# December 2016, Volume 25, Number 4 [DOI: 10.13164/re.2016-4]

**A. Karwowski, A. Noga, T. Topa**
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[DOI: 10.13164/re.2016.0629]
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An Efficient Framework for Analysis of Wire-Grid Shielding Structures over a Broad Frequency Range

A computationally efficient MoM-based framework for broadband electromagnetic simulation of wire-grid shielding structures is presented in the paper. Broadband capability of the approach is attained through supporting MoM by an adaptive frequency sweep combined with rational interpolation of the observable implemented via Stoer-Bulirsch algorithm. The performance increase is gained by employing CUDA-enabled CPU+GPU co-processing. For large-size problems exceeding the amount of memory available on the GPU device, a hybrid out-of-GPU memory LU decomposition algorithm is employed. The demonstration examples are provided to illustrate the the accuracy and high efficiency of the approach.

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Keywords: Computational electromagnetics, wire-grid structures, MoM, wideband analysis, adaptive frequency sampling, rational interpolation, GPGPU computing

**F. Perez-Fontan, M. Kvicera, P. Pechac, J. Israel**
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[DOI: 10.13164/re.2016.0637]
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A Model for the Detailed Analysis of Radio Links Involving Tree Canopies

Detailed analysis of tree canopy interaction with incident radiowaves has mainly been limited to remote sensing for the purpose of forest classification among many other applications. This represents a monostatic configuration, unlike the case of communication links, which are bistatic. In general, link analyses have been limited to the application of simple, empirical formulas based on the use of specific attenuation values in dB/m and the traversed vegetated mass as, e.g., the model in Recommendation ITU-R P.833-8 [1]. In remote sensing, two main techniques are used: Multiple Scattering Theory (MST) [2]-[5] and Radiative Transfer Theory (RT), [5] and [6]. We have paid attention in the past to MST [7]-[10]. It was shown that a full application of MST leads to very long computation times which are unacceptable in the case where we have to analyze a scenario with several trees. Extensive work using MST has been also presented by others in [11]-[16] showing the interest in this technique. We have proposed a simplified model for scattering from tree canopies based on a hybridization of MST and a modified physical optics (PO) approach [16]. We assume that propagation through a canopy is accounted for by using the complex valued propagation constant obtained by MST. Unlike the case when the full MST is applied, the proposed approach offers significant benefits including a direct software implementation and acceptable computation times even for high frequencies and electrically large canopies. The proposed model thus replaces the coherent component in MST, significant in the forward direction, but keeps the incoherent or diffuse scattering component present in all directions. The incoherent component can be calculated within reasonable times. Here, we present tests of the proposed model against MST using an artificial single-tree scenario at 2 GHz and 10 GHz.

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Keywords: Radiowave propagation, vegetation, scattering, multiple scattering theory

**M. N. Khan, M. Jamil, M. Hussain**
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[DOI: 10.13164/re.2016.0644]
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Adaptation of Hybrid FSO/RF Communication System Using Puncturing Technique

Spectrum of radio frequency (RF) communications is limited and expensive to install new applications. Free space optical (FSO) communication is a viable technology which offers enormous bandwidth, license free installation, inexpensive deployment and error prone links. The FSO links degrade significantly due to the varying atmospheric and weather conditions (fog, cloud, snow, haze and combination of these). We propose a hybrid FSO/RF communication system which adapts the varying nature of atmosphere and weather. For the adaption of varying atmosphere and weather scenarios, we develop a novel optimization algorithm. The proposed algorithm is based on the well-known puncturing technique. We provide an extrinsic information transfer (EXIT) chart for the binary and quaternary mapping scheme for the proposed communication system. We simulate the proposed algorithm for the hybrid communication system and analyze the system performance. The proposed algorithm is computationally less expensive and provide better performance gains over varying atmosphere and weather conditions. The algorithm is suitable for fast speed applications.

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Keywords: Free space optical (FSO) communication, Low density parity check (LDPC) code, extrinsic information transfer (EXIT), puncturing optimization algorithm (POA), minimum positive difference (MPD)

**Yuanhang Zhao, Yixin Zhang, Qiu Wang**
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[DOI: 10.13164/re.2016.0652]
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Average Polarization of Electromagnetic Gaussian Schell-Model Beams through Anisotropic Non-Kolmogorov Turbulence

Polarization properties of electromagnetic Gaussian Schell-model beams propagating through the anisotropic non-Kolmogorov turbulence of marine-atmosphere channel are studied based on the cross-spectral density matrix. Detailed analysis shows that the average polarization decreases with increasing the spectral index, inner scale of turbulence and generalized refractive-index structure parameter. We find the effects of anisotropic turbulence on the average polarization is less than that of the isotropic turbulence and the depolarization effect of turbulence in marine-atmosphere is larger than terrene-atmosphere. The electromagnetic Gaussian Schell-model beam with the parameters of smaller σxx ,σyy and Ax, but larger Ay will reduce the interference of turbulence.

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Keywords: Average polarization, electromagnetic Gaussian Schell-model beams, anisotropic non-Kolmogorov turbulence, marine-atmosphere

**O. M. Hasan, M. A. Taha**
[references] [full-text]
[DOI: 10.13164/re.2016.0658]
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Optimized FSO System Performance over Atmospheric Turbulence Channels with Pointing Error and Weather Conditions

In this paper, Bit Error rate and probability of outage are derived in closed form for plane wave mode over Gamma-Gamma free space optical channel under the influence of pointing errors and different weather conditions. The free-space optical system under study assumes deployment of intensity modulation / direct detection with on-off keying data formats. To evaluate the performance of the system using the derived expressions, two independent optimization algorithms were applied to find optimum system and channel parameters that optimize the performance of the two system metrics, i.e., bit error rate and probability of outage. The optimized system results were shown for different values of channel strength, weather conditions, optimum beamwidths and pointing error jitter variances. For each case, the optimized results are provided as a function of the transmitted power or average received power.

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Keywords: Bit Error Rate (BER), Free Space Optical channel (FSO), Intensity Modulation (IM), Direct Detection (DD) with On-Off Keying (OOK), pointing error, jitter variance

**J. Schneider, M. Mrnka, J. Gamec, M. Gamcova, Z. Raida**
[references] [full-text]
[DOI: 10.13164/re.2016.0666]
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Vivaldi Antenna for RF Energy Harvesting

Energy harvesting is a future technology for capturing ambient energy from the environment to be recycled to feed low-power devices. A planar antipodal Vivaldi antenna is presented for gathering energy from GSM, WLAN, UMTS and related applications. The designed antenna has the potential to be used in energy harvesting systems. Moreover, the antenna is suitable for UWB applications, because it operates according to FCC regulations (3.1 – 10.6 GHz). The designed antenna is printed on ARLON 600 substrate and operates in frequency band from 0.810 GHz up to more than 12 GHz. Experimental results show good conformity with simulated performance.

- VALENTA, C. R., DURGIN, G. D. Harvesting wireless power: survey of energy-harvester conversion efficiency in far-field, wireless power transfer systems. IEEE Microwave Magazine, 2014, vol. 15, no. 4, p. 108–120. DOI: 10.1109/MMM.2014.2309499
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- SAGHLATOON, H., BJORNINEN, T., SYDANHEIMO, L., et al. Inkjet-printed wideband planar monopole antenna on cardboard for RF energy-harvesting applications., IEEE Antennas and Wireless Propagation Letters, 2015, vol. 14, p. 325–328. DOI: 10.1109/LAWP.2014.2363085
- SAFATLY, L., et al. A reduced-size antipodal Vivaldi antenna with a reconfigurable band notch. In Progress In Electromagnetics Research Symposium Proceedings (PIERS). Moscow (Russia), 2012, p. 220–224. ISBN: 9781934142226
- ARLON MICROWAVE MATERIALS, AD600 (datasheet). 4 pages. [Online] Cited 2015-10-26. Available at: http://www.pwcircuits.co.uk/AD600.pdf
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Keywords: RF energy harvesting, UWB, Vivaldi antenna

**P. Moeikham, P. Akkaraekthalin**
[references] [full-text]
[DOI: 10.13164/re.2016.0672]
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A Compact Printed Slot Antenna with High Out-of-band Rejection for WLAN/WiMAX Applications

The suppression of electromagnetic interferences (EMIs) caused by the out-of-band operation is required for broadband antennas. To achieve this purpose, a compact broadband printed slot antenna with build-in filters for band notching is presented. The filters, including I-shaped and inverse L-shaped narrow slits and an L-shaped conductor strip, whose lengths correspond to half wavelengths, were integrated in the proposed antenna structure. The mitigation of the EMIs at the frequency ranges of 2.7 to 3.2 GHz, 4.1 to 4.7 GHz, and over 6.1 GHz was obtained. The proposed antenna capably operated at WLAN/WiMAX frequency ranges of 2.26 to 2.68 GHz, 3.28 to 4.09 GHz, and 4.75 to 6.04 GHz. The nearly omni-directional and likely bi- directional radiation patterns were given by the proposed antenna in xz and yz planes, respectively. Therefore, this antenna is suitable for various WLAN/WiMAX applications.

- ZAKER, R., GHOBADI, CH., NOURINIA, J. A modified microstrip-fed two-step tapered monopole antenna for UWB and WLAN applications. Progress In Electromagnetics Research, 2007, PIER 77, p. 137–148. DOI: 10.2528/PIER07080701
- MOEIKHAM, P., AKKARAEKTHALIN, P. A compact ultrawideband monopole antenna with tapered CPW feed and slot stubs. In Proceedings of the 8th International Conference of Electrical Engineering/Electronics, Computer, Telecommunications and Information Technology (ECTI-CON). Khon Kaen (Thailand), 2011, p. 180–183, 2011. DOI: 10.1109/ECTICON.2011.5947802
- ISLAM, M. T., AZIM, R., MOBASHSHER, A. T. Triple bandnotched planar UWB antenna using parasitic strips. Progress In Electromagnetics Research, 2012, vol. 129, p. 161–179. DOI: 10.2528/PIER12032604
- ZHANG, X., ZHANG, T.-L., XIA, Y.-Y. , YAN, Z.-H., WANG, X.-M. Planar monopole antenna with band-notch characterization for UWB applications. Progress In Electromagnetics Research Letters, 2009, vol. 6, p. 149–156. DOI: 10.2528/PIERL09011305
- TRANG, N. D. , LEE, D. H., PARK, H. C. Compact printed CPWfed monopole ultra-wideband antenna with triple subband notched characteristics. Electronics Letters, 2010, vol. 46, no. 17, p. 1177 to 1179. DOI: 10.1049/el.2010.1140
- MOEIKHAM, P., MAHATTHANAJATUPHAT, C., AKKARAEKTHALIN, P. A compact ultrawideband monopole antenna with V-shaped slit for 5.5 GHz notched band. In Proceedings of the 9th International Conference of Electrical Engineering/Electronics, Computer, Telecommunications and Information Technology (ECTI-CON). Hua Hin (Thailand), 2012. DOI: 10.1109/ECTICon.2012.6254176
- LI, W.-M., NI, T., QUAN, T., JIAO, Y.-C. A compact CPW-fed UWB antenna with WiMAX-band notched characteristics. Progress In Electromagnetics Research Letters, 2011, vol. 26, p. 79–85. DOI: 10.2528/PIERL11080202
- MOEIKHAM, P., MAHATTHANAJATUPHAT, C., AKKARAEKTHALIN, P. A compact ultrawideband monopole antenna with 5.5 GHz notched band. Progress In Electromagnetics Research C, 2012, vol. 26, p. 13–27. DOI: 10.2528/PIERC11091602
- MOEIKHAM, P., MAHATTHANAJATUPHAT, C., AKKARAEKTHALIN, P. A compact UWB antenna with a quarterwavelength strip in a rectangular slot for 5.5 GHz band notch. International Journal of Antennas and Propagation, vol. 2013, Article ID 574128, 9 pages. DOI: 10.1155/2013/574128
- WU, S.-J., TARNG, J.-H. Planar band-notched ultra-wideband antenna with square-looped and end-coupled resonator. IET Microwave, Antennas and Propagation, 2011, vol. 5, p. 1227 to 1233. DOI: 10.1049/iet-map.2010.003
- WU, S.-J., KANG, C.-H., CHEN, K.-H., et al. Study of an ultrawideband monopole antenna with a band- notched open- looped resonator. IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation, 2010, vol. 58, no. 6, p. 1890–1897. DOI: 10.1109/TAP.2010.2046839
- MOEIKHAM, P., AKKARAEKTHALIN, P. Printed slot antenna for WLAN/WiMAX and UWB applications. In International Symposium on Antennas and Propagation (ISAP 2013). Nanjing (China), 2013, p. 88–91.
- MOEIKHAM, P., TANGTHONG, N., AKATIMAGOOL, S. CPW-fed printed slot antenna for WLAN/WiMAX and UWB applications. In International Symposium on Antennas and Propagation (ISAP). Kaohsiung (China), 2014, p. 227–228. DOI: 10.1109/ISANP.2014.7026613
- CHEN, D., CHENG, C. H. A novel compact ultra-wideband (UWB) wide slot antenna with via holes. Progress In Electromagnetics Research, 2009, vol. 94, p. 343–349. DOI: 10.2528/PIER09062306
- GOPIKRISHNA, M., DEEPTI DAS KRISHNA, C. K. ANANDAN, C. K., MOHANAN, P., VASUDEVAN, K. Design of a compact semi-elliptic monopole slot antenna for UWB systems. IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation, 2009, vol. 57, no. 6, p. 1834–1837. DOI: 10.1109/TAP.2009.2015850
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- GAO, P., XIONG, L., DAI, J., HE, S., ZHENG, Y. Compact printed wide-slot UWB antenna with 3.5/5.5-GHz dual bandnotched characteristics. IEEE Antennas and Wireless Propagation Letters, 2013, vol. 12, p. 983–986. DOI: 10.1109/LAWP.2013.2277591
- HONGNARA, T., MAHATTANAJATUPHAT, C., AKKARAEKTHALIN, P. A multiband CPW-fed slot antenna. Radioengineering, 2012, vol. 21, no. 2, p. 597–605.
- KRISHNA, D.D., GOPIKRISHNA, M., ANANDAN, C. K., MOHANAN, P., VASUDEVAN, K. CPW-fed Koch fractal slot antenna for WLAN/WiMAX applications. IEEE Antennas and Wireless Propagation Letters, 2008, vol. 7, p. 389–392. DOI: 10.1109/LAWP.2008.2000814
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Keywords: Printed slot antenna, multiband antenna, out-of-band rejection

**M. M. Fakharian, P. Rezaei, A. A. Orouji**
[references] [full-text]
[DOI: 10.13164/re.2016.0680]
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Polarization and Radiation Pattern Reconfigurability of a Planar Monopole-Fed Loop Antenna for GPS Application

This paper presents a reconfigurable loop antenna with monopole-fed using embedded RF PIN switches based shorted parasitic elements for GPS applications. The antenna can independently reconfiguring multiple polarizations with switchable radiation pattern. Four switched metallic patches are used as parasitic elements to provide a reconfiguration capability to antenna acting as a driven monopole-fed loop. The edge of the parasitic elements is shorted by posts. The parasitic patches are connected/disconnected by using switching, therewith changing the configuration of monopole, to turn changes the current distribution over the loop surface. The antenna is designed to work on the GPS L1 frequency band. The antenna simultaneously changes the radiation beam in E- and H-planes, and switches among three polarizations (LP, LHCP, and RHCP) in the various modes. The antenna maximum gain among the different modes is tuned between 1.5 and 4.2 dBi.

- FAKHARIAN, M. M., REZAEI, P., OROUJI, A. A., et al. A wideband and reconfigurable filtering slot antenna. IEEE Antennas and Wireless Propagation Letters. Early Access Articles, DOI: 10.1109/LAWP.2016.2518859
- FAKHARIAN, M. M., REZAEI, P., OROUJI, A. A. Reconfigurable multiband extended U-slot antenna with switchable polarization for wireless applications. IEEE Antennas and Propagation Magazine, 2015, vol. 57, no. 2, p. 194–202. DOI: 0.1109/MAP.2015.2414665
- FAKHARIAN, M. M., REZAEI, P., OROUJI, A. A. A novel slot antenna with reconfigurable meander-slot DGS for cognitive radio applications. Applied Computational Electromagnetics Society Journal, 2015, vol. 30, no. 7, p. 748–753.
- BORHANI KAKHKI, M., REZAEI, P., SHARBATI, V., et al. Small square reconfigurable antenna with switchable single/triband functions. Radioengineering, 2016, vol. 25, no. 1, p. 40–45. DOI: 10.13164/re.2016.004
- QIN, P.-Y., GUO, Y. J., WEILY, A. R., et al. A pattern reconfigurable U-slot antenna and its applications in MIMO systems. IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation, 2012, vol. 60, no. 2, p. 516–528. DOI: 10.1109/TAP.2011.2173439
- CAO, W., ZHANG, B., LIU, A., et al. A reconfigurable microstrip antenna with radiation pattern selectivity and polarization diversity. IEEE Antennas and Wireless Propagation Letters, 2012, vol. 11, p. 454–456. DOI: 10.1109/LAWP.2012.2193549
- RAMAN, P., MOHANAN, P., TIMMONS, N., et al. Microstripfed pattern- and polarization-reconfigurable compact truncated monopole antenna. IEEE Antennas and Wireless Propagation Letters, 2013, vol. 12, p. 710–713. DOI: 10.1109/LAWP.2013.2263983
- CHEN, W., SUN, J., FENG, Z. A novel compact reconfigurable polarization and pattern antenna. Microwave and Optical Technology Letters, 2007, vol. 49, no. 11, p. 2802–2805. DOI: 10.1002/mop.22865
- AGARWAL, K., NASIMUDDIN, AROKIASWAMI, A. Tripleband compact circularly polarised stacked microstrip antenna over reactive impedance meta-surface for GPS applications. IET Microwaves, Antennas and Propagation, 2014, vol. 8, no. 13, p. 1057–1065. DOI: 10.1049/iet-map.2013.0586
- SYMMETRICOM, INC. General GPS Antenna Information. Application Note. [Online] Cited 2016-02-29. Available at: http://www.microsemi.com/document-portal/doc_view/133239- general-gps-antenna-information
- BRZEZINA, G., ROY, L. A miniaturized GPS antenna in LTCC with linear polarization suitable for SoP integration. In 14th International Symposium on Antenna Technology and Applied Electromagnetics and the American Electromagnetics Conference (ANTEM-AMEREM). Ottawa (ON), 2010, p. 1–4. DOI: 10.1109/ANTEM.2010.5552526
- RODRIGO, D., JOFRE, L. Frequency and radiation pattern reconfigurability of a multi-size pixel antenna. IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation, 2012, vol. 60, no. 5, p. 2219–2225. DOI: 10.1109/TAP.2012.2189739
- INFINEON TECHNOLOGIES. BAR50 Silicon PIN Diode (datasheet). 16 pages. [Online] Cited 2011-07-18. Available at: http://www.alldatasheet.com/datasheetpdf/pdf/78976/INFINEON/ BAR5002.html
- PAN, G., LI, Y., ZHANG, Z., FENG, Z. A compact wideband slotloop hybrid antenna with a monopole feed. IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation, 2014, vol. 62, no. 7, p. 3864–3868. DOI: 10.1109/TAP.2014.2320535

Keywords: Loop antenna, reconfigurable, RF PIN switch, pattern diversity, polarization agile, monopole-fed

**P. Hubka, J. Lacik**
[references] [full-text]
[DOI: 10.13164/re.2016.0687]
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X-Band Circularly Polarized HMSIW U-Slot Antenna

In this paper, a circularly polarized U-slot half-mode substrate integrated waveguide (HMSIW) antenna is proposed. It is based on a combination of U-shaped slot etched in the HMSIW top wall and a shorting via placed between the area bounded by the slot and the HMSIW bottom wall. The antenna is designed for the operating frequency of 10 GHz, parametrically studied, fabricated and experimentally verified. Experimental results proves that the fabricated prototype radiates a left handed circularly polarized (LHCP) electromagnetic wave and it achieves the impedance bandwidth of 11.9 % for the reflection coefficient less than -10 dB, the axial ratio (AR) bandwidth 2.2 % for AR less than 3 dB, and the LHCP peak gain of 6 dBi. The proposed antenna combines attractive features like low profile, low weight and low cost fabrication process.

- LUO, G. Q., SUN, L. L., DONG, L. X. Single probe fed cavity backed circularly polarized antenna. Microwave and Optical Technology Letters, 2008, vol. 50, no. 11 , p. 2996–2998. DOI: 10.1002/mop.23848
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- LUO, G. Q., SUN, L. L. A reconfigurable cavity backed antenna for circular polarization diversity. Microwave and Optical Technology Letters, 2009, vol. 51, no. 6, p. 1491–1493. DOI: 10.1002/mop.24393
- KIM, D., LEE, J. W., CHO, C. S., et al. X-band circular ring-slot antenna embedded in single-layered SIW for circular polarization. Electronics Letters, 2009, vol. 45, no. 13, p. 668–669. DOI: 10.1049/el.2009.0901
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Keywords: Slot antenna, HMSIW, circular polarization

**C. Mahatthanajatuphat, N. Srisoontorn, T. Suangun, P. Akkaraekthalin**
[references] [full-text]
[DOI: 10.13164/re.2016.0693]
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A Wideband Slot Antenna with Folded Parasitic Line for Multiple Band Operation

The rectangular slot antenna with rectangular stub for a wide impedance bandwidth is proposed. In addition, the interference frequency band has been rejected by placing the folded parasitic line surrounding the rectangular stub of the presented antenna. The bidirectional radiation patterns are obtained at all operating frequencies. Also, the average gain of the presented antenna is approximately 3 dBi. The antenna properties such as return losses, radiation patterns and gains are evaluated via numerical simulation and measurement. The presented antenna can support the multiple band operation at frequency bands of 824 – 960 MHz and 1710 – 2485 MHz.

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Keywords: Wideband, Slot antenna, Parasitic line, Notched frequency

**K.D. Xu, X.S. Li, Y.J. Guo, Q.H. Liu**
[references] [full-text]
[DOI: 10.13164/re.2016.0700]
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Simple Memristive SPICE Macro-Models and Reconfigurability in Filter and Antenna

Simple current- and voltage-controlled memristive circuit macro-models using SPICE are proposed to capture the nonlinear hysteresis loop behaviors in this paper. Different current-voltage characteristics are investigated by applying sinusoidal-wave, triangular-wave and square-wave source, respectively. Furthermore, using finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) emulator incorporated with a SPICE circuit solver, the current- or voltage-controlled memristive SPICE model is embedded into a planar microwave bandstop filter (BSF) and an ultra-wideband (UWB) monopole antenna, which connects two ends of the half-wavelength open-loop resonator and two sides of the U-slot in the radiating patch, respectively. The reconfigurability of the BSF and antenna notched band can be achieved by switching the states of the memristor.

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Keywords: Bandstop filter, memristor, SPICE model, UWB antenna

**Si-Jia Li, Li-Ming Xu, Xiang-Yu Cao, Jiang-Feng Han, Zhao Zhang, Xiao Liu, Kui-Sheng Feng, Chen Zhang**
[references] [full-text]
[DOI: 10.13164/re.2016.0707]
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Scattering Fields Control by Metamaterial Device Based on Ultra-Broadband Polarization Converters

We proposed a novel ultra-broadband meta-material screen with controlling the electromagnetic scattering fields based on the three layers wideband polarization converter (TLW-PC). The unit cell of TLW-PC was composed of a three layers substrate loaded with double metallic split-rings structure and a metal ground plane. We observed that the polarization converter primarily performed ultra-broadband cross polarization conversion from 5.71 GHz to 14.91 GHz. Furthermore, a metamaterial screen, which contributed to the low scattering charac-teristics, had been exploited with the orthogonal array based on TLW-PC. The near scattering electronic fields are controlled due to the change of phase and amplitude for incident wave. The metamaterial screen significantly exhibited low scattering characteristics from 5.81 GHz to 15.06 GHz. To demonstrate design, a metamaterial device easily implemented by the common printed circuit board method has been fabricated and measured. Experimental results agreed well with the simulated results.

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Keywords: Ultra-broadband, radar cross section reduction, metamaterial, polarization converter

**A. Yasin, F. Rehman, U. Naeem, S. A. Khan, M. F. Shafique**
[references] [full-text]
[DOI: 10.13164/re.2016.0714]
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Top loaded TM01δ Mode Cylindrical Dielectric Resonator for Complex Permittivity Characterization of Liquids

This paper reports on a technique of using a very high quality factor cylindrical dielectric resonator operating in TM01δ mode to characterize liquids available in trace quantities. The proposed measurement technique is based on the resonant perturbation theory and the resonator is used as a sensor to determine complex permittivity of solvents at 10.5GHz. Owing to a very high unloaded quality factor of about 5000 the proposed sensor can characterize low to medium loss materials with high accuracy. Small quantities of isopropanol and ethanol have been characterized for their solution ratio when mixed with different quantities of distilled water. Low cost and versatility of the proposed structure make it a prime choice for pharmaceutical industry where high standards of purity need to be ensured.

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Keywords: Material characterization, complex permittivity, cylindrical dielectric resonator, resonant perturbation techniques

**H. H. Kha**
[references] [full-text]
[DOI: 10.13164/re.2016.0721]
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Interference Mitigation and Sum Rate Optimization for MIMO Downlink Small Cells

This paper addresses interference issues in multiuser multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) downlink heterogeneous networks in which multiple small cells are deployed in macrocell coverage. With the higher priority to access the frequency bands, the macro base station (MBS) will exploit eigenmode transmission along with water-filling based power allocation to maximize its data rate. To avoid harmful interference to macro users, we propose structures of the precoders at the small cell BSs (SBSs) as cascades of two precoding matrices. In addition, to mitigate intra-tier inference in small cells, the SBSs exploit the user scheduling schemes for their associated users. We investigate two user scheduling schemes using the minimum interference leakage and maximum signal to noise ratio criteria. The sum rate of the selected users can be further improved by power allocation. We develop an iterative algorithm using difference of convex functions (d.c.) programming to tackle the mathematical challenges of the nonconvex power allocation problem, Numerical simulation results show that the proposed strategy outperforms the conventional methods in terms of the achievable sum rate.

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Keywords: MU-MIMO interference channels, interference alignment, small cells, precoder design

**N. S. N. Anwar, M. Z. Abdullah**
[references] [full-text]
[DOI: 10.13164/re.2016.0730]
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Sidelobe Suppression Featuring the Phase Coherence Factor in 3-D Through-the-Wall Radar Imaging

Through-the-Wall Radar Imaging (TWRI) could be performed by beamforming of the signals from an array of ultrawideband (UWB) antennas. Preferably the imaging is done in 3-D so that both the position and the height of the target be revealed. This is possible with planar array antenna geometry. However, implementing this technique that fulfills Nyquist criterion leads to a large number of antennas while sparse array suffers from an increase of the sidelobe level. In this work, the Phased Coherence Factor (PCF) is applied to conventional delay and sum (DAS) beamformer to suppress the sidelobe of a sparse planar antenna array. The performance of the proposed technique is experimentally evaluated in terms of the target-to-clutter ratio (TCR), and the separation resolution. It is discovered that PCF is effective in reducing the sidelobe’s artifacts, resulting in TCR of greater than 20 dB and a separation resolution of 20 cm at 2.5 m range.

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Keywords: Through-wall, radar, sidelobe, suppression, sparse array, phase coherence factor

**L. Cao, F. Yao, H. Zhao, J. Zhang**
[references] [full-text]
[DOI: 10.13164/re.2016.0741]
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Matching Theory for Channel Allocation in Cognitive Radio Networks

For a cognitive radio network (CRN) in which a set of secondary users (SUs) competes for a limited number of channels (spectrum resources) belonging to primary users (PUs), the channel allocation is a challenge and dominates the throughput and congestion of the network. In this paper, the channel allocation problem is first formulated as the 0-1 integer programming optimization, with considering the overall utility both of primary system and secondary system. Inspired by matching theory, a many-to-one matching game is used to remodel the channel allocation problem, and the corresponding PU proposing deferred acceptance (PPDA) algorithm is also proposed to yield a stable matching. We compare the performance and computation complexity between these two solutions. Numerical results demonstrate the efficiency and obtain the communication overhead of the proposed scheme.

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Keywords: cognitive radio, channel allocation, optimization, matching theory, stable matching, computation complexity

**B. Ghosh, S. Biswas, A. Chandra, A. K. Mal**
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[DOI: 10.13164/re.2016.0749]
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Energy Efficient DF Relay Placement in α-μ Fading Channel with Cooperative and Non-Cooperative Schemes

In this paper we examine the energy efficiency of relay aided wireless sensor network (WSN) links where the two-hop transmission between source and destination is realized with an adaptive decode and forward (DF) relay. The receiver may use only the relayed signal (non-cooperative mode) or it may be combined with the signal directly available from the source (co-operative mode). In the second mode, we have considered two combining schemes, selection combining (SC) and maximum ratio combining (MRC). A generalized α-μ model is used to characterize fading and spectrally efficient M-ary quadrature amplitude modulation (MQAM) is chosen as the modulation technique. The α-μ model is quite general in nature and it encompasses other popular fading models such as Rayleigh and Nakagami-m. The result of our analysis reveals that combining does not necessarily help in reducing energy requirement and the decision of whether 'to use' or 'not to use' combining depends on the source to destination distance. Further, a comparison between MRC and SC from the energy efficiency perspective manifests that using MRC does not automatically guarantee maximum energy savings and the SC strategy is more robust against parameter variations as well as incurs lower receiver complexity. We also investigate the optimal relay location, which minimizes energy requirement, for all the above mentioned relaying strategies, and study how different system parameters affect the optimal relay placement.

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Keywords: α-μ fading channel, energy efficiency, maximum ratio combining, relay placement, selection combining

**D. Krstic, B. Jaksic, M. Gligorijevic, D. Stefanovic, M. Stefanovic**
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[DOI: 10.13164/re.2016.0757]
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Performance of Diversity System Output Signal in Mobile Cellular System in the Presence of α-μ Short Term Fading and Gamma Long Term Fading

In this paper, wireless mobile communication system with macrodiversity reception is considered. Macrodiversity system is consisting of macrodiversity selection combining (SC) receiver and three microdiversity SC receivers. Propagation channel suffers α-μ short term fading and Gamma long term fading resulting in system performance degradation. Analytical closed form expression for average level crossing rate (LCR) of macrodiversity SC receiver output signal envelope is obtained. Mathematical results are analyzed, presenting the influence of long term fading parameters and short term fading parameters on average level crossing rate. Obtained results can be used in the process of simulation and design of real-world environments mobile cellular telecommunication systems.

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Keywords: α-μ short term fading, Gamma long term fading, correlation, level crossing rate, macrodiversity, microdiversity, SC combining

**M. N. Qureshi, M. I. Tiwana**
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[DOI: 10.13164/re.2016.0763]
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A Novel Stochastic Learning Automata Based SON Interference Mitigation Framework for 5G HetNets

Long Term Evolution Advanced (LTE-A) Heterogeneous Networks (HetNet) are an important aspect of 5th generation mobile communication systems. They consists of high power macrocells along with low power cells i.e. picocells and femtocells to fill up macrocell coverage gaps. HetNet permit deployment of femtocells by users for added flexibility, but then interference issues between neighbouring cells have to be addressed as all femtocells use the same frequency channels for transmission. To mitigate this problem, LTE-A standard offers two new features, one is carrier aggregation in which Component Carriers (CC) form the basic aggregate units shared among cells and the other is enhanced Inter-Cell Interference Co-ordination (eICIC) through X2 interface. The physical implementation of these features is left open to research. This paper investigates two distinct techniques for orthogonal CC selection through Stochastic Cellular Learning Automata (SCLA) to improve the QoS performance of a femtocell. The first, technique uses SCLA with user feedback, and the second technique uses SCLA with a central publishing server where all cells upload their past used CC vectors. SCLA methods are better suited for Self Organizing Network (SON) as they do not require synchronized cell coordination, have low complexity and have good optimization characteristics. The simulation results show that the techniques enhance the cell edge performance considerably.

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Keywords: Heterogeneous networks (HetNets), LTE-A, 3GPP, stochastic cellular learning automata (SCLA), cellular automata, self-optimization network (SON), femtocell, component carrier (CC), carrier aggregation, cell publishing

**T.-T. Phu, T. H. Dang, T. D. Tran, M. Voznak**
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[DOI: 10.13164/re.2016.0774]
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Analysis of Probability of Non-zero Secrecy Capacity for Multi-hop Networks in Presence of Hardware Impairments over Nakagami-m Fading Channels

In this paper, we evaluate probability of non-zero secrecy capacity of multi-hop relay networks over Nakagami-m fading channels in presence of hardware impairments. In the considered protocol, a source attempts to transmit its data to a destination by using multi-hop randomize-and-forward (RF) strategy. The data transmitted by the source and relays are overheard by an eavesdropper. For performance evaluation, we derive exact expressions of probability of non-zero secrecy capacity (PoNSC), which are expressed by sums of infinite series of exponential functions and exponential integral functions. We then perform Monte Carlo simulations to verify the theoretical analysis.

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Keywords: Hardware impairments, probability of non-zero secrecy capacity, multi-hop networks, Nakagami-m fading channel.

**Z. Biolek, D. Biolek, V. Biolkova**
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[DOI: 10.13164/re.2016.0783]
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Utilization of Euler-Lagrange Equations in Circuits with Memory Elements

It is well known that the equation of motion of a system can be set up using the Lagrangian and the dissipation function, which describe the conservative and dissipative parts of the system. However, this procedure, consisting in a systematic differentiation of the above state functions, cannot be used for circuits containing simultaneously conventional nonlinear elements such as the resistor, capacitor, and inductor, and their nonlinear memory versions – the memristor, memcapacitor, and meminductor. The paper provides a general solution to this problem and demonstrates it on the example of modeling Josephson’s junction.

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Keywords: Resistor, capacitor, inductor, memristor, memcapacitor, meminductor, content, energy, action, Lagrangian

**R. Yao, Y. Zhu, J. Xu, F. Gao, L. Wang**
[references] [full-text]
[DOI: 10.13164/re.2016.0790]
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Improving 3D-Turbo Code's BER Performance with a BICM System over Rayleigh Fading Channel

Classical Turbo code suffers from high error floor due to its small Minimum Hamming Distance (MHD). Newly-proposed 3D-Turbo code can effectively increase the MHD and achieve a lower error floor by adding a rate-1 post encoder. In 3D-Turbo codes, part of the parity bits from the classical Turbo encoder are further encoded through the post encoder. In this paper, a novel Bit-Interleaved Coded Modulation (BICM) system is proposed by combining rotated mapping Quadrature Amplitude Modulation (QAM) and 3D-Turbo code to improve the Bit Error Rate (BER) performance of 3D-Turbo code over Raleigh fading channel. A key-bit protection scheme and a Two-Dimension (2D) iterative soft demodulating-decoding algorithm are developed for the proposed BICM system. Simulation results show that the proposed system can obtain about 0.8-1.0 dB gain at BER of 10^{-6}, compared with the existing BICM system with Gray mapping QAM.

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Keywords: 3D-Turbo code, rotated mapping, Bit-Interleaved Coded Modulation (BICM), key-bit protection, 2D iterative soft demodulating-decoding algorithm

**B. Csuka, Z. Kollar**
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[DOI: 10.13164/re.2016.0801]
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Software and Hardware Solutions for Channel Estimation based on Cyclic Golay Sequences

This paper presents channel estimation methods based on cyclic complementary Golay sequences. First, the conventional Golay correlator is investigated, then a frequency domain approach using Discrete Fourier Transform (DFT) is provided. A complex valued fast Golay correlator is introduced which can be used for the estimation of complex valued channel impulse response. Furthermore, this paper presents the Recursive DFT (R-DFT), a signal processing architecture which may be beneficial compared to the well-known Fast Fourier Transform (FFT). The R-DFT is able to efficiently calculate a point-by-point block spectra of the input signal, which makes it suitable for hardware implementation. Throughout the paper, the R-DFT is applied and it is compared to the conventional estimation methods. Finally, the efficiency of the proposed schemes is compared through simulations based on the 60 GHz WiGig and the COST 207 standard, applying various channel models.

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- LEI, M., HUANG, Y. CFR and SNR estimation based on complementary Golay sequences for single-carrier block transmission in 60-GHz WPAN. In Proceedings of the IEEE Wireless Communications and Networking Conference. Budapest (Hungary), 2009, p. 1–5. DOI: 10.1109/WCNC.2009.4917623
- CSUKA, B., KOLLAR, I., KOLLAR, Z., et al. Comparison of signal processing methods for calculating point-by-point discrete Fourier transforms. In Proceedings of the 26th International Conference Radioelektronika. Kosice (Slovakia), 2016, p. 217–221. DOI: 10.1109/RADIOELEK.2016.7477394
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Keywords: Channel estimation, Golay sequences, R-DFT

**M. H. Hachemi, M. Feham, H. E. Adardour**
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[DOI: 10.13164/re.2016.0808]
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Predicting the Probability of Spectrum Sensing with LMS Process in Heterogeneous LTE Networks

Mobile communication systems present an actuality subject in academic and industrial research activities due to several phenomena such as interferences, multipath, fading, and shadowing. All this lead to a severe perturbation on handover mechanism which depends on specific reports, essentially, reference signal received power (RSRP) and signal-to-interference and noise ratio(SINR). In this paper, we design a new technique in handover domain; it consists of combining energy detection method used in cognitive radio with least mean square (LMS) process in order to prognosticate the handover impact in a realistic scenario of heterogeneous LTE network. More exactly, technique sense of the word "triggering" will be changed to a probability of detection Pd. The proposed algorithm cycle follows two main steps; Firstly, predict at what time the absence of spectrum (primary user) will occur, using a predicted sensing probability Pˆd (t+p) . Secondly, search others spectrums in this time by calculating Pd(t) for each sensed signal and hand-off secondary user in the best spectrum. The results achieved of the simulation are evaluating, it shows that the proposed method predict the original Pd correctly with minimal errors and select the best spectrum successfully.

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Keywords: Adaptive filters, LMS process, LTE/LTE-A, energy detection, handover, spectrum sensing.

**M. Agarwal, T. K. Rawat**
[references] [full-text]
[DOI: 10.13164/re.2016.0821]
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VLSI Implementation of Fixed-Point Lattice Wave Digital Filters for Increased Sampling Rate

Low complexity and high speed are the key requirements of the digital filters. These filters can be realized using allpass filters. In this paper, design and minimum multiplier implementation of a fixed point lattice wave digital filter (WDF) based on three port parallel adaptor allpass structure is proposed. Here, the second-order allpass sections are implemented with three port parallel adaptor allpass structures. A design-level area optimization is done by converting constant multipliers into shifts and adds using canonical signed digit (CSD) techniques. The proposed implementation reduces the latency of the critical loop by reducing the number of components (adders and multipliers). Three design examples are included to analyze the effectiveness of the proposed approach. These are implemented in verilog HDL language and mapped to a standard cell library in a 0.18 μm CMOS process. The functionality of the implementations have been verified by applying number of different input vectors. Results and simulations demonstrate that the proposed design method leads to an efficient lattice WDF in terms of maximum sampling frequency. The cost to pay is small area overhead. The postlayout simulations have been done by HSPICE with CMOS transistors.

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Keywords: VLSI implementation, lattice wave digital filters, three port adaptor, canonical signed digit coefficient, fixed point arithmetic