# June 2017, Volume 26, Number 2 [DOI: 10.13164/re.2017-2]

**Z. Biolek, D. Biolek**
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[DOI: 10.13164/re.2017.0397]
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Euler-Lagrange Equations of Networks with Higher-Order Elements

The paper suggests a generalization of the classic Euler-Lagrange equation for circuits compounded of arbitrary elements from Chua’s periodic table. Newly defined potential functions for general (α, β) elements are used for the construction of generalized Lagrangians and generalized dissipative functions. Also procedures of drawing the Euler-Lagrange equations are demonstrated.

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- CHUA, L. O. Memristor – The missing circuit element. IEEE Transactions on Circuit Theory, 1971, vol. 18, no. 5, p. 507–519. DOI: 10.1109/TCT.1971.1083337
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- JELTSEMA, D. Memory elements: A paradigm shift in Lagrangian modeling of electrical circuits. IFAC Proceedings Volumes, 2012, vol. 45, no. 2, p. 445–450. DOI: 10.3182/20120215-3-AT- 3016.00078
- BIOLEK, Z., BIOLEK, D., BIOLKOVA, V. Utilization of EulerLagrange equations in circuits with memory elements. Radioengineering, 2016, vol. 25, no. 4, p. 783–789. DOI: 10.13164/re.2016.0783
- CHERRY, C. Some general theorems for non-linear systems possessing reactance. Philosophical Magazine, 1951, series 7, vol. 42, no. 333, p. 1161–1177. ISSN: 0031-8086. DOI: 10.1080/14786445108561362
- MILLAR, W. Some general theorems for non-linear systems possessing resistance. Philosophical Magazine, 1951, series 7, vol. 42, no. 333, p. 1150–1160. ISSN: 0031-8086. DOI: 10.1080/14786445108561361
- BRUTON, L. T. Network transfer functions using the concept of frequency-dependent negative resistance. IEEE Transactions on Circuit Theory, 1969, vol. 16, no. 3, p. 406–408. DOI: 10.1109/TCT.1969.1082989
- SMITH, M. C. Synthesis of mechanical networks: the inerter. IEEE Transactions on Automatic Control, 2002, vol. 47, no. 10, p. 1648–1662. DOI: 10.1109/TAC.2002.803532
- CHEN, M. Z. Q., PAPAGEORGIOU, C., SCHEIBE, F., WANG, F-C., SMITH, M. C. The missing mechanical circuit element. IEEE Circuits and Systems Magazine, 2009, vol. 9, no. 1, p. 10–26. DOI: 10.1109/MCAS.2008.931738
- BIOLEK, D., BIOLEK, Z., BIOLKOVA, V., KOLKA, Z. Nonlinear inerter in the light of Chua's table of higher-order electrical elements. In IEEE Asia Pacific Conference on Circuits and Systems. Jeju (South Korea), 2016, p. 617–620. DOI: 10.1109/APCCAS.2016.7804046
- BIOLEK, D., BIOLEK, Z., BIOLKOVA, V. Memristors and other higher-order elements in generalized through-across domain. In IEEE International Conference on Electronics, Circuits and Systems (ICECS). Monte Carlo (Monaco), 2016, p. 604–607. DOI: 10.1109/ICECS.2016.7841274

Keywords: Periodic table of fundamental elements, higher-order elements, content, energy, action, evolution, Lagrangian, dissipation function, FDNR, inerter

**S. Costanzo**
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[DOI: 10.13164/re.2017.0406]
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Non-Invasive Microwave Sensors for Biomedical Applications: New Design Perspectives

The basic operation principles of non-invasive microwave sensors are summarized in this work, with specific emphasis on health-care systems applications. Design criteria to achieve reliable results in terms of biological parameters detection are specifically highlighted. In particular, the importance to adopt accurate frequency models for the complex permittivity (in terms of both dielectric constant as well as loss tangent) in the synthesis procedure of the microwave sensor is clearly motivated. Finally, an application example of the outlined new perspectives in the framework of glucose monitoring to face diabete disease is deeply discussed.

- NEHRING, J., NASR, I., BORUTTA, K., WEIGEL, R., KISSINGER, D. A silicon integrated microwave vector network analyzer for biomedical sensor read-out applications. In Proceedings of IEEE MTT-S International Microwave Symposium. Tampa (FL), 2014. DOI: 10.1109/MWSYM.2014.6848254
- KOELPIN, A., VINCI, G., LAEMMLE, B., KISSINGER, D., WEIGEL, R. The six port in modern society. IEEE Microwave Magazine, 2010, vol. 11, no. 7, p. 35–43. DOI: 10.1109/MMM.2010.938584
- ROSEN, A., STUCHLY, M. A., VANDER VORST, A. Applications of RF/microwaves in medicine. IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques, 2002, vol. 50, no. 3, p. 963–974. DOI: 10.1109/22.989979
- GRENIER, K., DUBUC, D., POLENI, P.-E., KUMEMURA, M., TOSHIYOSHI, H., FUJII, T., FUJITA, H. Integrated broadband microwave and microfluidic sensor dedicated to bioengineering. IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques, 2009, vol. 57, no. 12, p. 3246–3253. DOI: 10.1109/TMTT.2009.2034226
- JEAN, B. R., GREEN, E. C., MCCLUNG, M. J. A microwave frequency sensor for non-invasive blood-glucose measurement. In Proceedings of IEEE Sensors Applications Symposium. Atlanta (GA), 2008. DOI: 10.1109/SAS.2008.4472932
- AHMADI, M. M., JULLIEN, G. A. A wireless-implantable microsystem for continuous blood glucose monitoring. IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Circuits and Systems, 2009, vol. 3, no. 3, p. 169–180. DOI: 10.1109/TBCAS.2009.2016844
- COLE, K. S., COLE, R. H. Dispersion and absorption in dielectrics I. Alternating current characteristics. Journal of Chemical Physics, 1941, vol. 9, p. 341–351. DOI: 10.1063/1.1750906
- GABRIEL, S., LAU, R., W., GABRIEL, C. The dielectric properties of biological tissues: III. Parametric models for the dielectric spectrum of tissues. Physics in Medicine and Biology, 1996, vol. 41, no. 11, p. 2271–2293.
- KARACOLAK, T., HOOD, A., TOPSAKAL, E. Design of a dualband implantable antenna and development of skin mimicking gels for continuous glucose monitoring. IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques, 2008, vol. 56, no. 4, p. 1001–1008. DOI: 10.1109/TMTT.2008.919373
- VENKATARAMAN, J., FREER, B. Feasibility of non-invasive blood glucose monitoring. In Proceedings of IEEE International Symposium on Antennas and Propagation AP-S/URSI. Spokane (WA), 2011, p. 603–606. DOI: 10.1109/APS.2011.5996782
- BAGHBANI, R., RAD, M. A., POURZIAD, A. Microwave sensor for non-invasive glucose measurements design and implementation of a novel linear. IET Wireless Sensor Systems, 2015, vol. 5, no. 2, p. 51–57. DOI: 10.1049/iet-wss.2013.0099
- CHOI, H., NAYLON, J., LUZIO, S., BEUTLER, J., BIRCHALL, J., MARTIN, C., PORCH, A. Design and in vitro interference test of microwave noninvasive blood glucose monitoring sensor. IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques, 2015, vol. 63, no. 10, p. 3016–3025. DOI: 10.1109/TMTT.2015.2472019
- COSTANZO, S. Loss tangent effect on the accurate design of microwave sensors for blood glucose monitoring. In Proceedings of the 11th European Conference on Antennas and Propagation EuCAP. Paris (France), March 2017.

Keywords: Microwaves, sensors, biomedical applications, dielectric characterization.

**A. Collado, S. Daskalakis, K. Niotaki, R. Martinez, F. Bolos, A. Georgiadis**
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[DOI: 10.13164/re.2017.0411]
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Rectifier Design Challenges for RF Wireless Power Transfer and Energy Harvesting Systems

The design of wireless power transfer (WPT) and energy harvesting (EH) solutions poses different challenges towards achieving maximum RF-DC conversion efficiency in these systems. This paper covers several selected challenges when developing WPT and electromagnetic EH solutions, such as the design of multiband and broadband rectifiers, the minimization of the effect that load and input power variations may have on the system performance and finally the most optimum power combining mechanisms that can be used when dealing with multi-element rectifiers.

- RIZZOLI, V., BICHICCHI, G., COSTANZO, A., DONZELLI, F., MASOTTI, D. CAD of multi-resonator rectenna for micro-power generation. In 2009 European Microwave Integrated Circuits Conference (EuMIC). Rome (Italy), 2009, p. 331–334
- KEYROUZ, S., VISSER, H. J., TIJHUIS, A. G. Multi-band simultaneous radio frequency energy harvesting. In 7th European Conference on Antennas and Propagation (EuCAP). Gothenburg (Sweden), 2013, p. 3058–3061
- SCHEELER, R., KORHUMMEL, S., POPOVIC, Z. A dualfrequency ultralow-power efficient 0.5-g rectenna. IEEE Microwave Magazine, 2014, vol. 15, no. 1, p. 109–114. DOI: 10.1109/MMM.2013.2288836
- OKA, T., OGATA, T., SAITO, K., TANAKA, S. Triple-band single-diode microwave rectifier using CRLH transmission line. In Proceedings of 2014 Asia-Pacific Microwave Conference. Sendai (Japan), 2014, p. 1013–1015.
- COLLADO, A., GEORGIADIS, A. Conformal hybrid solar and electromagnetic (EM) energy harvesting rectenna. IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems I: Regular Papers, 2013, vol. 60, no. 8, p. 2225–2234. DOI: 10.1109/TCSI.2013.2239154
- BELO, D., GEORGIADIS, A., CARVALHO, N. B. Increasing wireless powered systems efficiency by combining WPT and electromagnetic energy harvesting. In 2016 IEEE Wireless Power Transfer Conference (WPTC). Aveiro (Portugal), 2016, 3 p. DOI: 10.1109/WPT.2016.7498836
- YONG HUANG, SHINOHARA, N., TOROMURA, H. A wideband rectenna for 2.4 GHz-band RF energy harvesting. In 2016 IEEE Wireless Power Transfer Conference (WPTC). Aveiro (Portugal), 2016, 3 p. DOI: 10.1109/WPT.2016.7498816
- TSAI, C. H., LIAO, I.N., PAKASIRI, C., PAN, H.C., WANG, Y.J. A wideband 20 mW UHF rectifier in CMOS. IEEE Microwave and Wireless Components Letters, 2015, vol. 25, no. 6, p. 388–390. DOI: 10.1109/LMWC.2015.2421357
- ABBASIAN, S., JOHNSON, T. High efficiency GaN HEMT synchronous rectifier with an octave bandwidth for wireless power applications. In 2016 IEEE MTT-S International Microwave Symposium (IMS). San Francisco (CA, USA), 2016, 4 p. DOI: 10.1109/MWSYM.2016.7540080
- HAGERTY, J. A., HELMBRECHT, F. B., MCCALPIN, W. H., ZANE, R., POPOVIC, Z. B. Recycling ambient microwave energy with broad-band rectenna arrays. IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques, 2004, vol. 52, no. 3, p. 1014–1024. DOI: 10.1109/TMTT.2004.823585
- KIMIONIS, J., COLLADO, A., TENTZERIS, M. M., GEORGIADIS, A. Octave and decade UWB rectifier based on non-uniform transmission lines for energy harvesting. IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques, accepted for publication.
- MARIAN, V., VOLLAIRE, C., VERDIER, J., ALLARD, B. Potentials of an adaptive rectenna circuit. IEEE Antennas and Wireless Propagation Letters, 2011, vol. 10, p. 1393–1396. DOI: 10.1109/LAWP.2011.2178225
- DEL PRETE, M., COSTANZO, A., GEORGIADIS, A., COLLADO, A., MASOTTI, D., POPOVIĆ, Z. A 2.45-GHz energy-autonomous wireless power relay node. IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques, 2015, vol. 63, no. 12, p. 4511–4520. DOI: 10.1109/TMTT.2015.2494003
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- NIOTAKI, K., GEORGIADIS, A., COLLADO, A., VARDAKAS, J. S. Dual-band resistance compression networks for improved rectifier performance. IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques, 2014, vol. 62, no. 12, p. 3512–3521. DOI: 10.1109/TMTT.2014.2364830
- GUTMANN, R. J., BORREGO, J. M. Power combining in an array of microwave power rectifiers. IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques, 1979, vol. 27, no. 12, p. 958–968. DOI: 10.1109/TMTT.1979.1129774
- SHINOHARA, N., MATSUMOTO, H. Dependence of DC output of a rectenna array on the method of interconnection of its array elements. Electrical Engineering in Japan, 1998, vol. 125, no. 1, p. 9–17. DOI: 10.1002/(SICI)1520-6416(199810)125:1<9::AIDEEJ2>3.0.CO;2-3
- POPOVIC, Z., KORHUMMEL, S., DUNBAR, S., et al. Scalable RF energy harvesting. IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques, 2014, vol. 62, no. 4, p. 1046–1056. DOI: 10.1109/TMTT.2014.2300840
- BOLOS, F., BELO, D., GEORGIADIS, A. A UHF rectifier with one octave bandwidth based on a non-uniform transmission line. In 2016 IEEE MTT-S International Microwave Symposium (IMS). San Francisco (CA, USA), May 2016, 3 p. DOI: 10.1109/MWSYM.2016.7540083
- FANO, R. M. Theoretical Limitations on the Broadband Matching of Arbitrary Impedances. Research Laboratory of Electronics, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, MA, Tech. Rep. No. 41, Jan. 2, 1948
- BOLOS, F., BLANCO, J., COLLADO, A., GEORGIADIS, A. RF energy harvesting from multi-tone and digitally modulated signals. IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques, 2016, vol. 64, no. 6, p. 1918–1927. DOI: 10.1109/TMTT.2016.2561923
- SAKAKI, H., KUROIWA, F., TSUJII, M., et al. A novel wide dynamic range rectifier design for wireless power transfer system. In 2014 Asia-Pacific Microwave Conference. Sendai (Japan), 2014, p. 1208–1210.

Keywords: Wireless power transfer, energy harvesting, rectifier, rectenna, Schottky diode, multiband rectifier, broadband rectifier, wideband rectifier.

**A. Dobesch, M. Figueiredo, L. N. Alves, O. Wilfert**
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[DOI: 10.13164/re.2017.0418]
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Performance Analysis of 8-bit ODACs for VLC Applications

A discrete optical power level stepping technique in visible light communication (VLC), also known, as an optical digital to analog conversion (ODAC) has been proposed. This is an alternative concept for VLC front-end design, able to mitigate the LED intrinsic non-linearity. Additionally, it removes the need of an electrical digital to analog conversion (EDAC) in the driver stage. This paper provides an experimental evaluation of two different ODAC front-ends. The results investigate the spatial relation between the optical front-end and the optical receiver. In addition, the performance evaluation employs dynamic test metrics rather than conventional static metrics previously reported in the literature.

- AYYASH, M., ELGALA, H., KHREISHAH, A., et al. Coexistence of WiFi and LiFi toward 5G: Concepts, opportunities, and challenges. IEEE Communications Magazine, 2016, p. 64–71. DOI: 10.1109/MCOM.2016.7402263
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- LAGRANGE, A., BONO, H., TEMPLIER, F. Monolithic LED arrays, next generation smart lighting sources. Proc. SPIE 9768, Light-Emitting Diodes: Materials, Devices, and Applications for Solid State Lighting XX, 97680X, 2016. DOI: 10.1117/12.2209574
- FIGUEIREDO, M., RIBEIRO, C. G., DOBESCH, A., ALVES, L. N., WILFERT, O. Real-time optical DAC-based OFDM visible light transceiver. IEEE Transactions on Consumer Electronics. (accepted for publication).
- YEW, J., DISSANAYAKE, S. D., ARMSTRONG, J. Performance of an experimental optical DAC used in a visible light communication system. In IEEE Globecom 2013 Workshop – Optical Wireless Communications. Atlanta (GA, USA), 2013, p. 1110–1115. DOI: 10.1109/GLOCOMW.2013.6825141
- DOBESCH, A., ALVES, L. N., WILFERT, O. Spatial ODAC performance for indoor environment. In 3rd International Workshop on Optical Wireless Communications (IWOW). Funchal (Portugal), 2014, p. 70–74. DOI: 10.1109/IWOW.2014.6950779
- DOBESCH, A., ALVES, L. N., WILFERT, O., RIBEIRO, C. G. Optical digital to analog conversion performance analysis for indoor set-up conditions. Optics Communications (accepted for publication May 11, 2017).
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Keywords: LED, VLC, Li-Fi, ODAC.

**T. Z. Meng, W. W. Wu, N. C. Yuan**
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[DOI: 10.13164/re.2017.0423]
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The Design and Analysis of Invisible Radome with Sandwich-like Properties

A novel thin radome made by metamaterial is presented, with the properties like the sandwich where the middle acts as a pass band filter at an expected frequency band, while others behave as absorbers. This new radome consists of three layers including metal goblets-shape the frequency selective surface (FSS) layer, a substrate and a resistive square loops. Compared with the traditional invisible radome, the new radome’s two absorptive bands were separated by one transmission band, which is a challenge for the traditional ones. Except for the analysis of absorption property, the effects of the radome for the antenna are also simulated and some useful conclusions are drawn. Also, it has the advantages of simple structure for the easy fabrication, which could be more attracting in practical radome.

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- ZHOU HANG, YANG LIWEI, QU SHAOBO, et.al, Experimental demonstration of an absorptive/transmissive FSS with magnetic material. IEEE Antennas and Wireless Propagation Letters, 2014, vol. 13, p. 114–117. DOI: 10.1109/LAWP.2013.2296992
- CHEN QIANG, FU YUNQI. A planar stealthy antenna radome using absorptive frequency selective surface. Microwave and Optical Technology Letter, 2014, vol. 56, no. 8, p. 1788–1792. DOI: 10.1002/mop.28442
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Keywords: Invisible radome, RCS reduction, resistive material.

**S. Kawdungta, P. Jaibanauem, R. Pongga, C. Phongcharoenpanich**
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[DOI: 10.13164/re.2017.0430]
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Superstrate-integrated Switchable Beam Rectangular Microstrip Antenna for Gain Enhancement

This research has proposed a switchable beam rectangular microstrip antenna with double parasitic patches, in which two PIN diodes were deployed for manipulation of the main beam direction and a superstrate (i.e. either a dielectric slab or metamaterial) for enhancement of the antenna gain. The dielectric slab is a second FR4 substrate while the metamaterial (MTM) is the 7×17 periodic structure of planar cycloid dipoles (PCD). Simulations were carried out and three different antenna prototypes (i.e. the proposed switchable beam rectangular microstrip antenna, the proposed antenna either with dielectric slab or MTM) fabricated and experimented. The simulation and experimental results are in good agreement and exhibit good impedance matching (|S11|<-10dB) along the operating frequency. The average measured gain is 7 dBi with the unidirectional radiation pattern along the operating frequency. The proposed switchable antennas with and without the superstrate are operable in the 2.4-2.5 GHz WLAN system and switchable in three directions of 0 deg, 30 deg and 330 deg (xy-plane). Moreover, the findings validate the applicability of either the dielectric slab or three MTM block-layers as the superstrate to improve the antenna gain.

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Keywords: Gain enhancement, metamaterial, microstrip, parasitic patch, PIN diode, switched beam, superstrate

**A. A. Ibrahim, W. Ali, J. Machac**
[references] [full-text]
[DOI: 10.13164/re.2017.0438]
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UWB Monopole Antenna with Band Notched Characteristics Mitigating Interference with WiMAX

Compact asymmetric coplanar strip (ACS) - fed monopole antenna is presented in this paper for operation in ultra wide-band (UWB) applications. The antenna is composed of a semi-elliptical monopole and lateral coplanar ground plane to operate in the UWB range. It occupies a very small size of 28 × 11.5 mm 2 and is mounted on low cost FR4 substrate of 1.6 mm thickness and dielectric constant of 4.4. Band notched structure is applied to the proposed antenna to assure the rejection of WiMAX frequency band centered at 3.5 GHz to minimize the interference of the communication system with this service. The radiation characteristics of the proposed ACS-fed monopole antenna is nearly omnidirectional with moderate gain over the entire UWB frequency range. The measurements of the fabricated model confirm the designed behavior. The compactness in size, cheap cost and simple feeding technique make it as a good candidate to be integrated within the portable devices for wireless communication.

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Keywords: UWB monopole antenna, band notched characteristics, WiMAX.

**I. T. E. Elfergani, J. Rodriguez , F. M. Abdussalam , C. H. See , R. A. Abd-Alhameed**
[references] [full-text]
[DOI: 10.13164/re.2017.0444]
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Miniaturized Balanced Antenna with Integrated Balun for Practical LTE Applications

A design of dual-band balanced antenna structure operating in the 700 and 2600MHz LTE bands is studied and investigated. The overall dimensions of the radiator are 50 × 18 × 7 mm^3 allowing it to be easily concealed within mobile handsets. A broad-band balun is designed and integrated with the antenna handset in order to provide the feeding network and perform the measurements of the antenna radiation performance. Prototypes of proposed antenna with and without balun are fabricated and verified. The simulated and practical results with and without the handheld effects in terms of reflection coefficient, power gain and radiation pattern, are studied and shown reasonable agreement.

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Keywords: Balanced antenna, printed dipole, dual-band, LTE, balun

**A. Habib, S. Ansar, A. Akram, M. Awais Azam, Y. Amin, H. Tenhunnen**
[references] [full-text]
[DOI: 10.13164/re.2017.0453]
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Directly Printable Organic ASK Based Chipless RFID Tag for IoT Applications

A chipless RFID tag with unique ASK encoding technique is presented in this paper. The coding efficiency is enhanced regarding tag capacity. The amplitude varia¬tions of the backscattered RFID signal is used for encoding data instead of OOK. Strips of different widths are used to have amplitude variations. The ASK technique is applied using three different substrates of Kapton®HN, PET, and paper. To incorporate ASK technique, dual polarized rhombic shaped resonators are designed. These tags operate in the frequency range of 3.1–10.6 GHz with size of 70 × 42 mm^2. The presented tags are flexible and offer easy printability. The paper-based decomposable organic tag appears as an ultra low-cost solution for wide scale tracking. This feature enables them to secure a prominent position in the emerging fields of IoT and green electronics.

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Keywords: Internet-of-Things (IoT), Radio Frequency Identification (RFID), chipless, Amplitude Shift Keying (ASK), resistive strip, coupling, damping

**K. Dwarika, H. Xu.**
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[DOI: 10.13164/re.2017.0461]
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Power Allocation and Low Complexity Detector for Differential Full Diversity Spatial Modulation Using Two Transmit Antennas

Differential full diversity spatial modulation (DFD-SM) is a differential spatial modulation scheme that makes use of a cyclic unitary M-ary phase shift keying (M-PSK) constellation to achieve diversity gains at both the transmitter and receiver. In this paper, we extend the power allocation concept of generalized differential modulation (GDM) to DFD-SM to improve its block-error rate (BLER). A novel power allocation scheme is formulated, and its optimum power allocation is derived. An asymptotic upper bound is presented for the new scheme and results are verified through Monte Carlo simulations. It can be seen that for a large enough frame length, the proposed scheme can almost achieve coherent performance. We also propose a low complexity detection scheme for DFD-SM. We evaluate the computational complexity of the maximum-likelihood (ML) detector and compare it to that of the proposed algorithm. It is shown that our scheme is independent of the constellation size. Numerical simulations of the BLER are presented, and it can be seen that the proposed scheme provides near ML performance throughout the entire signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) range with a complexity reduction of about 55% and 52% for one and two receive antennas respectively, in the high SNR region.

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Keywords: Spatial Modulation (SM), differential spatial modulation (DSM), full transmit diversity, maximumlikelihood (ML) decoding, computational complexity

**T. Shuminoski, T. Janevski**
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[DOI: 10.13164/re.2017.0470]
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5G Terminals with Multi-Streaming Features for Real-Time Mobile Broadband Applications

In this paper we present a novel QoS framework on the network layer for 5G terminals with vertical multi-homing and multi-streaming capabilities by using radio networks aggregation. The proposed framework is leading to high performance utility networks with QoS provisioning for real-time multimedia services by achieving low packet delays, stochastic queuing network stability and highest mobile broadband capabilities i.e. bitrates. The proposed QoS algorithm is implemented within the mobile terminals on one side, and in dedicated proxy servers on mobile core network side. It is based on Lyapunov optimization techniques and it is targeted to handle simultaneously multiple multimedia service flows via multiple radio network interfaces in parallel.

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Keywords: 5G, Lyapunov optimization, Quality of Service, Radio Access Technology, vertical multi-homing

**M. Kenyeres, J. Kenyeres, V. Skorpil, R. Burget**
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[DOI: 10.13164/re.2017.0479]
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Distributed Aggregate Function Estimation by Biphasically Configured Metropolis-Hasting Weight Model

An energy-efficient estimation of an aggregate function can significantly optimize a global event detection or monitoring in wireless sensor networks. This is probably the main reason why an optimization of the complementary consensus algorithms is one of the key challenges of the lifetime extension of the wireless sensor networks on which the attention of many scientists is paid. In this paper, we introduce an optimized weight model for the average consensus algorithm. It is called the Biphasically configured Metropolis-Hasting weight model and is based on a modification of the Metropolis-Hasting weight model by rephrasing the initial configuration into two parts. The first one is the default configuration of the Metropolis-Hasting weight model, while, the other one is based on a recalculation of the weights allocated to the adjacent nodes’ incoming values at the cost of decreasing the value of the weights of the inner states. The whole initial configuration is executed in a fully-distributed manner. In the experimental section, it is proven that our optimized weight model significantly optimizes the Metropolis-Hasting weight model in several aspects and achieves better results compared with other concurrent weight models.

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Keywords: Distributed computing, aggregate function, average consensus algorithm, metropolis-hasting weight model, wireless sensor networks

**D. Yuan, H. D. Quan, H. X. Sun**
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[DOI: 10.13164/re.2017.0496]
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Effect Analysis of Time and Carrier Frequency Offset on the Performance of Distributed Transmit Beamforming for Emergency Radio

In emergency radio scenario, distributed transmit beamforming (DTBF) enables a set of distributed radio nodes to transmit cooperatively to get a better performance. DTBF performance has been analyzed for various node distributions in the literature. However, time offset (TO) and carrier frequency offset (CFO) may exist between transmitting nodes, due to each radio node is equipped with its own clock circuit and local oscillator. Effect analysis of TO and CFO on DTBF performance is an open issue. This paper evaluates the effect of TO and CFO on performance of DTBF for arbitrary node distributions. In this study, TO and CFO are converted into phase offset (PO), and non-parametric kernel method is used to calculate the PDFs of node and offsets. Theoretical analysis and simulation results show that TO and CFO result in degradation of the mainlobe power and affect the beampattern characteristics.

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Keywords: Distributed transmit beamforming, emergency radio, time offset, carrier frequency offset, non-parametric kernel method

**L. Kirasamuthranon, J. Koseeyaporn, P. Wardkein**
[references] [full-text]
[DOI: 10.13164/re.2017.0504]
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QPSK Modulator with Continuous Phase and Fast Response Based on Phase-Locked Loop

Among M-phase shift keying (M-PSK) schemes, quadrature phase-shift keying (QPSK) is used most often because of its efficient bandwidth consumption. However, in comparison with minimum-shift keying, which has continuous phase transitions, QPSK requires a higher bandwidth to transmit a signal. This article focuses on the phase transitions in QPSK signals, and a QPSK modulator based on a phase-locked loop (PLL) is proposed. The PLL circuit in the proposed system differs from that of conventional PLL circuits because a three-input XOR gate and a summing circuit are used. With these additional components, the proposed PLL provides a continuous phase change in the QPSK signal. Consequently, the required bandwidth for transmitting the QPSK signal when using the proposed circuit is less than that for a conventional QPSK signal with a discontinuous phase. The analytical results for the proposed system in the time domain agree well with the experimental and simulation results of the circuit. Both the theoretical and experimental results thus confirm that the proposed technique can be realized in real-world applications.

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Keywords: QPSK, Phase Locked Loop (PLL), phase shift

**M. Jelinek, J. Jakovenko**
[references] [full-text]
[DOI: 10.13164/re.2017.0515]
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An Effect of Output Capacitor ESL on Hysteretic PLL Controlled Multiphase Buck Converter

This paper provides analysis of output capacitor effects to phase stability of a hysteretic mode controlled buck converter. The hysteretic control method is a simple and fast control technique for switched-mode converters, but the hysteresis control is not oscillator referenced. It results in difficulty to achieve stable switching phase and frequency. In recent papers, the authors propose a use of phase locked loops (PLL) to permit interleaved multiphase operation where each voltage regulator (VR) module is coupled together via output node and leads to a strong loop interaction. In this work analysis of this interaction is studied by Matlab Simulink simulations and a new solution how to partially suppress this effect is given. The proposed method confirms the theoretical analysis.

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Keywords: SMPS, Buck, hysteretic mode control, interleaving, PLL, multi-phase.

**K. Khaw-Ngam, M. Kumngern, F. Khateb**
[references] [full-text]
[DOI: 10.13164/re.2017.0522]
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Mixed-Mode Third-Order Quadrature Oscillator Based on Single MCCFTA

This paper presents a new mixed-mode third-order quadrature oscillator based on new modified current-controlled current follower transconductance amplifier (MCCFTA). The proposed circuit employs one MCCFTA as active element and three grounded capacitors as passive component which is highly suitable for integrated circuit implementation. The condition and frequency of oscillations can be controlled orthogonally and electronically by adjusting the bias currents of the active device. The circuit provides four quadrature current outputs and two quadrature voltage outputs into one single topology, which can be classified as mixed-mode oscillator. In addition, four quadrature current output terminals possess high-impedance level which can be directly connected to next stage without additional buffer circuits. The performance of the proposed structure has been verified through PSPICE simulators using 0.25 µm CMOS process from TSMC and experimental results are also investigated.

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Keywords: third-order quadrature oscillator, mixed-mode oscillator, modified current-controlled current follower transconductance amplifier (MCCFTA)

**M. Cedillo-Hernandez, A. Cedillo-Hernandez, F. Garcia-Ugalde, M. Nakano-Miyatake, H. Perez-Meana**
[references] [full-text]
[DOI: 10.13164/re.2017.0536]
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Digital Color Images Ownership Authentication via Efficient and Robust Watermarking in a Hybrid Domain

We propose an efficient, imperceptible and highly robust digital watermarking scheme applied to color images for ownership authentication purposes. A hybrid domain for embedding the same watermark is used in this algorithm, which is composed by a couple of watermarking techniques based on spread spectrum and frequency domain. The visual quality is measured by three metrics called Peak Signal to Noise Ratio (PSNR), Structural Similarity Index (SSIM) and Visual Information Fidelity (VIF). The difference color between the original and watermarked image is computed using the Normalized Color Difference (NCD) measure. Experimentation shows that the proposed method provides high robustness against several geometric distortions including large image cropping, removal attacks, image replacement and affine transformation; signal processing operations including several image filtering, JPEG lossy compression, visual watermark added and noisy image, as well as combined distortions between all of them. Also, we present a comparison with some previously published methods which reported outstanding results and have a similar purpose that our proposal, i.e. they are focused in robust watermarking.

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Keywords: Robust digital watermarking; ownership authentication; spread spectrum; discrete Fourier transform; discrete Contourlet transform.

**P. K. Dhar, T. Shimamura**
[references] [full-text]
[DOI: 10.13164/re.2017.0552]
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Blind Audio Watermarking in Transform Domain Based on Singular Value Decomposition and Exponential-Log Operations

Digital watermarking has drawn extensive attention for copyright protection of multimedia data. This paper introduces a blind audio watermarking scheme in discrete cosine transform (DCT) domain based on singular value decomposition (SVD), exponential operation (EO), and logarithm operation (LO). In our proposed scheme, initially the original audio is segmented into non-overlapping frames and DCT is applied to each frame. Low frequency DCT coefficients are divided into sub-bands and power of each sub band is calculated. EO is performed on the sub-band with highest power of the DCT coefficients of each frame. SVD is applied to the exponential coefficients of each sub bands with highest power represented in matrix form. Watermark information is embedded into the largest singular value by using a quantization function. Simulation results indicate that the proposed watermarking scheme is highly robust against different attacks. In addition, it has high data payload and shows low error probability rates. Moreover, it provides good performance in terms of imperceptibility, robustness, and data payload compared with some recent state-of-the-art watermarking methods.

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Keywords: Copyright protection, Discrete Cosine Transform, Singular Value Decomposition (SVD), Exponential Operation (EO), Logarithm Operation (LO)

**K. B. Cui, W. W. Wu, J. J. Huang, X. Chen, N. C. Yuan**
[references] [full-text]
[DOI: 10.13164/re.2017.0562]
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2D DOA Estimation of UCA Correlative Interferometer Based on One Dimensional Sorting Lookup Table-Two Dimensional Linear Interpolation Algorithm

In order to improve the direction-finding efficiency of the correlative interferometer and reduce the size of the lookup table, this paper proposes the one dimensional sorting lookup table-two dimensional linear interpolation (1DSLUT-2DLI) algorithm. Firstly, the uniform circular array (UCA) model is established and the direction finding (DF) theory of the correlative interferometer is analyzed. A new lookup table is obtained by proceeding the ascending order for the first dimensional phase differences and a one dimensional iterative filtering method is used to look up the new table to get the direction of arrival (DOA) estimation. Compared to the exist methods, the 1DSLUT algorithm can reduce the computational complexity greatly. Considering the burden of a big lookup table, this paper proposes the 2DLI algorithm. Through the Taylor expansion, the conclusion that the phase difference is approximately linear in a small angle range is obtained. So, the linear interpolation can be applied to calculate the phase differences in the azimuth direction and elevation direction. On this basis, we conclude the equations to get the DOA estimation using the 2DLI algorithm. In this way, the size of the lookup table is reduced greatly, which decreases the computational complexity greatly also. The numerical simulations verify the effectiveness of the 1DSLUT-2DLI algorithm and it can obtain a pretty high DOA estimation precision with a low computational complexity and a small lookup table.

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Keywords: UCA, correlative interferometer, 2D DOA estimation, direction-finding, 1DSLUT-2DLI algorithm

**P. Li, H. Ge, J. Yang**
[references] [full-text]
[DOI: 10.13164/re.2017.0573]
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Adaptive Measurement Partitioning Algorithm for a Gaussian Inverse Wishart PHD Filter that Tracks Closely Spaced Extended Targets

Use of the Gaussian inverse Wishart probability hypothesis density (GIW-PHD) filter has demonstrated promise as an approach to track an unknown number of extended targets. However, when targets of various sizes are spaced closely together and performing maneuvers, estimation errors will occur because measurement partitioning algorithms fail to provide the correct partitions. Specifically, the sub-partitioning algorithm fails to handle cases in which targets are of different sizes, while other partitioning approaches are sensitive to target maneuvers. This paper presents an improved partitioning algorithm for a GIW-PHD filter in order to solve the above problems. The sub-partitioning algorithm is improved by considering target extension information and by employing Mahalanobis distances to distinguish among measurement cells of different sizes. Thus, the improved approach is not sensitive to either differences in target sizes or target maneuvering. Simulation results show that the use of the proposed partitioning approach can improve the tracking performance of a GIW-PHD filter when target are spaced closely together.

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Keywords: Target tracking, extended target, filtering, GIW PHD filter, measurement partition

**M. Nazari Majd, M. Radmard, M. M. Chitgarha, M. H. Bastani, M. M. Nayebi**
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[DOI: 10.13164/re.2017.0581]
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Detection-Localization Tradeoff in MIMO Radars

Two gains play key roles in recently developed MIMO wireless communication systems: "spatial diversity" gain and "spatial multiplexing" gain. The diversity gain refers to the capability to decrease the error rate of the MIMO channel, while the multiplexing gain implicitly refers to the amount of increase in the capacity of the MIMO channel. It has been shown that there is a fundamental tradeoff between these two types of gains, meaning interplay between increasing reliability (via an increase in the diversity gain) and increasing data rate (via an increase in the multiplexing gain). On the other hand, recently, MIMO radars have attracted much attention for their superior ability to enhance the system's performance. As a MIMO system, it is expected that the mentioned diversity-multiplexing tradeoff exists in a MIMO radar, too. In this paper, this tradeoff is studied and verified in MIMO radars with widely separated antennas. In more details, it will be shown that increasing dependency between transmit-receive links results in higher diversity gain and lower multiplexing gain, and vice versa. Then, the optimal tradeoff is introduced, i.e., the conditions that the MIMO radar system should have, so that the diversity-multiplexing tradeoff is at its optimum point, are driven.

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Keywords: MIMO radar, widely separated antennas, detection, localization, tradeoff

**H. Hou, X. Mao**
[references] [full-text]
[DOI: 10.13164/re.2017.0588]
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DOA Estimation of Uncorrelated, Partly Correlated and Coherent Signals Using Alternating Oblique Projection

The problem of direction-of-arrival (DOA) estimation is important in array signal processing. To estimate the DOAs of uncorrelated, partly correlated and coherent signals, a new iterative DOA estimation algorithm, named AOP-DOA, is proposed by using alternating oblique projection (AOP). In each iteration, the oblique projection approach is employed to separate the received signals, then the DOA of each separated signal is estimated one after another. After theoretical analysis on the relationship between the proposed AOP-DOA and the conventional alternating projection based maximum likelihood estimator (AP-MLE), an AOP&AP-DOA algorithm, which is a combination of AOP-DOA and AP-MLE, is developed to reduce the computational complexity of AOP-DOA. Extensive experiments validate the effectiveness and complexity of the proposed two algorithms. Particularly, AOP&AP-DOA keeps the merits of AOP-DOA, but exhibits superiority over AOP-DOA in terms of computational complexity when proper adaptive grid refinement strategy is applied.

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Keywords: Oblique projection, direction-of-arrival (DOA) estimation, maximum likelihood (ML), coherent signal

**B. Ali, N. Zamir, S. X. Ng, M. F. U. Butt**
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[DOI: 10.13164/re.2017.0601]
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Distributed Matching Algorithms: Maximizing Secrecy in the Presence of Untrusted Relay

In this paper, we propose a secrecy sum-rate maximization based matching algorithm between primary transmitters and secondary cooperative jammers in the presence of an eavesdropper. More explicitly, we consider an untrusted relay scenario, where the relay is a potential eavesdropper. We first show the achievable secrecy regions employing a friendly jammer in a cooperative scenario with employing an untrusted relay. Then, we provide results for the secrecy regions for two scenarios, where in the first case we consider no direct transmission between the source and the destination, while in the second case we include a source to destination direct link in our communication system. Furthermore, a friendly jammer helps to send a noise signal during the first phase of the cooperative transmission, for securing the information transmitted from the source. In our matching algorithm, the selected cooperative jammer or the secondary user, is rewarded with the spectrum allocation for a fraction of time slot from the source which is the primary user. The Conventional Distributed Algorithm (CDA) and the Pragmatic Distributed Algorithm (PDA), which were originally designed for maximising the user’s sum rate, are modified and adapted for maximizing the secrecy sum-rate for the primary user. Instead of assuming perfect modulation and/or perfect channel coding, we have also investigated our proposed schemes when practical channel coding and modulation schemes are invoked.

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Keywords: Physical Layer Security, Spectrum Matching, Game Theory, Spectrum Sharing, Cognitive Radio Networks.

**Z. Hasirci, I. H. Cavdar, M. Ozturk**
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[DOI: 10.13164/re.2017.0611]
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Modeling and Link Performance Analysis of Busbar Distribution Systems for Narrowband PLC

Busbar distribution system is used as a modular infrastructure to carry electrical energy in low voltage grid. Due to the widespread usage in industrial areas, the power line communication possibilities should be investigated in terms of smart grid concept. This paper addresses modeling of the busbar distribution system as a transmission line and gives some suggestions on the link performance for narrowband power line communication for the first time in literature. Firstly, S-parameters of different current level busbars were measured up to 500 kHz for all possible two-port signal paths. The utilization of the frequency-dependent model was proposed to extract transmission line characteristics to eliminate the unwanted measurement effects. Particle swarm algorithm was used to optimize the model parameters with a good agreement between measured and simulated S-parameters. Additionally, link performance of busbar distribution system as a power line communication channel at 3 kHz-148.5 kHz band was examined for frequency shift keying and phase shift keying modulations under different network configurations such as varying busbar type, the line length between transmitter and receiver, branch number, and terminating load impedance. Obtained results were presented as bit-error-rate vs. signal to noise ratio graphs.

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Keywords: Bit-error-rate, busbar, channel capacity, channel modeling, M2M, narrow band, parameter optimization, power line communication, smart grid, S-parameters.