# September 2011, Volume 20, Number 3

**M. Simunek, P. Pechac, F. P. Fontan**
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Excess Loss Model for Low Elevation Links in Urban Areas for UAVs

In this paper we analyze the link between an UAV and a ground control station in an urban area. This link shows a unique geometry which is somewhere in between the purely terrestrial (e.g., a macro-cell channel) and the land mobile satellite case (LMS). We describe a measurement campaign which reproduces the UAV link conditions and shows how the excess loss is mainly dependent on the elevation angle and fairly independent of the distance. Finally, we propose a simple physical model for predicting the excess loss based on a combination of diffracted and reflected components. Results from this model are in good agreement with the measurements.

- SAUNDERS, S., ZAVALA, A. Antennas and propagation for wireless communication systems. 2nd ed.. New York: Wiley, 2007.
- ROMEU, J., AGUASCA, A., ALONSO, J., BLANCH, S., MARTINS, R. Small UAV radiocommunication channel characterization. In Fourth European Conference on Antennas and Propagation (EuCAP). Barcelona (Spain), 2010, p. 1 - 5.
- CERASOLI, C. An analysis of unmanned airborne vehicle relay coverage in urban environments. In Military Communications Conference (MILCOM). Orlando (USA), 2007, p. 1 - 7.
- IGLESIAS, D., SANCHEZ, M., ALEJOS, A., CUIÑAS, I. Empirical propagation model for low elevation satellites. In IEEE Wireless Technology Conference (EuWIT). Paris (France), 2010, p. 13 - 16.
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- CICHON, D. J., KURNER, T. Propagation Prediction Models. COST 231 Final Report, Chapter 4, 1999.
- SAUNDERS, S., BONAR, F. Explicit multiple building diffraction attenuation function for mobile radio wave propagation. Electronics Letters, 1991, vol. 27, no. 14, p. 1276 - 1277.
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- ITU-R Rec. P.526-11, Propagation by Diffraction. ITU, 2009.
- PARSONS, J. Mobile Radio Propagation Channel. 2nd ed. New York: Wiley, 2000.
- BERTONI, H. Radio Propagation for Modern Wireless Systems. Upper Saddle River (USA): Prentice Hall, 2000.
- IKEGAMI, F., YOSHIDA, S., TAKEUCHI, T., UMEHIRA, M. Propagation factors controlling mean field strength on urban streets. IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation, 1984, vol. 32, no. 8, p. 822 - 829.
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- PEREZ FONTAN, F., MARIÑO ESPIÑEIRA, P. Modelling the Wireless Propagation Channel. A Simulation Approach with Matlab. New York: Wiley, 2008.

Keywords: UAV, channel modeling, low elevation, urban area, path loss, diffraction

**J. Lacik**
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Acceleration of Marching on in Time Method for TD-EFIE by Equivalent Dipole Moment Method and its Analysis

The paper is focused on the application of the equivalent dipole moment (EDM) method to accelerate the marching on in time (MOT) method for the time domain electric field integral equation (TD-EFIE). The implicit MOT scheme with the EDM method for the TD-EFIE is derived and analyzed. It is shown that the derived scheme is faster than the conventional one, even if it is not used for modeling electrically large structures. Since the conventional implicit MOT scheme for the TD-EFIE is sensitive to small changes of its coefficients, the full-value using of the MOT scheme with the EDM approximation requires an appropriate technique (e.g. a preconditioning) to obtain a well-conditioned scheme.

- JUNG, B. H., SARKAR, T. K. Time-domain electric field integral equation with central finite difference. Microwave and Optical Technology Letters, 2001, vol. 31, no. 6, p. 429-435.
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- YILMAZ, A. E., JIN, J. M., MICHIELSSEN, E. Time domain adaptive integral method for surface integral equations. IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation, 2004, vol. 52, no. 10, p. 2692-2708.
- YEO, J., KOKSOY, S., PRAKASH, V. V. S., MITTRA, R. Efficient generation of method of moments matrices using the characteristic function method. IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation, 2004, vol. 52, no. 12, p. 3405-3410.
- YUAN, J., GU, CH., HAN, G. A hybrid equivalent dipole moment and adaptive modified characteristic basis function method for electromagnetic scattering by multilayered dielectric bodies. International Journal of RF and Microwave Computer-Aided Engineering, 2009, vol. 19, no. 6, p. 685-691.
- YUAN, J., NIU, Z., LI, Z., GU, CH. Electromagnetic scattering by arbitrarily shaped PEC targets coated with anisotropic media using equivalent dipole-moment method. Journal of Infrared Millimeter, and Terahertz Waves, 2010, vol. 31, no. 6, p. 744-752.
- RAO, S. M., WILTON, D. R., GLISSON, A. W. Electromagnetic scattering by surfaces of arbitrary shape. IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation, 1982, vol. 30, no. 3, p. 409 – 418.
- SHANKER, B., ERGIN, A. A., AYGUN, K., MICHIELSSEN, E. Analysis of transient electromagnetic scattering from closed surfaces using a combined field integral equation. IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation, 2001, vol. 48, no. 7, p. 1064-1074.
- SHI, Y., XIA, M. Y., CHEN, R. S., MICHIELSSEN, E., LU, M. Stable electric field TDIE solvers via quasi-exact evaluation of MOT matrix elements. IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation, 2011, vol. 59, no. 2, p. 574-585.
- MAKAROV, S. N. Antenna Modeling with Matlab. 1-st edition. New York: Wiley - Interscience, 2002.
- GIBSON, W. C. The Method of Moments in Electromagnetics. 1-st edition. New York: Chapman and Hall/CRC, 2008.
- ZHAO, J. S., CHEW, W. C. Integral equation solution of Maxwell’s equations from zero frequency to microwave frequencies. IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation, 2000, vol. 48, no. 10, p. 1635 – 1645.
- ANDRIULLI, F. P., BAGCI, H., VIPIANI, F., VECCHI, G., MICHIELSSEN, E. A marching-on-in-time hierarchical scheme for the solution of the time domain electric field integral equations. IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation, 2007, vol. 55, no. 12, p. 3734 – 3738.

Keywords: Marching on in time method, time domain electric field integral equation, equivalent dipole moment method.

**F. Dvorak, J. Diblik**
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Study of the Temperature Turbulences Effect upon Optical Beam in Atmospheric Optical Communication

The paper deals with the study of the effect of temperature turbulences upon the optical beam. The polarization parameters of optical radiation sources and different optical beam states of polarization have been investigated. The obtained polarization parameters are projected on the Poincare sphere by means of Stokes vectors. The optical power distribution curves of optical beams are processed into diagrams. The horizontal and vertical components of linearly and circularly polarized optical beams have been studied. The turbulence flux has vertical direction and the optical beam is propagating through an atmosphere environment with three different states of turbulence. The evaluation of the obtained data was done by means of variance and correlation functions computing. Different rates of effect of temperature turbulences upon horizontal and vertical components were found. To reduce the rate of effect the advantage of an optical beam with circular polarization has been proposed.

- LATAL, J., KOUDELKA, P., VASINEK, V. Communication among the cars by the optical fibreless network. In Proceedings of 48th FITCE Congress 2009. Prague, 2009, p. 82-85.
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- DORDOVA, L., WILFERT, O. Laser beam attenuation determined by the method of available optical power in turbulent atmosphere. Journal of Telecommunications and Information Technology, 2009, no. 2, p. 53 - 57.
- DIBLIK, J., WILFERT, O. The influence of atmospheric turbulence on the rangefinder laser beam. In Proceedings of 15th Conference Microwave Techniques COMITE 2010. Brno, 2010. p. 131-133.
- VLCEK, C., DVORAK, F. Measurement of polarization properties of laser diodes. In Proceedings of 15th Conference on Microwave Techniques COMITE 2010. Brno, 2010, p. 139 - 142.
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- ANDREWS, C. L. Laser Beam Scintillation with Applications. Washington: SPIE PRESS, 2001.

Keywords: Temperature turbulences, optical beam, state of polarization, Poincare sphere, variance, cross correlation function.

**A. F. Yagli**
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MRFD Method for Scattering From Three Dimensional Dielectric Bodies

A three-dimensional multiresolution frequency domain (MRFD) method is established to compute bistatic radar cross sections of arbitrarily shaped dielectric objects. The proposed formulation is successfully verified by computing the bistatic radar cross sections of a dielectric sphere and a dielectric cube. Comparing the results to those obtained from the finite difference frequency domain (FDFD) method simulations and analytic calculations, we demonstrated the computational time and memory advantages of MRFD method.

- KUZU, L., DEMIR, V., ELSHERBENI, A. Z., ARVAS, E. Electromagnetic scattering from arbitrarily shaped chiral objects using the finite difference frequency domain method. Progress in Electromagnetics Research, 2007, vol. 67, p. 1 - 24.
- AL SHARKAWY, M. H., DEMIR, V., ELSHERBENI, A. Z. The iterative multi-region algorithm using a hybrid finite difference frequency domain and method of moment techniques. Progress in Electromagnetics Research, 2006, vol. 57, p. 19 - 32.
- ALKAN, E., DEMIR, V., ELSHERBENI, A. Z., ARVAS, E. Dual-grid finite-difference frequency-domain method for modeling chiral medium. IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation, 2010, vol. 58, no. 3, p. 817 - 823.
- YAGLI, A. F., GOKTEN, M., IMECI, S. T., KUZU, L. Scattering from gyrotropic bodies using FDFD method. International Journal of RF and Microwave Computer-Aided Engineering, 2011, vol. 21, no. 1, p. 77 - 84.
- GOKTEN, M., ELSHERBENI, A. Z., ARVAS, E. The multiresolution frequency domain method for general guided wave structures. Progress in Electromagnetics Research, 2007, vol. 69, p. 55 – 66.
- GOKTEN, M., ELSHERBENI, A. Z., ARVAS, E. A multiresolution frequency domain method using biorthogonal wavelets. In ACES Conf. Miami (FL), 2006.
- GOKTEN, M., ELSHERBENI, A. Z., ARVAS, E. Electromagnetic scattering analysis using the two-dimensional MRFD formulation. Progress in Electromagnetics Research, 2008, vol. 79, p. 387 – 399.
- GOKTEN, M., ELSHERBENI, A. Z., YAGLI, A. F. Efficient analysis of two-dimensional RCS scattering analysis using the MRFD technique. In ACES Conf. Williamsburg (VA), 2011.
- KUNZ, K. S., LUEBBERS, R. J. The Finite Difference Time Domain Method for Electromagnetics. Boca Raton: CRC Press LLC, 1993.
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- YAGLI, A. F., LEE, J. K., ARVAS, E. Scattering from threedimensional dispersive gyrotropic bodies using the TLM method. Progress in Electromagnetics Research B, 2009, vol. 18, p. 225 - 241.
- DEMIR, V., ELSHERBENI, A., WORASAWATE, D., ARVAS, E. A graphical user interface (GUI) for plane-wave scattering from a conducting, dielectric, or chiral sphere. IEEE Antennas and Propagation Magazine, 2004, vol. 46, no. 5, p. 94 - 99.
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Keywords: FDFD method, MRFD method, electromagnetics, scattering

**F. Boukerroum, F. Djahli**
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Simple and Accurate Method for Microwave Noise Parameters Calculation

This paper proposes a new method for microwave two-port noise parameters values extraction. The method is based on a set of simple and accurate formulas witch allows the noise characterization without any optimization procedure. The measurements were performed using a system based on a short cascaded with a long transmission line and a passive two-port designed to exhibit versus frequency a behavior close to a transistor. The results presented for a measurement example show good agreement with those obtained using an optimization procedure. The new extraction method based on the frequency variation noise measurement principle and used with a simple hardware can be a practical tool for workers in the field.

- MEYS, R. P., BOUKERROUM, F. Broadband noise system allows measurements according to both standard methods. IEEE Transactions on Instrumentation and Measurements, 2011, vol. 60, no. 4, p. 1316 – 1327.
- MEYS, R. P., BOUKERROUM, F. Calibrating broadband highly mismatched noise sources. IEEE Transactions on Instrumentation and Measurements, 2011, vol. 60, no. 4, p. 1328 – 1333.
- MEYS, R. P. A wave approach to the noise properties of linear microwave devices. IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques, 1978, vol. 26, no. 1, p. 34–37.
- MEYS, R. P., MILECAN, M. A computer based method giving the experimental noise parameters of Q-ports through the use of new noise sources. In Proc. SPACECAD. Bologna (Italy), Nov. 1979, p. 387-396.
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- HU, R., WEINREB, S. A novel wide-band noise-parameter measurement method and its cryogenic application. IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques, 2004, vol. 52, no. 5, p. 1498–1507.
- HU, R., SANG, T. H. On-wafer noise-parameter measurement using wide-band frequency-variation method. IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques, 2005, vol. 53, no. 7, p. 2398 – 2402.
- POZAR, D. M. Microwave and RF Design of Wireless Systems. New York: John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 2001.
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- WONG, K. Advancements in noise measurement. Presented at the IEEE IMS SCV Chapter Mtg, May 2008.
- BOUDIAF, A., DUBON-CHEVALIER, C., PASQUET, D. Verification of on-wafer noise parameter measurements. IEEE Transactions on Instrumentation and Measurements, 1995.vol. 44, no. 2, p. 332-335.
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- OLIVERA, P., MARKOVIC, V. Wave approach to s-parameter and noise parameter prediction of fet devices. In Proceedings of Papers of the 2ed International Conference on Microwave and Millimeter Wave Technology. Beijing (China), 2000, p. 164-167.

Keywords: Noise measurement, noise parameters, noise wave model.

**W. Jaikla ,P. Prommee**
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Electronically Tunable Current-mode Multiphase Sinusoidal Oscillator Employing CCCDTA-based Allpass Filters with Only Grounded Passive Elements

This study describes the design of a multiphase sinusoidal oscillator (MSO) using CCCDTA-based allpass filters with grounded capacitors. The oscillation condition and oscillation frequency can be electronically/orthogonally controlled. The proposed MSO provides 2n (n>2) phase signals that are equally spaced in phase and of equal amplitude. The circuit requires one CCCDTA, one electronic resistor and one grounded capacitor per phase and no additional current amplifier and floating elements. High output impedances of the configuration enable the circuit to be cascaded to the current-mode circuit without additional current buffers. The effects of the non-idealities of the CCCDTA-allpass sections were also studied. The results of PSPICE simulations using CMOS CCCDTA are presented, demonstrating their consistency with theoretical assumptions.

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- WU, D. S., LIU, S. I., HWANG, Y. S., WU, Y. P. Multiphase sinusoidal oscillator using second-generation current conveyors. Int. J. Electron., 1995, vol. 78, p. 645–651.
- HOU, C. L., SHEN, B. Second-generation current conveyor-based multiphase sinusoidal oscillators. Int. J. Electron., 1995, vol. 78, p. 317–325.
- ABUELMA’ATTI, M. T., AL-QAHTANI, M. A. A groundedresistor current conveyor based active-R multiphase sinusoidal oscillator. Analog Integr. Circuits Signal Process, 1998, vol. 16, p. 29–34.
- SKOTIS, G. D., PSYCHALINOS, C. Multiphase sinusoidal oscillators using second generation current conveyors. Int. J. Electron. Commu. (AEU), 2010, vol. 64, p. 1178–1181.
- KLAHAN, K., TANGSRIRAT, W., SURAKAMPONTORN, W. Realization of multiphase sinusoidal oscillator using CDBAs. IEEE Asia-Pacific Conf. Circ. Sys., 2004, p. 725–728.
- ABUELMA’ATTI, M. T., AL-QAHTANI, M. A. Low-component second-generation current conveyor-based multiphase sinusoidal oscillator. Int. J. Electron., 1998, vol. 84, p. 45–52.
- KESKIN, A. U., BIOLEK, D. Current mode quadrature oscillator using current differencing transconductance amplifiers (CDTA). IEE Proceed. Circ. Dev. Sys., 2006, vol. 153, p. 214-218.
- HORNG, J. W. Current conveyors based allpass filters and quadrature oscillators employing grounded capacitors and resistors. Computers and Electrical Engineering, 2005, vol. 31, p. 81–92.
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- PROMMEE, P., ANGKEAW, K., SOMDUNYAKANOK, M., DEJHAN, K. CMOS-based near zero-offset multiple inputs max– min circuits and its applications. Analog Integr. Circuits Signal Process, 2009, vol. 61, p. 93–105.

Keywords: Multiphase Sinusoidal Oscillator, CCCDTA, current-mode

**P. Prommee, N. Prapakorn, M.N.S. Swamy**
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Log-Domain Current-mode Quadrature Sinusoidal Oscillator

A log-domain current-mode quadrature sinusoidal oscillator based on lossless integrators is presented. The circuit is a direct realization of a first-order differential equation for obtaining the lossy and lossless integrators. Each of the log-domain lossless integrators is realized by using only NPN transistors and a grounded capacitor for achieving low-power and fast response. The proposed oscillator uses two-lossless integrator loop which can be electronically tuned through bias currents. A validated BJT model which is used in SPICE simulation operated from a single power supply as low as 2.5V. The oscillation frequency is controlled over four decades of frequency. The total harmonic distortions for two-phases QSO (12MHz) is obtained around 0.93% which enables fully integrated in telecommunication systems. The proposed circuit is also suitable for high-frequency applications. Nonideality studies are included and PSpice simulation results confirm the theoretical results.

- ADAMS, R. W. Filtering in the log domain. In 63rd AES Conf., New York, N Y, 1979, preprint 1470.
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- EIREA, G., SANDERS, S. R. Phase current unbalance estimation in multiphase buck converters. IEEE Trans. Power Elect., 2008, vol. 23, no. 1, p. 137-143.
- ABUELMA’ATTI, M. T. Grounded capacitor current-mode oscillator using single current follower. IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems-I, 1992, vol. 39, p. 1018-1020.
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- HORNG, J. W., HOU, C. L., CHANG, C. M., CHOU, H. P., WEN, Y. H. Quadrature oscillator with grounded capacitors and resistors using FDCCIIs. ETRI Journal, 2006, vol. 28, p. 486-494.
- KESKIN, A. U., BIOLEK, D. Current-mode quadrature oscillator using current differencing transconductance amplifier (CDTA). IEE Proceeding of Circuits Devices and Systems, 2006, vol. 153, p. 214-218.
- HORNG, J. W. Current-mode quadrature oscillator with grounded capacitors and resistors using two DVCCs. IEICE Transaction on Fundamentals of Electronics, Communications and Computer Sciences, 2003, vol. E86-A, p. 2152-2154.
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Keywords: Log-domain filtering, high-frequency, low-voltage, electronically-controlled, quadrature oscillator

**J. W. Horng, Z. R.Wang, T. Y. Yang**
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Single ICCII Sinusoidal Oscillators Employing Grounded Capacitors

Two inverting second-generation current conveyors (ICCII) based sinusoidal oscillators are presented. The first sinusoidal oscillator is composed of one ICCII, two grounded capacitors and two resistors. The oscillation condition and oscillation frequency can be orthogonally controllable. The second sinusoidal oscillator is composed of one ICCII, two grounded capacitors and three resistors. The oscillation condition and oscillation frequency can be independently controllable through different resistors.

- NANDI, R. Precise insensitive tunable RC-oscillator realisation using current conveyors. Proceedings of the Institution of Electrical Engineers Pt G, 1986, vol. 133, p. 129-132.
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- HORNG, J. W., LIN, S. F., YANG, C. T. Sinusoidal oscillators using current conveyors and grounded capacitors. Active and Passive Electronic Devices, 2007, vol. 2, p. 127-136.
- SOLIMAN, A. M. Novel generation method of current mode Wien type oscillators using current conveyors. International Journal of Electronics, 1998, vol. 85, p. 737 – 747.
- SOLIMAN, A. M. Synthesis of grounded capacitor and grounded resistor oscillators. Journal of Franklin Institute, 1999, vol. 336, p 735-746.
- SENANI, R., SHARMA, R. K. Explicit-current-output sinusoidal oscillators employing only a single current-feedback op-amp. IEICE Electronics Express, 2005, vol. 2, p. 14-18.
- KILINC, S., JAIN, V., AGGARWAL, V., CAM, U. Catalogue of variable frequency and single-resistance-controlled oscillators employing a single differential difference complementary current conveyor. Frequenz, 2006, vol. 60, p. 142-146.
- TOKER, A., KUNTMAN, H., CICEKOGLU, O., DISCIGIL, M. New oscillator topologies using inverting second-generation current conveyors. Turkish Journal of Electrical Engineering & Computer Sciences, 2002, vol. 10, p. 119-129.
- LAHIRI, A. Additional realizations of single-element-controlled oscillators using single ICCII-. International Journal of Computer and Electrical Engineering, 2009, vol. 1, p. 303-306.
- KUMAR, P., SENANI, R. Improved grounded-capacitor SRCO using only a single PFTFN. Analog Integrated Circuits and Signal Processing, 2007, vol. 50, p. 147-149.
- GUPTA, S. S., SENANI, R. Grounded-capacitor current-mode SRCO: Novel application of DVCCC. Electronics Letters, 2000, vol. 36, p. 195-196.
- AWAD, I. A., SOLIMAN, A. M. The inverting second generation current conveyors: the missing building blocks, CMOS realizations and applications. International Journal of Electronics, 1999, vol. 84, p. 413-432.
- OZOGUZ, S., TOKER, A., CICEKOGLU, O. First-order allpass sections-based current-mode universal filter using ICCIIs. Electronics Letters, 2000, vol. 36, p. 1443-1444.
- MINAEI, S., YUCE, E., CICEKOGLU, O. ICCII-based voltagemode filter with single input and six outputs employing grounded capacitors. Circuits, Systems and Signal processing, 2006, vol. 25, p. 559-566.
- SOLIMAN, A. M. Voltage mode and current mode Tow Thomas bi-quadratic filters using inverting CCII. International Journal of Circuit Theory and Applications, 2007, vol. 35, p. 463-467.
- SOLIMAN, A. M. The CCII+ and the ICCII as basic building blocks in low-pass filter realizations. International Journal of Circuit Theory and Applications, 2008, vol. 36, p. 493-509.
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- MAHESHWARI, S. Quadrature oscillator using grounded components with current and voltage outputs. IET Circuits, Devices and Systems, 2009, vol. 3, p. 153-160.
- ELWAN, H. O., SOLIMAN, A. M. Novel CMOS differential voltage current conveyor and its applications. IEE Proceedings- Circuits, Devices and Systems, 1997, vol. 144, p. 195-200.

Keywords: Sinusoidal oscillator, current conveyor, active circuit

**B. Metin**
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Supplementary Inductance Simulator Topologies Employing Single DXCCII

In this study, six grounded inductance simulator circuits are presented including additional useful features in comparison to previous dual-X current conveyor (DXCCII) based implementations. To demonstrate the performance and usefulness of the presented circuits, one of them is used to construct a fifth order Butterworth high-pass filter and a current-mode multifunction filter as application examples. Simulation results are given to confirm the theoretical analysis. The derived DXCCII and its applications are simulated using CMOS 0.35 μm technology.

- YUCE, E., MINAEI, S., CICEKOGLU, O. A novel grounded inductor realization using a minimum number of active and passive components. ETRI Journal, 2005, vol. 27, no. 4, p. 427 - 432.
- YUCE, E. Inductor implementation using a canonical number of active and passive elements. International Journal of Electronics, 2007, vol. 94, no. 4, p. 317-326.
- YUCE, E., MINAEI, S., CICEKOGLU, O. Limitations of the simulated inductors based on a single current conveyor. IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems-I: Regular Papers, 2006, vol. 53, no. 12, p. 2860-2867.
- METIN, B., CICEKOGLU, O. A novel floating lossy inductance realization topology with NICs using current conveyors. IEEE Trans. on Circuits and Systems II, 2006, vol. 53, no. 6, p. 483-486.
- KACAR, F. New lossless inductance simulators realization using a minimum active and passive components. Microelectronics Journal, 2010, vol. 41, no. 2-3, p. 109-113.
- YUCE, E. Grounded inductor simulators with improved low frequency performances. IEEE Transactions on Instrumentation and Measurement, 2008, vol. 57, no. 5, p. 1079-1084.
- SEDEF, H., ACAR, C. A new floating inductor circuit using differential voltage current conveyors. Frequenz; 2000, vol. 54, p. 123 -125.
- INCEKARAOGLU, M., CAM, U. Realization of series and parallel R-L and C-D impedances using single differential voltage current conveyor. Analog Integrated Circuits and Signal Processing, 2005, vol. 43, p. 101-104.
- HWANG, Y.-S, WU, D.-S, CHEN, J.-J., SHIH, C.–C., CHOU, W.-S. Design of current-mode MOSFET-C filters using OTRAs. International Journal of Circuit Theory and Applications, 2009, vol. 37, p. 397-411.
- CAM, U., CICEKOGLU, O., KUNTMAN, H. Universal series and parallel immittance simulators using four terminal floating nullors. Analog Integrated Circuits and Signal Processing, 2000, vol. 25, p. 59-66.
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- YUCE, E., MINAEI, S. A modified CFOA and its applications to simulated inductors, capacitance multipliers, and analog filters. IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems I- Regular Papers, 2008, vol. 55, no. 1, p. 254-263.
- LIU, S. I., WANG, H.Y. Realisation of R-L and C-D impedances using a current feedback amplifier and its applications. Electronics Letters, 1994, vol. 30, p. 380-381.
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- HWANG, Y.-S, WU, D.-S., CHENA, J.-J., CHOU, W.-S. Realization of current-mode high-order filters employing multiple output OTAs. AEU, 2008, vol. 62, p. 299-303.
- KESKIN, A. U., ERHAN, H. CDBA-based synthetic floating inductance circuits with electronic tuning properties. ETRI Journal, 2005, vol. 27, p. 239-241.
- BIOLEK, D., BIOLKOVA, V. SFG simulation of general ladder filters using CDBAs. In Proceedings of the ECCTD03. Krakow (Poland), 2003, vol. III, p. 397-400.
- UYGUR, A., KUNTMAN, H. Seventh-order elliptic video filter with 0.1 dB pass band ripple employing CMOS CDTAs. AEU, 2007, vol. 61, p. 320-328.
- BIOLEK, D., BIOLKOVA, V. Tunable ladder CDTA-based filters. In 4th Multiconference WSEAS 2003. Puerto De La Cruz (Tenerife, Spain), 2003, p. 1 - 3.
- PRASAD, D., BHASKAR, D. R., SINGH, A. K. New grounded and floating simulated inductance circuits using current differencing transconductance amplifiers. Radioengineering, 2010, vol. 10, no. 1, p. 194-198.
- SAGBAS, M. Component reduced floating ±L, ±C and ±R simulators with grounded passive components. AEU, 2011, doi:10.1016/j.aeue.2011.01.006 (available online.)
- ZEKI, A., TOKER, A. DXCCII-based tunable gyrator. AEU, 2005, vol. 34, no. 1, p. 59-62.
- KACAR, F., YESIL, A. Novel grounded parallel inductance simulators realization using a minimum number of active and passive components. Microelectronics Journal, 2010, vol. 41, no. 10, p. 632-638.
- ZEKI, A., TOKER, A. The Dual-X Current Conveyor (DXCCII): A new active device for tunable continuous-time filters. Int. Journal of Electronics, 2002, vol. 89, no. 12, p. 913-923.
- KACAR, F., METIN, B., KUNTMAN, H. A new CMOS dual-X second generation current conveyor (DXCCII) with an FDNR circuit application. AEU, 2010, vol. 64, no. 8, p. 774-778.
- BAKER, R. J., LI, H. W., BOYCE, D. E. CMOS Circuit Design, Layout, and Simulation. Chapter 7. New York: IEEE Press, 1998.
- AWAD, A., SOLIMAN, A. M. Inverting second generation current conveyors: the missing building blocks, CMOS realizations and applications. International Journal of Electronics, 1999, vol. 86, p. 413-432.
- WANG, Z. 2-MOSFET transistors with extremely low distortion for output reaching supply voltage. Electronics Letters, 1990, vol. 26, no. 13, p. 951-952.

Keywords: DXCCII, inductance simulator, dual-X current conveyor

**J. Valsa, P. Dvorak, M. Friedl**
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Network Model of the CPE

Analysis of fractal systems (i.e. systems described by fractional differential equations) necessitates to create an electrical analog model of a crucial subsystem called Constant Phase Element (CPE). The paper describes a possible realization of such a model, that is quite simple and in spite of its simplicity makes it possible to simulate the properties of ideal CPEs. The paper also deals with the effect of component tolerances on the resultant responses of the model and describes several typical model applications.

- SCHROEDER, M. Fractals, Chaos, Power Laws, Minutes from an Infinite Paradise. New York: W. H. Freeman and Company, 1991.
- PODLUBNY, I. Fractional Differential Equations. San Diego: Academic Press, 1st edition, 1999.
- HILFER, R. (editor) Applications of Fractional Calculus in Physics. World Scientific Publishing Co., 2000.
- ORTIGUERA, M. D. An introduction to the fractional continuous-time linear systems: The 21st century systems, IEEE Circuit and Systems Magazine, 3rd quarter 2008.
- ELWAKIL, A. S. Fractional-order circuits and systems: An emerging interdisciplinary research area. IEEE Circuit and Systems Magazine, 4th quarter 2010.
- TANG, C., YOU, F., CHENG, G., GAO, D., FU, F., DONG, X. Modeling the frequency dependence of the electrical properties of the live human skull. Physiol. Meas., 2009, vol. 30, p. 1293–1301.
- RIGAUD, B. et al: In vitro tissue characterization and modelling using electrical impedance measurements in the 100 Hz-10 MHz frequency range. Physiol. Meas., 1995, vol. 16, p. A15-A28.
- IONESCU, C., DE KEYSER, R. Parametric models for characterizing respiratory input impedance. J. Med. Eng. Technol., 2008, vol. 32, p..315–324.
- IONESCU, C., DE KEYSER, R. Relations between fractionalorder model parameters and lung pathology in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng., 2009, vol. 56, p. 978–987.
- KOTZ, R., CARLEN, M. Principles and applications of electrochemical capacitors. Electrochimica Acta, 2002, vol. 53, p. 2483–2498.
- BISQUERT, J., COMPTE, A. Theory of the electrochemical impedance of anomalous diffusion. Electroanal. Chem., 2001, vol. 499, no. 1, p. 112–120.
- SKAAR, S. B., MICHEL, A. N., MILLER, R. K. Stability of viscoelastic control systems. IEEE Trans. Automat. Contr., 1998, vol. 33, p. 348–357.
- PODLUBNY, I. Fractional-order systems and PID-controllers. IEEE Trans. Automat. Contr., 1999, vol. 44, p. 208–214.
- PETRAS, I. The fractional order controllers: Methods for their synthesis and application. J. Elect. Eng., 1999, vol. 50, p. 284– 288.
- MACHADO, J. Discrete-time fractional-order controllers. Fractional Calculus Appl. Anal., 2001, vol. 4, p. 47–66.
- PODLUBNY, I., VINAGRE, B., O’LEARY, P., DORCAK, L. Analogue realizations of fractional-order controllers. Nonlinear Dyn., 2002, vol. 29, p. 281–296.
- ORTIGUEIRA, M. D. Introduction to fractional signal processing. Part 1: Continuous-time systems. IEE Proc. on Vision, Image and Signal Processing, Feb. 2000, vol. 147, no. 1, p. 62–70.
- ORTIGUEIRA, M. D. Introduction to fractional signal processing. Part 2: Discrete-time systems. IEE Proc. on Vision, Image and Signal Processing, Feb. 2000, vol. 147, no. 1, p. 71–78.
- VALSA, J., BRANCIK, L. Approximate formulae for numerical inversion of Laplace transforms. Int. Journal for Numerical Modelling: Electronic Networks, Devices and Fields, June 1998, vol. 11, p. 153-166.
- DORCAK, L., TERPAK, J., PETRAS, I., DORCAKOVA, F. Electronic realization of the fractional-order systems. Acta Montanistica Slovaca,2007, vol. 12, no. 3, p. 231-237.
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- MACHADO, J. A. T. Discrete_time fractional-order controllers. FCAA Journal of Fractional Calculus and Applied Analysis, 2001, vol. 4, no. 1, p. 47-66.
- VLACH, J., SINGHAL, K. Computer Methods for Circuit Analysis and Design.2nd edition. Van Nostrand Reinhold, 1994.

Keywords: Fractional differential equations, Constant Phase Element, Warburg impedance

**F. Kaçar, H. Kuntman**
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CFOA-Based Lossless and Lossy Inductance Simulators

Inductance simulator is a useful component in the circuit synthesis theory especially for analog signal processing applications such as filter, chaotic oscillator design, analog phase shifters and cancellation of parasitic element. In this study, new four inductance simulator topologies employing a single current feedback operational amplifier are presented. The presented topologies require few passive components. The first topology is intended for negative inductance simulation, the second topology is for lossy series inductance, the third one is for lossy parallel inductance and the fourth topology is for negative parallel (-R) (-L) (-C) simulation. The performance of the proposed CFOA based inductance simulators is demonstrated on both a second-order low-pass filter and inductance cancellation circuit. PSPICE simulations are given to verify the theoretical analysis.

- AWAD, A., SOLIMAN, A. M. Inverting second generation current conveyors: the missing building blocks, CMOS realizations and applications. International Journal of Electronics, 1999, vol. 86, no. 4, p. 413 – 432.
- ZEKI, A., TOKER, A. DXCCII-based tunable gyrator. International Journal of Electronics and Communications (AEU), vol. 34, no. 1, p. 59 – 62.
- KUNTMAN, H., GULSOY, M., CICEKOGLU, O. Actively simulated grounded lossy inductors using third generation current conveyors. Microelectronics Journal, 2000, vol. 31, no. 4, p. 245 – 250.
- WANG, H. Y., LEE, C. T. Systematic synthesis of R-L and C-D immittances using CCIII. International Journal of Electronics, 2000, vol. 87, no. 3, p. 293 – 301.
- YUCE, E., MINAEI, S., CICEKOGLU, O. Resistorless floating immittance function simulators employing current controlled conveyors and a grounded capacitor. Electrical Engineering, 2006, vol. 88, no. 6, p. 519 – 525.
- CAM, U., KACAR, F., CICEKOGLU, O., KUNTMAN, H. Novel grounded parallel immittance simulator topologies employing single OTRA. International Journal of Electronics and Communications (AEU), 2003, vol. 57, no. 4, p. 287 – 290.
- YUCE, E., MINAEI, S., CICEKOGLU, O. Novel floating inductance and FDNR simulators employing CCIIs. Journal of Circuits, Systems and Computers, 2006, vol. 15, p. 78 – 81.
- INCEKARAOGLU, M., CAM, U. Realization of series and parallel R-L and C-D impedances using single sifferential voltage current conveyor. Analog Integrated Circuits and Signal Processing, 2005, vol. 43, no. 1, p. 101 – 104.
- KACAR, F. New lossless inductance simulators realization using a minimum active and passive components. Microelectronics Journal, 2010, vol. 41, no. 2 – 3, p. 109 – 113.
- YUCE, E., MINAEI, S., CICEKOGLU, O. Limitations of the simulated inductors based on a single current conveyor. IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems-I, 2006, vol. 53, no. 12, p. 2860 – 2867.
- YUCE, E. On the implementation of the floating simulators employing a single active device. International Journal of Electronics and Communications (AEU), 2007, vol. 61, no. 7, p. 453–458.
- YUCE, E. On the realization of the floating simulators using only grounded passive components. Analog Integrated Circuits and Signal Processing, 2006, vol. 49, no. 2, p. 161 – 166.
- YUCE, E. Grounded inductor simulators with improved low frequency performances. IEEE Transactions on Instrumentation and Measurement, 2008, vol. 57, no. 5, p. 1079 – 1084.
- YUCE, E. Novel lossless and lossy grounded inductor simulators consisting of a canonical number of components. Analog Integrated Circuits and Signal Processing, 2009, vol. 59, no. 1, p. 77 – 82.
- YUCE, E., MINAEI, S. A modified CFOA and its applications to simulated inductors, capacitance multipliers, and analog filters. IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems I, 2008, vol. 55, no.1, p. 254 – 263.
- MINAEI, S., CICEKOGLU, O., KUNTMAN, H., TURKOZ, S. Electronically tunable, active only floating inductance simulation. International Journal of Electronics, 2002, vol. 89, no. 23, p. 905 – 912.
- FERRI, G., GUERRINI, N. C., DIQUAL, M. CCII-based floating inductance simulator with compensated series resistance. Electronics Letters, 2003, vol. 39, no. 22, p. 1560 – 1562.
- SOLIMAN, A., ALTURAIGI, M. A. Current mode simulation of lossless floating inductance. International Journal of Electronics, 1997, vol. 83, no. 6, p. 825 – 829.
- KESKIN, A. U., HANCIOGLU, E. CDBA-based synthetic floating inductance circuits with electronic tuning properties. ETRI Journal, 2005, vol. 27, no. 2, p. 239 – 242.
- JAIKLA, W., SIRIPRUCHYANUN, M. Floating positive and negative inductance simulators based on OTAs. In International Symposium Communications and Information Technologies ISCIT '2006. Bangkok (Thailand), 2006, p. 244 – 347.

Keywords: CFOA, inductance simulators, filters, analog integrated circuit.

**A. Yeşil, F. Kacar, H. Kuntman**
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New Simple CMOS Realization of Voltage Differencing Transconductance Amplifier and Its RF Filter Application

The voltage differencing transconductance amplifier (VDTA) is a recently introduced active element for analog signal processing. However, the realization of VDTA is not given by any author yet. In this work, a new and simple CMOS realization of VDTA is presented. The proposed block has two voltage inputs and two kinds of current output, so it is functional for voltage- and transconductance-mode operation. Furthermore, VDTA exhibits two different values of transconductance so that there is no need to external resistors for VDTA based applications which seems to be a good advantage for analog circuit designer. A CMOS implementation of VDTA and a voltage-mode VDTA based filter are proposed and simulated. An application example of fourth order flat-band band-pass amplifier is given and the performance of the circuit is demonstrated by comparing the theory and simulation.

- SEDRA, A. S., SMITH, K. C. A second generation current conveyor and its application. IEEE Transactions on Circuit Theory,1970, vol. 17, no. 1, p. 132 – 134.
- FABRE, A. Third generation current conveyor: A new helpful active element. Electronics Letters, 1995, vol. 31, no. 5, p. 338 – 339.
- CHIU, W., LIU, S. I., TSAO, H. W., CHEN, J. J. CMOS differential difference current conveyors and their applications. IEE Proceedings – Circuits, Devices and Systems, 1996, vol. 143, no. 2, p. 91 – 96.
- ELWAN, H. O., SOLIMAN, A. M. Novel CMOS differential voltage current conveyor and its applications. IEE Proceedings – Circuits, Devices and Systems, 1997, vol. 144, no. 3, p. 195 – 200.
- KAEWDANG, K, KUMWACHARA, K., SURAKAMPONTORN, W. Electronically tunable floating CMOS resistor using OTA. In IEEE International Symposium on Communications and Information Technology ISCIT 2005. Beijing (China) 2005, p. 729 – 732.
- ACAR, C., OZOGUZ, S. A new versatile building block: Current differencing buffered amplifier suitable for analog signalprocessing filters. Microelectronics Journal, 1999, vol. 30, no. 2, p. 157 – 160.
- EL-ADAWY, A, SOLIMAN, A. M., ELWAN, H. O. A novel fully differential current conveyor and applications for analog VLSI. IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems–II: Analog and Signal Digital Processing, 2000, vol. 47, no. 4, p. 306 – 313.
- ZEKI, A., TOKER, A. The dual-X current conveyor (DXCCII): a new active device for tunable continuous-time filters. International Journal of Electronics, 2002, vol. 89, no. 12, p. 913 – 923.
- BIOLEK, D., CDTA – Building block for current-mode analog signal processing. In Proceedings of the ECCTD03. Krakow (Poland), 2003, p. 397 – 400.
- BIOLEK, D., GUBEK, T. New circuit elements for current-mode signal processing. Elektrorevue, 2004/28. [Online] Cited 2004-05- 03. Available at: http://www.elektrorevue.cz.
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- BIOLKOVA, V., KOLKA, Z., BIOLEK, D. Fully balanced voltage differencing buffered amplifier and its applications. In 52nd IEEE International Midwest Symposium on Circuits and Systems MWSCAS'09. Cancun (Mexico), 2009, p.45 – 48.
- EHAB, A., SOBHY, I., SOLIMAN, A. M. Realizations of fully differential voltage second generation current conveyor with an application. International Journal of Circuit Theory and App., 2000, vol. 38, p.441–452.
- BIOLEK, D., SENANI, R., BIOLKOVA, V., KOLKA, Z. Active elements for analog signal processing: Classification, review, and new proposals. Radioengineering, 2008, vol. 17, no. 4, p.15 – 32.
- KESKIN, A. U., BIOLEK, D., HANCIOGLU, E., BIOLKOVA, V. Current-mode KHN filter employing current differencing transconductance amplifiers. AEU - International Journal of Electronics and Communications, 2006, vol. 60, no. 6, p. 443 – 446.
- KAÇAR, F., KUNTMAN, H. New improved CMOS realization of CDTA and its filter applications. TJEECS: Turkish Journal of Electrical Engineering & Computer Sciences, 2011, vol. 19, no. 4, p. 631 – 642.
- KESKIN, A. U., BIOLEK, D. Current mode quadrature oscillator using current differencing transconductance amplifiers (CDTA). IEE Proceedings – Circuits, Devices and Systems, 2006, vol. 153, no. 3, p. 214 – 218.
- BIOLEK, D., KESKIN, A. U., BIOLKOVA, V. Grounded capacitor current mode SRCO using single modified CDTA. IET Circuits, Devices & Systems, 2010, vol. 4, no. 6, p. 496 – 502, (doi:10.1049/iet-cds.2009.0330).
- BIOLEK, D., HANCIOGLU, E., KESKIN, A. U. High-performance current differencing transconductance amplifier and its application in precision current-mode rectification, AEU - International Journal of Electronics and Communications, 2008, vol. 62, no. 2, p. 92 – 96.
- UYGUR, A., KUNTMAN, H. Seventh-order elliptic video filter with 0.1 dB pass band ripple employing CMOS CDTAs. AEU: International Journal of Electronics and Communications, 2007, vol. 61, no. 5, p. 320 – 328.
- ARBEL, A. F., GOLDMINZ, L. Output stage for current-mode feedback amplifiers, theory and applications. Analog Integrated Circuits and Signal Procesing, 1992, vol.2, no. 3, p. 243 – 255.
- ALTUN, M., KUNTMAN, H. Design of a fully differential current mode operational amplifier with improved input-output impedances and its filter applications. AEU: International Journal of Electronics and Communications, 2008, vol. 62, no. 3, p. 239 – 244.
- STEYEART, M., ROERMUND, A., HUIJSING, J. Analog Circuit Design. Berlin: Springer, 2006.
- OZCAN, S., KUNTMAN, H., CICEKOGLU, O. Realization of inductorless RF bandpass amplifiers using immittance simulators employing CCIIs. In Proceedings of the 10th International Conference on Microelectronics ICM'98. Monastir (Tunisia), 1998, p. 141 – 144.

Keywords: Voltage differencing transconductance amplifier, voltage mode filter, CMOS integrated circuit.

**A. Lahiri**
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New CMOS-based Resistor-less Current-mode First-order All-pass Flter Using Only Ten Transistors and One External Capacitor

This paper proposes a new, compact CMOS realization of current-mode (CM) first-order all-pass filter (APF) using no external resistors. The circuit is created using only ten transistors and one external capacitor. The circuit uses lower number of transistors as compared to previously reported CM APFs using active building block (ABB) based approach. A comparison with previously reported CM APFs in terms of number of transistors and current consumption has been provided. As a design example, a 512 kHz pole-frequency (at typical process and 27ºC) CM APF is designed in 40nm CMOS technology and validated through SPICE simulations.

- SCHMID, H. Why ‘current-mode’ does not guarantee good performance. Analog Integrated Circuits and Signal Processing, 2003, vol. 35, no. 1, p. 79–90.
- BIOLEK, D., SENANI, R., BIOLKOVA, V., KOLKA, Z. Active elements for analog signal processing: classification, review, and new proposals. Radioengineering, 2008, vol. 17, no. 4, p. 15-32.
- YUAN, F. CMOS Current-Mode Circuits for Data Communications. Springer, ISBN- 0-387-29758-8.
- BIOLEK, D. CDTA–building block for current-mode analog signal processing. In Proceedings of European Conference on Circuit Theory and Design, 2003, p. 397-400.
- BIOLEK, D., HANCIOGLU, E., KESKIN, A. U. Highperformance current differencing transconductance amplifier and its application in precision current-mode rectification. AEUInternational Journal of Electronics and Communications, 2008, vol. 62, p. 92-96.
- UGYUR, A., KUNTMAN, H. Low -voltage current differencing transconductance amplifier in a novel allpass configuration. In Proceedings of IEEE MELCON, 2006, p. 23-26.
- LAHIRI, A. Novel first-order current-mode all-pass filter using CDTA. Radioengineering, 2009, vol. 18, no. 3, p. 300-305.
- MAHESHWARI, S. Quadrature oscillator using grounded components with current and voltage outputs. IET- Circuits Devices Systems, 2009, vol. 3, no. 4, p. 153-160.
- UN, M., KACAR, F. New second generation current conveyorbased current-mode first order all-pass filter and quadrature oscillator. Journal of Electrical & Electronics engineering- Istanbul University, 2007, vol. 7, p. 119-127.
- NANDI, R. Novel current-mode all-pass phase shifter using a current conveyor. IEEE Transactions on Instrumentation and Measurement, 1992, vol. 41, no. 4, p. 553-555.
- UN, M., KACAR, F. Third generation current conveyor based current-mode first order all-pass filter and quadrature oscillator. Journal of Electrical & Electronics Engineering, 2008, vol. 8, no. 2, p. 529-535.
- MAHESHWARI, S. Novel first-order current-mode all-pass sections using CCIII. Active and Passive Electronic Components, 2004, vol. 27, p. 111-117.
- KHAN, I. A., BEG, P., AHMED, M. T. First order current mode filters and multiphase sinusoidal oscillators using CMOS MOCCIIs. The Arabian Journal of Science and Engineering, 2007, vol. 32, no. 2C, p, 119-126.
- MOHAN, J., MAHESHWARI, S., SINGH, S.V., CHAUHAN, D.S. Grounded capacitor first order all-pass filters using single active element. In International Conference on Advances in Recent Technologies in Communication and Computing, 2009 , p. 333- 336. DOI 10.1109/ARTCom.2009.150
- KUMNGERN, M. Electronically tunable current-mode all-pass filter-based high-Q bandpass filter using minimum elements. In Proceedings of IEEE TENCON 2009, p. 1-4.
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- TOKER, A., OZOGUZ, S., CICEKOGLU, O., ACAR, C. Currentmode all-pass filters using current differencing buffered amplifier and a new high- bandpass filter configuration. IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems, 2000, vol. 47, no. 9, p. 949-954.
- TANJAROEN, W., TANGSRIRAT, W. Resistorless current-mode first-order allpass filter using CDTAs. In Proceedings of ECTICON 2008, p. 721-724.
- PSYCHALINOS, C., PAL, K. A novel all-pass current-mode filter realized using a minimum number of single output OTAs. Frequenz, 2010, vol. 64, p. 30-32.
- PROMMEE, P., ANGKEAW, K., CHANWUTITUM, J., DEJHAN, K. Dual input all-pass networks using MO-OTA and its application. In Proceedings of ECTI-CON 2007, p. 129-132.
- MINAEI, S., IBRAHIM, M. A., KUNTMAN, H. DVCC based current-mode first-order all-pass filter and it's application. In Proceedings of IEEE ICECS 2003, p. 276-279.
- HIGASHIMURA, M. Current-mode allpass filter using FTFN with grounded capacitor. Electronics Papers, 1992, vol. 27, no. 13, p. 1182-1183.
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Keywords: analog circuits, current-mode (CM), first-order all-pass filter (APF), resistor-less

**Y. Li**
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Current-Mode Sixth-Order Elliptic Band-Pass Filter Using MCDTAs

In this paper, a modified CDTA (MCDTA) is presented and the current-mode second-order band-pass, high-pass notch, and low-pass notch circuits using MCDTAs are given. Moreover, a current-mode sixth-order elliptic band-pass filter is realized by means of cascade method. Having used six MCDTAs, six grounded capacitors and two resistors, the circuit is easy to be integrated, of which the parameters can be electronically adjusted by tuning bias currents. It is noted that the results of circuit simulations are in agreement with theory.

- BIOLEK, D., SENANI, R., BIOLKOVA, V., KOLKA, Z. Active elements for analog signal processing: classification, review, and new proposals. Radioengineering, 2008, vol. 17, no. 4, p. 15 - 32.
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- KESKIN, A. U., BIOLEK, D. Current mode quadrature oscillator using current differencing transconductance amplifiers (CDTA). IEE Proceedings – Circuits, Devices and Systems, 2006, vol. 153, no. 3, p. 214 - 218.
- LAHIRI, A. Explicit-current-output quadrature oscillator using second-generation current conveyor transconductance amplifier. Radioengineering, 2009, vol. 18, no. 4, p. 522 - 526.
- LAHIRI, A. Novel voltage/current-mode quadrature oscillator using current differencing transconductance amplifier. Analog Integrated Circuits and Signal Processing, 2009, vol. 61, no. 2, p. 199 - 203. Doi: 10.1007/s10470-009- 9291-0.
- LAHIRI, A. Resistor-less mixed-mode quadrature sinusoidal oscillator. International Journal of Computer and Electrical Engineering, 2010, vol. 2, no. 1, p.63 - 66.
- LAHIRI, A. New current-mode quadrature oscillators using CDTA. IEICE Electronics Express, 2009, vol. 6, no. 3, p. 135 - 140.
- TANGSRIRAT, W., TANJAROEN, W. Current-mode sinusoidal quadrature oscillator with independent control of oscillation frequency and condition using CDTAs. Indian Journal of Pure & Applied Physics, 2010, vol. 48, no. 5, p. 363 - 366.
- SIRIPRUCHYANUN, M., JAIKLA, W. CMOS current-controlled current differencing transconductance amplifier and applications to analog signal processing. AEU-International Journal of Electronics and Communications, 2008, vol. 62, no. 4, p. 277 - 287.
- PRASAD, D., BHASKAR, D. R., SINGH, A. K. Realisation of single-resistance-controlled sinusoidal oscillator: A new application of the CDTA. WSEAS Transactions on Electronics, 2008, vol. 5, no. 6, p. 257 - 259.
- TANGSRIRAT, W. Current differencing transconductance amplifier-based current-mode four-phase quadrature oscillator. Indian Journal of Engineering and Materials Sciences, 2007, vol. 14, no. 7, p. 289 - 294.
- TANGSRIRAT, W., TANJAROEN, W. Current-mode multiphase sinusoidal oscillator using current differencing transconductance amplifiers. Circuits, Systems and Signal Processing, 2008, vol. 27, no. 1, p. 81 - 93.
- LI, Y. A. Electronically tunable current-mode quadrature oscillator using single MCDTA. Radioengineering, 2010, vol. 19, no. 4, p. 667 - 671.
- JAIKLA, W., SIRIPRUCHYANUN, M., BAJER, J., BIOLEK, D. A simple current-mode quadrature oscillator using single CDTA. Radioengineering, 2008, vol. 17, no. 4, p. 33 - 40.
- BIOLEK, D., KESKIN, A. U., BIOLKOVA, V. Quadrature oscillator using CDTA-based integrators. WSEAS Transactions on Electronics, 2006, vol. 3, no. 9, p. 463 - 469.
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- SHAHRAM, M., SAIT, T. New current-mode current-con-trolled universal filter with single input and three out-puts. International Journal of Electronics, 2001, vol. 88, no. 3, p. 333 - 337.
- BIOLEK, D., BIOLKOVA, V. Universal biquads using CDTA elements for cascade filter design. In Proceeding of the 13th International Multiconference on Circuits, Systems, Communications & Computers (CSCC2003). Corfu (Greece), 2003, p. 8 - 12.
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- BIOLEK, D., BIOLKOVA, V., KOLKA, Z. Current-mode biquad employing single CDTA. Indian Journal of Pure & Applied Physics, 2009, vol. 47, no. 7, p. 535 - 537.
- KESKIN, A. U., BIOLEK, D., HANCIOGLU, E. Current-mode KHN filter employing current differencing transconductance amplifiers. AEU – International Journal of Electronics and Communications, 2006, vol. 60, no. 6, p. 443 - 446.
- BIOLEK, D., BIOLKOVA, V., KOLKA, Z. Single-CDTA (current differencing transconductance amplifier) current-mode biquad revisited. WSEAS Transactions on Electronics, 2008, vol. 5, no. 6, p. 250 - 256.
- BIOLEK, D., BIOLKOVA, V. All-pass filter employing one grounded capacitor and one active element. Electronics Letters, 2009, vol. 45, no. 16, p. 807 - 808.
- BIOLEK, D., BIOLKOVA, V., KOLKA, Z., BAJER, J. Single-input multi-output resistorless current-mode biquad. In Proceeding of the 19th European Conference on Circuit Theory and Design. Antalya (Turkey), 2009, p. 225 - 228.
- PRASAD, D., BHASKAR, D. R., SINGH, A. K. Universal currentmode biquad filter using dual output current differencing transconductance amplifier. AEU – International Journal of Electronics and Communications, 2009, vol. 63, no. 6, p. 497 - 501.
- BIOLEK, D., BIOLKOVA, V. Tunable ladder CDTA-based filters. In 4th Multi-conference WSEAS. Puerto De La Cruz (Tenerife, Spain), 2003, p. 1 - 3.
- FRANCO, S. Design with Operational Amplifiers and Analog Integrated Circuits. 3rd ed. Mc. Graw-Hill Science Engineering, 2001.
- BIOLEK, D., GUBEK, T., BIOLKOVA, V. Optimization of CDTAbased circuits simulating ladder structures. WSEAS Transactions on Mathematics, 2004, vol. 3, no. 4, p. 783 - 788.
- UYGUR. A, KUNTMAN, H. Seventh-order elliptic video filter with 0.1 dB pass band ripple employing CMOS CDTAs. AEU – International Journal of Electronics and Communications, 2007, vol. 61, no. 5, p. 320 - 328.
- LI, Y. A. Forth-order current mode band pass filter with coupled tuned by current using CCCDTAs. Journal of Electron Devices, 2010, vol. 7, p. 210 - 213.

Keywords: Sixth-order elliptic band-pass filter, current mode, electronic adjusting, MCDTA.

**J. Satansup, W. Tangsrirat**
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Single-Input Five-Output Electronically Tunable Current-Mode Biquad Consisting of Only ZC-CFTAs and Grounded Capacitors

This paper presents an electronically tunable current-mode biquadratic filter constructing with four Z-copy current follower transconductance amplifiers (ZC-CFTAs) and only two grounded capacitors. The presented filter can realize all the five standard biquadratic functions simultaneously without requiring any component matching conditions and connecting any relevant output currents. The circuit has one low-impedance input and five high-impedance outputs, resulting in easy cascadability in current-mode. Also, the developed circuit exhibits the advantage of non-interactive electronic control of the natural angular frequency and the quality factor Q along with low incremental active and passive sensitivities. Computer simulation results using PSPICE program are given to confirm the validity of the theoretical prediction and to point out the attractive performance of the circuit.

- BIOLEK, D. CDTA- Building block for current-mode analog signal processing. In Proc. ECCTD’03. vol. III. Krakow (Poland); 2003, p. 397-400.
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- PRASAD, D., BHASKAR, D. R., SINGH, A. K. Universal current-mode biquad filter using dual output current differencing transconductance amplifier. Int. J. Electron. Commun. (AEU), 2009, vol. 63, p. 497-501.
- TANGSRIRAT, W. Cascadable current-controlled current-mode universal filters using CDTAs and grounded capacitors. J. of Active and Passive Electronic Devices, 2009, vol. 4, p. 135-145.
- UYGUR, A., KUNTMAN, H., ZEKI, A. Multi-input multi-output CDTA-based KHN filter. In Proc. The 4th Int. Conf. Electrical and Electronics. Bursa (Turkey), 2005.
- KESKIN, A. U., BIOLEK, D., HANCIOGLU, E., BIOLKOVA, V. Current-mode KHN filter employing current differencing transconductance amplifiers. Int. J. Electron. Commun. (AEU), 2006, vol. 60, p. 443-446.
- SHAH, N. A., QUADRI, M., IQBAL S. Z. Realization of CDTA based current-mode universal filter. Indian J. Pure & App. Phy., 2008, vol. 46, p. 283-285.
- BIOLEK, D., BIOLKOVA, V, KOLKA, Z. Current-mode biquad employing single CDTA. Indian J. Pure & App. Phy., 2009, vol. 47, p. 535-537.
- LAHIRI, A. New current-mode quadrature oscillators using CDTA. IEICE Electronics Express, 2009, vol. 6, no. 3, p. 135-140.
- PRASAD, D., BHASKAR, D. R., SINGH, A. K. New grounded and floating simulated inductance circuits using current differencing transconductance amplifiers. Radioengineering, 2010, vol. 19, no. 1, p. 194-198.
- TANGSRIRAT, W., PUKKALANUN, T., MONGKOLWAI, P., SURAKAMPONTORN, W. Simple current-mode analog multiplier, divider, square-rooter and squarer based on CDTAs. Int. J. Electron. Commun. (AEU), 2011, vol. 65, no. 3, p. 198-203.
- LAHIRI, A., CHOWDHURY, A. A novel first-order current-mode all-pass filter using CDTA. Radioengineering, 2009, vol. 18, no. 3, p. 300-305.
- KHATEB, F., VAVRA, J., BIOLEK, D. A novel current-mode full-wave rectifier based on one CDTA and two diodes. Radioengineering, 2010, vol. 19, no. 3, p. 437-445.
- BIOLEK, D., SENANI, R., BIOLKOVA, V., KOLKA, Z. Active elements for analog signal processing: Classification, review, and new proposals. Radioengineering, 2008, vol. 17, no. 4, p. 15-32.
- HERENCSAR, N., KOTON, J., VRBA, K. A modified CFTA (MCFTA) and its application to SITO-type current-mode universal active-C filter. J. Active and Passive Electronic Devices, accepted in 2009, to be published. ISSN: 1555-0281.
- HERENCSAR, N., KOTON, J., VRBA, K., MISUREC, J. A novel current-mode SIMO type universal filter using CFTAs. Contemporary Engineering Sciences, 2009, vol. 2, no. 2, p. 59-66.
- TANGSRIRAT, W. Novel current-mode and voltage-mode universal biquad filters using single CFTA. Indian J. Eng. Mater. Sci., 2010, vol. 17, p. 99-104.
- HERENCSAR, N., KOTON, J., VRBA, K. Realization of currentmode KHN-equivalent biquad using current follower transconductance amplifiers (CFTAs). IEICE Trans. Fundamentals, 2010, vol. E93-A, no. 10, p. 1816-1819.
- TANGSRIRAT, W. Single-input three-output electronically tunable universal current-mode filter using current follower transconductance amplifiers. Int. J. Electron. Commun. (AEU), doi: 10.1016/j.aeue.2011.01.002.
- BIOLEK, D., BIOLKOVA, V., BAJER, J. Single-input multioutput resistorless current-mode biquad. In Proc. ECCTD’99. Antalya (Turkey), 2009, p. 225-228.
- BIOLKOVA, V., BIOLEK, D. Shadow filters for orthogonal modification of characteristic frequency and bandwidth. Electronics Letters, 2010, vol. 46, p. 830-831.

Keywords: Z-Copy Current Follower Transconductance Amplifier (ZC-CITA), biquad filter, current-mode circuit, electronically tunable.

**R. Arslanalp, A. T. Tola, E. Yuce**
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Novel Resistorless First-Order Current-Mode Universal Filter Employing a Grounded Capacitor

In this paper, a new bipolar junction transistor (BJT) based configuration for providing first-order resistorless current-mode (CM) all-pass, low-pass and high-pass filter responses from the same configuration is suggested. The proposed circuit called as a first-order universal filter possesses some important advantages such as consisting of a few BJTs and a grounded capacitor, consuming very low power and having electronic tunability property of its pole frequency. Additionally, types of filter response can be obtained only by changing the values of current sources. The suggested circuit does not suffer from disadvantages of use of the resistors in IC process. The presented first-order universal filter topology does not need any passive element matching constraints. Moreover, as an application example, a second-order band-pass filter is obtained by cascading two proposed filter structures which are operating as low-pass filter and high-pass one. Simulations by means of PSpice program are accomplished to demonstrate the performance and effectiveness of the developed first-order universal filter.

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Keywords: Current-mode, Universal filter, Resistorless, BJT

**J. Dolezal, J. Stastny, P. Sovka**
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Exploiting Temporal Context in High-Resolution Movement-Related EEG Classification

The contribution presents an application of a movement-related EEG temporal development classification which improves the classification score of voluntary movements controlled by closely localized regions of the brain. A dynamic Hidden Markov Model-based (HMM) classifier specifically designed to capture EEG temporal behavior was used. Surprisingly, HMM classifiers are rarely used for BCI design despite of their advantages. Because of this we also experimented with Learning Vector Quantization, Perceptron, and Support Vector Machine classifiers using a feature space which captures the temporal dynamics of the data. The results presented in this work show that HMM achieves the best performance due to an a priori information on physiological behavior of EEG inserted to the HMM classifier. Feature extraction process and problems with classification were analyzed as well. Classification scores of 66.7% – 94.7% were achieved in our experiments.

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Keywords: Brain-Computer Interface, EEG classification, electroencephalography, neural network applications, Hidden Markov Models.

**P. Varahram, B. M. Ali**
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A Low Complexity Partial Transmit Sequence for Peak to Average Power Ratio Reduction in OFDM Systems

Partial transmit sequence (PTS) is one of the most important techniques for reducing the peak to average power ratio (PAPR) in OFDM systems. This paper presents a low complexity PTS scheme by applying a new phase sequence. Unlike the conventional PTS which needs several inverse fast Fourier transform (IFFT) operations, the proposed technique requires half IFFT operations only at the expense of slight PAPR degradation. Simulation and results are examined with QPSK modulation and OFDM signal and power amplifier with memory effects.

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- VARAHRAM, P., AL-AZOO, W. F., ALI, B. M. A low complexity partial transmit sequence scheme by use of dummy signals for PAPR reduction in OFDM systems. IEEE Transactions on Consumer Electronics, 2010, vol. 56, no. 4, p. 2416 - 2420.
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Keywords: CCDF, digital predistortion, Orthogonal frequency division multiplexing, partial transmit sequence, peak to average power ratio

**A. Ozen**
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A Novel QAM Technique for High Order QAM Signaling

The paper proposes a novel spread quadrature amplitude modulation (S-QAM) technique with high SNR improvement for high-order QAM channels. Simulated and experimental bit error rate (BER) performance analyses of the proposed technique in blind and non-blind equalizers are obtained by using single carrier (SC) WiMAX (IEEE 802.16-2004) radio. Instead of using any one particular type of channel profile, this study concentrates on true frequency selective Rayleigh fading channels in the real-time WiMAX radio environment around 3.5 GHz. The Constant Modulus Algorithm (CMA) blind equalizer has been compared with the popular non-blind equalizers, Recursive Least Squares (RLS) and Least Mean Squares (LMS) algorithm, as benchmarks. It has been proven in experimental and simulated channels that CMA blind equalizer, using the proposed technique, can be considered as a low complexity, spectrum efficient and high performance time domain equalizations to be embedded in a transceiver for the next generation communications. Furthermore the proposed technique has also reduced approximately till 5 dB and 7.5 dB performance differences between non-blind and blind equalizers for 16-QAM and 64-QAM, respectively. The simulation results have demonstrated that the simulated and experimental studies of the proposed technique are compatible with each other and extremely satisfying.

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Keywords: Experimental BER, adaptive blind training, WiMAX (IEEE 802.16-2004), constant modulus algorithm, S-QAM.

**B. Hrusovsky, J. Mochnac, S. Marchevsky**
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Error Concealment Method Based on Motion Vector Prediction Using Particle Filters

Video transmitted over unreliable environment, such as wireless channel or in generally any network with unreliable transport protocol, is facing the losses of video packets due to network congestion and different kind of noises. The problem is becoming more important using highly effective video codecs. Visual quality degradation could propagate into subsequent frames due to redundancy elimination in order to obtain high compression ratio. Since the video stream transmission in real time is limited by transmission channel delay, it is not possible to retransmit all faulty or lost packets. It is therefore inevitable to conceal these defects. To reduce the undesirable effects of information losses, the lost data is usually estimated from the received data, which is generally known as error concealment problem. This paper discusses packet loss modeling in order to simulate losses during video transmission, packet losses analysis and their impacts on the motion vectors losses.

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Keywords: Packet, loss, error concealment, particle filter

**H. Yuan, Z. Bao, A. Hu**
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Power Ramped-up Preamble RF Fingerprints of Wireless Transmitters

In this paper, we propose a novel kind of RF fingerprints (RFF) with better discriminability than typical RFF for identifying preamble-based wireless transmitters. First, the equivalent model of RFF identification system is built. Then, the typical RFF are analyzed with the built model and the novel RFF, which is transformed from preamble signal when its power is ramped up, is presented. Finally, the discriminability of the proposed RFF and typical RFF is experimentally evaluated with Wi-Fi 802.11b devices. The proposed RFF can be integrated into fusion identification of preamble-based wireless devices with multiple RFF.

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Keywords: Non-cryptographic authentication, hardware security, device identification, RF fingerprints, power ramped-up, fusion identification, RF fingerprinting, transmitter identification

**A. Aggelis, E. T. Sarris**
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Location Privacy on DVB-RCS using a “Spatial-Timing” Approach

DVB-RCS synchronization scheme on the Return Channel requires the RCSTs to be programmed with their location coordinates with an accuracy of no more than a few kilometers. RCSTs use this location information in their ranging calculation to the servicing satellite. For certain users this location information disclosure to the network operator can be seen as a serious security event. Recent work of the authors overcame this requirement by cloaking the location of an RCST in such a way (based on "spatial/geometric" symmetries of the network) that the respective ranging calculations are not affected. In this work we argue that timing tolerances in the Return Channel synchronization scheme, accepted by the DVB-RCS standard, can be used in combination to the "spatial" method, further enhancing the location privacy of an RCST. Theoretical findings of the proposed "spatial-timing" approach were used to develop a practical method that can be used by workers in the field. Finally this practical method was successfully tested on a real DVB-RCS system.

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Keywords: DVB-RCS security, location privacy, satellite communications, data cloaking, spatial accuracy, timing tolerances