# June 2018, Volume 27, Number 2 [DOI: 10.13164/re.2018-2]

**J. Chovan, F. Uherek**
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[DOI: 10.13164/re.2018.0357]
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Photonic Integrated Circuits for Communication Systems

Photonic Integrated Circuits allow to meet the increasing demand of communication systems for internet which is growing at about 40% per year. This growth is driven mainly by increasing video traffic in the internet network. This growth is now further accelerated by mobile access, with video clients shipping on an all smart phones and tablets, enabling video to be consumed more conveniently via network connections anywhere and anytime. This paper reviews several material platform of photonic integrated circuits a compares their performance. This paper also describes the new approaches in the design and fabrication of optical transceivers based on photonic integrated circuits for next terabit era.

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Keywords: Integrated photonics, photonics integrated circuit, optoelectronics, optical transport network

**S. Ramya, I. Srinivasa Rao**
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[DOI: 10.13164/re.2018.0364]
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An Ultra-thin Compact Wideband Metamaterial Absorber

This article reports an ultra-thin, compact metamaterial absorber with wideband absorption at microwave frequencies. The proposed structure contains circular and rectangular split rings, and is ultra-thin of 0.049λ0 thickness with respect to the center frequency of the bandwidth. This structure provides wideband absorption of 3.84 GHz from 12.80 GHz to 16.64 GHz with 90 % absorptivity and absorption peaks are observed at 13.2 GHz and 16.5 GHz. The full width half maximum of the structure is 5.48 GHz from 17.57 GHz to 12.09 GHz. The absorption mechanism and polarization behavior of the structure has been studied. The proposed metamaterial absorber is sensitive to polarization but wideband absorption is attained only for specific normal and oblique angles of incidence, with reduced absorptivity. The structure has been fabricated, and the measured results match well with the simulation responses. The advantage of the proposed absorber is its wideband absorption with compact (8 mm × 8 mm size), ultra-thin (1 mm thick substrate) structure compared to that of the other existing microwave metamaterial absorbers.

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Keywords: Microwave absorber, metamaterial, wideband absorber, ultra-thin

**D. K. Choudhary, R. K. Chaudhary**
[references] [full-text]
[DOI: 10.13164/re.2018.0373]
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A Compact Triple Band Metamaterial Inspired Bandpass Filter Using Inverted S-shape Resonator

This paper represents the compact metamaterial inspired triple-band filter using two inverted S-shape resonator and two C-shape stub with via. Proposed filter is printed on FR-4 epoxy glass substrate with 1.6 mm thickness. The measured 3 dB fractional bandwidth of 40 % (1.6-2.4 GHz), 16.5 % (3.9-4.6 GHz) and 14.3 % (5.2-6.0 GHz) at centre frequencies 2.0 GHz, 4.25 GHz and 5.6 GHz respectively. This filter offers electrical circuit size of 0.22λg × 0.16λg, where given λg is the guided wavelength at centre frequency of first passband 2.0 GHz. The performance parameter of designed filter have characterized by fractional bandwidth, insertion loss, dielectric constant, return loss, circuit size and group delay. Both simulated and measured results are shown to validate the proposed filter. Finally, the MTM properties of proposed filter has been verified by extracting its dispersion diagram. It is suitable for GSM 1800, LTE 2300 and WiMAX (5.2-5.8 GHz) application.

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Keywords: Triple-band, bandpass filter, metamaterial, S-shape resonator

**C. Zhang, X.Y. Cao, J. Gao, S. J. Li**
[references] [full-text]
[DOI: 10.13164/re.2018.0379]
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Wideband High-Gain and Low Scattering Antenna Using Shared-Aperture Metamaterial Superstrate

In this paper, a novel wideband high-gain and low scattering antenna using a shared-aperture metamaterial superstrate (SAMS) is designed, fabricated and measured. The superstrate unit cell consisting of two frequency selective surface (FSS) layers with a positive reflection phase gradient is designed to enhance the antenna gain. Then, three different sizes of single units are arranged as a shared-aperture configuration to form the metamaterial superstrate, which is loaded onto the antenna. By utilizing the phase compensation property along different units, the antenna gain enhancement bandwidth is effectively broadened. By adjusting the SAMS loading height, the antenna radar cross section (RCS) is also reduced obviously owing to the different reflective wave phases of PRS and antenna ground. After loading SAMS, the antenna possesses an impedance bandwidth of 44.7% from 7.8GHz to 12.3GHz, covering the whole X band. From 7.9GHz to 12.1GHz, the antenna has an obvious gain enhancement, with a peak of 7dB, meanwhile, the antenna RCS is effectively reduced from 4GHz to 12GHz and the maximum RCS reduction reaches 25.4dB at 8.6GHz for x-polarized incident wave and 15.8dB for y-polarized incident wave. The results are validated by both numerical simulation and experimental measurements. Comparing with traditional fabry-perot (FP) antenna, SAMS can effectively broaden the gain enhancement bandwidth and reduce the antenna RCS, it has great application values in designing high-gain and low scattering antennas.

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Keywords: Wideband, gain enhancement, RCS reduction, shared-aperture, Fabry-Perot resonator

**Si-Jia Li, Xiang-Yu Cao, He-Xiu Xu, Zhao Zhang,Yu-Long Zhou, Jiang-Feng Han, Chen Zhang**
[references] [full-text]
[DOI: 10.13164/re.2018.0386]
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Ultra-Wideband RCS Reduction of Metasurface Antenna Based on Spoof Surface Plasmon Polariton and Transmission

In this paper, a metasurface antenna with ultra-broadband radar cross section (RCS) reduction was systematically presented and evaluated based on the spoof surface plasmon polariton (SSPP) and transmission. A circular metasurface consisted of twelve gradually increasing two-sided metallic grooves and an ultra-thin dielectric film. The evolutions of dispersion characteristic and near electric-field distributions were adequately demonstrated based on SSPP in simulation. Furthermore, the SSPP metasurface had been loaded on a common waveguide slot antenna. The simulation and laboratory measurements were performed to characterize RCS reduction, radiation patterns and scattering performance. A prototype of metasurface antenna had been fabrication and measurement to demonstrate the characteristics. Experiment data were carried out to verify the simulation results and measured results showed that the metasurface antenna exhibited ultra-wideband RCS reduction from 1 GHz to 10 GHz.

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Keywords: Ultra-broadband, radar cross section reduction, metasurface antenna, spoof surface plasmon polariton

**L.R.Ji-Di, X.Y. Cao, Y. Tang, S.M. Wang, Y. Zhao, X.W. Zhu**
[references] [full-text]
[DOI: 10.13164/re.2018.0394]
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A New Coding Metasurface for Wideband RCS Reduction

In this paper, two novel artificial magnetic conductors (AMC) structures are designed to realize 180 degrees of phase difference in a wideband frequency. These two AMC structures are encoded as unit “0”and unit “1”, respectively. By using Simulated Annealing algorithm, the coding sequences of the coding metasurface can be designed, so that the radar cross section (RCS) reduction can be realized as well. Compared with the metallic surface, the simulation and measurement results of this presented coding metasurface indicate that this coding metasurface can significantly realize RCS reduction under normally incident electromagnetic (EM) waves from 7GHz to 20GHz, which is 96.3%, and the RCS under obliquely incident waves also can be dramatically reduced as well, furthermore, the RCS reduction of this coding metasurface is better than that of traditional chessboard surface.

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Keywords: Coding metasurface, wideband, RCS reduction

**T. Song, L. L. Cong, C. M. Tong**
[references] [full-text]
[DOI: 10.13164/re.2018.0402]
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Ultra-Wideband Robust RCS Reduction with Triangle-type AMC Structure

A novel planar artificial magnetic conductor (AMC) structure is presented for ultra-wideband radar cross section reduction (RCSR). The structure consists of three different AMC tiles in a quadruple triangle-type chessboard configuration. By precise design, a 180°±30° reflection phase difference between every two of the three units nearly covers from 3.98GHz to 18.84GHz to broaden the RCSR bandwidth. By this means, the scattered energy is redirected into several lobes and the measured RCSR for over -6dB is achieved nearly from 3.62GHz to 18GHz with a relative bandwidth of 133.02% for both polarizations. Both full-wave simulation and measurement results verify the capability and potentiality of the proposed design for ultra-wideband RCSR.

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Keywords: Ultra-wideband, artificial magnetic conductor, polarization independent, radar cross section reduction, quadruple triangle chessboard

**R. Agrawal, P. Belwal, S. C. Gupta**
[references] [full-text]
[DOI: 10.13164/re.2018.0409]
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Asymmetric Substrate Integrated Waveguide Leaky Wave Antenna with Open Stop Band Suppression and Radiation Efficiency Equalization Through Broadside

A planar asymmetric substrate integrated wave¬guide leaky wave antenna is proposed with open stop band suppression and radiation efficiency equalization through broadside for the Ku-band. The stop-band behavior exhib¬ited at broadside in the 1-D periodic structure is signifi¬cantly reduced using reflection cancellation technique by placing the two slots at a quarter distance within the unit cell. Furthermore, asymmetric technique is applied. The asymmetry is introduced with respect to both axial and transversal axis of the structure so as to match the at-broadside Bloch impedance and off-broadside Bloch im¬pedance. This provides total open stop band suppression and radiation efficiency improvement as well as equaliza-tion through broadside. The problem is analyzed with the help of Bloch impedance behavior. For illustration of the above techniques; single slot, double slot and asymmetric designs are developed for the proposed leaky wave an¬tenna. The final asymmetric design after optimization is fabricated. Measured results are almost consistent with the simulation results with complete suppression of open stop band, efficiency improvement and equalization through broadside providing continuous beam scanning from –32° to +27° with constant gain of ~12.5 dBi.

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Keywords: Leaky wave antenna, substrate integrated waveguide, open stop band, reflection cancellation, asymmetry, efficiency equalization, broadside

**As. Abdipour, Ar. Abdipour, A. Khosravi**
[references] [full-text]
[DOI: 10.13164/re.2018.0417]
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A Compact Microstrip Lowpass Filter with Ultra-Wide Rejection Band and Sharp Transition Band Utilizing Combined Resonators with Triangular Patches

In this paper, a microstrip lowpass filter with -3 dB cut-off frequency of 1.8 GHz consisting of two resonators with different triangular patches and four high-low impedance resonators as suppressing cells has been designed. To design this filter, the influence of each transmission line on the frequency response of the utilized resonators has been clarified by calculating the equations of S21 and S11 based on the lumped circuit of them separately. The designed filter has been constructed and tested, and an good agreement between the simulation and measurement results has been achieved. The stopband covers an ultra-wide frequency range from 1.94 to 34.556 GHz with a suppression level of -21.2 dB. Furthermore, the insertion loss in the passband region is close to zero from DC to 1.68 GHz and an acceptable return loss (17.44 dB) in this band can prove desired in-band character. Moreover, the proposed filter provides a sharp transition band equal to 228 (dB/GHz). The designed lowpass filter has a high figure of merit equal to 26583.4.

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Keywords: Microstrip lowpass filter, insertion loss, return loss, triangular patches

**Gh. Karimi, A. Golestanifar, A. Ghaderi , N. Salimpour**
[references] [full-text]
[DOI: 10.13164/re.2018.0425]
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Ultra Sharp Transition-Band LPF with Miniaturized Size for GSM Applications

In this paper, a microstrip low-pass filter (LPF) using a bended transmission line is presented. The LPF has a simple topology, which is composed of a T-shaped stub as main resonator, one conventional rectangular resonator (as suppressing stub) and two T-shaped stubs. To approach a high operation and small dimensions, this structure is bent. The proposed LPF has a compact size (0.090 lambda_g × 0.119 lambdag) and presents an ultra sharp transition-band (ksi = 880.95 dB/GHz) from 0.945 to 0.987 GHz with –3 and –40 dB suppression levels, respectively. This filter, with 3- dB cut-off frequency (fc) of 0.945 GHz, is useful for GSM applications. The performance of each section is investigated based on LC equivalent circuit. The designed filter is fabricated and measured. Also, the results exhibit an excellent figure of merit (FOM) of 239756.

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Keywords: Bandpass filter, T-shaped resonator, transmission zero, LC equivalent circuit

**Z. Q. Nie, S. L. Wang, D. H. Chen, T. Deng**
[references] [full-text]
[DOI: 10.13164/re.2018.0431]
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Seabed-Rock-Layer Electromagnetic Communication Channel Model with Low Path Loss Based on Evanescent Wave

The main limitation of the development of underwater wireless electromagnetic communication is severe attenuation introduced by the seawater characteristics of high permittivity and high conductivity. Fortunately, in previous studies, it was found through experiments that the loss between two underwater antennas near seawater surface or seabed is much smaller than the higher order severe attenuation for the line of sight (LOS) path in seawater. But no one has given reasonable explanation for this phenomenon. To solve this problem, we investigate the propagation mechanism of this phenomenon theoretically. The main component of seabed-rock-layer is basalt, an alternative seabed-rock-layer communication channel model based on evanescent wave generated by the total reflection on the seabed-rock-layer surface is proposed in this paper. Then we analyze the performance of this model according to Goos-Hanchen (GH) Shift of evanescent wave. Simulation results show that the path loss in this model is about 1/20 of that in seawater and the propagation velocity can be increased 20 times. Proposed technology is expected to become an important part of underwater high speed and reliable communication.

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Keywords: Underwater electromagnetic communication, seabed-rock-layer, evanescent wave, low loss, high speed

**T. Shabbir, R. Saleem, S. U. Rehman, M. F. Shafique**
[references] [full-text]
[DOI: 10.13164/re.2018.0440]
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A Compact Single Layer Reflectarray Antenna Based on Circular Delay-Lines for X-band Applications

This paper presents a compact single layer reflectarray antenna based on a diagonally notched square patch and a pair of circular delay lines, for X-band applications. The length and width of circular delay-lines are varied and optimized to attain a linear phase range of more than 600º. The effect of incident angle in TE and TM modes at 0º, 15º and 30º is studied, which offers stable angular phase range. The hybrid Finite Element Boundary Integral (FEBI) method is used for simulation of the whole reflectarray system comprising of 27 × 27 elements and being fabricated on a low cost FR-4 laminate. The measured gain of 24.5 dBi with aperture efficiency of 49.5% is achieved at 10 GHz. The proposed design provides the measured 1-dB gain bandwidth of 12.5% and 3-dB gain bandwidth of 34%. The simulated and measured side-lobe-levels and cross polarizations are less than –25 dB and –40 dB respectively.

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Keywords: Reflectarray antenna, high gain, circular delay-lines, phase range, TE and TM modes, single layer

**S. Kundu, A. Chatterjee, S. K. Jana, S. K. Parui**
[references] [full-text]
[DOI: 10.13164/re.2018.0448]
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A Compact Umbrella-Shaped UWB Antenna with Gain Augmentation Using Frequency Selective Surface

A compact (35 mm × 30 mm × 0.8 mm) co-planar waveguide fed ultra-wideband antenna with bended ground plane suitable for GPR applications is proposed in this article. The umbrella shaped radiating element is constructed using the intersection of two ellipses. The proposed antenna provides a wide impedance bandwidth of 10.35 GHz (3.05–13.4 GHz) covering the unlicensed UWB band. The simply structured antenna is easy to fabricate and to integrate in PCB board. A frequency selective surface (FSS) with two layers, each of 4×4 array, cascaded via air gap, is incorporated in the antenna as a substrate to enhance the gain by 2 to 4 dBi over the entire frequency band. Metamaterial inspired unit cells are chosen for the FSS layers, with unit cell dimension on the order of λ/10 with respect to 3 GHz, much less than λ/4. The spacing between the antenna and FSS is kept so as to enhance the gain value without hampering nearly flat gain response over the band. The gain is maintained between 5.5–8.5 dBi over the band. The antenna was investigated by comparing the simulated and measured fundamental antenna parameters. High radiation efficiency of more than 90% with non-varying group delay and nearly omnidirectional H-plane radiation pattern were achieved. Measurement results validated the antenna performance and gain enhancement due to the addition of FSS layers.

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Keywords: Ultra Wide-Band (UWB), Co-Planar Waveguide (CPW), umbrella shaped radiator, Frequency Selective Surface (FSS), gain enhancement.

**M. Du, J. Xu, X. Ding, J. P. Cao, J. H. Deng, Y. L. Dong**
[references] [full-text]
[DOI: 10.13164/re.2018.0455]
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A Low-Profile Wideband LTCC Integrated Circularly Polarized Helical Antenna Array for Millimeter-Wave Applications

A low-profile wideband low-temperature co-fired ceramic integrated circularly polarized helical antenna array for millimeter-wave applications is presented. The major consideration of the antenna element design is to achieve good circular polarization and wide bandwidth when the helix has just about one turn which is beneficial for low profile. The turn is composed of 6×1/5-turn horizontal segments with straight-edge connections implemented by via holes. Then, a 2×2 helical antenna array with a dimension of 25×15×1.316 (0.15 λ0, is the wavelength at 35 GHz) mm3 was designed. The simulated results show that the proposed helical antenna array has a wide impedance bandwidth from 26.5 to 40 GHz for |S11| < -13 dB and AR for AR < 3 dB. The proposed antenna array was also measured and good agreement is achieved between the simulated and measured results.

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Keywords: Millimeter-wave (mmW), circularly polarized, helical, array, low-temperature co-fired ceramic (LTCC)

**P. Piasecki, Y. Yashchyshyn**
[references] [full-text]
[DOI: 10.13164/re.2018.0463]
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Study of D-band LTCC Leaky Wave Antenna Optimized for Broadside Radiation

This paper presents the design, fabrication and measurements of a Low Temperature Co-Fired Ceramic leaky wave antenna optimized for broadside radiation. The antenna consists of two DuPont 9k7 material layers. The thickness of each layer is approximately 115 um. The bottom layer plays the role of the main substrate and a top layer is used for creating a corrugated structure. The developed antenna operates in the frequency range of 125 GHz – 135 GHz with a minimized radiation pattern squint below 8 degrees in the whole operating bandwidth. The antenna reflection coefficient S11 is less than -10 dB in the operating frequency bandwidth and the maximum measured antenna gain is 9.9 dBi. Moreover a study of different antenna radiating structures and their capability of broadside radiation and reflection coefficient properties are discussed.

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Keywords: Antenna, leaky wave, LTCC, mm-waves

**X. K. Wei, W. Shao, X. H. Wang, B.-Z. Wang**
[references] [full-text]
[DOI: 10.13164/re.2018.0469]
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Domain Decomposition CN-FDTD with Unsplit-Field PML for Time-Reversed Channel Analysis

In this paper, an efficient domain decomposition (DD) technique is introduced into the implicit Crank-Nicolson finite-difference time-domain (CN-FDTD) method to analyze the channel characteristics of time reversal (TR) waves. As an unconditionally stable time-marching method, DD-CN-FDTD is suitable to solve the multiscale problem involving special microstructures in a sub-wavelength array. The standard unsplit-field perfectly matched layer, which is implemented with auxiliary differential equations, is derived here to truncate the computational domain of a multipath indoor environment. Furthermore, each sub-matrix is preconditioned by the reverse Cuthill-Mckee scheme for easier lower-upper decomposition. Numerical results of TR wave propagation demonstrate the performance of the proposed method.

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Keywords: Domain decomposition (DD) technique, finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) method, perfectly matched layer (PML), time-reversal (TR)

**G. Baruffa, L. Rugini, F. Frescura, P. Banelli**
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[DOI: 10.13164/re.2018.0475]
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Real-Time Generation of Standard-Compliant DVB-T Signals

This paper proposes and discusses two software implementations of the DVB-T modulator, using C++ and MATLAB, respectively. All the key features of the DVB-T standard are included. The C++ DVB-T modulator, incorporated into the Iris framework developed by Trinity College of Dublin, works in real time on an Intel Core i7 2.4 GHz CPU with the Iris testbed. The MATLAB-based DVB-T modulator is coupled with a receiver implementation with channel estimation, equalization, soft-output demapping and channel decoding. The validation step demonstrates that the proposed DVB-T software implementations generate standard-compliant DVB-T signals that are correctly received by commercially available TV sets and USB dongles. The software code for the Iris-based C++ modulator, and for the MATLAB-based modulator and receiver, has been made publicly available under the GNU license.

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Keywords: Digital Video Broadcasting-Terrestrial (DVB-T), OFDM, software-defined radio (SDR), C++, MATLAB

**J. She, Y. Yu, P.-F. Cui, W.-J. Lu, H.-B. Zhu**
[references] [full-text]
[DOI: 10.13164/re.2018.0485]
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Reverberation Time and Power Model in Indoor Wireless Scenarios

A novel, room-electromagnetics-theory-based model for reverberation time, path gain and Power Delay Profile (PDP) is proposed. Unlike the traditional models describing only the reflections, the new model takes not only reflections at boundaries, but also the effects including scattering, diffraction and air absorption along the propagation path into consideration. Extensive measurements at 2.6 GHz under Line-Of-Sight (LOS) conditions are carried out not only in enclosed structures, but also in semi-enclosed scenarios which are normally with higher average absorptive coefficients. Hence, the application of reverberation model is extended compared to open literature. Reverberation time and path gain values predicted by the proposed model are in good agreement with these measurement results obtained in various indoor wireless environments. In addition, a novel PDP model with lower complexity is proposed based on measured path gain and Nakagami-m distribution. The proposed models are proved to be more accurate than traditional reverberation models.

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- BAMBA, A., JOSEPH, W., TANGHE, E., et al. Circuit model for diffuse multipath and electromagnetic absorption prediction in rooms. IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation, 2013, vol. 61, no. 6, p. 3292–3301. DOI: 10.1109/TAP.2013.2250234
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Keywords: Indoor environment, reverberation time, path gain, Power Delay Profile (PDP), room electromagnetics

**F. Mejri, T. Aguili**
[references] [full-text]
[DOI: 10.13164/re.2018.0494]
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Design of a Microwave Duplexer without Ferrite and without Magnet

In this paper we present the design, realization and characterization of a microwave duplexer, compact, easy to realize and integrate into systems such as ground penetrating radars. It is made without the use of ferrite or magnet. This device is designed in the S band and made in micro-ribbon technology. It consists of a power divider and two RF amplifiers, low gain, using a BFR91 bipolar transistor. The latter is frequently available and inexpensive. Measurements made on a vector network analyzer have shown a low insertion loss with insulation considered satisfactory – for low power applications - between the transmitter (Tx) and the receiver (Rx) circuits.

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Keywords: Duplexer, micro-strip structure, microwave, bipolar transistor, RF amplifier, polarization tee, Wilkinson power divider.

**N. Lekic, Z. Mijanovic, R. Dragovic-Ivanovic, LJ. Stankovic**
[references] [full-text]
[DOI: 10.13164/re.2018.0501]
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Binary Weighted DAC with 2-ξ Resistor Ratio

In this paper we present a new digital analog converter (DAC) design, based on the binary weighted resistor network. The proposed design ensures high conversion accuracy using low precision resistors with ±1% ±2%, ±5%, ±10% and ±20% resistor tolerance. High accuracy is achieved due to better coverage of the analog domain of the transfer characteristic. In binary weighted converters the imprecision of resistors introduces positive and negative differential nonlinearities (DNL). Positive DNL causes gap in the analog domain of the transfer characteristic and negative DNL causes non-monotonicity. In the proposed solution we change the resistor ratio of the two consecutive DAC branches from 2 to 2-ξ, where ξ is small positive number. With this change, we intentionally introduce an additional negative DNL in order to entirely avoid the positive gap. Simulation results confirm that even with resistors tolerance of up to ±10%, we can achieve a converter with maximal gap in the transfer characteristic less than or around one LSB.

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Keywords: Binary weighted DAC, conversion accuracy, differential nonlinearity, gap in transfer characteristic, lookup table

**D. Vinko**
[references] [full-text]
[DOI: 10.13164/re.2018.0510]
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Applicability of Dickson Charge Pump in Energy Harvesting Systems: Experimental Validation of Energy Harvesting Charge Pump Model

Energy harvesting methods provide very low instantaneous power. Accordingly, available voltage levels are low and must be increased so that an energy harvesting method can be used as a power supply. One approach uses charge pumps to boost low AC voltage from energy harvester to a higher DC voltage. Characterized by very low output current and a wide span of operating frequencies, energy harvesting methods introduce a number of limitations to charge pump operation. This paper describes and models behavior of Dickson charge pump in energy harvesting applications. Proposed Energy Harvesting model is evaluated and compared with Standard and Tanzawa charge pump models and with measurement results. Based on the proposed model, the conditions that need to be satisfied so that a charge pump can reach maximum power point of energy harvesting system are defined. Parameter selection method optimized for maximum power point is presented and is experimentally validated.

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Keywords: Charge pumps, Energy harvesting, Circuit analysis, Mathematical model, Maximum power point

**M. Bashir, S. Rao Patri, K. S. R. Krishna Prasad**
[references] [full-text]
[DOI: 10.13164/re.2018.0519]
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A 159 µW, Fourth Order, Feedforward, Mutli-bit Sigma Delta Modulator for 100 kHz Bandwidth Image Sensors in 65-nm CMOS Process

A fourth-order, three-stage, feedforward cascade sigma-delta modulator (ƩΔM) for CMOS image sensor applications is realized in low leakage, high threshold voltage 65 nm CMOS standard process. A top down CAD methodology is used for the design of building blocks, which involves statistical and simulation optimization at different stages of modulator. The multi-bit ƩΔ architecture employs OTA sharing technique with the dual integrating scheme at the first stage and the gain boosted pseudo-differential class-C inverters as OTAs for the rest two stages for low area and power consumption. The operation of proposed ƩΔM is validated through post-layout simulations, considering worst case. The ƩΔM operates at a power supply of 1-V offering a peak signal-to-ratio of 92 dB and a peak signal-to-noise plus distortion ratio of 89 dB for a signal bandwidth of 100 kHz. The overall power and estimated area consumed by the ƩΔM including auxiliary blocks is 159 µW and 101.2 mm2, respectively.

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Keywords: Analog front end, CMOS image sensor, sigma-delta modulator, signal-to noise ratio, switch capacitor circuits, gain boosted technology, dynamic element matching

**S. Rebelli, B. R. Nistala**
[references] [full-text]
[DOI: 10.13164/re.2018.0532]
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An Efficient MRTD Model for the Analysis of Crosstalk in CMOS-Driven Coupled Cu Interconnects

This paper presents an efficient wavelet based numerical method for analyzing functional and dynamic crosstalk of CMOS driven coupled copper (Cu) interconnects known as Multi-Resolution Time Domain (MRTD),wherein, the CMOS drivers are modeled using nth-power law model. The performance of the proposed MRTD method is evaluated through recursive simulations in HSPICE environment and compared with the conventional Finite Difference Time Domain (FDTD) method at 32-nm technology node for global interconnects of length 1mm, where the computations of the proposed model and conventional FDTD are carried out using MATLAB. For different number of test cases, the proposed MRTD method gives an average error of 0.14 % and 1.9 % for peak crosstalk noise and peak noise timing, respectively, with respect to HSPICE results. Also, the dynamic crosstalk noise on victim line of the proposed MRTD method are in close agreement with those of HSPICE. The results show the dominance of the proposed MRTD method over the conventional FDT method regarding accuracy. The proposed MRTD method is also extended for three-mutuallycoupled interconnect lines for crosstalk analysis, with an average error less than 1 % when compared to that of more than 3 % using the conventional FDTD method. Moreover, for the transient analysis, the MRTD method is more time efficient than HSPICE.

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Keywords: CMOS Driver, Cu interconnects, peak crosstalk noise, delay, MRTD, FDTD, HSPICE

**Yasir, N. Wu, X. Chen, M. Rehan Yahya**
[references] [full-text]
[DOI: 10.13164/re.2018.0541]
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Area-Efficient Hardware Architectures of MISTY1 Block Cipher

In this paper, state-of-the-art hardware implementations of MISTY1 block cipher are presented for area-constrained wireless applications. The proposed MISTY1 architectures are characterized of highly optimized transformation functions i.e. FL and {FO-XOR-EKG}. The FL function re-utilizes logic AND-OR-XOR combinations whereas {FO-XOR-EKG} function explores 2 × compact design schemes for s-boxes implementation. A Combined Substitution Unit (CSU) and threshold area implementation are proposed for s-boxes based on Boolean reductions and Common Sub-expression Eliminations (CSEs). Besides, {FO-XOR-EKG} function is designed for manifold operations of FO / FI functions, 32-bit XOR operation and extended key generation thereby reducing the area. Hardware implementations on ASIC 180nm, 1.8V standard library cell realized compact and threshold MISTY1 designs constituting 1853 and 1546 NAND gates with throughput values of 41.6 Mbps and 4.72 Mbps respectively. A comprehensive comparison with existing cryptographic hardware designs establishes that the proposed MISTY1 architectures are the most area-efficient implementations till date.

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Keywords: MISTY1, ASICs, wireless communications, S-box, common sub-expression elimination

**D. Singh, R. K. Sarin**
[references] [full-text]
[DOI: 10.13164/re.2018.0549]
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A First-Order Primal-Dual Method for Saddle Point Optimization of PAPR Problem in MU-MIMO-OFDM Systems

This paper investigates the use of a particular splitting-based optimization technique for constrained l∞-norm based peak-to-average power ratio (PAPR) reduction problem in multiuser orthogonal frequency-division multiplexing (OFDM) based multiple-input multi-output (MIMO) systems. PAPR reduction and multi-user interference (MUI) cancelation are considered in a saddle-point formulation on the downlink of a multi-user MIMO-OFDM system and an efficient primal-dual hybrid gradient (PDHG) inspired algorithm with easy-to-evaluate proximal operators is developed. The proposed algorithm converges significantly faster to satisfactory solutions with much improved asymptotical convergence rate than existing methods. Numerical results illustrate the superior performance of the proposed algorithm over existing methods in terms of PAPR reduction for different MIMO configurations.

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Keywords: MIMO-OFDM, peak-to-average power ratio (PAPR) reduction, saddle point problem, convex optimization

**S. Chebir, S. Aidel, K. Rouabah, S. Attia, M. Flissi**
[references] [full-text]
[DOI: 10.13164/re.2018.0557]
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GNSS Signals Acquisition and Tracking in Unfavorable Environment

In this paper, we propose a method based on applying specific transformations to the Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) signals received in unfavorable environment. As a result, one simple classical receiver including these adjustments becomes sensitive to several Multi-Constellation and Multi-Frequency (MC/MF) GNSS signals and achieves efficiently their collective acquisition. The proposed method consists of three variants each dedicated to a particular type of Binary Offset Carrier (BOC) family signals; the primary is based on undersampling process, the second is founded on time expansion and the last one permits the acquisition of more than five different GNSS signals by a single local Composite Binary Coded Symbols (CBCS) waveform replica. Hence, the proposed scheme, by avoiding the use of multiple demodulators in the baseband, allows less receiver complexity and accordingly better realization cost. The simulation results showed that the proposed method presents an effective solution for the reception of MC/MF signals in unfavorable environments.

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Keywords: GNSS, Galileo, correlation, multi-constellation, multi-frequency, multipath

**S. N. Han, M. Zhang, X. H. Li**
[references] [full-text]
[DOI: 10.13164/re.2018.0572]
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A Fast Method for Blind Identification of Punctured Convolutional Codes

The existing method for blind identification of a punctured convolutional code involves searching for dual words and the puncturing pattern exhaustively. As the length of the dual words and the code rate increase, the computational complexity of this method expands exponentially. To address this problem, a fast scheme for blind identification of punctured convolutional codes is proposed. First, a recursive algorithm for solving the parity check equation set is proposed. The dual word and generator polynomial bases of the punctured convolutional code are estimated by using the recursive algorithm. After this, by using the structural properties of the generator matrix of the blocked code, possible generator matrices of the punctured convolutional code are obtained. Finally, since a generator polynomial of the parent convolutional code can be recovered from any column of its polycyclic pseudocirculant matrix, the corresponding generator matrix of the parent code and the puncturing pattern are reconstructed simultaneously from an estimation of the generator matrix of the punctured code. The reconstructed generator matrix of the parent code with a minimal constraint length is determined to be the identification result. Simulation experiments show the effectiveness of the proposed method. As there is no need to search for the dual word and puncturing pattern exhaustively, the method can achieve fast identification of punctured convolutional codes. Additionally, the method is robust to bit errors in the received sequence.

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Keywords: Punctured convolutional code, blind identification, recursive algorithm, generator matrix, puncturing pattern

**P. Huang, X. Li, H. Wang**
[references] [full-text]
[DOI: 10.13164/re.2018.0580]
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Tensor-Based Match Pursuit Algorithm for MIMO Radar Imaging

In MIMO radar, existing sparse imaging algorithms commonly vectorize the receiving data, which will destroy the multi-dimension structure of signal and cause the algorithm performance decline. In this paper, the sparsity characteristic and multi-dimension characteristic of signals are considered simultaneously and a new compressive sensing imaging algorithm named tensor-based match pursuit(TMP) is proposed. In the proposed method, MIMO radar tensor signal model is established to eliminate “dimension disaster” at first. Then, exploiting tensor decomposition to process tensor data sets, tensor-based match pursuit is formulated for multi-dimension sparse signal recovery, in which atom vectors orthogonality selection strategy and basis-signal reevaluation are used to eliminate the wrong indices and enhance resolution respectively. Simulation results validates that the proposed method can complete high-resolution imaging correctly compared with conventional greedy sparse recovery algorithms. Additionally, under fewer snapshots condition, RMSE of proposed method is far lower than other sparse recovery algorithms.

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Keywords: MIMO radar, Compressive sensing (CS), tensor decomposition, sparse imaging, greedy algorithm

**J. A. Jahanshahi, H. Danyali, M. S. Helfroush**
[references] [full-text]
[DOI: 10.13164/re.2018.0587]
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A Distributed Compressed Sensing-based Algorithm for the Joint Recovery of Signal Ensemble

This paper considers sparsity-aware adaptive compressed sensing acquisition and the joint reconstruction of intra- and inter-correlated signals in the wireless sensor networks via distributed compressed sensing. textcolor{red}{ Due to the different sparsity order of the finite-length signals, we develop an adaptive sensing framework based on the sparsity order, in which sensor readings are sampled according to its own sparsity order measure.} On the decoder side, utilizing a distributed compressive sensing scheme, a joint reconstruction method is proposed to recover signal ensemble even in imperfect data communication. textcolor{red}{Moreover, we explore that by adapting the sampling rate of the sensed signals, not only the whole required number of measurements is reduced, but also the reconstruction performance is significantly improved. Numerical experiments verify that our proposed algorithm achieves higher reconstruction accuracy with a smaller number of required transmission, and with lower complexity as compared to those of the state of the art CS methods.

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Keywords: Sparsity measure, sparsity-aware distributed compressed sensing, compressive sensing

**Z. H. Tan, W. M. Jia, W. Jin**
[references] [full-text]
[DOI: 10.13164/re.2018.0595]
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Robust Adaptive Beamforming Using k-means Clustering: A Solution to High Complexity of the Reconstruction-Based Algorithm

Recently, a new robust adaptive beamforming (RAB) algorithm has been proposed to reconstruct the interference-plus-noise covariance matrix (IPNCM) based on narrowing the interference angular domain and using an annular uncertainty set (NIAD-AUS). The method is robust against unknown arbitrary-type mismatches. However, its computational complexity will increase exponentially with the number of array sensors. In this paper, a novel method is proposed to solve this problem. First, k-means clustering (KMC) algorithm is utilized to estimate the annulus uncertainty set with fewer clustering weight points rather than whole sampling. Second, the KMC Capon spectrum is used to reconstruct the IPNCM. Compared with the previous reconstruction-based algorithms, the proposed approach can retain the high performance of the state-of-the-art NIAD-AUS algorithm. More importantly, it can also obtain the IPNCM more quickly. Lastly, simulation results demonstrate the effectiveness and robustness of the proposed algorithm.

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Keywords: Robust adaptive beamforming, k-means clustering, reconstruction-based algorithm, low complexity

**V. Alvarez-Ramos, V. Ponomaryov, S. Sadovnychiy**
[references] [full-text]
[DOI: 10.13164/re.2018.0602]
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Image Super-Resolution Via Wavelet Feature Extraction and Sparse Representation

This paper proposes a novel Super-Resolution (SR) technique based on wavelet feature extraction and sparse representation. First, the Low-Resolution (LR) image is interpolated employing the Lanczos operation. Then, the image is decomposed into sub-bands (LL, LH, HL and HH) via Discrete Wavelet Transform (DWT). Next, the LH, HL and HH sub-bands are interpolated employing the Lanczos interpolator. Principal Component Analysis (PCA) is used to reduce and to obtain the most relevant features information from the set of interpolated sub-bands. Overlapping patches are taken from the features obtained via PCA. For each patch, the sparse representation is computed using the Orthogonal Matching Pursuit (OMP) algorithm and the LR dictionary. Subsequently, this sparse representation is used to reconstruct a High-Resolution (HR) patch employing the HR dictionary and it is added to the LR image. By applying the quality objective criteria PSNR and SSIM, the novel technique has been evaluated demonstrating the superiority of the novel framework against state-of-the-art techniques.

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Keywords: Super-resolution, sparse representation, wavelet, features, interpolation, neural networks

**T. Jung, I. Song, S. Lee, S. Jung, S. Yoon, J. Kang**
[references] [full-text]
[DOI: 10.13164/re.2018.0610]
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Expansion of Cell Range With Geometric Information of Pico Cell for Maximum Sum Rate in Heterogeneous Networks

In this paper, taking the positions of pico-cell base stations (PBSs) into consideration, a scheme of cell range expansion (CRE) for maximum sum rate is addressed in heterogeneous multi-input multi-output multi-user wireless networks. The optimal CRE bias obtained numerically by the proposed CRE scheme with inter-cell interference coordination (ICIC) allows us to maximize the sum rate while successfully maintaining the load balance between the macrocell base station and PBSs. Numerical results confirm that the proposed CRE scheme with ICIC can provide higher sum rate than conventional schemes and balanced load.

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Keywords: Cell range expansion (CRE), heterogeneous network, interference coordination, multi-input multi-output multi-user (MIMO-MU) system

**V. Jenik, P. Hudec, P. Panek**
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[DOI: 10.13164/re.2018.0620]
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Extended Noise Analysis Model of CW-type Radar Sensors with IQ Down-Conversion

CW-type structures belong to the most frequently employed radars, especially in a form of small sensors used, for example, in security applications or automotive industry. Range and reliability of operation of these sensors strongly depend upon their noise parameters. This paper extends previously published works by considering all potential inner noise sources and creating complex noise model of the concerned radar family including often used IQ signal processing. The noise sources cover local oscillator amplitude-noise and phase-noise, noise of a RF signal path and noise of a low-frequency signal path. The resulting noise model was verified by practical measurements which included different local oscillator types, different low-frequency bandwidths and different time-delays of the cross-talked signals. In all cases, the agreement between theory and measurement was within estimated limits. The developed model is applicable for noise analysis and design of all common CW-type radars.

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Keywords: CW radar, FM-CW radar, PN-CW radar, amplitude noise, phase noise, noise analysis, noise model