# June 2016, Volume 25, Number 2 [DOI: 10.13164/re.2016-2]

**J. Havlicek, M. Svanda, J. Machac, M. Polivka**
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[DOI: 10.13164/re.2016.0219]
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Improvement of Reading Performance of Frequency-Domain Chipless RFID Transponders

This review paper presents the summary of our investigations in several topics of frequency-domain chipless RFID transponders. The performance comparison of various types of scatterers used in the literature and recently proposed by the authors is presented. The issue of proper location of adjacent resonant elements in the scatterer array to reduce the mutual coupling and consequently ensure the robust RCS response for reliable reading of coded information is addressed. A major improvement in RCS response of transponders is proposed, using slot-in-plate type transponders. Advantages and drawbacks of the proposed solutions are discussed and several open challenges in the field are emphasized.

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- VIOLINO, B. Firewall Protection for Paper Documents. RFID Journal. [Online] Cited 2016-04-25. Available at: http://www.rfidjournal.com/articles/view?790
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- PRERADOVIC, S., KARMAKAR, N. Multiresonator-Based Chipless RFID. Springer, 2012. ISBN: 978-1-4614-2094-1
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- GUILLET, A., VENA, A., PERRET, E., TEDJINI, S. Design of a chipless RFID sensor for water level detection. In 15th International Symposium on Antenna Technology and Applied Electromagnetics (ANTEM 2012). Toulouse (France), 2012, 4 p. DOI: 10.1109/ANTEM.2012.6262372
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- FENG, Y., XIE, L., CHEN, Q., ZHENG, L. R. Low-cost printed chipless RFID humidity sensor tag for intelligent packaging. IEEE Sensors Journal, 2015, vol. 15, no. 6, p. 3201–3208. DOI: 10.1109/JSEN.2014.2385154
- POLIVKA, M., MACHAC, J. Improvement of backscatter properties of C-shaped dipole scatterer for chipless RFID. In Proceedings of Asia-Pacifc Microwave Conference. Sendai (Japan), 2014, p. 962–964.
- POLIVKA, M., MACHAC, J. Novel size-reduced unit cells for uniplanar chipless RFID tags. In Proceedings of Asia-Pacific Microwave Conference. Seoul (Korea), 2013, p. 908–910. DOI: 10.1109/APMC.2013.6694970
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- POLIVKA, M., SVANDA, M., MACHAC, J. Chipless RFID tag with an improved RCS response. In Proceedings of the 44th European Microwave Conference (EuMC 2014). Rome (Italy), 2014, p. 770–773. DOI: 10.1109/EuMC.2014.6986548
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Keywords: Chipless RFID, mutual coupling, monostatic RCS measurement, scatterer

**V. Prajzler, P. Hyps, R. Mastera, P. Nekvindova**
[references] [full-text]
[DOI: 10.13164/re.2016.0230]
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Properties of Siloxane Based Optical Waveguides Deposited on Transparent Paper and Foil

In this paper, we present the properties of flexible planar optical waveguides made of siloxane-based polymer deposited on Xerox transparent paper and PLEXIGLAS foil substrate. Measurement of optical properties such as the waveguiding properties and refractive index is carried out by the prism coupling technique for five wavelengths (473, 632.8, 964, 1311 and 1552 nm) and propagation optical loss were measured by the fibre probe technique at a wavelength of 632.8 nm (He-Ne laser). The measurement proved waveguiding properties for all measured wavelengths and the losses generally did not exceed 0.40 dB/cm; the best samples had optical losses around 0.24 dB/cm.

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Keywords: Optical planar waveguides, siloxane polymer, flexible foil, prism coupling technique

**M. Li, K. Qin, H. He**
[references] [full-text]
[DOI: 10.13164/re.2016.0236]
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Miniaturized Dual-Band Aperture Coupled Microstrip Antenna Using Corrugated Ground

A novel dual-band aperture coupled microstrip antenna with corrugated ground plane is proposed to improve radiation performance in this letter. The dual-band operation is obtained by embedding a S-shaped slot in the radiating patch. To achieve the high gain and the reduced half power beam bandwidth (HPBW) for each frequency, the double- periodic corrugated ground plane is utilized. Both the simulation and measurement results show that the gain of the proposed antenna is increased by 4.7 dB and 5.6 dB at each frequency correspondingly and the half power beam width (HPBW) of E-plane is reduced by 140 degrees and 150 degrees, respectively.

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Keywords: Microstrip antenna, dual-band, aperture coupled, corrugated ground plane

**Qiang Fu, Cheng-Li Fan, Si-Jia Li, Gang Wang, Xiang-Yu Cao**
[references] [full-text]
[DOI: 10.13164/re.2016.0241]
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Ultra-Broad Band Radar Cross Section Reduction of Waveguide Slot Antenna with Metamaterials

To reduce the radar cross section of a waveguide slot antenna, a three-layer metamaterial is presented based on orthogonal double split-ring resonators. The absorption characteristics of three-layer metamaterial are demonstrated by simulation. Moreover, the metamaterials have been loaded on common waveguide slot antenna according to the surface current distribution. The ultra-broad band radar cross section reduction of the antenna with metamaterials had been theoretically and experimentally investigated by radiating and scattering performances. Experimental and simulated results showed that the proposed antenna with metamaterials performed broadband radar cross section reduction from 3.9 GHz to 18 GHz and the gain had been improved due to the coupling effect between slot and the period structure. The maximal radar cross section reduction achieved 17.81 dB at 8.68 GHz for x-polarized incidence and 21.79 dB at 6.25 GHz for y-polarized waves.

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Keywords: Ultra-broad band, radar cross section reduction, metamaterial, gain enhancement

**A. O. Nwajana, K. S. K. Yeo**
[references] [full-text]
[DOI: 10.13164/re.2016.0247]
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Microwave Diplexer Purely Based on Direct Synchronous and Asynchronous Coupling

A diplexer realized purely based on direct coupling is presented. No cross-coupling is involved in the design process. The microwave diplexer is achieved by coupling a dual-band bandpass filter onto two individual channel filters. This design eliminates the need for employing external junctions in diplexer design, as opposed to the conventional design approach which requires separate junctions for energy distribution. A 10-pole (10th order) diplexer has been successfully designed, simulated, fabricated and measured. The diplexer is composed of 2 poles from the dual-band filter, 4 poles from the Tx bandpass filter, and the remaining 4 poles from the Rx bandpass filter. The design was implemented using synchronously and asynchronously tuned microstrip square open-loop resonators. The simulation and measurement results show that an isolation of 50 dB is achieved between the diplexer Tx and Rx bands. The minimum insertion loss is 2.88 dB for the transmit band, and 2.95 dB for the receive band.

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Keywords: Bandpass filters, diplexer, dual-band filter, coupling, microstrip, square open-loop resonators (SOLR)

**F. Venneri, S. Costanzo, G. Di Massa, A. Borgia, A. Raffo**
[references] [full-text]
[DOI: 10.13164/re.2016.0253]
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Frequency Agile Radial-Shaped Varactor-Loaded Reflectarray Cell

An equivalent circuit approach is adopted in this paper to analyze a novel varactor loaded phasing line, specifically designed to improve the frequency agility features of reconfigurable aperture-coupled reflectarray cell, through the use of a couple of microstrip radial stubs. The proposed analysis method is fruitfully implemented to perform a fast and preliminary investigation on the improvements provided by the radial shaped phasing line in terms of frequency agility of the reflectarray unit cell. The method is adopted to compare frequency performances of radial and linear phasing line geometries, allowing to effectively demonstrate the radial line geometry contribution to the enhancement of the unit cell frequency performances.

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- NAYERI, P., YANG, F., ELSHERBENI, A. Z. Beam-scanning reflectarray antennas: a technical overview and state of the art. IEEE Antennas and Propagation Magazine, 2015, vol. 57, no. 4, p. 32–47. DOI: 10.1109/MAP.2015.2453883
- GIANVITTORIO, J. P., RAHMAT-SAMII, Y. Reconfigurable patch antennas for steerable reflectarray applications. IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation, 2006, vol. 54, no. 5, p. 1388–1392. DOI: 10.1109/TAP.2006.874311
- COSTANZO, S., SPADAFORA, F., BORGIA, A., MORENO, O.H., COSTANZO, A., DI MASSA, G. High resolution software defined radar system for target detection. Advances in Intelligent Systems and Computing, 2013, vol. 206 AISC, p. 997–1005. DOI: 10.1007/978-3-642-36981-0_94
- COSTANZO, S., SPADAFORA, F., BORGIA, A., MORENO, H.O., COSTANZO, A., DI MASSA, G. High resolution software defined radar system for target detection. Journal of Electrical and Computer Engineering, 2013, art. no. 573217, 7 p. DOI: 10.1155/2013/573217
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- GUCLU, C., PERRUISSEAU-CARRIER. J., CIVI, O. Proof of concept of a dual-band circularly-polarized RF MEMS beam switching reflectarray. IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation, 2012, vol. 60, no. 11, p. 5451–5455. DOI: 10.1109/TAP.2012.2207690
- RODRIGO, D., JOFRE, L., PERRUISSEAU-CARRIER, J. Unit cell for frequency tunable beam scanning reflectarrays. IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation, 2013, vol. 61, no. 12, p. 5992–5999. DOI: 10.1109/TAP.2013.2281375
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Keywords: Microstrip radial line, varactor, reflectarray.

**S. Meesomklin, P. Chomtong, P. Akkaraekthalin**
[references] [full-text]
[DOI: 10.13164/re.2016.0258]
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A Compact Multiband BPF Using Step-impedance Resonators with Interdigital Capacitors

A compact multiband band-pass filter design for applications of GSM, Wi-MAX and WLAN systems is presented. The design is based on the resonant characteristics of step-impedance and interdigital capacitor resonators with overlap cross coupling structure. The fabricated filter has been operated at the fundamental, first and second harmonic resonant frequencies of 1.8 GHz, 3.7 GHz, and 5.2 GHz, respectively. The experimental results of the fabricated filter agree very well with the simulation expectations using IE3D package. The proposed filter has good performances, while the resonator size can be reduced from λ/2 to λ/8, resulting in the most compact multiband band-pass filter compared with the others using transmission line resonators .

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- CHANG, S.-F., JENG, Y.-H., CHEN, J.-L. Dual-band stepimpedance bandpass filter for multimode wireless LAN. IEEE Electronics Letters, 2004, vol. 40, no. 1, p. 38–39. DOI: 10.1049/el:20040065
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- LIN, X. M., CHU, Q. X. Design of triple-band bandpass filter using tri-section stepped-impedance resonators. In International Conference on Microwave and Millimeter Wave Technology (ICMMT 2007). Guilin (China), 2007, p. 1–3. DOI: 10.1109/ICMMT.2007.381479
- CHEN, Y.-C., HSIEH, Y.-H., LEE, C.H., HSU, C.-I. G. Tri-band microstrip BPF design using tri-section SIRs. In Antennas and Propagation Society International Symposium. Honolulu (HI, USA), 2007, p. 3113–3116. DOI: 10.1109/APS.2007.4396195
- YANG, X., DAI, L., ZHOU, R. The tri-band filter design based on SIR. In International Conference on Audio, Language and Image Processing (ICALIP 2008). Shanghai, 2008, p. 211–214. DOI: 10.1109/ICALIP.2008.4589998
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Keywords: Multiband BPF, step-impedance resonator, interdigital capacitor, overlap cross coupling

**Bo Tang**
[references] [full-text]
[DOI: 10.13164/re.2016.0268]
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Micro-Doppler Effect of Extended Streamlined Targets Based on Sliding Scattering Centre Model

The scattering center of extended streamlined targets can slide when the direction of radiation is changed. The sliding scattering center has influence on the micro-Doppler effect of micro-motion of the extended streamlined target. This paper focused on the micro-Doppler of the extended streamlined target for the bistatic radar. Based on the analysis, the analytical expressions of the micro-Doppler of coning motion with sliding scattering center model were given for bistatic radar. And the results were validated by the simulated results of the scattering field based on the full-wave method of the electromagnetic computation. The results showed that the sliding of the scattering center can make the micro-Doppler be less and distorted, and the influence of the sliding is different for two different types of the sliding scattering centers: sliding on the surface and sliding on the bottom circle. The analytical expressions of the micro-Doppler are helpful to analyze the time-frequency presentations (TFR) of the coning motion of the extended streamlined target and to estimate the parameters of the target.

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- CHEN, V. C. The Micro-Doppler Effect in Radar. London (UK): Artech House, 2011. ISBN: 1608070573.
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- RAM, S. S., CHRISTIANSON, C., KIM, Y., LING, H. Simulation and analysis of human micro-Dopplers in through-wall environments. IEEE Transactions on Geoscience and Remote Sensing, 2010, vol. 48, no. 4, p. 2015–2023. DOI: 10.1109/TGRS.2009.2037219
- SURESH, P., THAYAPARAN, T., OBULESU, T., VENKATARAMANIAH, K. Extracting micro-Doppler radar signatures from rotating targets using Fourier–Bessel transform and time–frequency analysis. IEEE Transactions on Geoscience and Remote Sensing, 2014, vol. 52, no. 6, p. 3204–3210. DOI: 10.1109/TGRS 2013.2271706
- CHEN, V. C. Advances in applications of radar micro-Doppler signatures. In IEEE Conference on Antenna Measurements and Applications (CAMA). Antibes Juan-les-Pins, 2014, p. 1-4. DOI: 10.1109/ CAMA.2014.7003362
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- AI, X., ZOU, X., LIU, J., et al. Bistatic high range resolution profiles of precessing cone-shaped targets. IET Radar Sonar Navigation, 2013, vol. 7, no. 6, p. 615–622. DOI: 10.1049/iet-rsn.2012.0168
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- QU, Q.Y., GUO, K.Y., SHENG, X.Q. Scattering centers induced by creeping waves on cone-shaped targets in bistatic mode. IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation, 2015, vol. 63, no. 7, p. 3257–3262. DOI: 10.1109/TAP.2015.2424455
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Keywords: Micro-Doppler, sliding scattering centre, extended streamlined targets

**H. Ja’afar, M. T. Ali, A. N. Dagang, I. P. Ibrahim, N. A. Halili, H. M. Zali**
[references] [full-text]
[DOI: 10.13164/re.2016.0275]
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Reconfigurable Plasma Antenna Array by Using Fluorescent Tube for Wi-Fi Application

This paper presents a new design of reconfigurable plasma antenna array using commercial fluorescent tube. A round shape reconfigurable plasma antenna array is proposed to collimate beam radiated by an omnidirectional antenna (monopole antenna) operates at 2.4GHz in particular direction. The antenna design is consisted of monopole antenna located at the center of circular aluminum ground. The monopole antenna is surrounded by a cylindrical shell of conducting plasma. The plasma shield consists of 12 commercial fluorescent tubes aligned in series containing a mixture of Argon gas and mercury vapor which upon electrification forms plasma columns. The plasma behaves as a conductor and acts as a reflector in radiation, in the condition where plasma frequency,ωp is higher than operating frequency. From this concepts, when all plasma elements are activated or switched to ON, the radiation signal from monopole antenna will trapped inside the plasma blanket and meanwhile when one or more plasma elements is deactivated (switched OFF), the radiation from monopole antenna will escape. This antenna has the capability to change its patterns with beam direction at 0°, 30°, 60°, 90°, 120°, 150°, 180°, 210°, 240°, 270°, 300° and 330° at frequency 2.4 GHz. The proposed antenna has been successfully fabricated and measured with conclusive results.

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Keywords: Plasma elements, reconfigurable radiation pattern, monopole antenna

**S. Pejoski, V. Kafedziski**
[references] [full-text]
[DOI: 10.13164/re.2016.0283]
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Improved Asymptotic Capacity Lower Bound for OFDM System with Compressed Sensing Channel Estimation for Bernoulli Gaussian Channel

We propose an improved capacity lower bound for OFDM system with compressed sensing channel estimation for Bernoulli-Gaussian channel. We improve the known capacity lower bound which is based on Lasso compressed sensing channel estimation, by replacing the Lasso based estimate with an MMSE estimate, known to be optimal in the MMSE sense and achievable with practical algorithms for a broad range of system parameters setup. Additionally, for the system with equi-powered pilot subcarriers we optimize the capacity lower bound by finding the optimal average fraction of pilot subcarriers used for channel estimation and optimal pilot to data power ratio given the average symbol power per subcarrier, and propose an optimization procedure with polynomial complexity.

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Keywords: Pilot aided channel estimation, OFDM, Lasso compressed sensing, turbo compressed sensing, replica method, capacity lower bound

**B. Prasad, S. D. Roy, S. Kundu**
[references] [full-text]
[DOI: 10.13164/re.2016.0289]
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Performance of a Cognitive Relay Network under AF Relay Selection Scheme with Imperfect Channel Estimation

In this paper outage performance of a secondary user (SU) is evaluated under amplify and forward (AF) relay selection scheme with an imperfect channel state information (CSI)while sharing spectrum in an underlay cognitive radio network (CRN). In underlay, the SU coexists with primary user (PU) in the same band provided the interference produced by SU at the PU receiver is below the interference threshold of PU which limits the transmission power of SU and coverage area. Relays help to improve the performance of SU in underlay. However relays are also constrained in transmit power due to interference constraint imposed by PU. Closed form expression of the outage probability of SU with maximum transmit power constraint of relay under imperfect CSI is derived. A scaling factor based power control is used for the SU transmitter and the relay in order to maintain the interference constraint at PU receiver due to imperfect CSI. The impact of different parameters viz. correlation coefficient, channel estimation error, tolerable interference threshold, number of relays and the maximum transmit power constraint of relay on SU performance is investigated. A MATLAB based test bed has also been developed to carry out simulation in order to validate the theoretical result.

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Keywords: Cognitive radio, Amplify and forward relay, imperfect CSI

**A. Naderi Saatlo**
[references] [full-text]
[DOI: 10.13164/re.2016.0297]
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High-Precision CMOS Analog Computational Circuits Based on a New Linearly Tunable OTA

Implementation of CMOS current-mode analog computational circuits are presented in this paper. A new Linearly Tunable OTA is employed in a modified structure as a basic building block for implementation of the circuits either linear or nonlinear functions. The proposed trans-conductance amplifier provides a constant Gm over a wide range of input voltage which allows the implementation of high precision computational circuits including square rooting, squaring, multiplication and division functions. Layout pattern of the proposed circuit confirms that the circuit can be implemented in 102μm*69μm active area. In order to verify the performance of the circuits, the post layout simulation results are presented through the use of HSPICE and Cadence with TSMC level 49 (BSIM3v3) parameters for 0.18 μm CMOS technology, where under supply voltage of 1.8 V, the maximum relative error of the circuits within 500 µA of input range is about 11 μA (2.2 % error) and the THD remains as low as 1.2 % for the worst case. Moreover, the power dissipation of the complete structure is found to be 0.66 mW.

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Keywords: Computational circuits, trans-conductance circuit, analog design, current mode

**D. Lee, H. Jeong, M. Lee**
[references] [full-text]
[DOI: 10.13164/re.2016.0305]
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Design of 12-phase, 2-stage Harmonic Rejection Mixer for TV Tuners

A two-stage 12-phase harmonic rejection mixer (HRM) for TV tuners is proposed in order to reject the local oscillator (LO) harmonics up to the ninth order. The proposed weighing scheme for 12-phase, 2-stage harmonic mixing can reduce the harmonic rejection (HR) sensitivity to the amplitude error caused by irrational numbers such as . To verify this HR, the 2-stage HR circuit is designed with baseband gm weighting in order to save power and improve the HR ratios without calibration. The proposed HRM achieves the third to ninth worst HR ratios, more than 55 dB, according to Monte Carlo simulations. It consumes 6.5 mA under a 2.5 V supply voltage.

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- RAFI, A. A., VISWANATHAN, T.R. Harmonic rejection mixing techniques using clock-gating. IEEE Journal of Solid-State Circuits, 2013, vol. 48, no. 8, p. 1862–1874. DOI: 10.1109/JSSC.2013.2259032
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- LEE, D., LEE, M. Low flicker noise, odd-phase master LO active mixer using a low switching frequency scheme. IEEE Journal of Solid-State Circuits, 2015, vol. 50, no. 10, p. 2281–2293. DOI: 10.1109/JSSC.2015.2449556

Keywords: Harmonic rejection mixer, multiphase, TV tuner, direct conversion, active mixer

**L. Kadlcik, P. Horsky**
[references] [full-text]
[DOI: 10.13164/re.2016.0312]
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A Low-Dropout Voltage Regulator with a Fractional-Order Control

This paper presents a 5 V / 50 mA low-dropout voltage regulator (LDO). The LDO uses a fractional-order control for its regulation loop to achieve a high DC gain (for a tight DC regulation) while avoiding (for a good stability) a high gain at high frequency. No compensation zeros are needed. The unity gain frequency of the regulation loop also changes adaptively with the output current to maintain it below the frequency of non-dominant poles. The LDO is stable with any external capacitance larger than 50 nF, and is expected to operate in a harsh automotive environment, with junction temperature ranging from -40°C to 170°C and with supply voltage from 7 V to 36 V. The operation of the LDO has been verified by realizing it in the 350 nm I3T50 ON Semiconductor technology.

- CHAVA, C.K., SILVA-MARTINEZ, J. A frequency compensation scheme for LDO voltage regulators. IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems I: Regular Papers, 2004, vol. 51, no. 6, p. 1041–1050. DOI: 10.1109/TCSI.2004.829239
- KA NANG LEUNG, MOK, P.K.T., SAI IT LAU. A low-voltage CMOS low-dropout regulator with enhanced loop response. In Proceedings of the 2004 International Symposium on Circuits and Systems (ISCAS '04). Vancouver (Canada), 2004, vol. 1, p. 385–388. DOI: 10.1109/ISCAS.2004.1328212
- MILLIKEN, R.J., SILVA-MARTINEZ, J., SANCHEZSINENCIO, E. Full on-chip CMOS low-dropout voltage regulator. IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems I: Regular Papers, 2007, vol. 54, no. 9, p. 1879–1890. DOI: 10.1109/TCSI.2007.902615
- WONSEOK OH, BAKKALOGLU, B. A CMOS low-dropout regulator with current-mode feedback buffer amplifier. IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems II: Express Briefs, 2007, vol. 54, no. 10, p. 922–926. DOI: 10.1109/TCSII.2007.901621
- AL-SHYOUKH, M., HOI LEE, PEREZ, R. A transient-enhanced low-quiescent current low-dropout regulator with buffer impedance attenuation. IEEE Journal of Solid-State Circuits, 2007, vol. 42, no. 8, p. 1732–1742. DOI: 10.1109/JSSC.2007.900281
- HAZUCHA, P., KARNIK, T., BLOECHEL, B.A., PARSONS, C., FINAN, D., BORKAR, S. Area-efficient linear regulator with ultra-fast load regulation. IEEE Journal of Solid-State Circuits, 2005, vol. 40, no. 4, p. 933–940. DOI: 10.1109/JSSC.2004.842831
- MONJE, C.A., CHEN, Y.Q., VINAGRE, B.M., XUE, D., FELIU BATLLE, V. Fractional-order Systems and Control – Fundamentals and Applications. 2010, 430 p. ISBN 978-1-84996-334-3. DOI: 10.1007/978-1-84996-335-0
- CHEN, Y.Q. PETRAS, I., XUE, D. Fractional order control – A tutorial. In American Control Conference (ACC '09). St. Louis (USA), 2009, p. 1397–1411. DOI: 10.1109/ACC.2009.5160719
- VALSA, J., DVORAK, P., FRIEDL, M. Network model of the CPE. Radioengineering, 2011, vol. 20, no. 3, p. 619–626. DOI: 10.13164/re
- PETRZELA, J. Posouvace faze zalozene na vyuziti pasivnich realizaci fraktalnich kapacitoru (Phase Shifters Using Passive Realizations of Fractal Capacitors). Slaboproudy obzor, 2014, no. 2, p. 6–12. ISSN 2336-5773 (In Czech).
- PETRAS, I. Fractional-order feedback control of a DC motor. Journal of Electrical Engineering, 2009, vol. 60, no. 3, p. 117–128. ISSN 1335-3632

Keywords: Fractional-order control, error amplifier, RC ladder, low-dropout regulator, frequency compensation

**G. Nagy, D. Arbet, V. Stopjakova, M. Kovac**
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[DOI: 10.13164/re.2016.0321]
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Novel CMOS Bulk-driven Charge Pump for Ultra Low Input Voltage

In this paper, a novel bulk-driven cross-coupled charge pump designed in standard 90 nm CMOS technology is presented. The proposed charge pump is based on a dynamic threshold voltage inverter and is suitable for integrated ultra-low voltage converters. Due to a latchup risk, bulk-driven charge pumps can safely be used only in low-voltage applications. For the input voltage below 200 mV and output current of 1 uA, the proposed bulk-driven topology can achieve about 10 % higher efficiency than the conventional gate-driven cross-coupled charge pump. Therefore, it can be effectively used in DC-DC converters, which are the basic building blocks of on-chip energy harvesting systems with ultra-low supply voltage.

- RAGHUNATHAN, V., CHOU, P. Design and power management of energy harvesting embedded systems. In International Symposium on Low Power Electronics and Design (ISLPED). Tegernsee (Germany), Oct. 2006, p. 369–374. DOI: 10.1109/LPE.2006.4271870
- LU, C., RAGHUNATHAN, V., ROY, K. Micro-scale energy harvesting: A system design perspective. In 15th Asia and South Pacific Design Automation Conference (ASP-DAC). Taipei (Taiwan), 2010, p. 89–94. DOI: 10.1109/ASPDAC.2010.5419913
- PAN, F., SAMADDAR, T. Charge pump circuit design. New York (USA): McGraw-Hill Professional, 2006. ISBN: 978-0071470452
- PALUMBO, G., PAPPALARDO, D. Charge pump circuits: An overview on design strategies and topologies. IEEE Circuits and Systems Magazine, 2010, vol. 10, no. 1, p. 31–45. ISSN: 1531-636X. DOI: 10.1109/MCAS.2009.935695
- GUZINSKI, A., BIALKO, M., MATHEAU, J. C. Body-driven differential amplifier for application in continuous-time active C-filter. In European Conference on Circuit Theory and Design (ECCTD). Paris (France), Sep. 1987, p. 315–320.
- RAIKOS, G., VLASSIS, S. 0.8 V bulk-driven operational amplifier. Analog integrated circuits and signal processing, 2010, vol. 63, no. 3, p. 425–432. ISSN: 1573-1979. DOI: 10.1007/s10470-009-9425-4
- KHATEB, A., MUSIL, V., PROKOP, R. Rail-to-rail bulk-driven amplifier. In Electronics. Sozopol (Bulgaria), Sep. 2005.
- YANI, L., YINTANG, Y., ZHANGMING, Z. A novel low-voltage low-power bulk-driven cascade current mirror. In International Conference on Advanced Computer Theory and Engineering (ICACTE). Chengdu (China), Aug. 2010, vol. 3, p. 78–83. ISSN: 2154-7491. DOI: 10.1109/ICACTE.2010.5579714
- ZHANG, X., EL-MASRY, E. I. A regulated body-driven CMOS current mirror for low-voltage applications. IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems II: Express Briefs, 2004, vol. 51, no. 10, p. 571–577. ISSN: 1549-7747. DOI: 10.1109/TCSII.2004.834536
- KHATEB, F., BIOLEK, D., KHATIB, N., VAVRA, J. Utilizing the bulk-driven technique in analog circuit design. In IEEE 13th International Symposium on Design and Diagnostics of Electronic Circuits and Systems (DDECS). Vienna (Austria), 2010, p. 16–19. DOI: 10.1109/DDECS.2010.5491827
- KHATEB, F., KHATIB, N., KUBANEK, D. Novel low-voltage low-power high-precision CCII± based on bulk-driven folded cascode OTA. Microelectronics Journal, May 2011, vol. 42, no. 5, p. 622–631. ISSN: 00262692. DOI: 10.1016/j.mejo.2011.03.010
- GRECH, I., MICALLEF, J., AZZOPARDI, G., DEBONO, C. J. A low voltage wide-input-range bulk-input CMOS OTA. Analog Integrated Circuits and Signal Processing, May 2005, vol. 43, no. 2, p. 127–136. ISSN: 1573-1979. DOI: 10.1007/s10470-005-6786-1
- VLASSIS, S., RAIKOS, G. Bulk-driven differential voltage follower. Electronics Letters, Dec. 2009, vol. 45, no. 25, p. 1276–1277. ISSN: 0013-5194. DOI: 10.1049/el.2009.1551
- HAGA, Y., KALE, I. Bulk-driven flipped voltage follower. In IEEE International Symposium on Circuits and Systems (ISCAS). Taipei (Taiwan), May 2009, p. 2717–2720. ISBN: 978-1-4244-3827-3. DOI: 10.1109/ISCAS.2009.5118363
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- LO, Y.-L., YANG, W.-B., CHAO, T.-S., CHENG, K.-H. Designing an ultralow-voltage phase-locked loop using a bulk-driven technique. IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems II: Express Briefs, May 2009, vol. 56, no. 5, p. 339–343. ISSN: 1549-7747. DOI: 10.1109/TCSII.2009.2019160
- ASSADERAGHI, F., SINITSKY, D., PARKE, S. A., BOKOR, J., KO, P. K., HU, C. Dynamic threshold-voltage MOSFET (DTMOS) for ultra-low voltage VLSI. IEEE Transactions on Electron Devices, Mar. 1997, vol. 44, no. 3, p. 414–422. DOI: 10.1109/16.556151
- SOLEIMANI, S., SAMMAK, A., FOROUZANDEH, B. A novel ultra-low-energy bulk dynamic threshold inverter scheme. In International Multi Conference of Engineers and Computer Scientists (IMECS). Hong Kong (Chinese), Mar. 2009, vol. 1, ISBN: 978-988-17012-2-0
- WENG, Y.-H., TSAI, H.-W., KER, M.-D. Design of charge pump circuit in low-voltage CMOS process with suppressed return-back leakage current. In IEEE International Conference on IC Design and Technology (ICICDT). Grenoble (France), Jun. 2010, p. 155–158. DOI: 10.1109/ICICDT.2010.5510271
- KER, M.-D., CHEN, S.-L., TSAI, C.-S. Design of charge pump circuit with consideration of gate-oxide reliability in low-voltage CMOS processes. IEEE Journal of Solid-State Circuits, May 2006, vol. 41, no. 5, p. 1100–1107. ISSN: 0018-9200. DOI: 10.1109/JSSC.2006.872704
- DENG, Q. Comparing regulated charge-pump and inductorbased DC/DC converters. Bodo’s Power Systems, 2007, p. 42–44. ISSN: 1863-5597
- HUANG, M.-H., FAN, P.-C., CHEN, K.-H. Low-ripple and dual-phase charge pump circuit regulated by switched-capacitorbased bandgap reference. IEEE Transactions on Power Electronics, May 2009, vol. 24, no. 5, p. 1161–1172. ISSN: 0885-8993. DOI: 10.1109/TPEL.2008.2010546
- RAMADASS, Y. K., CHANDRAKASAN, A. P. A battery-less thermoelectric energy harvesting interface circuit with 35 mV startup voltage.IEEE Journal of Solid-State Circuits, Jan. 2011, vol. 46, no. 1, p. 333–341. ISSN: 0018-9200. DOI: 110.1109/JSSC.2010.2074090
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- CARLSON, E. J., STRUNZ, K., OTIS, B. P. A 20 mV input boost converter with efficient digital control for thermoelectric energy harvesting. IEEE Journal of Solid-State Circuits, Apr. 2010, vol. 45, no. 4, p. 741–750. ISSN: 0018-9200. DOI: 10.1109/JSSC.2010.2042251
- PO-HUNG C., ISHIDA, K., IKEUCHI, K., et al. A 95 mV-startup step-up converter with Vth-tuned oscillator by fixed-charge programming and capacitor pass-on scheme. In IEEE International Solid-State Circuits Conference Digest of Technical Papers (ISSCC). San Francisco (USA), Feb. 2011, p. 216–218. ISSN: 0193-6530. DOI: 10.1109/ISSCC.2011.5746290
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- YOON, E.-J., PARK, J.-T., YU, C.-G. Thermoelectric energy harvesting circuit using DC-DC boost converter. Journal of IKEEE, Sep. 2013, vol. 17, no. 3, p. 284–293. ISSN: 1226-7244. DOI: 10.1155/2013/232438
- ABDELFATTAH, M., MOHIELDIN, A., EMIRA, A., et al. A low-voltage charge pump for micro scale thermal energy harvesting. In IEEE International Symposium on Industrial Electronics (ISIE). Gdansk (Poland), Jun. 2011, p. 76–80. ISBN: 978-1-4244-9310-4 . DOI: 10.1109/ISIE.2011.5984136
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- YI-CHUN S., OTIS, B. P. An inductorless DC-DC converter for energy harvesting with a 1.2-µW bandgap-referenced output controller. IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems II: Express Briefs, Dec. 2011, vol. 58, no. 12, p. 832–836. ISSN: 1549-7747. DOI: 10.1109/TCSII.2011.2173967
- DOMS, I., MERKEN, P., VAN HOOF, C., et al. Capacitive power management circuit for micropower thermoelectric generators with a 1.4 µA controller. IEEE Journal of Solid-State Circuits, Oct. 2009, vol. 44, no. 10, p. 2824–2833. ISSN: 0018-9200. DOI: 10.1109/JSSC.2009.2027546
- PENG, F., YUNLONG, L., NANJIAN, W. A high effi- ciency charge pump circuit for low power applications. Journal of Semiconductors, Jan. 2010, vol. 31, no. 1, p. 1–5. DOI: 10.1088/1674-4926/31/1/015009
- NAGY, G., STOPJAKOVA, V., ARBET, D. Analysis and evaluation of charge-pumps realizable in 90 nm CMOS technology. In 24th International Conference Radioelektronika. Bratislava (Slovakia), Apr. 2014, p. 1–4. ISBN: 978-1-4799-3714-1. DOI: 10.1109/Radioelek.2014.6828414

Keywords: Charge pump, CMOS, Bulk-driven, Low-power, Energy harvesting

**M. Drinovsky, J. Hospodka**
[references] [full-text]
[DOI: 10.13164/re.2016.0332]
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Triangle/Square Waveform Generator Using Area Efficient Hysteresis Comparator

A function generator generating both square and triangle waveforms is proposed. The generator employs only one low area comparator with accurate hysteresis set by a bias current and a resistor. Oscillation frequency and its non-idealities are analyzed. The function of the proposed circuit is demonstrated on a design of 1 MHz oscillator in STMicroelectronics 180 nm BCD technology. The designed circuit is thoroughly simulated including trimming evaluation. It consumes 4.1 μA at 1.8 V and takes 0.0126 mm2 of silicon area. The temperature variation from -40°C to 125°C is ±1.5 % and the temperature coefficient is 127 ppm/°C.

- HUANG, K.-K., WENTZLOFF, D. D. A 1.2-MHz 5.8- µW temperature-compensated relaxation oscillator in 130-nm CMOS. IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems II: Express Briefs, 2014, vol. 61, no. 5, p. 334–338. ISSN: 1549-7747. DOI: 10.1109/TCSII.2014.2312634
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- BEHJATI, H., NIU, L., DAVOUDI, A., et al. Alternative timeinvariant multi-frequency modeling of PWM DC-DC converters. IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems I: Regular Papers, 2013, vol. 60, no. 11, p. 3069–3079. ISSN: 1549-8328. DOI: 10.1109/TCSI.2013.2252641
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- SILAPAN, P., SIRIPRUCHYANUN, M. Fully and electronically controllable current-mode Schmitt triggers employing only single MOCCCDTA and their applications. Analog Integrated Circuits and Signal Processing, 2011, vol. 68, no. 1, p. 111–128. ISSN: 1573-1979. DOI: 10.1007/s10470-010-9593-2
- CHIEN, H.-C. Voltage-controlled dual slope operation square/triangular wave generator and its application as a dual mode operation pulse width modulator employing differential voltage current conveyors. Microelectronics Journal, 2012, vol. 43, no. 12, p. 962–974. ISSN: 0026-2692. DOI: 10.1016/j.mejo.2012.08.005
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Keywords: Function generator, triangle and square wave generator, hysteresis comparator

**M. Mabrouk, M. A. Boujemaa, F. Choubani**
[references] [full-text]
[DOI: 10.13164/re.2016.0338]
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Grey Box Non-Linearities Modeling and Characterization of a BandPass BAW Filter

In this work, the non-linearities of a 3G/UMTS geared BandPass Bulk Acoustic Wave ladder filter composed of five resonators were modeled using non-linear modified Butterworth-Van Dyke model. The non-linear characteristics were measured and simulated, and they were compared and found to be fairly identical. The filter's central frequency is 2.12 GHz, the corresponding bandwidth is 61.55 MHz, and the quality factor is 34.55.

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Keywords: Band pass filter, bulk acoustic wave (BAW), modified Butterworth-van Dyke model, non linearities

**P. Hartl, M. Kuban, P. Horsky**
[references] [full-text]
[DOI: 10.13164/re.2016.0345]
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Reduction of EMC Emissions in Mixed Signal Integrated Circuits with Embedded LIN Driver

This paper describes several methods for reduction of electromagnetic emissions (EME) of mixed signal integrated circuits (IC). The focus is on the impact that a LIN bus communication block has on a complex IC which contains analog blocks, noisy digital block, micro-core (µC) and several types of memories. It is used in an automotive environment, where EMC emission reduction is one of the key success factors. Several proposed methods for EME reduction are described and implemented on three test chips. These methods include current consumption reduction, internal on-chip decoupling, ground separation and different linear voltage regulator topologies. Measurement results of several fabricated test chips are shown and discussed.

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- CISPR 25: Limits and Methods of Measurement of Radio Disturbance Characteristics for the Protection of Receivers used on Board Vehicles. 2nd ed. 2002
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Keywords: EMC, emissions, ground splitting, linear voltage regulator, automotive industry, LIN bus driver

**P. J. Osuch, T. Stander**
[references] [full-text]
[DOI: 10.13164/re.2016.0351]
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A Geometric Approach to Group Delay Network Synthesis

All-pass networks with prescribed group delay are used for analog signal processing and equalisation of transmission channels. The state-of-the-art methods for synthesising quasi-arbitrary group delay functions using all-pass elements lack a theoretical synthesis procedure that guarantees minimum-order networks. We present an analytically-based solution to this problem that produces an all-pass network with a response approximating the required group delay to within an arbitrary minimax error. For the first time, this method is shown to work for any physical realisation of second-order all-pass elements, is guaranteed to converge to a global optimum solution without any choice of seed values as an input, and allows synthesis of pre-defined networks described both analytically and numerically. The proposed method is also demonstrated by reducing the delay variation of a practical system by any desired amount, and compared to state-of-the-art methods in comparison examples.

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Keywords: All-pass circuits, approximation problem, analog signal processing, delay ripple equalisation, group delay engineering, linear phase filters

**Z. Martinasek, V. Zeman, L. Malina, J. Martinasek**
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[DOI: 10.13164/re.2016.0365]
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k-Nearest Neighbors Algorithm in Profiling Power Analysis Attacks

Power analysis presents the typical example of successful attacks against trusted cryptographic devices such as RFID (Radio-Frequency IDentifications) and contact smart cards. In recent years, the cryptographic community has explored new approaches in power analysis based on machine learning models such as Support Vector Machine (SVM), RF (Random Forest) and Multi-Layer Perceptron (MLP). In this paper, we made an extensive comparison of machine learning algorithms in the power analysis. For this purpose, we implemented a verification program that always chooses the optimal settings of individual machine learning models in order to obtain the best classification accuracy. In our research, we used three datasets, the first containing the power traces of an unprotected AES (Advanced Encryption Standard) implementation. The second and third datasets are created independently from public available power traces corresponding to a masked AES implementation (DPA Contest v4). The obtained results revealed some interesting facts, namely, an elementary k-NN (k-Nearest Neighbors) algorithm, which has not been commonly used in power analysis yet, shows great application potential in practice.

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Keywords: Power Analysis, Machine Learning, Template Attack, Comparison, Smart Cards

**A. Aggarwal, T. K. Rawat, M. Kumar, D. K. Upadhyay**
[references] [full-text]
[DOI: 10.13164/re.2016.0383]
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Efficient Design of Digital FIR Differentiator using $L_1$-Method

In this paper, an efficient design of FIR digital differentiator using the $L_1$-optimality criterion is proposed. We present a technique based on the modified Newton method to solve the design problem so that the optimal differentiator coefficients are obtained by minimizing the absolute error. The novel $L_1$-error function leads to a flat response at low-frequencies. Extensive simulations are carried out to validate the proposed design. The superiority of the proposed design is evident by comparing it with other conventional design techniques such as, windowing, minimax and the least-squares approach.

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Keywords: FIR differentiator, $L_1$-method, digital filter, magnitude response

**S. Matejka**
[references] [full-text]
[DOI: 10.13164/re.2016.0390]
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Analysis of Intermodulation Distortion in OFDM Based Transmitter Using EER Technique

During the last two decades, new digital modulation systems have appeared in the audio broadcasting. Such broadcasting systems require new transmitters’ concepts to enable the transmission of digitally modulated signals. Moreover, the selected modulation schemes (e.g. orthogonal frequency division multiplexing) require a high linearity power stage, which typically exhibits low efficiency due to high peak-toaverage power ratio of the modulated signal. One of the promising transmitter concepts is the Kahn envelope elimination and restoration technique, where the original Cartesian in-phase and quadrature baseband signals are transformed to the envelope and phase signals. The main advantage of this technique is an ability to employ suitable types of highly efficient amplitude modulation transmitters for envelope amplification, while the phase modulated carrier is produced by an additional phase modulator. The substantial drawback of envelope elimination and restoration is nonideal recombination of linearly distorted amplitude signal and phase modulated carrier at the output power stage. The aim of this paper is twofold. Firstly, to analyze the effect of the envelope and phase signals bandwidth limitation on the modulated signal in-channel distortion and out-ofchannel emission. Secondly, to present the performance results as a reference for transmitter designers to properly set the envelope and phase paths to reach required in-channel signal quality and suppress out-of-channel products.

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Keywords: Envelope Elimination and Restoration (EER), Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplex (OFDM), transmitter, amplitude and phase modulation, intermodulation distortion, Error Vector Magnitude (EVM)

**S. Kumar, J. S. Yadav**
[references] [full-text]
[DOI: 10.13164/re.2016.0399]
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Segmentation of Moving Object Using Background Subtraction Method in Complex Environments

Background subtraction is an extensively used approach to localize the moving object in a video sequence. However, detecting an object under the spatiotemporal behavior of background such as rippling of water, moving curtain and illumination change or low resolution is not a straightforward task. To deal with the above-mentioned problem, we address a background maintenance scheme based on the updating of background pixels by estimating the current spatial variance along the temporal line. The work is focused to immune the variation of local motion in the background. Finally, the most suitable label assignment to the motion field is estimated and optimized by using iterated conditional mode (ICM) under a Markovian framework. Performance evaluation and comparisons with the other well-known background subtraction methods show that the proposed method is unaffected by the problem of aperture distortion, ghost image, and high frequency noise.

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Keywords: Background subtraction, background modeling, initial motion field, morphology.