# September 2021, Volume 30, Number 3 [DOI: 10.13164/re.2021-3]

**E. Udvary**
[references] [full-text]
[DOI: 10.13164/re.2021.0463]
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Photonic Approach to Phased Array Application

Many applications, including phased array antennas, require a significant and tunable time delay, which pure electrical methods cannot establish. A variable microwave true-time delay line utilizing a photonic approach is presented in this paper. The variation of the delay is achieved by the application of dispersive fiber and tunable laser. With this method, the tunable delay line can control multiple radiating elements. In this paper, both DWDM and CWDM solutions are theoretically investigated and compared. The experimental work applying DWDM tunable laser validates the theoretical analysis. Finally, the Phased array concept is presented, and the system simulation shows the operation. The suggested phased array feeding method requires only one laser source, an external intensity modulator, passive combiners, and dividers instead of multiple optical transmitters with multiplexers and demultiplexers.

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Keywords: Phased array antennas, optical delay line, microwave photonics

**P. Hubka, J. Lacik**
[references] [full-text]
[DOI: 10.13164/re.2021.0470]
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Design of a Linearly Polarized HMSIW U-Slot Antenna

In this paper, a characteristic modal analysis and a design guide of a linearly polarized HMSIW U-slot antenna is proposed. The presented characteristic modal analysis of the antenna explains its multi-modal behavior in the centimeter frequency band. Further, in this paper there is a design guide of the antenna for several dielectric substrates. Exploitation of the design guide is demonstrated on the design of several antenna examples which are finally experimentally verified in a laboratory environment.

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Keywords: HMSIW, slot antenna, characteristic modal analysis, design guide

**A. Kumar, M. Kumar, A. K. Singh**
[references] [full-text]
[DOI: 10.13164/re.2021.0480]
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Substrate Integrated Waveguide Cavity Backed Wideband Slot Antenna for 5G Applications

In this article, a study of wideband substrate integrated waveguide (SIW) cavity based slot antenna is presented. The proposed antenna consists of a U-shaped slot etched in the ground plane which helps in achieving the wideband behaviour. A detailed analysis of the SIW cavity and prediction of various modes propagating inside it using accurate design equations are discussed. An equivalent circuit modeling of the proposed antenna along with surface current distributions at various resonating frequencies is also performed. Parametric study on various parameters to improve the performance in terms of wide impedance bandwidth, gain and efficiency levels are also discussed in detail. The fabricated prototype of the proposed SIW antenna shows the reflection coefficient S11 <= 10 dB in frequency range from 26.20-30.30 GHz (14.51%) which are in good agreement with the simulated results. A peak gain and maximum radiation efficiency of 7.65 dBi and 91.29%, respectively. A low variation in peak gain (+/-0.26 dBi) and radiation efficiency (+/-0.09%) within the operating frequency range is seen. A good matching characteristics along with good level of gain, radiation efficiency levels and stable radiation patterns makes the proposed antenna a suitable candidate for 5G applications.

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- GHARBI, I., BARRAK, R., DIALLO, A., et al. Investigation of stacked balanced-fed patch antenna for millimeter-wave application. Radioengineering, 2020, vol. 29, no. 3, p. 452–459. DOI: 10.13164/re.2020.0452
- HAN, W., YANG, F., OUYANG, J., et al. Low-cost wideband and high-gain slotted cavity antenna using high-order modes for millimeter-wave application. IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation, 2015, vol. 63, no. 11, p. 4624–4631. DOI: 10.1109/TAP.2015.2473658

Keywords: 5G applications, cavity-backed slotted antenna, substrate integrated waveguide (SIW), wideband

**S. Patra, S. K. Mandal, G. K. Mahanti, N. N. Pathak**
[references] [full-text]
[DOI: 10.13164/re.2021.0488]
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Linear and Non-Linear Synthesis of Unequally Spaced Time-Modulated Linear Arrays Using Evolutionary Algorithms

A novel method of designing unequally spaced time-modulated arrays (UESTMAs) by handling fewer optimization parameters with reduced problem dimension is presented in this paper. For synthesizing UESTMA, two design parameters, specifically, the non-linear parameter - element position, and the linear parameter – on-time durations are optimized in two steps. Different possible cases of linear and non-linear synthesis methods such as, position-only (PO), on-time only (OTO), position then on-time (PTOT), on-time then position (OTTP), and simultaneous position on-time (SPOT) are considered. To examine the performance of the synthesis methods, three global search stochastic algorithms based on differential evolution (DE), teaching-learning-based optimization (TLBO) and quantum particle swarm optimization (QPSO) have been employed to achieve the array pattern with significantly suppressed side lobe levels and sideband levels. Through comparative study, it is observed that the two step non-liner to linear synthesis method by fewer optimization parameters is efficient to provide better pattern with less computation time.

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Keywords: Time-modulation, position-only, on-time only, position on-time, side lobe level, sideband level

**A. Magdum, M. Erramshetty, R. P. K. Jagannath**
[references] [full-text]
[DOI: 10.13164/re.2021.0496]
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An Exponential Filtering Based Inversion Method for Microwave Imaging

In this paper, a new methodology based on the exponential filtering of singular values is adopted to solve the linear ill-posed problem of microwave imaging. This technique filters out the insignificant singular values and works as an efficient low pass filter to eliminate high-frequency noise from the estimated solution. Standard Tikhonov regularization has also proven to be a special case of this method. To show the effectiveness of this approach, various numerical examples of synthetic data and experimental data of Fresnel's Institute are considered for the study. The reconstruction performance of this algorithm is quantified using the mean square error (MSE) and Pearson's correlation coefficient (PCC). Further, the effect of noise on these metrics is presented. The results are compared with the standard Tikhonov regularization method, and it is observed that the proposed reconstruction algorithm provides accurate results compared to the standard Tikhonov regularization method.

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Keywords: Exponential filtering, ill-posed problem, microwave imaging, singular values, Tikhonov regularization

**X. Y. Weng, K. D. Xu, Y. J. Guo, A. X. Zhang, Q. Chen**
[references] [full-text]
[DOI: 10.13164/re.2021.0504]
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High-Selectivity Bandpass Filter Based on Two Merged Ring Resonators

A high-selectivity bandpass filter (BPF) based on two merged ring resonators is presented in this paper. The structure of this proposed BPF can be seen as the two one-wavelength ring resonators merged each other by sharing the common λg/2 microstrip line. Due to symmetric structure, it can be analyzed by even- and odd-mode method and the locations of six transmission zeros are calculated using input impedance deductions. For further demonstration, a BPF example centered at 2 GHz is fabricated with high frequency selectivity. The measured 3-dB fractional bandwidth is 11% (1.89-2.11 GHz) and insertion loss is less than 2 dB in the passband. Good agreement between simulation and measurement verifies the feasibility of the design method.

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Keywords: Bandpass filter, coupled-line structures, high selectivity, transmission zeros

**B. Wang, Y. W. Sun, G. G. Wei, X. T. Wang, H. M. Gao**
[references] [full-text]
[DOI: 10.13164/re.2021.0510]
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Research on Test Method of Ignition Temperature of Electric Explosive Device under Electromagnetic Pulse

The safety and reliability of electric explosive device, as the most sensitive initiating energy for igniting powder and explosive, directly impact those of weapon system. The safety and reliability of the electric explosion device were determined by the ignition temperature of the electric explosion device. Based on the conservation of energy and Fourier's law, a mathematical model was built for the relationship between the temperature rise of the bridge line and the amplitude of the electromagnetic pulse. In the experiment, the semiconductor band gap temperature measurement technology was used, and the correctness of the mathematical model was verified by altering the amplitude of the pulse signal. Then, the 50% ignition excitation of the device was determined with the Bruceton method and the statistical theory. According to the built mathematical model, the ignition temperature of the electric explosion device was determined as 412 ℃. In this paper, the measurement method of the ignition temperature of the electric explosive device was developed, which could act as a technical means for the safety assessment of the electromagnetic environment of the weapon system. Moreover, this method is critical to improve the safety and survivability of the weapon system in the complex electromagnetic environment.

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Keywords: Electric explosive device, electromagnetic pulse, weapon, ignition temperature, electromagnetic environment

**Z. Zhu, Z. Wang, Y. Bai, H. Liu, S. Fang**
[references] [full-text]
[DOI: 10.13164/re.2021.0517]
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High-Selectivity Reflectionless Unbalanced-to-Balanced Filtering Power Combiner

A high-selectivity reflectionless unbalanced-to-balanced (UTB) filtering power combiner is proposed. The proposed power combiner composes of two absorbing branches, two filtering sections, two transmission lines, a grounded resistor, and a phase inverter. Two transmission zeros respectively located at the lower and upper sides of the passband are achieved by the filtering sections, resulting in high selectivity. The input-port reflectionless response in the bandstop region is obtained by the absorbing branch. A 1.0-GHz UTB filtering power combiner is designed and fabricated. Finally, the measurement performances are given in this paper. The input-reflection absorptive bandwidth and transmission bandwidth are measured as 545 MHz and 132 MHz, respectively. The absorptive bandwidth is 4.12 times the transmission bandwidth.

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- PSYCHOGIOU, D., GOMEZ-GARCIA, R. Reflectionless adaptive RF filters: Bandpass, bandstop, and cascade designs. IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques, 2017, vol. 65, no. 11, p. 4593–4605. DOI: 10.1109/TMTT.2017.2734086
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Keywords: Power combiner, reflectionless response, unbalanced-to-balanced, high-selectivity filtering

**S. Sakouhi, H. Raggad, A. Gharsallah, M. Latrach**
[references] [full-text]
[DOI: 10.13164/re.2021.0524]
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Radio Frequency Identification Sensing Chipless Tag for Permittivity Monitoring of Specific Sizes Materials

In this paper, a novel Radio Frequency Identification chipless tag for permittivity sensing characterized by a reduced size, an original shape and a low manufacturing cost is presented. The tag consists of a linear shape taken with multiple linear slots etched on the metal patch, ensuring a multi-frequency response. It enables the development of a robust tag with 8 bits as data capacity within a reduced surface is of 17.5×23 mm². Hence, using the frequency Domain Approach, the chipless tag is able to obtain more than 64 different binary states, by the utilization of the frequency shifting technique and the bandwidth distribution. Also, the operating frequency band ranges from 3.5 to 6.5 GHz. The new design is simulated, realized and experimentally validated by a bi-static measurement in the anechoic chamber. Then, preliminary tests are used for defining the Radio Frequency sensing chipless tag for permittivity monitoring, and proving its feasibility to control the evolution of a material over time or after use.

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Keywords: Radio Frequency Identification (RFID), Frequency Domain Approach (FDA), Ultra Wide Band (UWB), Electro-Magnetic Signal (EMS), permittivity sensor

**B. B. Qi, W. Li**
[references] [full-text]
[DOI: 10.13164/re.2021.0532]
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An Improved Multiple-Toeplitz Matrices Reconstruction Algorithm for DOA Estimation of Coherent Signals

The Toeplitz matrix reconstruction algorithms exploit the row vector of an array output covariance matrix to reconstruct Toeplitz matrix, which provide the direction-of-arrival (DOA) estimation of coherent signals. However, the Toeplitz matrix reconstruction method based on any row vector of the array output covariance matrix suffers from signal correlation, it results in poor robustness. The methods based on multi-row vectors suffer serious performance degradation when in the low signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) owing to the noise energy is the square of the input noise energy. To solve the above problems, we propose an improved method that exploits all rows of the time-space correlation matrix to reconstruct the Toeplitz matrix, namely TS-MTOEP. This method firstly uses the coherence of the narrowband signal and the uncorrelated noise at different snapshots to construct the time-space correlation matrix, it effectively eliminates the influence of noise. Then, the Toeplitz matrix is reconstructed via all rows of the time-space correlation matrix, which effectively improves the energy of the signal, and further results in the improvement of the SNR. Finally, the DOAs can be obtained by combining it with the subspace-based methods. The theoretical analysis and simulation results indicate that compared with the existing Toeplitz and spatial smoothing methods, the proposed method in this paper provides good performance on estimation and resolution in cases with low input signal-to-noise due to time-space correlation matrix processing. Furthermore, in cases where the DOAs between the coherent sources are closely spaced and the snapshot number is low, our proposed method significantly improves the performance of the DOA estimation. We also provide the code to realize the reproducibility of the proposed method.

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Keywords: Coherent signals, DOA estimation, subspace-based methods, time-space correlation matrix, Toeplitz reconstruction

**Y. P. Sun, G. Q. Dou, M. L. Yan**
[references] [full-text]
[DOI: 10.13164/re.2021.0540]
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Nested Tail-Biting Convolutional Codes Construction for Short Packet Communications

Tail-biting convolutional codes (TBCCs) have become a research hotspot in the short-block-length regime due to the growing interest in strong short packet com-munications with low latency and ultra-reliability. TBCCs can maintain the decoding performance without rate loss caused by the tailed bits in the traditional convolutional encoder, which also have good rate compatibility with bet¬ter decoding performance than those of the iterative scheme for short block length codes. In this paper, a search algorithm is proposed to construct a set of rate-compatible TBCCs (RC-TBCCs) with consistent good frame error rate (FER) performance for fixed information length at various code rates. The algorithm considers the minimum distance profile of TBCCs. A set of RC-TBCCs is constructed for code rates from 1/3 to 1/8. The simulation results show that the proposed RC-TBCCs are superior to the LTE standard RC-TBCCs at different code rates.

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Keywords: Short packet communications, tail-biting convolu-tional code (TBCC), nested rate-compatible TBCC (RC-TBCC), minimum distance profile

**Y. Pan, S. Rajendran, S. Pollin**
[references] [full-text]
[DOI: 10.13164/re.2021.0547]
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2D Angularly Dependent Array Error Calibration for 1D Array via Neural Network with Local Manifold Interpolation

The calibration of the angularly dependent array error is a challenging task for signal processing. In this paper, we propose a neural network (NN)-based two-dimensional (2D) calibration method for a linear array. Firstly, the array steering vectors are measured on an azimuth grid at different elevations in an anechoic chamber, and the off-grid steering vectors are derived by the proposed local manifold interpolation (LMI) technique to reduce the risk of model overfitting. Then, the phase differences are extracted to form the features of the training data. At last, noise is added to the training data to enable the NN model to generalize well to the noisy data. The proposed method is evaluated by the indoor and outdoor measured data from a 77 GHz automotive radar and is compared with the conventional signal processing-based methods. The evaluation results show that a single NN model trained at the lowest signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) outperforms conventional methods by at least 55% on average over the entire SNR range and gives close performance to the perfect array without array error at low to medium SNR.

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Keywords: Angularly dependent array error, automotive radar, direction-of-arrival (DOA) estimation, local manifold interpolation, neural network

**Y. L. Xie, P. Jiang, X. Xiao**
[references] [full-text]
[DOI: 10.13164/re.2021.0556]
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Grouping Parallel Detection Method of UAV Based on Multi Features of Image Transmission Signal

The emergence of low, slow, and small civilian unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV) brings fun and convenience to life and work. However, with the widespread popularity of UAV, the illegal activities caused by them have gradually increased, causing great harm to social security. To solve this problem, in the paper, we propose a set of detection and recognition methods for UAV by UAV image transmission signal (ITS). The method is divided into two groups. In the first group, according to the signal characteristics in different transform domains such as spectrum and time-frequency spectrum, three sets of algorithms are proposed, which are time-frequency ridge double feature estimation (TFRDFE), segmented spectrum estimation (SSE) and cycle accumulation estimation of segmented spectrum (CAE-SS). Three sets of algorithms are estimated to perform blind detection on suspected UAV ITS. The second group uses the accurate recognition algorithm of UAV ITS to extract the periodic features in the signal, and completes the recognition of UAV through feature matching, decision criteria and other methods. The two groups of methods are implemented in parallel, and when the two groups both detect and recognize the flying target, it can be determined that there is UAV in the target airspace. The experimental results show that the recognition rate of the first group of suspected UAV ITS blind detection algorithm can reach 100% when the (signal-to-noise ratio) SNR is –22 dB. The second group of UAV ITS recognition algorithm can achieve 100% recognition rate when SNR is –4 dB. Therefore, this method can complete the multi-target recognition of UAVs and has practical application value.

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Keywords: Unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV), image transmission signal, time-frequency ridge double feature estimation, segmented spectrum estimation, cycle accumulation estimation of segmented spectrum, signal characteristics

**N. Stamenkovic, N. Stojanovic, D. Jovanovic, Z. Stankovic**
[references] [full-text]
[DOI: 10.13164/re.2021.0569]
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A Comparison of Papoulis and Chebyshev Filters in the Continuous Time Domain

The subject of this paper is the revisit of the Chebyshev (equiripple) and Papoulis (monotonic or staircase) low-pass filter in order to compare. It can be stated the fair comparison of Papoulis and Chebyshev filters cannot be found in the available literature. At the beginning, it is shown that ripple parameter may be used in order the Chebyshev filter to obtain a magnitude response having less passband ripple than the standard Chebyshev response. At the same time, the passband edge frequency is preserved at 3 dB. Further, the unified approach to design odd and even degree Papoulis filters is explained. For the purpose of comparison, the Chebyshev filter as a counterpart of the Papoulis filter is introduced. Thus obtained Chebyshev filter has the same stop band insertion loss, group delay and transient response as Papoulis filter. However, its passband performance is much better. It is shown that Chebyshev filter counterpart offers a better solution than Papoulis filter in all applications, except in ones applications where is required that passband attenuation to have a staircase shape.

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Keywords: Electronic filters, approximation, Chebyshev filter, Papoulis filter, insertion loss, return loss

**M. H. Durak, O. Ertug**
[references] [full-text]
[DOI: 10.13164/re.2021.0576]
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Dynamic and Sparsity Adaptive Compressed Sensing Based Active User Detection and Channel Estimation of Uplink Grant-Free SCMA

In uplink (UL) grant-free sparse code multiple access (SCMA) systems, unlike the conventional contention-based transmission, users' activities should be known before data decoding due to sporadic transmission in massive machine-type communication (mMTC). Since compressed sensing (CS) is the theory of sparse signal reconstruction with fewer samples, this theory is a good solution to detect active users. In this paper, we propose the dynamic and sparsity adaptive compressed sensing (DSACS) based active user detection (AUD) and channel estimation (CE) of UL grant-free SCMA. Unlike most of the CS-based methods, sparsity knowledge or potential active user list is not needed in the proposed algorithm, which is already not known in the practical systems. The proposed algorithm adopts a stagewise approach to expand the set of accurate active users for adaptively achieve the sparsity level. It uses the temporal correlation of users' activity to improve performance and reduce complexity. Then, false detected users are eliminated with joint message passing algorithm (JMPA), and channel gains of the accurate active users are estimated again in CE with feedback. The simulation results show that the proposed method without sparsity knowledge is capable of achieving detection in various scenarios in case of sporadic transmission in mMTC.

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Keywords: Sparse code multiple access (SCMA), compressed sensing, active user detection, activity detection, channel estimation, UL grant-free transmission, 5G, beyond 5G

**Q. Zhang, Y. Wang, E. Cheng, L. Ma, Y. Chen**
[references] [full-text]
[DOI: 10.13164/re.2021.0584]
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Investigation on In-band Interference Effect and Out-of-band Interference Mechanism of B1I Navigation Receiver

Aiming at the problem that the Beidou B1I navi¬gation receiver is susceptible to continuous-wave interfer¬ence (CWI), it is of great significance to investigate the interference effect and mechanism of the B1I navigation receiver. With the threshold of carrier-to-noise ratio (C/N0) as the criterion of satellite tracking missing, the CWI injection experiment is conducted on a kind of B1I navigation receiver. The results indicate that the power spectrum of the satellite signal affects the CWI's ability to interfere with each satellite. Then, a prediction model of satellite tracking loss under dual-frequency CWI is proposed, and the accuracy of the model is verified through experiments. The experiment results demonstrate that the power combination between the dual-frequency CWI is negatively correlated, and the error of this model is less than 2 dB. Finally, the sensitive frequency bands of the navigation receiver under out-of-band CWI are obtained through experiments. It is confirmed by theoretical and simulation analysis that the mixer is the main non-linear circuit generating these sensitive frequency bands. Furthermore, improving the selectivity of the radio frequency (RF) front-end circuit can enhance the performance of anti out-of-band interference.

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Keywords: Beidou B1I navigation receiver, CWI, dual-frequency, sensitive frequency bands, mixer.