal on Advances in Signal Processing, 2017, p. 1–10. DOI: 10.1186/s13634-016-0440-1
  22. MOHAMMADZADEH, S., KUKRER, O. Robust adaptive beamforming for fast moving interference based on the covariance matrix reconstruction. IET Signal Processing, 2019, vol. 13, no. 4, p. 486–493. DOI: 10.1049/iet-spr.2018.5264
  23. WANG, F., BALAKRISHNAN, V., ZHOU, P. Y., et al. Optimal array pattern synthesis using semidefinite programming. IEEE Transactions on Signal Processing, 2003, vol. 51, no. 5, p. 1172–1183. DOI: 10.1109/tsp.2003.810308
  24. GRANT, M., BOYD, S. Cvx users’ guide for cvx version 1.2. 2009. Available at:

Keywords: Robust adaptive beamforming, null broadening, magnitude response constraints, second-order cone programming, joint robustness

X. Huo, W. Guo, H. Zhao, Y. Liu, Y. Tang [references] [full-text] [DOI: 10.13164/re.2021.0688] [Download Citations]
Low-Complexity Suppression of Adjacent Channel Interference in FDD Transceiver

The transmitter-induced adjacent channel interference (ACI) due to power amplifier nonlinearity poses severe desensitization to the receiver in frequency-division duplexing transceivers. To tackle this issue, this paper proposed a digital suppression method with a low-complexity circuit structure to eliminate the interference. The transmitter baseband signal and leakage were employed to estimate the system nonlinear parameters in the digital baseband domain, and the interference was regenerated and then subtracted from the received signal. The proposed method can simplify the circuit structure and facilitate engineering implementation in practice. The simulation and experimental results show that the proposed method can suppress about 25 dB ACI, which can effectively improve the signal-to-interference-plus-noise ratio of the desired signal.

  1. LAUGHLIN, L., ZHANG, C., BEACH, M. A., et al. A 700–950 MHz tunable frequency division duplex transceiver combining passive and active self-interference cancellation. In Proceedings of IEEE MTT-S International Microwave Symposium Digest. Philadelphia (USA), 2018, p. 1–4. DOI: 10.1109/MWSYM.2018.8439253
  2. NIKITIN, A.V., DAVIDCHACK, R.L., SMITH, J.E. Out-of-band and adjacent-channel interference reduction by analog nonlinear filters. EURASIP Journal on Advances in Signal Processing. 2015, vol. 12, p. 1–20. DOI: 10.1186/s13634-015-0202-5
  3. KESHAVARZ, R., MIYANAGA, Y., YAMAMOTO, M., et al. Metamaterial-inspired quad-band notch filter for LTE band receivers and WPT applications. In Proceedings of General Assembly and Scientific Symposium of the International Union of Radio Science. Rome (Italy), 2020, p. 1–5. DOI: 10.23919/URSIGASS49373.2020.9232331
  4. CALDERIN, L., RAMAKRISHNAN, S., PUGLIELLI, A., et al. Analysis and design of integrated active cancellation transceiver for frequency division duplex systems. IEEE Journal of Solid-State Circuits, 2017, vol. 52, no. 8, p. 2038–2054. DOI: 10.1109/JSSC.2017.2700360
  5. KESHAVARZ, R., MOVAHHEDI, M. A compact and wideband coupled-line coupler with high coupling level using shunt periodic stubs. Radioengineering, 2013, vol. 22, no. 1, p. 323–327. ISSN: 1210-2512
  6. KESHAVARZ, S., ABDIPOUR, A., MOHAMMADI, A., et al. Design and implementation of low loss and compact microstrip triplexer using CSRR loaded coupled lines. AEU - International Journal of Electronics and Communications, 2019, vol. 111, p. 152913–152918. DOI: 10.1016/j.aeue.2019.152913
  7. FU, Z., ANTTILA, L., ABDELAZIZ, M., et al. Frequency-selective digital predistortion for unwanted emission reduction. IEEE Transactions on Communications, 2015, vol. 63, no. 1, p. 254–267. DOI: 10.1109/TCOMM.2014.2364571
  8. FARSI, S., GHEIDI, H., DABAG, H. T., et al. Modeling of deterministic output emissions of power amplifiers into adjacent receive bands. IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques, 2015, vol. 63, no. 4, p. 1250–1262. DOI: 10.1109/TMTT.2015.2407881
  9. RAMAKRISHNAN, S., CALDERIN, L., NIKNEJAD, A., et al. An FD/FDD transceiver with RX band thermal, quantization, and phase noise rejection and >64 dB TX signal cancellation. In Proceedings of IEEE Symposium on Radio Frequency Integrated Circuits (RFIC). Honolulu (USA), 2017, p. 352–355. DOI: 10.1109/RFIC.2017.7969090
  10. LAUGHLIN, L., ZHANG, C., BEACH, M. A., et al. Tunable frequency-division duplex RF front end using electrical balance and active cancellation. IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques, 2018, vol. 66, no. 12, p. 1–13. DOI: 10.1109/TMTT.2018.2851990
  11. ZHANG, C., LAUGHLIN, L., BEACH, M. A., et al. A selfinterference cancellation testbed for full-duplex transceiver prototyping. In Proceedings of IEEE International Symposium on Personal, Indoor, and Mobile Radio Communications (PIMRC). Valencia (Spain), 2016, p. 1–6. DOI: 10.1109/PIMRC.2016.7794587
  12. ABDELHALEM, S. H., GUDEM, P. S., LARSON, L. E. Tunable CMOS integrated duplexer with antenna impedance tracking and high isolation in the transmit and receive bands. IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques, 2014, vol. 62, no. 9, p. 2092–2104. DOI: 10.1109/TMTT.2014.2338271
  13. DEYNU, F. K., AKPARI, E. W., AKAMA, C. Low-overhead lowcomplexity carrier phase recovery technique for coherent multiband OFDM-based superchannel systems enabled by optical frequency combs. Journal of Microwaves, Optoelectronics and Electromagnetic Applications, 2021, vol. 20, no. 1, p. 173–194. DOI: 10.1590/2179-10742021v20i1965
  14. CAO, W., LI, Y., ZHU, A. Digital suppression of transmitter leakage in FDD RF transceivers: Aliasing elimination and model selection. IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques, 2018, vol. 66, no. 3, p. 1500–1511. DOI: 10.1109/TMTT.2017.2772789
  15. CAO, W., LI, Y., LUO, G. Q., et al. Digital suppression of transmitter leakage in FDD RF transceivers with an enhanced low-sampling rate behavioral model. IEEE Microwave and Wireless Components Letters, 2018, vol. 28, no. 12, p. 1140–1142. DOI: 10.1109/LMWC.2018.2877257
  16. DING, L., ZHOU, G. T., MORGAN, D. R., et al. A robust digital baseband predistorter constructed using memory polynomials. IEEE Transactions on Communications, 2004, vol. 52, no. 1, p. 159–165. DOI: 10.1109/TCOMM.2003.822188
  17. LIU, Y., QUAN, X., PAN, W., et al. Nonlinear distortion suppression for active analog self-interference cancellers in full duplex wireless communication. In Proceedings of IEEE Global Telecommunications Conference (GLOBECOM). Austin (USA), 2014, p. 948–953. DOI: 10.1109/GLOCOMW.2014.7063555
  18. LIU, Y., ROBLIN, P., QUAN, X., et al. A full-duplex transceiver with two-stage analog cancellations for multipath self-interference. IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques, 2017, vol. 65, no. 12, p. 5263–5273. DOI: 10.1109/TMTT.2017.2752167
  19. LI, C., ZHAO, H., WU, F., et al. Digital self-interference cancellation with variable fractional delay FIR filter for full-duplex radios. IEEE Communications Letters, 2018, vol. 22, no. 5, p. 1082–1085. DOI: 10.1109/LCOMM.2018.2810270
  20. HUO, X., ZHANG, W., GUO, W., et al. Adjacent channel interference suppression to enhance spectrum sharing for co-located devices. In Proceedings of IEEE International Conference on Communications Workshops (ICC Workshops). Montreal (Canada), 2021, p. 1–6. DOI: 10.1109/ICCWorkshops50388.2021.9473834
  21. PAN, W., XIE, L., XIA, X., et al. A digital predistortion method for fast frequency-hopping systems. In Proceedings of IEEE International Symposium on Signal Processing and Information Technology (ISSPIT). Ajman (United Arab Emirates), 2020, p. 1–3. DOI: 10.1109/ISSPIT47144.2019.9001897
  22. GUO, W., ZHAO, H., TANG, Y. Testbed for cooperative jamming cancellation in physical layer security. IEEE Wireless Communications Letters, 2020, vol. 9, no. 2, p. 240–243. DOI: 10.1109/LWC.2019.2950303

Keywords: ACI suppression, parameters estimation, signal regeneration, nonlinear distortion, low-complexity

H. He, S. Kojima, T. Omura, K. Maruta, C. J. Ahn [references] [full-text] [DOI: 10.13164/re.2021.0695] [Download Citations]
Generalized Regression Neural Network Based Channel Identification and Compensation Using Scattered Pilot

In the high-speed mobile environment, channel state information (CSI) estimated at the beginning of the packet is quite different at the last part because the actual channel state changes with time. To overcome this problem, a neural network (NN) based channel compensation method was previously developed. Due to inaccurate channel estimation of decision feedback channel estimation (DFCE), the pilot-aided CSI of the first symbol and DFCE-aided CSIs in the intermediate data part will cause inexact channel state transition even though the application of NN. Accordingly, the channel compensation performance is still degraded, especially in the last part of the packet. This paper proposes a new version of GRNN based channel identification and compensation method by introducing scattered pilot. It can improve the tracking capability of GRNN thanks to densely arranged pilot in the time-domain while it cannot reduce the transmission efficiency. Simulation results show that the proposed method is more effective than the conventional ones in terms of RMSE and BER performance, even in the fast fading environment.

  1. MARTIKAINEN, H., VIERING, I., et al. Mobility and reliability in LTE-5G dual connectivity scenarios. In IEEE Vehicular Technology Conference (VTC-Fall). Toronto (Canada), 2017, p. 1–7. DOI: 10.1109/vtcfall.2017.8288056
  2. ALWAKEEL, A. S., MEHANA, A. H. Data-aided channel estimation for multiple-antenna users in massive MIMO systems. IEEE Transactions on Vehicular Technology, 2019, vol. 68, no. 11, p. 10752–10760. DOI: 10.1109/tvt.2019.2938344
  3. FUNADA, R., HARADA, H., KAMIO, Y., et al. A channel estimation method for a highly mobile OFDM wireless access system. IEICE Transactions on Communications, 2005, vol. E88-B, no. 1, p. 282–291. DOI: 10.1093/ietcom/e88-b.1.282
  4. HAYASHI, H., OKAMOTO, E., IWANAMI, Y. A fast fading channel estimation scheme for OFDM with sparse and scattered pilot symbols. In International Symposium on Intelligent Signal Processing and Communication Systems (ISPACS). Kanazawa (Japan), 2009, p. 154–157. DOI: 10.1109/ISPACS.2009.5383877
  5. OUYANG, R., MATSUMURA, T., MIZUTANI, K., et al. A reliable channel estimation scheme using scattered pilot pattern for IEEE 802.22-based mobile communication system. IEEE Transactions on Cognitive Communications and Networking, 2019, vol. 5, no. 4, p. 935–948. DOI: 10.1109/tccn.2019.2930594
  6. OMURA, T., KOJIMA S., MARUTA, K., et al. Neural network based channel identification and compensation. In International Symposium on Communications and Information Technologies (ISCIT). Bangkok (Thailand), 2018, p. 349–354. DOI: 10.1109/iscit.2018.8587981
  7. OMURA, T., KOJIMA S., MARUTA, K., et al. Neural network based channel identification and compensation. IEICE Communications Express, 2019, vol. 8, no. 10, p. 416–421. DOI: 10.1587/comex.2019XBL0095
  8. SOEJIMA, S., IDA, Y., AHN, C. J., et al. Fast fading compensation based on weighted channel variance for TFI-OFDM. Journal of Signal Processing, 2013, vol. 17, no. 3, p. 41–49. DOI: 10.2299/jsp.17.41
  9. YOFUNE, M., AHN, C. J., KAMIO, T., et al. Decision direct and linear prediction based fast fading compensation for TFIOFDM. Far East Journal of Electronics and Communications, 2009, vol. 3, no. 1, p. 35–52.
  10. CHENG, C. H., HUANG, Y. H., CHEN, H. C. Channel estimation in OFDM systems using neural network technology combined with a genetic algorithm. Soft Computing, 2016, vol. 20, no. 10, p. 4139–4148. DOI: 10.1007/s00500-015-1749-7
  11. SARWAR, A., SHAH, S. M., ZAFAR, I. Channel estimation in space time block coded MIMO-OFDM system using genetically evolved artificial neural network. In International Bhurban Conference on Applied Sciences and Technology (IBCAST). Islamabad (Pakistan), 2020, p. 703–709. DOI: 10.1109/IBCAST47879.2020.9044539
  12. SAHU, P., MOHAPATRA, P., PANIGRAHI, S., et al. Neural network training using FFA and its variants for channel equalization. International Journal of Computer Information Systems and Industrial Management Applications, 2017, vol. 9, p. 257–264. ISSN: 2150-7988
  13. OMURA, T., HOEUR, N., MARUTA, K., et al. Improving ANN based channel identification and compensation using GRNN method under fast fading environment. In International Conference on Advanced Technologies for Communications (ATC). Hanoi (Vietnam), 2019, p. 28–32. DOI: 10.1109/atc.2019.8924557
  14. COLERI, S., ERGEN, M., PURI, A., et al. Channel estimation techniques based on pilot arrangement in OFDM systems. IEEE Transactions on Broadcasting, 2002, vol. 48, no. 3, p. 223–229. DOI: 10.1109/tbc.2002.804034
  15. STERBA, J., KOCUR, D. Pilot symbol aided channel estimation for ofdm system in frequency selective Rayleigh fading channel. In International Conference Radioelektronika. Bratislava (Slovakia), 2009, p. 77–80. DOI: 10.1109/radioelek.2009.5158729
  16. GOLDSMITH, A. Wireless Communications. Cambridge University Press, 2005. ISBN: 9787115170491
  17. GHASSEMLOOY, Z., POPOOLA, W., RAJBHANDARI, S. Optical Wireless Communications: System and Channel Modelling with MATLAB. CRC Press, 2017. ISBN: 9781138074804
  18. SPECHT, D. F. General regression neural network. IEEE Transactions on Neural Networks, 1991, vol. 2, no. 6, p. 568–576. DOI: 10.1142/9789812796851-0008
  19. AMIRI, M., DAVANDE, H., SADEGHIAN, A. et al Feedback associative memory based on a new hybrid model of generalized regression and self-feedback neural networks. Neural Networks, 2010, vol. 23, no. 7, p. 892–904. DOI: 10.1016/j.neunet.2010.05.005
  20. QI, J., JIANG, G., LI, G., et al. Surface EMG hand gesture recognition system based on PCA and GRNN. Neural Computing and Applications, 2020, vol. 32, no. 10, p. 6343–6351. DOI: 10.1007/s00521-019-04142-8
  21. GHRITLAHRE, H. K., PRASAD, R. K. Exergetic performance prediction of solar air heater using MLP, GRNN and RBF models of artificial neural network technique. Journal of Environmental Management, 2018, vol. 223, p. 566–575. DOI: 10.1016/j.jenvman.2018.06.033
  22. NETO, M. C. A., ARAUJO, J. P. L., MOTA, R. J. S., et al. Design and synthesis of an ultra wide band FSS for mm-wave application via general regression neural network and multiobjective bat algorithm. Journal of Microwaves, Optoelectronics and Electromagnetic Applications, 2019, vol. 18, no. 4, p. 530–544. DOI: 10.1590/2179- 10742019v18i41729
  23. MAKKAR, R., SONI, S., BACHKANIWALA, A. K., et al. Pilot interpolation based channel estimation for LTE systems. Procedia Computer Science, 2020, vol. 171, p. 2261–2266. DOI: 10.1016/j.procs.2020.04.244
  24. OZDEMIR, M. K., ARSLAN, H. Channel estimation for wireless OFDM systems. IEEE Communications Surveys and Tutorials, 2007, vol. 9, no. 2, p. 18–48. DOI: 10.1109/comst.2007.382406
  25. ZERHOUNI, K., ELBAHHAR, F., ELASSALI, R., et al. Performance of universal filtered multicarrier channel estimation with different pilots arrangements. In IEEE 5G World Forum (5GWF). Santa Clara (CA, USA), 2018, p. 327–332. DOI: 10.1109/5gwf.2018.8517030
  26. BAMBHANIYA, A. B., RATHOD, J. M. Research on various pilot pattern design for channel estimation in OFDM system. International Journal of Applied Engineering Research, 2017, vol. 12, no. 24, p. 14403–14407. DOI: 10.1049/el:20000714

Keywords: OFDM, fast fading, channel estimation, generalized regression neural network, DFCE, scattered pilot

Y. Feng, G. Wang, Z. Liu, B. Cui, Y. Yang, X. Xu, H. Han [references] [full-text] [DOI: 10.13164/re.2021.0704] [Download Citations]
Recognition of Radar Emitters with Agile Waveform Based on Hybrid Deep Neural Network and Attention Mechanism

With the increasing complexity of the electromagnetic environment and the continuous development of radar technology, more and more modern digital programmable radars using agile waveform will appear in the future battlefield. It is difficult to effectively identify these radar emitters with complex system only by relying on traditional recognition models. In response to the above problem, this paper proposes a recognition method of radar emitters with agile waveform based on hybrid deep neural network and attention mechanism to deal with the problem of variable conventional characteristic parameters of radar emitter signals with agile waveform. First, we perform a distributed representation of the pulse signal data to generate high-dimensional sparse signal features. Then we design to use a dynamic Convolutional Neural Network to extract features of structural details of radar emitter signals with agile waveform at different levels, and use a Long Short-Term Memory to extract its timing features. In order to obtain the deep features that can characterize the agility of the waveform, the attention mechanism-based method is used to fuse the extracted structural features and timing features, and at the same time it can reduce the influence of noise in complex electromagnetic environment on the characteristic data of radar emitter. Finally, the deep feature is input into the Softmax layer to complete the recognition of radar emitters with agile waveform. The experimental results show that the method proposed in this paper can effectively solve the problem of the recognition of radar emitters with agile waveform, and the recognition accuracy is improved by 1.26% compared with the traditional models and other deep models.

  1. WILEY, R. ELINT: The Interception and Analysis of Radar Signals. Artech, 2006. ISBN: 9781580539265
  2. ZHANG, G., RONG, H., JIN, W., et al. Radar emitter signal recognition based on resemblance coefficient features. In International Conference on Rough Sets and Current Trends in Computing (RSCTC 2004). Uppsala (Sweden), 2004, p. 665–670. DOI: 10.1007/978-3-540-25929-9_83
  3. SHIEH, C. S., LIN, C. T. A vector neural network for emitter identification. IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation, 2002, vol. 50, no. 8, p. 1120–1127. DOI: 10.1109/TAP.2002.801387
  4. KISHORE, T. R., RAO, K. D. Automatic intrapulse modulation classification of advanced LPI radar waveforms. IEEE Transactions on Aerospace and Electronic Systems, 2017, vol. 53, no. 2, p. 901–914. DOI: 10.1109/TAES.2017.2667142
  5. HINTON, G. E., SALAKHUTDINOV, R. R. Reducing the dimensionality of data with neural networks. Science, 2006, vol. 313, no. 5786, p. 504–507. DOI: 10.1126/SCIENCE.1127647
  6. KONG, S. H., KIM, M., HOANG, L. M., et al. Automatic LPI radar waveform recognition using CNN. Access, 2018, vol. 6, p. 4207–4219. DOI: 10.1109/ACCESS.2017.2788942
  7. JIN, Q., WANG, H., YANG, K. Radar emitter identification based on EPSD-DFN. In IEEE 3rd Advanced Information Technology, Electronic and Automation Control Conference (IAEAC 2018). Chongqing (China), 2018, p. 360–363. DOI: 10.1109/IAEAC.2018.8577703
  8. WANG, X., HUANG, G., ZHOU, Z, et al. Radar emitter recognition based on the energy cumulant of short time Fourier transform and reinforced deep belief network. Sensors, 2018, vol. 18, no. 9, p. 1–22. DOI: 10.3390/S18093103
  9. LIU, P., QIU, X., CHEN, X., et al. Multi-timescale long short-term memory neural network for modelling sentences and documents. In Proceedings of the 2015 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing. Lisbon (Portugal), 2015, p. 2326–2335. DOI: 10.18653/v1/D15-1280
  10. VIEIRA, J. P. A., MOURA, R. S. An analysis of convolutional neural networks for sentence classification. In 2017 XLIII Latin American Computer Conference (CLEI). Cordoba (Argentina), 2017, p. 1–5. DOI: 10.1109/CLEI.2017.8226381 (in Portuguese)
  11. HOCHREITER, S., SCHMIDHUBER, J. Long short-term memory. Neural Computation, 1997, vol. 9, no. 8, p. 1735–1780. DOI: 10.1162/NECO.1997.9.8.1735
  12. LIN, L., LUO, H., HUANG, R., et al. Recurrent models of visual co-attention for person re-identification. Access, 2019, vol. 7, p. 8865–8875. DOI: 10.1109/ACCESS.2018.2890394
  13. ZHANG, W., TANG, S., SU, J., et al. Tell and guess: Cooperative learning for natural image caption generation with hierarchical refined attention. Multimedia Tools and Applications, 2021, vol. 80, no. 11, p. 16267–16282. DOI: 10.1007/s11042-020-08832-7
  14. SAWADA, N., MASUMURA, R., NISHIZAKI, H. Parallel hierarchical attention networks with shared memory reader for multistream conversational document classification. In Conference of the International Speech Communication Association (INTERSPEECH). Stockholm (Sweden), 2017, p. 3311–3315. DOI: 10.21437/INTERSPEECH.2017-269
  15. HINTON, G. E., SRIVASTAVA, N., KRIZHEVSKY, A., et al. Improving neural networks by preventing co-adaptation of feature detectors. arXiv:1207.0580, 2012. Available at:

Keywords: Agility waveform, radar emitter, hybrid deep neural network, attention mechanism

L. Li, Z.Y. Dong, X. R. Yu, Z. Y. Ren, Z. G. Zhu, L. Jiang [references] [full-text] [DOI: 10.13164/re.2021.0713] [Download Citations]
UAV Communication Signal Recognition: A New Feature Representation and Deep-Learning Method

As the threats from unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) increases gradually, to recognize and classify unknown UAVs have became more and more important in both civil and military security fields. Classification of signal modulation types is one of the basic techniques for specific UAV recognition. In this paper, to represent the hidden features involved in the transmitted signals from UAVs, we propose a two-dimensional squeezing transform (TDST) to characterize the UAV communication signals in a compressed time-frequency plane. The new time-frequency representation, TDST, retains the instantaneous characteristics of the UAV signal, and is with excellent data reduction and noise suppression capabilities. The TDST plane of different modulation types are then considered as input features, and we propose a convolutional neural network (CNN) based on deep-learning to recognize the UAV signals. We design an interception system and consider 10 types of UAV signals with random initial phase, bandwidth and frequency offset. Experimental results demonstrate the effectiveness and superiority of the proposed algorithm.

  1. KALEEM, Z., REHMANI, M. H., AHMED, E., et al. Amateur drone surveillance: Applications, architectures, enabling technologies, and public safety issues: Part 1. IEEE Communications Magazine, 2018, vol. 56, no. 1, p. 14–15. DOI: 10.1109/MCOM.2018.8255731
  2. VASHIST, S., JAIN, S. Location-aware network of drones for consumer applications: Supporting efficient management between multiple drones. IEEE Consumer Electronics Magazine, 2019, vol. 58, no. 3, p. 68–73. DOI: 10.1109/MCE.2019.2892279
  3. MOZAFFARI, M., SAAD,W., BENNIS, M., et al. A tutorial on UAVs for wireless networks: Applications, challenges, and open problems. IEEE Communications Surveys and Tutorials, 2019, vol. 21, no. 3, p. 2334–2360. DOI: 10.1109/COMST.2019.2902862
  4. BASAK, S., SCHEERS, B. Passive radio system for realtime drone detection and DOA estimation. In International Conference on Military Communications and Information Systems (ICMCIS). Warsaw (Poland), 2018, p. 1–6. DOI: 10.1109/ICMCIS.2018.8398721
  5. SOLOMITCKII, D., GAPEYENKO, M., SEMKIN, V., et al. Technologies for efficient amateur drone detection in 5G millimeterwave cellular infrastructure. IEEE Communications Magazine, 2018, vol. 56, no. 1, p. 43–50. DOI: 10.1109/MCOM.2017.1700450
  6. LI, W., DOU, Z., QI, L., et al. Wavelet transform based modulation classification for 5G and UAV communication in multipath fading channel. Physical Communication, 2019, vol. 34, p. 272–282. DOI: 10.1016/j.phycom.2018.12.019
  7. GUNER, A., ALCIN, O. F., SENGUR, A. Automatic digital modulation classification using extreme learning machine with local binary pattern histogram features. Measurement, 2019, vol. 145, p. 214–225. DOI: 10.1016/j.measurement.2019.05.061
  8. ZHANG, M., ZENG, Y., HAN, Z., et al. Automatic modulation recognition using deep learning architectures. In IEEE 19th International Workshop on Signal Processing Advances in Wireless Communications (SPAWC). Kalamata (Greece), 2018, p. 1–5. DOI: 10.1109/SPAWC.2018.8446021
  9. RAMJEE, S., JU, S., YANG, D., et al. Fast deep learning for automatic modulation classification. arXiv:1901.05850, 2019, p. 1–29.
  10. ZHOU, S., YIN, Z., WU, Z., et al. A robust modulation classification method using convolutional neural networks. EURASIP Journal on Advances in Signal Processing, 2019, vol. 21, p. 1–16. DOI: 10.1186/s13634-019-0616-6
  11. O’SHEA, T. J., ROY, T., CLANCY, T. C. Over-the-air deep learning based radio signal classification. IEEE Journal of Selected Topics in Signal Processing, 2018, vol. 12, no. 1, p. 168–179. DOI: 10.1109/JSTSP.2018.2797022
  12. PENG, S., JIANG, H., WANG, H., et al. Modulation classification based on signal constellation diagrams and deep learning. IEEE Transactions on Neural Networks and Learning Systems, 2019, vol. 30, no. 3, p. 718–727. DOI: 10.1109/TNNLS.2018.2850703
  13. WEI, S., QU, Q., WANG, M., et al. Automatic modulation recognition for radar signals via multi-branch ACSE networks. IEEE Access, 2020, vol. 8, p. 94923–94935. DOI: 10.1109/ACCESS.2020.2995203
  14. DAUBECHIES, I., LU, J., WU, H. T. Synchrosqueezed wavelet transforms: an empirical mode decompositionlike tool. Applied and Computational Harmonic Analysis, 2011, vol. 30, no. 2, p. 243–261. DOI: 10.1016/j.acha.2010.08.002
  15. MEIGNEN, S., OBERLIN, T., MCLAUGHLIN, S. A new algorithm for multicomponent signals analysis based on synchrosqueezing: With an application to signal sampling and denoising. IEEE Transactions on Signal Processing, 2012, vol. 60, no. 11, p. 5787–5798. DOI: 10.1109/TSP.2012.2212891
  16. AUGER, F., FLANDRIN, P., LIN, Y. Time-frequency reassignment and synchrosqueezing: An overview. IEEE Signal Processing Magazine, 2013, vol. 30, no. 6, p. 32–41. DOI: 10.1109/MSP.2013.2265316
  17. LI, L., CAI, H., HAN, H., et al. Adaptive short-time Fourier transform and synchrosqueezing transform for non-stationary signal separation. Signal Processing, 2020, vol. 166, p. 107231.1–107231.15. DOI: 10.1016/j.sigpro.2019.07.024
  18. SAINATH, T. N., VINYALS, O., SENIOR, A., et al. Convolutional, long short-term Memory, fully connected deep neural networks. In IEEE International Conference on Acoustics, Speech and Signal Processing (ICASSP). South Brisbane (QLD, Australia), 2015, p. 4580–4584. DOI: 10.1109/ICASSP.2015.7178838
  19. SEPAS-MOGHADDAM, A., ETEMAD, A., PEREIRA F., et al. Facial emotion recognition using light field images with deep attention-based bidirectional LSTM. In IEEE International Conference on Acoustics, Speech and Signal Processing (ICASSP). Barcelona (Spain), 2020, p. 3367–3371. DOI: 10.1109/ICASSP40776.2020.9053919
  20. SIMONYAN, K., ZISSERMAN, A. Very deep convolutional networks for large-scale image recognition. arXiv:1409.1556, 2014.

Keywords: Automatic modulation classification, unmanned aerial vehicles, squeezing transform, convolutional neural network

L. Zhang, Y. Chen, S. Liu, B. Zou [references] [full-text] [DOI: 10.13164/re.2021.0719] [Download Citations]
A Matching Pursuit-Based Vehicle Wheel Parameter Extraction Method from Micro-Doppler Radar Signal

Micro-Doppler effects of moving vehicles in a radar system are mainly induced by the rotation of wheels, whose features are closely related to the numbers, positions and radiuses of wheels. These parameters of wheels are critical for the vehicle classification and recognition. However, most micro-Doppler features extraction works of vehicles are unable to explicitly extract parameters of wheels. In this paper, a parameter extraction method of vehicle wheels using micro-Doppler features based on the matching pursuit (MP) is proposed. The micro-Doppler signals of wheels are generally weak comparing to redundant echo signals induced by other irrelevant parts of the vehicle, which makes the micro-Doppler features difficult to extract. In this case, several signal atom sets are created according to the motion states of irrelevant parts of vehicle and MP is performed to suppress the redundant signals. After the suppression, micro-Doppler signals induced by wheels have become the major part of the echo signal. Another atom set is generated according to the rotational motion of wheels to perform MP again. Then the wheel parameters, such as the estimated numbers, positions and radiuses, are extracted. Simulation results demonstrate that the proposed method is feasible in feature extraction of moving vehicle. Besides, the accuracy can be guaranteed when the signal-to-noise ratio is greater than –5 dB.

  1. CHEN, V. C., LI, F., HO, S. et al. Micro-Doppler effect in radar: Phenomenon, model, and simulation study. IEEE Transactions on Aerospace and Electronic Systems, 2006, vol. 42, no. 1, p. 2–21. DOI: 10.1109/TAES.2006.1603402
  2. TANG, B. Micro-Doppler effect of extended streamlined targets based on sliding scattering center mode. Radioengineering, 2016, vol. 25, no. 2, p. 68–74. DOI: 10.13164/re.2016.0268
  3. ZHU, L., ZHANG, S., ZHAO, H., et al. Classification of UAV-toground vehicles based on micro-Doppler signatures using singular value decomposition and deep convolutional neural networks. IEEE Access, 2019, vol. 7, p. 22133–22143. DOI: 10.1109/ACCESS.2019.2898642
  4. JIAN, M., LU, Z., CHEN, V. C. Experimental study on radar micro-Doppler signatures of unmanned aerial vehicles. In 2017 IEEE Radar Conference (RadarConf). Seattle (WA, USA), 2017, p. 854–857. DOI: 10.1109/RADAR.2017.7944322
  5. SINGH, A. K., KIM, Y. Automatic measurement of blade length and rotation rate of drone using W-band micro-Doppler radar. IEEE Sensors Journal, 2018, vol. 18, no. 5, p. 1895–1902. DOI: 10.1109/JSEN.2017.2785335
  6. CAO, P., XIA, W., Y, LI. Classification of ground targets based on radar micro-Doppler signatures using deep learning and conventional supervised learning methods. Radioengineering, 2018, vol. 27, no. 3, p. 835–845. DOI: 10.13164/RE.2018.0835
  7. ZHAO, Y., SU, Y. The extraction of micro-Doppler signal with EMD algorithm for radar-based small UAVs’ detection. IEEE Transactions on Instrumentation and Measurement, 2020, vol. 69, no. 3, p. 929–940. DOI: 10.1109/TIM.2019.2905751
  8. CHEN, V. C., LING, H. Time-Frequency Transforms for Radar Imaging and Signal Analysis. Norwood (USA): Artech House, 2002. ISBN: 978-1580532884
  9. AUGER, F., FLANDRIN, P. Improving the readability of timefrequency and time-scale representations by the reassignment method. IEEE Transactions on Signal Processing, 1995, vol. 43, no. 5, p. 1068–1089. DOI: 10.1109/78.382394
  10. GU, F., FU, M., LIANG, B., et al. Translational motion compensation and micro-Doppler feature extraction of space spinning targets. IEEE Geoscience and Remote Sensing Letters, 2018, vol. 15, no. 10, p. 1550–1554. DOI: 10.1109/LGRS.2018.2849869
  11. CAI, C., LIU, W., FU, J., et al. Empirical mode decomposition of micro-Doppler signature. In IEEE International Radar Conference. Arlington (VA, USA), 2005, p. 895–899. DOI: 10.1109/RADAR.2005.1435954
  12. LI, G., VARSHNEY, P. K. Micro-Doppler parameter estimation via parametric sparse representation and pruned orthogonal matching pursuit. IEEE Journal of Selected Topics in Applied Earth Observations and Remote Sensing, 2014, vol. 7, no. 12, p. 4937–4948. DOI: 10.1109/JSTARS.2014.2318596
  13. MALLAT, S. G., ZHANG, Z. Matching pursuits with timefrequency dictionaries. IEEE Transactions on Signal Processing, 1993, vol. 41, no. 12, p. 3397–3415. DOI: 10.1109/78.258082
  14. LUO, Y., ZHANG, Q., QIU, C., et al. Micro-Doppler feature extraction for wideband imaging radar based on complex image orthogonal matching pursuit decomposition. IET Radar Sonar & Navigation, 2013, vol. 7, no. 8, p. 914–924. DOI: 10.1049/ietrsn.2012.0327
  15. DU, L., LI, L., WANG, B., et al. Micro-Doppler feature extraction based on time-frequency spectrogram for ground moving targets classification with low-resolution radar. IEEE Sensors Journal, 2016, vol. 16, no. 10, p. 3756–3763. DOI: 10.1109/JSEN.2016.2538790
  16. ZHU, L., ZHANG, S., MA, et al. Classification of UAV-to-ground targets based on enhanced micro-Doppler features extracted via PCA and compressed sensing. IEEE Sensors Journal, 2020, vol. 20, no. 23, p. 14360–14368. DOI: 10.1109/JSEN.2020.3008439
  17. DING, Y, SUN, Y., HUANG, G., et al. Human target localization using Doppler through-wall radar based on micro-Doppler frequency estimation. IEEE Sensors Journal, 2020, vol. 20, no. 15, p. 8778–8788, DOI: 10.1109/JSEN.2020.2983104
  18. YI, L., XIA, W., DONG, S. Time-based multi-component irregular FM micro-Doppler signals decomposition via STVMD. IET Radar, Sonar & Navigation, 2020, vol. 14, no. 10, p. 1502–1511. DOI: 10.1049/iet-rsn.2020.0091
  19. ZHAI, S., MAO, T., HU, B. An EMD-based micro-Doppler signature for moving vehicles classification. In 2019 IEEE 5th International Conference on Computer and Communications (ICCC). Chengdu (China), 2019, p. 1322–1326. DOI: 10.1109/ICCC47050.2019.9064359
  20. OH, B., GUO, X., WAN, F., et al. Micro-Doppler mini-UAV classification using empirical-mode decomposition features. IEEE Geoscience and Remote Sensing Letters, 2018, vol. 15, no. 2, p. 227–231. DOI: 10.1109/LGRS.2017.2781711
  21. ZHU, L., ZHANG, S., XU, S., et al. Classification of UAV-toground targets based on micro-Doppler fractal features using IEEMD and GA-BP neural network. IEEE Sensors Journal, 2020, vol. 20, no. 1, p. 348–358. DOI: 10.1109/JSEN.2019.2942081
  22. CHEN, V. C., TAHMOUSH, D., MICELI, W. J. (Eds.) Radar Micro-Doppler Signatures: Processing and Applications. London (UK): The Institution of Engineering and Technology, 2014. ISBN: 9781849197168
  23. CHEN, Y., WANG, N., ZHANG, L. Moving vehicle wheel parameter extraction via micro-Doppler feature based on matching pursuit. In 2020 Cross Strait Radio Science & Wireless Technology Conference (CSRSWTC). Fuzhou (China), 2020, p. 1–3. DOI: 10.1109/CSRSWTC50769.2020.9372705

Keywords: Micro-Doppler, moving vehicle, feature extraction, matching pursuit (MP), radar echo analysis

S. Batool, M. Imran, M. Imran, E. Elahi, A. Maqbool, S. A. A. Gillani [references] [full-text] [DOI: 10.13164/re.2021.0729] [Download Citations]
Development of an Improved Frequency Limited Model Order Reduction Technique and Error Bound for Discrete-Time Systems

Frequency limited model order reduction algorithm presented by Wang & Zilouchian for discrete-time systems provide unstable reduced-order models and also do not provide a priori error bound formula. Many stability-preserving model order reduction algorithms were presented; however, these methods produce significant approximation errors in the desired frequency interval. An improved algorithm of model order reduction for the discrete-time systems is presented. The proposed technique gives the stable reduced-order model and also provides less approximation error as compared with other algorithms and also provides the formula for the frequency response a priori error bound. Numerical examples provided at the end of the section show the efficacy of the proposed technique.

  1. ISLAM, S. N., DAS, S. Isosceles triangular resonator based compact triple band quad element multi terminal antenna. Radioengineering, 2020, vol. 29, no. 1, p. 52–58. DOI: 10.13164/re.2020.0052
  2. GALAJDA, P., SLOVAK, S., SOKOL, M., et al. Integrated M-sequence based transceiver for UWB sensor networks. Radioengineering, 2019, vol. 28, no. 1, p. 175–182. DOI: 10.13164/re.2019.0175
  3. TIEN, N. H. A., KHA, H. H. Harvested energy and spectral efficiency trade-offs in multicell MIMO wireless networks. Radioengineering, 2019, vol. 28, no. 1, p. 331–339. DOI: 10.13164/re.2019.0331
  4. IMRAN, M., GHAFOOR, A. Frequency limited model reduction techniques with error bounds. IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems II: Express Briefs, 2017, vol. 10, no. 65, p. 86–90. DOI: 10.1109/TCSII.2017.2703117
  5. MOORE, B. C. Principal component analysis in linear systems:controllability, observability, and model reduction. IEEE Transactions on Automatic Control, 1981, vol. 26, no. 1, p. 17–32. DOI: 10.1109/TAC.1981.1102568
  6. ENNS, D. F. Model reduction with balanced realizations: An error bound and a frequency weighted generalization. In Proceedings of Conference on Decision and Control. Las Vegas (NV, USA), 1984, p. 127–132. DOI: 10.1109/CDC.1984.272286
  7. SREERAM, V., ANDERSON, B. D. O., MADIEVSKI, A. G. New results on frequency weighted balanced reduction technique. In Proceedings of American Control Conference (ACC). Seattle (WA, USA), 1995 p. 4004–4009. DOI: 10.1109/ACC.1995.532684
  8. LIN, C. A., CHIU, T. Y. Model reduction via frequency weighted balanced realization. In Proceedings of American Control Conference (ACC). San Diego (CA, USA), 1990, p. 2069–2070. DOI: 10.23919/ACC.1990.4791093
  9. WANG, G., SREERAM, V., LIU, W. Q. A new frequency weighted balanced truncation method and an error bound. IEEE Transactions on Automatic Control, 1999, vol. 44, no. 9, p. 1734–1737. DOI: 10.1109/9.788542
  10. VARGA, A., ANDERSON, B. D. O. Accuracy-enhancing methods for balancing related frequency-weighted model and controller reduction. Automatica, 2003, vol. 39, no. 5, p. 919–927. DOI: 10.1016/S0005-1098(03)00030-X
  11. SREERAM, V. An improved frequency weighted balanced related technique with error bound. Proceedings of Conference on Decision and Control (CDC). Nassau (Bahamas), 2004, p. 3084–3089. DOI: 10.1109/CDC.2004.1428940
  12. GHAFOOR, A., SREERAM, V. A survey/review of frequencyweighted balanced model reduction techniques. Journal of Dynamic Systems, Measurement and Control, 2008, vol. 130, no. 6, p. 1–16. DOI: 10.1115/1.2977468
  13. IMRAN, M., GHAFOOR, A., SREERAM, V. A frequency weighted model order reduction technique and error bounds. Automatica, 2014, vol. 50, no. 12, p. 3304–3309. DOI: 10.1016/j.automatica.2014.10.062
  14. WANG, D., ZILOUCHIAN, A. Model reduction of discrete linear system via frequency domain balanced realization. IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems I: Fundamental Theory and Applications, 2000, vol. 47, no. 6, p. 830–837. DOI: 10.1109/81.852936
  15. GHAFOOR, A., SREERAM, V. Model reduction via limited frequency interval Gramians. IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems I: Regular Papers, 2008, vol. 55, no. 9, p. 2806–2812. DOI: 10.1109/TCSI.2008.920092
  16. IMRAN, M., GHAFOOR, A. Stability preserving model reduction technique and error bounds using frequency-limited Gramians for discrete-time systems. IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems II: Express Briefs, 2014, vol. 61, no. 9, p. 716–720. DOI: 10.1109/TCSII.2014.2346688
  17. OPPENHEIM, A. V., ALAN, V. R., SCHAFER, W., et al. DiscreteTime Signal Processing. Prentice Hall, 1999. ISBN: 9788131704929
  18. ANTOULAS, A. C., SORENSEN, D. C., GUGERCIN, S. A Survey of Model Reduction Methods for Large-Scale Systems. [Online] 2000. Available at:
  19. CHAHLAOUI, Y. Benchmark Examples for Model Reduction. [Online] 2002. Available at:

Keywords: Model order reduction, controllability Gramians, observability Gramians, error bound, balanced truncation

A. M. P. de Lucena, F. de A. T. F. da Silva, A. S. da Silva [references] [full-text] [DOI: 10.13164/re.2021.0739] [Download Citations]
Scintillation Effects in S-Band Telemetry Link of INPE’s Earth Station in Cuiaba-Brazil

One of the main earth stations that INPE uses to track and control its satellites is located in the city of Cuiaba (15.33°S, 56.46°W, dip latitude, 6.1°S), between the magnetic equator and the peak of the equatorial anomaly. Based on the GISM model, it is determined that the ionospheric scintillation index (S4) for the telemetry link in the S band (2208 MHz), between Cuiaba station and the SCD2 satellite, depending on the date and time, can reach values greater than 0.8. This is the first study conducted on ionospheric S-band scintillation in this region of the earth. In this article, the channel model for the link and the telemetry receiver architecture are presented in order to subsequently evaluate some effects of ionospheric scintillation on the functioning of the communication system. The modulation used is OQPSK and a fully-digital demodulator recovers the carrier phase using a Costas loop and synchronizes the symbols using a Gardner synchronizer. The design of OQPSK demodulator is detailed and the impact of ionospheric scintillation on general demodulator performance and on the functioning of its modules is discussed. The system bit error rate, the error variances of the carrier phase and symbol delay in different conditions of severity of ionospheric scintillation were figured out through computer simulation. From the presented results, it is evident that, for the adopted receiver architecture, which was designed for a space channel without scintillation, there is a substancial degradation on performance of the system even for S4=0.5 and, for the scenario where S4=0.8, the link becames practically inoperative.

  1. WHITNEY, H. E., BASU, S. The effect of ionospheric scintillation on VHF/UHF satellite communications. Radio Science, 1977, vol. 12, no. 1, p. 123–133. DOI: 10.1029/RS012i001p00123
  2. IPPOLITO, L. J. Radiowave Propagation in Satellite Communications. Springer Science & Business Media, 2012. ISBN: 0442240112
  3. KINTNER, P. M., LEDVINA, B. M., DE PAULA, E. R. GPS and ionospheric scintillations. Space Weather, 2007, vol. 5, no. 9, p. 1–23. DOI: 10.1029/2006SW000260
  4. BASU, S., MACKENZIE, E.M., BASU, S., et al. 250 MHz/GHz scintillation parameters in the equatorial, polar, and auroral environments. IEEE Journal on Selected Areas in Communications, 1987. vol. 5, no. 2, p. 102–115. DOI: 10.1109/JSAC.1987.1146533
  5. JIAO, Y., MORTON, Y. T., TAYLOR, S., et al. Characterization of high-latitude ionospheric scintillation of GPS signals. Radio Science, 2013, vol. 48, no. 6, p. 698–708. DOI: 10.1002/2013RS005259
  6. DE PAULA, E. R., RODRIGUES, F. S., IYER, K. N., et al. Equatorial anomaly effects on GPS scintillations in Brazil. Advances in Space Research, 2013, vol. 31, no. 3, p. 749–754. DOI: 10.1016/S0273-1177(03)00048-6
  7. AQUINO, M. Coutering Ionospheric Disturbances Affecting GNSS in Brazil. GPS World, 2015.
  8. KOULOURI, A., SMITH, N. D., VANI, B. C., et al. Methodology to estimate ionospheric scintillation risk maps and their contribution to position dilution of precision on the ground. Journal of Geodesy, 2020, vol. 94, no. 2, p. 1–22. DOI: 10.1007/s00190-020-01344-0
  9. DE LUCENA, A. M. P., DA SILVA, A. S., VIOT, D. D., et al. Design of a fully-digital BPSK demodulator integrated into a TT&C transponder. IEEE Latin America Transactions, 2020, vol. 18, no. 9, p. 1511–1520. DOI: 10.1109/TLA.2020.9381792
  10. FERREIRA, P. V. R., WYGLINSKI, A. M. Performance analysis of UHF mobile satellite communication system experiencing ionospheric scintillation and terrestrial multipath fading. In IEEE Vehicular Technology Conference (VTC2015-Fall). Boston (MA, USA), 2015, p. 1–5. DOI: 10.1109/VTCFall.2015.7391072
  11. MORAES, A. DE O., PERRELLA, W. J. Performance evaluation of GPS receiver under equatorial scintillation. Journal of Aerospace Technology and Management, 2009, vol. 1, no. 2, p. 193–200. DOI: 10.5028/jatm.2009.0102193200
  12. HUMPHREYS, T. E., PSIAKI, M. L., HINKS, J. C., et al. Simulating ionosphere-induced scintillation for testing GPS receiver phase tracking loops. IEEE Journal of Selected Topics in Signal Processing, 2009, vol. 3, no. 4, p. 707–715. DOI: 10.1109/JSTSP.2009.2024130
  13. KINTNER, P. M., HUMPHREYS, T., HINKS, J. GNSS and ionospheric scintillation. Inside GNSS, 2009, vol. 4, no. 4, p. 22–30.
  14. LINTY, N., FARASIN, A., FAVENZA, A., et al. Detection of GNSS ionospheric scintillations based on machine learning decision tree. IEEE Transactions on Aerospace and Electronic Systems, 2018, vol. 55, no. 1, p. 303–317. DOI: 10.1109/TAES.2018.2850385
  15. VILA-VALLS, J., LINTY, N., CLOSAS P., et al. Survey on signal processing for GNSS under ionospheric scintillation: Detection, monitoring, and mitigation. NAVIGATION, Journal of the Institute of Navigation, 2020, vol. 67, no. 3, p. 511–536. DOI: 10.1002/navi.379
  16. SALLES, L. A., VANI, B. C., MORALES, A., et al. Investigating ionospheric scintillation effects on multifrequency GPS signals. Surveys in Geophysics, 2021, vol. 42, p. 999–1025. DOI: 10.1007/s10712-021-09643-7
  17. PORTELLA, I. P., MORAES A. DE O., PINHO, M. DA S., et al. Examining the tolerance of GNSS receiver phase tracking loop under the effects of severe ionospheric scintillation conditions based on its bandwidth. Radio Science, 2021, vol. 56, no. 6, p. 1–11. DOI: 10.1029/2020RS007160
  18. SIVAVARAPRASAD, G., PADMAJA, R. S., RATNAM, D. V. Mitigation of ionospheric scintillation effects on GNSS signals using variational mode decomposition. IEEE Geoscience and Remote Sensing Letters, 2017, vol. 14, no. 3, p. 389–393. DOI: 10.1109/LGRS.2016.2644723
  19. VILA-VALLS, J., CLOSAS, P., FERNANDEZ-PRADES, C., et al. On the mitigation of ionospheric scintillation in advanced GNSS receivers. IEEE Transactions on Aerospace and Electronic Systems, 2018, vol. 54, no. 4, p. 1692–1708. DOI: 10.1109/TAES.2018.2798480
  20. GUO, K., VEETTIL, S. V., WEAVER, B. J., et al. Mitigating high latitude ionospheric scintillation effects on GNSS Precise Point Positioning exploiting 1-s scintillation indices. Journal of Geodesy, 2021, vol. 95, no. 3, p. 1–15. DOI: 10.1007/s00190-021-01475-y
  21. DAVIES, K., SMITH, E. K. Ionospheric effects on satellite land mobile systems. IEEE Antennas and Propagation Magazine, 2002, vol. 44, no. 6, p. 24–31. DOI: 10.1109/MAP.2002.1167260
  22. SUPNITHI, P., WONGTRAIRAT, W., TANTARATANA, S. Performance of M-PSK in mobile satellite communication over combined ionospheric scintillation and flat fading channels with MRC diversity. IEEE Transactions on Wireless Communications, 2009, vol. 8, no. 7, p. 3360–3364. DOI: 10.1109/TWC.2009.080208
  23. AJIBOYE, A., ABDULRAHMAN, A. Y., FALADE, A. J., et al. Effects of ionospheric scintillation on communication systems: GPS and satellite. Telecommunications and Radio Engineering, 2017, vol. 76, no. 20, p. 1849–1859. DOI: 10.1615/TelecomRadEng.v76.i20.50
  24. FERNANDEZ, L., RUIZ-DE-AZUA, J. A., CALVERAS, A., et al. Assessing LoRa for satellite-to-earth communications considering the impact of ionospheric scintillation. IEEE Access, 2020, vol. 8, p. 165570–165582. DOI: 10.1109/ACCESS.2020.3022433
  25. SILVA, A. S., LUCENA, A. M. P., MOTA, J. C. M. Demodulator OQPSK: Fully Digital Implementation for Space Applications (Demodulador OQPSK: Implementação Completamente Digital para Aplicações Espaciais). (In Portuguese) Novas Edições Acadêmicas, 2014. ISBN: 9783639692532
  26. CCSDS. Recommendations for Space Data System Standards. Bandwidth-efficient Modulations. CCSDS 413.0-G-1, Green Book, 2003.
  27. BENIGUEL, Y., FORTE, B., RADICELLA, S., et al. Scintillations effects on satellite to earth links for telecommunication and navigation purposes. Annals of Geophysics, 2004, vol. 47, no. 2/3, p. 1179–1199. DOI: 10.4401/ag-3293
  28. YE, Z., SATORIUS, H. Channel modeling and simulation for mobile user objective system (MUOS)–part 1: Flat scintillation and fading. In IEEE International Conference on Communications (ICC). Anchorage (AK, USA), 2003, p. 3503–3510. DOI: 10.1109/ICC.2003.1204106
  29. KULLSTAM, P. A., KESKINEN, M. J. Ionospheric scintillation effects on UHF satellite communications. In MILCOM 2000 Proceedings. 21st Century Military Communications. Architectures and Technologies for Information Superiority. Los Angeles (CA, USA), 2000, p. 779–783. DOI: 10.1109/MILCOM.2000.904036
  30. SHAFT, P. On the relationship between scintillation index and Rician fading. IEEE Transactions on Communications, 1974, vol. 22, no. 5, p. 731–732. DOI: 10.1109/TCOM.1974.1092244
  31. BENIGUEL, Y., BUONOMO, S. A Multiple phase screen propagation model to estimate fluctuations of transmitted signals. Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Part C: Solar, Terrestrial & Planetary Science, 1999, vol. 24, no. 4, p. 333–338. DOI: 10.1016/S1464-1917(99)00007-0
  32. BENIGUEL, Y. Global ionospheric propagation model (GIM): A propagation model for scintillations of transmitted signals. Radio Science, 2002, vol. 37, no. 3, p. 1–13. DOI: 10.1029/2000RS002393
  33. N2YO. Real Time Satellite Tracking and Predictions. [Online] Cited 2021-01-25. Available at
  34. ITU. Transionospheric Radio Propagation. The Global Ionospheric Scintillation Model (GISM). REPORT ITU-R P.2097, 2007.
  35. RADICELLA, S. M. The NeQuick model genesis, uses and evolution. Annals of Geophysics, 2009, vol. 52, no. 3/4, p. 417–422. DOI: 10.4401/ag-4597
  36. MORAES, A. O., VANI, B. C., COSTA, E., et al. Ionospheric scintillation fading coefficients for the GPS L1, L2, and L5 frequencies. Radio Science, 2018, vol. 53, no. 9, p. 1165–1174. DOI: 10.1029/2018RS006653
  37. MENGALI, U. Synchronization Techniques for Digital Receivers. Springer Science & Business Media, 2013. ISBN: 9781489918079
  38. LINDSEY, W. C., CHIE, C. M. A survey of digital phase-locked loops. Proceedings of the IEEE, 1981, vol. 69, no. 4, p. 410–431. DOI: 10.1109/PROC.1981.11986
  39. GARDNER, F. M. A BPSK/QPSK timing-error detector for sampled receivers. IEEE Transactions on Communications, 1986, vol. 34, no. 5, p. 423–429. DOI: 10.1109/TCOM.1986.1096561
  40. SHI, D., YAN, C., WU, N., et al. An improved symbol timing error detector for QPSK signals. In International ICST Conference on Communications and Networking in China (CHINACOM). Harbin (China), 2011, p. 1088–1092. DOI: 10.1109/ChinaCom.2011.6158318
  41. SIMON, M. K., ALOUINI, M. Digital Communication over Fading Channels. John Wiley & Sons, 2005. ISBN: 9780471649533

Keywords: Equatorial scintillation, S-band space link, OQPSK demodulator, telemetry, satellite communications