June 2016, Volume 25, Number 2 [DOI: 10.13164/re.2016-2]
J. Havlicek, M. Svanda, J. Machac, M. Polivka
Improvement of Reading Performance of Frequency-Domain Chipless RFID Transponders
This review paper presents the summary of our investigations in several topics of frequency-domain chipless RFID transponders. The performance comparison of various types of scatterers used in the literature and recently proposed by the authors is presented. The issue of proper location of adjacent resonant elements in the scatterer array to reduce the mutual coupling and consequently ensure the robust RCS response for reliable reading of coded information is addressed. A major improvement in RCS response of transponders is proposed, using slot-in-plate type transponders. Advantages and drawbacks of the proposed solutions are discussed and several open challenges in the field are emphasized.
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- POLIVKA, M., MACHAC, J. Novel size-reduced unit cells for uniplanar chipless RFID tags. In Proceedings of Asia-Pacific Microwave Conference. Seoul (Korea), 2013, p. 908–910. DOI: 10.1109/APMC.2013.6694970
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- POLIVKA, M., HAVLICEK, J., SVANDA, M., MACHAC, J. Improvement of RCS response of U-shaped strip-based chipless RFID tags. In Proceedings of European Microwave Conference (EuMC 2015). Paris (France), 2015, p. 107–110. DOI: 10.1109/EuMC.2015.7345711
- POLIVKA, M., SVANDA, M., MACHAC, J. Chipless RFID tag with an improved RCS response. In Proceedings of the 44th European Microwave Conference (EuMC 2014). Rome (Italy), 2014, p. 770–773. DOI: 10.1109/EuMC.2014.6986548
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Keywords: Chipless RFID, mutual coupling, monostatic RCS measurement, scatterer
V. Prajzler, P. Hyps, R. Mastera, P. Nekvindova
Properties of Siloxane Based Optical Waveguides Deposited on Transparent Paper and Foil
In this paper, we present the properties of flexible planar optical waveguides made of siloxane-based polymer deposited on Xerox transparent paper and PLEXIGLAS foil substrate. Measurement of optical properties such as the waveguiding properties and refractive index is carried out by the prism coupling technique for five wavelengths (473, 632.8, 964, 1311 and 1552 nm) and propagation optical loss were measured by the fibre probe technique at a wavelength of 632.8 nm (He-Ne laser). The measurement proved waveguiding properties for all measured wavelengths and the losses generally did not exceed 0.40 dB/cm; the best samples had optical losses around 0.24 dB/cm.
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Keywords: Optical planar waveguides, siloxane polymer, flexible foil, prism coupling technique
A novel dual-band aperture coupled microstrip antenna with corrugated ground plane is proposed to improve radiation performance in this letter. The dual-band operation is obtained by embedding a S-shaped slot in the radiating patch. To achieve the high gain and the reduced half power beam bandwidth (HPBW) for each frequency, the double- periodic corrugated ground plane is utilized. Both the simulation and measurement results show that the gain of the proposed antenna is increased by 4.7 dB and 5.6 dB at each frequency correspondingly and the half power beam width (HPBW) of E-plane is reduced by 140 degrees and 150 degrees, respectively.
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Keywords: Microstrip antenna, dual-band, aperture coupled, corrugated ground plane
Qiang Fu, Cheng-Li Fan, Si-Jia Li, Gang Wang, Xiang-Yu Cao
Ultra-Broad Band Radar Cross Section Reduction of Waveguide Slot Antenna with Metamaterials
To reduce the radar cross section of a waveguide slot antenna, a three-layer metamaterial is presented based on orthogonal double split-ring resonators. The absorption characteristics of three-layer metamaterial are demonstrated by simulation. Moreover, the metamaterials have been loaded on common waveguide slot antenna according to the surface current distribution. The ultra-broad band radar cross section reduction of the antenna with metamaterials had been theoretically and experimentally investigated by radiating and scattering performances. Experimental and simulated results showed that the proposed antenna with metamaterials performed broadband radar cross section reduction from 3.9 GHz to 18 GHz and the gain had been improved due to the coupling effect between slot and the period structure. The maximal radar cross section reduction achieved 17.81 dB at 8.68 GHz for x-polarized incidence and 21.79 dB at 6.25 GHz for y-polarized waves.
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Keywords: Ultra-broad band, radar cross section reduction, metamaterial, gain enhancement
A diplexer realized purely based on direct coupling is presented. No cross-coupling is involved in the design process. The microwave diplexer is achieved by coupling a dual-band bandpass filter onto two individual channel filters. This design eliminates the need for employing external junctions in diplexer design, as opposed to the conventional design approach which requires separate junctions for energy distribution. A 10-pole (10th order) diplexer has been successfully designed, simulated, fabricated and measured. The diplexer is composed of 2 poles from the dual-band filter, 4 poles from the Tx bandpass filter, and the remaining 4 poles from the Rx bandpass filter. The design was implemented using synchronously and asynchronously tuned microstrip square open-loop resonators. The simulation and measurement results show that an isolation of 50 dB is achieved between the diplexer Tx and Rx bands. The minimum insertion loss is 2.88 dB for the transmit band, and 2.95 dB for the receive band.
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- YANG, T., REBEIZ, G.M. Three-pole 1.3-2.4-GHz diplexer and 1.1-2.45-GHz dual-band filter with common resonator topology and flexible tuning capabilities. IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques, 2013, vol. 61, no. 10, p. 3613–3624. DOI: 10.1109/TMTT.2013.2279381
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Keywords: Bandpass filters, diplexer, dual-band filter, coupling, microstrip, square open-loop resonators (SOLR)
An equivalent circuit approach is adopted in this paper to analyze a novel varactor loaded phasing line, specifically designed to improve the frequency agility features of reconfigurable aperture-coupled reflectarray cell, through the use of a couple of microstrip radial stubs. The proposed analysis method is fruitfully implemented to perform a fast and preliminary investigation on the improvements provided by the radial shaped phasing line in terms of frequency agility of the reflectarray unit cell. The method is adopted to compare frequency performances of radial and linear phasing line geometries, allowing to effectively demonstrate the radial line geometry contribution to the enhancement of the unit cell frequency performances.
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- GUCLU, C., PERRUISSEAU-CARRIER. J., CIVI, O. Proof of concept of a dual-band circularly-polarized RF MEMS beam switching reflectarray. IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation, 2012, vol. 60, no. 11, p. 5451–5455. DOI: 10.1109/TAP.2012.2207690
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- VENNERI, F., COSTANZO, S., DI MASSA, G., BORGIA, A., CORSONELLO, P., SALZANO, M. Design of a reconfigurable reflectarray based on a varactor tuned element. In Proceedings of the 6th European Conference on Antennas and Propagation (EuCAP). Prague (CZ), 2012. DOI: 10.1109/EuCAP.2012.6206624
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Keywords: Microstrip radial line, varactor, reflectarray.
S. Meesomklin, P. Chomtong, P. Akkaraekthalin
A Compact Multiband BPF Using Step-impedance Resonators with Interdigital Capacitors
A compact multiband band-pass filter design for applications of GSM, Wi-MAX and WLAN systems is presented. The design is based on the resonant characteristics of step-impedance and interdigital capacitor resonators with overlap cross coupling structure. The fabricated filter has been operated at the fundamental, first and second harmonic resonant frequencies of 1.8 GHz, 3.7 GHz, and 5.2 GHz, respectively. The experimental results of the fabricated filter agree very well with the simulation expectations using IE3D package. The proposed filter has good performances, while the resonator size can be reduced from λ/2 to λ/8, resulting in the most compact multiband band-pass filter compared with the others using transmission line resonators .
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- CHEN, Y.-C., HSIEH, Y.-H., LEE, C.H., HSU, C.-I. G. Tri-band microstrip BPF design using tri-section SIRs. In Antennas and Propagation Society International Symposium. Honolulu (HI, USA), 2007, p. 3113–3116. DOI: 10.1109/APS.2007.4396195
- YANG, X., DAI, L., ZHOU, R. The tri-band filter design based on SIR. In International Conference on Audio, Language and Image Processing (ICALIP 2008). Shanghai, 2008, p. 211–214. DOI: 10.1109/ICALIP.2008.4589998
- CHU, Q.-X., LIN, X. M. Advanced triple-band bandpass filter using tri-section SIR. IEEE Electronics Letters, Feb 2008, vol. 44, no. 4, p. 295–296. DOI: 10.1049/el:20083096
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- CHOMTONG, P., AKKARAEKTHALIN, P. A triple band bandpass filter using tri-section step-impedance and capacitively loaded step-impedance resonators for GSM, WiMAX, and WLAN systems. Frequenz Journal, 2014, vol. 68, no. 5–6, p. 227–234. DOI: 10.1515/freq-2013-0126
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Keywords: Multiband BPF, step-impedance resonator, interdigital capacitor, overlap cross coupling
The scattering center of extended streamlined targets can slide when the direction of radiation is changed. The sliding scattering center has influence on the micro-Doppler effect of micro-motion of the extended streamlined target. This paper focused on the micro-Doppler of the extended streamlined target for the bistatic radar. Based on the analysis, the analytical expressions of the micro-Doppler of coning motion with sliding scattering center model were given for bistatic radar. And the results were validated by the simulated results of the scattering field based on the full-wave method of the electromagnetic computation. The results showed that the sliding of the scattering center can make the micro-Doppler be less and distorted, and the influence of the sliding is different for two different types of the sliding scattering centers: sliding on the surface and sliding on the bottom circle. The analytical expressions of the micro-Doppler are helpful to analyze the time-frequency presentations (TFR) of the coning motion of the extended streamlined target and to estimate the parameters of the target.
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- CHEN, V. C. The Micro-Doppler Effect in Radar. London (UK): Artech House, 2011. ISBN: 1608070573.
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- CHEN, V. C. Advances in applications of radar micro-Doppler signatures. In IEEE Conference on Antenna Measurements and Applications (CAMA). Antibes Juan-les-Pins, 2014, p. 1-4. DOI: 10.1109/ CAMA.2014.7003362
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- QU, Q.Y., GUO, K.Y., SHENG, X.Q. Scattering centers induced by creeping waves on cone-shaped targets in bistatic mode. IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation, 2015, vol. 63, no. 7, p. 3257–3262. DOI: 10.1109/TAP.2015.2424455
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- CHEN, V. C., LING, H. Time-Frequency Transforms for Radar Imaging and Signal Analysis. Boston (US): Artech House Radar Library, Artech House, 2002. ISBN: 1-58053-288-8
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Keywords: Micro-Doppler, sliding scattering centre, extended streamlined targets
H. Ja’afar, M. T. Ali, A. N. Dagang, I. P. Ibrahim, N. A. Halili, H. M. Zali
Reconfigurable Plasma Antenna Array by Using Fluorescent Tube for Wi-Fi Application
This paper presents a new design of reconfigurable plasma antenna array using commercial fluorescent tube. A round shape reconfigurable plasma antenna array is proposed to collimate beam radiated by an omnidirectional antenna (monopole antenna) operates at 2.4GHz in particular direction. The antenna design is consisted of monopole antenna located at the center of circular aluminum ground. The monopole antenna is surrounded by a cylindrical shell of conducting plasma. The plasma shield consists of 12 commercial fluorescent tubes aligned in series containing a mixture of Argon gas and mercury vapor which upon electrification forms plasma columns. The plasma behaves as a conductor and acts as a reflector in radiation, in the condition where plasma frequency,ωp is higher than operating frequency. From this concepts, when all plasma elements are activated or switched to ON, the radiation signal from monopole antenna will trapped inside the plasma blanket and meanwhile when one or more plasma elements is deactivated (switched OFF), the radiation from monopole antenna will escape. This antenna has the capability to change its patterns with beam direction at 0°, 30°, 60°, 90°, 120°, 150°, 180°, 210°, 240°, 270°, 300° and 330° at frequency 2.4 GHz. The proposed antenna has been successfully fabricated and measured with conclusive results.
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Keywords: Plasma elements, reconfigurable radiation pattern, monopole antenna
S. Pejoski, V. Kafedziski
Improved Asymptotic Capacity Lower Bound for OFDM System with Compressed Sensing Channel Estimation for Bernoulli Gaussian Channel
We propose an improved capacity lower bound for OFDM system with compressed sensing channel estimation for Bernoulli-Gaussian channel. We improve the known capacity lower bound which is based on Lasso compressed sensing channel estimation, by replacing the Lasso based estimate with an MMSE estimate, known to be optimal in the MMSE sense and achievable with practical algorithms for a broad range of system parameters setup. Additionally, for the system with equi-powered pilot subcarriers we optimize the capacity lower bound by finding the optimal average fraction of pilot subcarriers used for channel estimation and optimal pilot to data power ratio given the average symbol power per subcarrier, and propose an optimization procedure with polynomial complexity.
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Keywords: Pilot aided channel estimation, OFDM, Lasso compressed sensing, turbo compressed sensing, replica method, capacity lower bound
B. Prasad, S. D. Roy, S. Kundu
Performance of a Cognitive Relay Network under AF Relay Selection Scheme with Imperfect Channel Estimation
In this paper outage performance of a secondary user (SU) is evaluated under amplify and forward (AF) relay selection scheme with an imperfect channel state information (CSI)while sharing spectrum in an underlay cognitive radio network (CRN). In underlay, the SU coexists with primary user (PU) in the same band provided the interference produced by SU at the PU receiver is below the interference threshold of PU which limits the transmission power of SU and coverage area. Relays help to improve the performance of SU in underlay. However relays are also constrained in transmit power due to interference constraint imposed by PU. Closed form expression of the outage probability of SU with maximum transmit power constraint of relay under imperfect CSI is derived. A scaling factor based power control is used for the SU transmitter and the relay in order to maintain the interference constraint at PU receiver due to imperfect CSI. The impact of different parameters viz. correlation coefficient, channel estimation error, tolerable interference threshold, number of relays and the maximum transmit power constraint of relay on SU performance is investigated. A MATLAB based test bed has also been developed to carry out simulation in order to validate the theoretical result.
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Keywords: Cognitive radio, Amplify and forward relay, imperfect CSI
Implementation of CMOS current-mode analog computational circuits are presented in this paper. A new Linearly Tunable OTA is employed in a modified structure as a basic building block for implementation of the circuits either linear or nonlinear functions. The proposed trans-conductance amplifier provides a constant Gm over a wide range of input voltage which allows the implementation of high precision computational circuits including square rooting, squaring, multiplication and division functions. Layout pattern of the proposed circuit confirms that the circuit can be implemented in 102μm*69μm active area. In order to verify the performance of the circuits, the post layout simulation results are presented through the use of HSPICE and Cadence with TSMC level 49 (BSIM3v3) parameters for 0.18 μm CMOS technology, where under supply voltage of 1.8 V, the maximum relative error of the circuits within 500 µA of input range is about 11 μA (2.2 % error) and the THD remains as low as 1.2 % for the worst case. Moreover, the power dissipation of the complete structure is found to be 0.66 mW.
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Keywords: Computational circuits, trans-conductance circuit, analog design, current mode
A two-stage 12-phase harmonic rejection mixer (HRM) for TV tuners is proposed in order to reject the local oscillator (LO) harmonics up to the ninth order. The proposed weighing scheme for 12-phase, 2-stage harmonic mixing can reduce the harmonic rejection (HR) sensitivity to the amplitude error caused by irrational numbers such as . To verify this HR, the 2-stage HR circuit is designed with baseband gm weighting in order to save power and improve the HR ratios without calibration. The proposed HRM achieves the third to ninth worst HR ratios, more than 55 dB, according to Monte Carlo simulations. It consumes 6.5 mA under a 2.5 V supply voltage.
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Keywords: Harmonic rejection mixer, multiphase, TV tuner, direct conversion, active mixer
This paper presents a 5 V / 50 mA low-dropout voltage regulator (LDO). The LDO uses a fractional-order control for its regulation loop to achieve a high DC gain (for a tight DC regulation) while avoiding (for a good stability) a high gain at high frequency. No compensation zeros are needed. The unity gain frequency of the regulation loop also changes adaptively with the output current to maintain it below the frequency of non-dominant poles. The LDO is stable with any external capacitance larger than 50 nF, and is expected to operate in a harsh automotive environment, with junction temperature ranging from -40°C to 170°C and with supply voltage from 7 V to 36 V. The operation of the LDO has been verified by realizing it in the 350 nm I3T50 ON Semiconductor technology.
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Keywords: Fractional-order control, error amplifier, RC ladder, low-dropout regulator, frequency compensation
In this paper, a novel bulk-driven cross-coupled charge pump designed in standard 90 nm CMOS technology is presented. The proposed charge pump is based on a dynamic threshold voltage inverter and is suitable for integrated ultra-low voltage converters. Due to a latchup risk, bulk-driven charge pumps can safely be used only in low-voltage applications. For the input voltage below 200 mV and output current of 1 uA, the proposed bulk-driven topology can achieve about 10 % higher efficiency than the conventional gate-driven cross-coupled charge pump. Therefore, it can be effectively used in DC-DC converters, which are the basic building blocks of on-chip energy harvesting systems with ultra-low supply voltage.
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Keywords: Charge pump, CMOS, Bulk-driven, Low-power, Energy harvesting
A function generator generating both square and triangle waveforms is proposed. The generator employs only one low area comparator with accurate hysteresis set by a bias current and a resistor. Oscillation frequency and its non-idealities are analyzed. The function of the proposed circuit is demonstrated on a design of 1 MHz oscillator in STMicroelectronics 180 nm BCD technology. The designed circuit is thoroughly simulated including trimming evaluation. It consumes 4.1 μA at 1.8 V and takes 0.0126 mm2 of silicon area. The temperature variation from -40°C to 125°C is ±1.5 % and the temperature coefficient is 127 ppm/°C.
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Keywords: Function generator, triangle and square wave generator, hysteresis comparator
In this work, the non-linearities of a 3G/UMTS geared BandPass Bulk Acoustic Wave ladder filter composed of five resonators were modeled using non-linear modified Butterworth-Van Dyke model. The non-linear characteristics were measured and simulated, and they were compared and found to be fairly identical. The filter's central frequency is 2.12 GHz, the corresponding bandwidth is 61.55 MHz, and the quality factor is 34.55.
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Keywords: Band pass filter, bulk acoustic wave (BAW), modified Butterworth-van Dyke model, non linearities
This paper describes several methods for reduction of electromagnetic emissions (EME) of mixed signal integrated circuits (IC). The focus is on the impact that a LIN bus communication block has on a complex IC which contains analog blocks, noisy digital block, micro-core (µC) and several types of memories. It is used in an automotive environment, where EMC emission reduction is one of the key success factors. Several proposed methods for EME reduction are described and implemented on three test chips. These methods include current consumption reduction, internal on-chip decoupling, ground separation and different linear voltage regulator topologies. Measurement results of several fabricated test chips are shown and discussed.
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Keywords: EMC, emissions, ground splitting, linear voltage regulator, automotive industry, LIN bus driver
All-pass networks with prescribed group delay are used for analog signal processing and equalisation of transmission channels. The state-of-the-art methods for synthesising quasi-arbitrary group delay functions using all-pass elements lack a theoretical synthesis procedure that guarantees minimum-order networks. We present an analytically-based solution to this problem that produces an all-pass network with a response approximating the required group delay to within an arbitrary minimax error. For the first time, this method is shown to work for any physical realisation of second-order all-pass elements, is guaranteed to converge to a global optimum solution without any choice of seed values as an input, and allows synthesis of pre-defined networks described both analytically and numerically. The proposed method is also demonstrated by reducing the delay variation of a practical system by any desired amount, and compared to state-of-the-art methods in comparison examples.
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Keywords: All-pass circuits, approximation problem, analog signal processing, delay ripple equalisation, group delay engineering, linear phase filters
Power analysis presents the typical example of successful attacks against trusted cryptographic devices such as RFID (Radio-Frequency IDentifications) and contact smart cards. In recent years, the cryptographic community has explored new approaches in power analysis based on machine learning models such as Support Vector Machine (SVM), RF (Random Forest) and Multi-Layer Perceptron (MLP). In this paper, we made an extensive comparison of machine learning algorithms in the power analysis. For this purpose, we implemented a verification program that always chooses the optimal settings of individual machine learning models in order to obtain the best classification accuracy. In our research, we used three datasets, the first containing the power traces of an unprotected AES (Advanced Encryption Standard) implementation. The second and third datasets are created independently from public available power traces corresponding to a masked AES implementation (DPA Contest v4). The obtained results revealed some interesting facts, namely, an elementary k-NN (k-Nearest Neighbors) algorithm, which has not been commonly used in power analysis yet, shows great application potential in practice.
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Keywords: Power Analysis, Machine Learning, Template Attack, Comparison, Smart Cards
In this paper, an efficient design of FIR digital differentiator using the $L_1$-optimality criterion is proposed. We present a technique based on the modified Newton method to solve the design problem so that the optimal differentiator coefficients are obtained by minimizing the absolute error. The novel $L_1$-error function leads to a flat response at low-frequencies. Extensive simulations are carried out to validate the proposed design. The superiority of the proposed design is evident by comparing it with other conventional design techniques such as, windowing, minimax and the least-squares approach.
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Keywords: FIR differentiator, $L_1$-method, digital filter, magnitude response
During the last two decades, new digital modulation systems have appeared in the audio broadcasting. Such broadcasting systems require new transmitters’ concepts to enable the transmission of digitally modulated signals. Moreover, the selected modulation schemes (e.g. orthogonal frequency division multiplexing) require a high linearity power stage, which typically exhibits low efficiency due to high peak-toaverage power ratio of the modulated signal. One of the promising transmitter concepts is the Kahn envelope elimination and restoration technique, where the original Cartesian in-phase and quadrature baseband signals are transformed to the envelope and phase signals. The main advantage of this technique is an ability to employ suitable types of highly efficient amplitude modulation transmitters for envelope amplification, while the phase modulated carrier is produced by an additional phase modulator. The substantial drawback of envelope elimination and restoration is nonideal recombination of linearly distorted amplitude signal and phase modulated carrier at the output power stage. The aim of this paper is twofold. Firstly, to analyze the effect of the envelope and phase signals bandwidth limitation on the modulated signal in-channel distortion and out-ofchannel emission. Secondly, to present the performance results as a reference for transmitter designers to properly set the envelope and phase paths to reach required in-channel signal quality and suppress out-of-channel products.
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Keywords: Background subtraction, background modeling, initial motion field, morphology.