# April 2018, Volume 27, Number 1 [DOI: 10.13164/re.2018-1]

**S. Costanzo, F. Venneri, G. Di Massa, A. Borgia, A. Raffo**
[references] [full-text]
[DOI: 10.13164/re.2018.0001]
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Bandwidth Performances of Reconfigurable Reflectarrays: State of Art and Future Challenges

Reconfigurable antennas allow to meet the increasing demands of modern RF communication systems for reconfiguration capabilities, such as beam-steering, multi-band operation, polarization flexibility or frequency agility. Active reflectarrays may represent a valuable solution to satisfy the above tasks. This paper reviews several experimental implementations of reconfigurable reflectarray designs developed in recent years. The paper describes the approaches adopted in the realization of active reflectarray designs, mainly focusing on their bandwidth performances. Future challenges in the design of wideband reconfigurable reflectarrays are also outlined.

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Keywords: Reflectarrays, reconfigurable antennas, bandwidth.

**R. Ahmad, M. Komanec, D. Suslov, S. Zvanovec**
[references] [full-text]
[DOI: 10.13164/re.2018.0010]
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Modified Octagonal Photonic Crystal Fiber for Residual Dispersion Compensation over Telecommunication Bands

A modified Octagonal Photonic Crystal Fiber (MO-PCF) is proposed and numerically investigated for the purpose of residual dispersion compensation in the optical transmission link. The results show that the proposed fiber with optimized parameters exhibits ultra-flattened negative dispersion over a 300 nm band from 1380 nm to 1680 nm with an average chromatic dispersion of -506 ps/(nm·km) and an absolute variation of 11.3 ps/(nm·km). In addition to large negative dispersion, the proposed MO-PCF also exhibits high birefringence in the order of 0.0207 at the wavelength of 1550 nm. The proposed MO-PCF can be advantageously used especially for residual chromatic dispersion compensation in the wavelength-division-multiplexing optical fiber transmission system. The proposed fiber is easy to fabricate and is tolerant to manufacturing imperfections.

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Keywords: Finite element method, negative flat dispersion, residual dispersion compensation, high birefringence, photonic crystal fiber.

**M. Sorahi-Nobar, A. Maleki-Javan**
[references] [full-text]
[DOI: 10.13164/re.2018.0016]
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Supercontinuum Generation for Ultrahigh-Resolution OCT via Selective Liquid Infiltration Approach

In this paper, we apply liquid infiltration approach for supercontinuum generation (SCG) in photonic crystal fiber (PCF) in which by selectively infiltrating three air holes of PCF, a near zero dispersion is obtained that is a key parameter for SCG. Our numerical results show that by launching a very short input optical pulse of 50 fs in normal dispersion regime with wavelength centered about 700 nm, into 50 mm PCF infiltrated by ethanol, broadband, coherent and ripple free SC as wide as 1000 nm will be achieved that covers the visible light and a part of near infrared spectra used for ultrahigh-resolution optical coherence tomography.

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Keywords: Photonic crystal fiber (PCF), optical coherence tomography (OCT), Liquid infiltration, supercontinuum generation, normal dispersion.

**S. E. Darwish, A. S. Samra, M. H. Aly**
[references] [full-text]
[DOI: 10.13164/re.2018.0022]
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ASE Noise in Raman Amplifiers: Pump Depletion Impact

This paper provides a detailed analysis for the effect of pump depletion on amplified spontaneous emission (ASE) noise power, optical signal to noise ratio (OSNR), and noise figure (NF) in forward pumped distributed Raman fiber amplifier (DRFA). The optimum pump power for high OSNR, low NF, and better gain is obtained ~ 256 mW at input signal power of 10-6 W, fiber length of 120 km, fiber loss of 0.2 dB/km, and optical filter bandwidth of 0.5 nm. The obtained results are compared with the previously published ones showing a good agreement.

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Keywords: Pump depletion, optimum pump power, DRFA, ASE, OSNR, NF

**M. Grabner, P. Pechac, P. Valtr**
[references] [full-text]
[DOI: 10.13164/re.2018.0029]
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Analysis of Propagation of Electromagnetic Waves in Atmospheric Hydrometeors on Low-Elevation Paths

Attenuation of electromagnetic waves in millimeter wave bands is analyzed by means of experimental measurement of received signal fluctuations on terrestrial radio links operating in frequency bands 58, 94 and 122 GHz. Long-term time series of the received signal are processed to obtain annual and two-year cumulative distributions of attenuation due to hydrometeors. The measured statistics give the attenuation higher than predicted by the model of the Recommendation ITU-R P.530. Rain intensity measured simultaneously with rain attenuation is used to obtain fitted parameters of an attenuation/intensity power-law relationship. The empirical data extracted from the experiment are compared with the results of numerical simulations of attenuation due to rain and hailstones.

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Keywords: electromagnetic wave propagation, rain attenuation, scattering,

**B. Tang**
[references] [full-text]
[DOI: 10.13164/re.2018.0034]
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The Correlation Characteristics of Polarization Backscattering Matrix of Dense Chaff Clouds

This paper studied the correlation characteristics of the polarization backscattering matrix of the dense chaff cloud with uniform orientation and location distributions in circular symmetry region. Based on the theoretical analysis and numerical experiments, the correlation coefficients of the four elements in the polarization backscattering matrix are obtained, and the results indicate that the cross to co-polar correlation coefficient is still zero; and that the sum of the co-polar cross-correlation coefficient and the two times of linear depolarization ratio equals one. The results are beneficial for better understanding of the backscattering characteristics of dense chaff clouds, and are useful in the application of jamming recognition in radar electronic warfare. Numerical experiments are performed by using the method of moments.

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Keywords: Dense chaff clouds, polarization characteristics, electronic warfare, radar

**R. Sanyal, P. P.Sarkar, S. K. Chowdhury**
[references] [full-text]
[DOI: 10.13164/re.2018.0039]
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Miniaturized Band-notched UWB Antenna with Improved Fidelity Factor and Pattern Stability

This article presents a novel miniaturized monopole UWB antenna with enhanced band rejection characteristics at 5.5 GHz. The proposed configuration is derived from octagonal band notched UWB antenna which consists of W-shaped slotted ground plane and an open ended λ_g/4 hook shaped resonator as a band-notched element. By using proper miniaturization of the octagonal monopole and ground plane, 50% reduction in main structure can be realized without changing the dimension of resonator. Frequency and time domain performance of the proposed miniaturized antenna design is compared with conventional half size and full size structures. The noticeable improvements in terms of band rejection characteristics, radiation pattern stability and fidelity factor confirm the effectiveness of the proposed miniaturization technique. Furthermore, the proposed antenna provides much wider operating bandwidth (VSWR < 2) within 3.1-17.2 GHz with the exception around 5-6 GHz.

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Keywords: Miniaturized antenna, ultra wideband (UWB), radiation pattern stability, fidelity factor

**S. Banerjee, B. Rana, S. K. Parui**
[references] [full-text]
[DOI: 10.13164/re.2018.0047]
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Gain Augmentation of a HMSIW based Equilateral Triangular Antenna using CRSF FSS Superstrate

In this paper, a half-mode substrate integrated waveguide (HMSIW) based equilateral triangular antenna is initially designed to operate at 6.5 GHz wireless frequency. This parent antenna is fitted with metallic vias all along two of its sides to make them perfect electrical conductor (PEC) walls while radiation taking place from the other side acts as perfect magnetic conductor (PMC) wall being devoid of such metallic vias. The antenna exhibits a gain of 5.5 dBi at the fundamental TE101 mode with linear polarization. Its gain is augmented using polarization independent coupled-resonator spatial filter (CRSF) frequency selective surface (FSS) as superstrate and is found to increase to 8.7 dBi at the same 6.5 GHz resonating frequency. The antenna prototype along with the FSS structure are both fabricated using Arlon AD270 substrate and experimental measurements are carried out. It is observed that both simulated and measured results are in close agreement with each other.

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Keywords: Antenna gain, coupled-resonator spatial filter (CRSF), frequency selective surface (FSS), half-mode SIW (HMSIW), substrate integrated waveguide (SIW)

**R. Singha, V. Damera**
[references] [full-text]
[DOI: 10.13164/re.2018.0054]
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Artificial Material Integrated Ultra-wideband Tapered Slot Antenna for Gain Enhancement with Band Notch Characteristics

The gain of the ultra-wideband tapered slot antenna (TSA) is enhanced by using broadband artificial material with band notch characteristics. The proposed artificial material unit cell is designed by fabricating non-resonant three S-shaped parallel metallic line on single side of the dielectric substrate which provides a longer current path compared to the parallel-line structure. The proposed S-shaped structure is printed on the top side of the tapered slot antenna in the extended substrate periodically. The effective refractive index of the artificial material is lower than antenna substrate and phase velocity in the region of artificial material is much higher than the other region. Therefore, the proposed artificial material acts like a beam focusing lens. The band notch at 5.5 GHz is achieved by creating a split ring resonator (SRR) slot near the balun. The basic and artificial material loaded TSAs are fabricated and the measurement results show that the gain of the basic antenna has been increased by 1.6 dBi. At the same time, the proposed antenna achieves a VSWR below 2 from 3 to 11 GHz except at 5.5 GHz with a notch band from 5.1 to 5.8 GHz for band rejection of wireless local area network (WLAN) application.

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Keywords: Tapered slot antenna, artificial material, split ring resonator, wireless local area network (WLAN)

**M. Gopikrishna, D. D. Krishna, C. K. Aanandan**
[references] [full-text]
[DOI: 10.13164/re.2018.0063]
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A Compact Rectangular Monopole Antenna Design with a Novel Feed for an Improved UWB Performance

Printed wideband antennas, if not optimised both in frequency & time domain, often fail to qualify for UWB applications. This is primarily observed in designs based on multiple resonances. The excitation of different modes causes variation in the position of the antenna phase centre and radiation patterns with frequency. In this paper, we propose a novel compact UWB antenna design with optimised resonances within the 3.1 – 10.6 GHz band. The design comprises of a rectangular CPW-fed monopole. The novelty in the design lies in the impedance transformer arrangement at the antenna feed which not only maintains constant impedance over the wide band but contributes towards maintaining uniformity in the radiation patterns over the frequency band. The proposed antenna is characterized, both in the frequency and time domain, confirming its suitability for UWB operation. The impedance bandwidth of the antenna is from 2.9-11.5GHz with an omni–directional radiation pattern over the full band, unlike most of the planar UWB antennas reported in literature whose pattern deteriorates particularly at the upper end of the band. It also exhibits appreciable polarization purity and radiation efficiency. The time domain parameters, Full Width Half Maxima (FWHM) and Ringing, are computed from the measured antenna transfer function. The computed Fidelity of the transmitted pulses indicates superior pulse handling capabilities. The antenna is suitable for commercial hand held devices as its PCB area is just 30 x 12mm2 when fabricated on the FR4 substrate with permittivity 4.4 and height 1.6mm.

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Keywords: Ultrawide-band, Monopole antenna, Antenna Transfer Function, Time domain

**Li-Ye Xiao, Wei Shao, Zhi-Xin Yao, Shanshan Gao**
[references] [full-text]
[DOI: 10.13164/re.2018.0070]
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Data Mining Techniques in Artificial Neural Network for UWB Antenna Design

With data mining techniques for the preprocessing of training patterns, an artificial neural network (ANN) model is proposed for parametric modeling of electromagnetic behavior of ultrawide band (UWB) antennas in this paper. In this ANN method, two data mining techniques, including correlation analysis and data classification based on support vector machine (SVM), are employed to determine geometrical variable inputs and classify the inputs during the training and testing processes. Compared with the traditional ANN, the proposed model with data mining can achieve the trained model with small training datasets and accurate results. The validity and efficiency of this proposed method are confirmed with two band-notched UWB antenna examples.

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Keywords: Artificial neural network (ANN), data mining, pole-residue-based transfer function (TF), support vector machine (SVM), ultrawide band (UWB) antenna

**S. Mohammadi-Asl, J. Nourinia, Ch. Ghobadi, M. Majidzadeh**
[references] [full-text]
[DOI: 10.13164/re.2018.0079]
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Targeting Wideband Circular Polarization: An Efficient 2×2 Sequentially-Phase-Fed Rotated Array Antenna

This paper outlines an efficient design of a wideband sequential-phase (SP) fed circularly polarized corner-truncated patch array antenna (CPCTPAA) with sequentially rotated (SR) array elements. The SP feed network is composed of a circular ring with an inner section of 270°. Four shorting strips are attached to the circular ring to the end of which corner-truncated patches (CTPs) are appended. Through the proposed feed structure, stable phase difference is attained at the end of the shorting strips which in turn ends in CP generation. Each array element of 2×2 CPCTPAA is a CTP printed on the top side of the FR4 substrate. On the backside, rectangular slots are removed from the ground plane to enhance the bandwidth characteristics of the proposed design. Moreover, suitable rectangular slots are embedded at the crossing points of CTPs and feed lines which instigate extra improvements in CPCTPAA performance. These amendments, all together, are deemed for achieving an efficient and cost-effective CPCTPAA design with smaller occupied implementation space. Simulation and experimental studies are conducted on a 70×70×1.6 mm3 prototype to evaluate performance of the proposed array antenna. Results are discussed in depth.

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- LEE, S. R., LIM, E. H., LO, F. L. Broadband single-layer E-patch reflect array. Radioengineering, 2017, vol. 26, no. 1, p. 97–106. DOI: 10.13164/re.2017.0097
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Keywords: Circular polarization, corner-truncated patches, rectangular shaped slots, sequential phase feed, wide Impedance bandwidth, wide CP bandwidth

**N. K. Darimireddy, R. Ramana Reddy, A. Mallikarjuna Prasad**
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[DOI: 10.13164/re.2018.0085]
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Asymmetric Triangular Semi-Elliptic Slotted Patch Antennas for Wireless Applications

Microstrip radiators with Circular Polarization (CP) are paid much attention in wireless and navigational applications. In this paper, four microstrip rectangular radiators with axially centered asymmetric Triangular-Semi Elliptic (TSE) slots along the square boundary of the patch is proposed. The probe feed is applied along the diagonal of the square patch and it is optimized for its position to get CP radiation. The first Asymmetric Slotted Patch (ASP#1) of 50 mm X 50 mm provides 10dB RL (Return Loss) bandwidth of 200 MHz (2320 to 2520 MHz) with CP and 3dB AR (Axial Ratio) bandwidth of 40 MHz with a gain of 3.3dBi. A 10dB RL bandwidth of 340MHz (2320 to 2660 MHz) with CP and 3dB AR bandwidth of 60MHz (2370 to 2430 MHz) with a gain of 3.8dBi is obtained for second Asymmetric Slotted Patch (ASP#2) of 50 mm X 50 mm. The scale down versions of ASP#2 presented are ASP#3 (40 mm X 40 mm) and ASP#4 (30 mm X 30 mm) suitable to operate in IEEE 802.11y (3.65-3.7 GHz) and 802.11a (5.2 GHz) Wi-Fi applications with CP radiation. The proposed ASP#3 offers 10dB RL bandwidth of 390 MHz, 3dB AR bandwidth of 100 MHz and a peak gain of 4.3dBi with CP. ASP# 4 offers 10dB RL bandwidth of 590 MHz, 3dB AR bandwidth of 160 MHz and a peak gain of 3.95dBi with CP. It is evident from the results the proposed ASP#1 and ASP#2 are suitable for WLAN (2.4 GHz) and ISM (2.4-2.483 GHz) band applications. All the proposed four antennas are fabricated, measured results are compared with the simulation results.

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Keywords: Microstrip radiator, asymmetric slot, symmetric slot, CP radiation, WLAN, TSE-slot

**Jae-Hyun Kim, Boo-Gyoun Kim**
[references] [full-text]
[DOI: 10.13164/re.2018.0094]
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Effect of the Aperture Ratio on the Impedance Bandwidth of an Aperture Coupled Microstrip Antenna

The effect of the aperture ratio on the impedance bandwidth of an aperture coupled microstrip antenna (ACMA) is investigated according to the coupling strength from a microstrip feed line to a patch. Since the coupling strength between a feed line and a patch of an ACMA with a high permittivity (εr = 10) feed substrate is small, the impedance bandwidth of the ACMA increases as the aperture ratio increases beyond 0.1. As the feed substrate thickness increases, the aperture ratio for the maximum impedance bandwidth increases and the ratio of the maximum impedance bandwidth to the impedance bandwidth obtained at the aperture ratio of 0.1 increases. Since the coupling strength between a feed line and a patch of an ACMA with a low permittivity (εr = 2.2) feed substrate is large, the maximum impedance bandwidth of the ACMA is approximately the same as the impedance bandwidth obtained at the aperture ratio of 0.1.

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Keywords: Aperture coupled antenna, bandwidth enhancement, aperture width, aperture length, feed substrate, MMIC

**T. Satitchantrakul, N. Chudpooti, P. Akkaraekthalin, R. Silapunt, D. Torrungrueng**
[references] [full-text]
[DOI: 10.13164/re.2018.0101]
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An Implementation of Compact Quarter-Wave-Like- Transformers Using Multi-section Transmission Lines

This paper proposes a novel miniaturization technique of quarter-wave transformers (QWTs), implemented using multi-section transmission lines (MSTLs), based on the quarter-wave-like transformer (QWLT) theory. Multi-section QWLT characteristics are derived analytically and solved via appropriate optimization algorithms for associated transmission-line parameters. For an illustration purpose, two- and three-section QWLT prototypes with 50% physical size reduction from the corresponding QWT size operating at 2.4 GHz are fabricated using microstrips and tested. It is found that these prototypes yield acceptable return loss at 2.4 GHz without significant bandwidth reduction, comparing to the QWT result.

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Keywords: Quarter-wave transformer, Quarter-wave-like transformer, multi-section transmission line

**A. Alhegazi, Z. Zakaria, N. A. Shairi, A. Salleh, S. Ahmed**
[references] [full-text]
[DOI: 10.13164/re.2018.0110]
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Compact UWB Filtering-Antenna with Controllable WLAN Band Rejection Using Defected Microstrip Structure

An ultra-wideband (UWB) filtering-antenna with controllable band notch is reported in this paper. The filtering-antenna consists of a modified monopole antenna and defected microstrip structure (DMS). The monopole antenna is modified using microstrip transition in the feedline and block with a triangular-shape slot on each side of the circular patch to produce wider impedance bandwidth with better return loss. The DMS is constructed using U-shaped slot etched on the feedline to provide band notch and remove WLAN band (5.1-5.8 GHz). A switch is employed in the DMS to control the created band notch. The measured results show that the proposed design exhibits a wide impedance bandwidth with controllable WLAN band rejection, realized peak gain of 4.85 dB and omnidirectional radiation pattern. Therefore, the proposed design is suitable for UWB applications.

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Keywords: Bandstop filter, defected microstrip structure, filtenna, monopole antenna, reconfigurable antenna, ultra-wideband (UWB)

**M. Du, J. Xu, X. Ding, J. P. Cao, J. H. Deng, Y. L. Dong**
[references] [full-text]
[DOI: 10.13164/re.2018.0118]
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35-GHz Wideband Vertical Off-Center-Fed Dipole and Its Array in LTCC Technology

A 35-GHz wideband low-temperature co-fired ceramic (LTCC) vertical off-center-fed dipole antenna and its 2×2 array are presented. The widened bandwidth of the dipole antenna is achieved by paralleling a ring-shaped stub placed above the ground with a vertical off-center-fed dipole. The fabricated dipole antenna with a dimension of 7.5×19×0.94 mm3 exhibits a measured -10-dB |S11| bandwidth of 25.4% and a measured maximum gain of 4.4 dBi at 32 GHz. Then, a 2×2 array was designed. The array with a dimension of 15×25×0.94 mm3 exhibits a measured -10-dB |S11| bandwidth of 28.6% and a maximum gain of 10.37 dBi at 31 GHz with a fluctuation of 1.8 dB over 31 to 39 GHz frequency range. The radiation performances of the dipole antenna and its array were also measured. Good agreement is obtained between the simulations and measurements.

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Keywords: Dipole antenna, wideband, antenna array, millimeter-wave (mmW), low-temperature co-fired ceramic (LTCC)

**Z. M. Loni, H. G. Espinosa, D. V. Thiel**
[references] [full-text]
[DOI: 10.13164/re.2018.0127]
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Insulated Wire Fed Floating Monopole Antenna for Coastal Monitoring

A thin, flexible, insulated wire submerged in seawater forms a coaxial cable which has attenuation at ultra-high frequency (UHF) dependent on the operating frequency, the diameter of the insulating material and the diameter of the inner conductor. An extension of the insulated wire above the surface through a spherical float forms a monopole antenna. Attenuation through the wire depends on the conductivity and temperature of seawater. This paper reports the effect of electromagnetic (EM) wave propagation at 433 MHz through insulated wires with different radii of the insulating material and inner conductor. The attenuation was calculated and measured in the range of 32-47 dB/m. The propagation from the monopole antenna to a fixed shore based receiver was measured to be approximately equal to 1 dB/m. The propagation measurements were compared with a shielded coaxial cable. Results show that the propagation range depends on the ratio of the insulation radius to conductor radius for insulated wire, however, a shielded coaxial cable showed no significant attenuation. The technique has applications in coastal wireless sensor networks where the water depth changes continually due to tide and wave motion.

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Keywords: Floating monopole antenna, ocean wave propagation, wireless sensor networks, insulated wire transmission.

**V. Ruzek, J. Drinovsky, J. Cupak**
[references] [full-text]
[DOI: 10.13164/re.2018.0134]
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Feature Selective Validation of Automotive EMC Pre-compliance Tests

The pre-compliance tests of electromagnetic immunity are at present a crucial issue for all major automotive manufacturers. In current practice, there are two basic ways to implement these tests. The first one is based on significant simplification of measurement methods and the subsequent transformation of results for relevant estimation of certification measurement results. The second is based on the application of numerical methods and the calculation of the electric field intensity distribution in the car body. The question, however, remains the degree of correlation between these methods, especially when confronting the results of certification measurement. This article provides an overview of the results obtained using both methods and offers an innovative view of the method of comparison using the FSV.

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Keywords: Feature Selective Validation, pre-compliance testing, automotive EMC, results processing

**V. Clupek, V. Zeman, P. Dzurenda**
[references] [full-text]
[DOI: 10.13164/re.2018.0143]
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Light-weight Mutual Authentication with Non-repudiation

In this paper, we focused on a problem of authentication on low-cost devices. We have proposed a new light-weight protocol for mutual authentication of communication entities with non-repudiation of realized events. The protocol is simple and suitable for implementation on low-cost devices. Non-repudiation of realized events is achieved by involving a Trusted Third Party (TTP) to the communication. The proposed protocol uses only an appropriate lightweight hash function and pre-shared secret data. Security of the proposed protocol was verified by the BAN (Burrows-Abadi-Needham) logic.

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- CHEN, Y., CHOU, J. S. ECC-based untraceable authentication for large-scale active-tag RFID systems. Electronic Commerce Research, 2015, vol. 15, no. 1, p. 97–120. DOI: 10.1007/s10660-014-9165-0
- JIN, C., XU, C., ZHANG, X., et al. A secure RFID mutual authentication protocol for healthcare environments using elliptic curve cryptography. Journal of Medical Systems, 2015, vol. 39, no. 3, p. 24. DOI: 10.1007/s10916-015-0213-7
- PORAMBAGE, P., SCHMITT, C., KUMAR, P., et al. PAuthKey: A pervasive authentication protocol and key establishment scheme for wireless sensor networks in distributed IoT applications. International Journal of Distributed Sensor Networks, 2014, vol. 10, no. 7, p. 357430. DOI: 10.1155/2014/357430
- LIU, Z., ZHANG, W., WU, C. A lightweight code-based authentication protocol for RFID systems. In Proceedings of the International Conference on Applications and Techniques in Information Security. Beijing (China), 2015, vol. 557, p. 114–128. DOI: 10.1007/978-3- 662-48683-2_11
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Keywords: Light-weight mutual authentication, hash functions, non-repudiation, Trusted Third Party, Internet of Things.

**K. Dwarika, H. Xu.**
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[DOI: 10.13164/re.2018.0151]
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Differential Full Diversity Spatial Modulation using Amplitude Phase Shift Keying

Diversity is a fundamental concept used to reduce the adverse effects of fading in wireless communications. Differential full diversity spatial modulation (DFD-SM) is a differential spatial modulation (DSM) scheme that makes use of a cyclic signaling phase shift keying (PSK) constellation to achieve transmit diversity. In this paper, firstly, we extend the work of DFD-SM to improve its throughput and/or error performance, by making use of an amplitude phase shift keying (APSK) constellation. Next, a power allocation concept(PAC) based on generalized differential modulation (GDM) is applied to DFD-SM using APSK. Finally we derive a theoretical upper bound on the average bit error probability (ABEP) for DFD-SM using APSK. It is shown through Monte Carlo simulations that the proposed DFD-SM using APSK scheme outperforms conventional DFD-SM by approximately 1 dB at the same throughput, and that the proposed power allocation scheme provides an approximate 3 dB gain over the conventional scheme.

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Keywords: Spatial Modulation (SM), differential spatial modulation (DSM), full transmit diversity, amplitude phase shift keying (APSK)

**S.A. Shaikh, A.M. Tonello**
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[DOI: 10.13164/re.2018.0159]
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DoA Estimation in EM Lens Assisted Massive Antenna System Using Subsets Based Antenna Selection and High Resolution Algorithms

In recent times, massive antenna array technology has captured significant attention among wireless communication researchers. This is a field with strong potential to increase rates of data transfer; mitigate interference and serve a large number of users simultaneously. To contribute further to this emerging technology, this paper presents an approach for the line-of-sight (LoS) based direction of arrival (DoA) estimation using the electromagnetic (EM) lens-focusing antenna concept. The EM lens focuses the received signal energy as a function of the angle of arrival (AoA) to a small subset/area of the antenna array. This is advantageous, as it helps to reduce both hardware implementation (RF chains) and the complexity of signal processing in the large number of antennas system. Furthermore, this focusing capability of the EM lens provides additional interference rejection gain which leads to estimate the DoA of user terminals precisely. Hence, in this work, subsets based antenna selection approach and subspace-based high resolution DoA estimation algorithms have been considered in combination with the EM lens assisted massive antenna system. In simulations where the DoA is estimated with the EM lens, the results are comparable with conventional methods of DoA estimation without an EM lens, despite the significantly reduced overall system complexity.

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Keywords: Massive antenna system, electromagnetic (EM) lens, DoA estimation, wireless communication, 5G networks

**V. Stopjakova, M. Rakus, M. Kovac, D. Arbet, L. Nagy, M. Sovcik, M. Potocny**
[references] [full-text]
[DOI: 10.13164/re.2018.0171]
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Ultra-Low Voltage Analog IC Design: Challenges, Methods and Examples

The paper brings an overview of main challenges and design techniques effectively applicable for ultra-low voltage analog integrated circuits in nanoscale technologies. New design challenges linked with a low value of the supply voltage and the process fluctuation in nanotechnologies, such as device models, robustness to process variation, device mismatch and others are discussed firstly. Then, design techniques and approaches to analog integrated circuits towards (ultra) low-voltage systems and applications are described. Finally, examples of basic building blocks of ultra-low voltage analog ICs designed in standard CMOS technology using such design techniques are presented. Finally, the developed circuits are compared to the state-of-the-art solutions in terms of the main parameters and features.

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Keywords: Ultra-low supply voltage, analog design, integrated circuits, ultra-low voltage design techniques, bulk-driven

**S. Cheab, P. W. Wong, S. Soeung**
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[DOI: 10.13164/re.2018.0186]
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Design of Multi-Band Filters Using Parallel Connected Topology

This paper presents the design of multi-band filters using parallel connected topology. The resonator in each branch is the dual-mode resonator which provides two resonant modes per passband for miniaturization. The coupling values of the resonator are obtained by mapping the filtering function of the dual-mode resonator to the second order Chebyshev polynomial. The control of the filter parameters, such as pass-band bandwidths and band separation, is addressed. Dual-band and triple-band filter prototypes are designed and fabricated to validate the proposed concept. The measured results show good agreement with the simulations.

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Keywords: dual-band, dual-mode, multi-band filter, parallel connected topology, stepped-impedance resonator (SIR), transmission zero (TZ), triple-band

**A. Othman, R. Barrak, M. Mabrouk**
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[DOI: 10.13164/re.2018.0193]
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A Multiband Filter for Multistandards Wireless Communications Receivers

A new topology for a multiband filter suitable for multistandard and multiband mobile terminals is proposed. This filter named MultiCrossed Open Stubs (MCOS) is based on the wideband Quarter-Wave Short Circuited Stubs (QWSCS) topology and consists of open stubs connected together with the main transmission line via a~multicross junction. This technique allows division the wide bandpass response into several subbands by means of open stub transmission zeros. Full synthesis of the MCOS filter using ABCD matrices and its application to GSM, GPS, UMTS, LTE, and Wi-Fi standards using FR4 microstrip technology are presented. Scattering (S) parameters simulations and measurements show good agreement according to standard specifications in terms of center frequencies and bandwidths. The achievable return losses for all bands are higher than 10dB, and transmission losses are between 3.9,dB and 6 dB. The proposed multiband filter topology is well suited for the implementation of reconfigurable multiband filters.

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Keywords: Microstrip technology, Multiband filters, Multistandard receivers, S-parameters, Stubs

**N. Al-Areqi, K. Y. You, C. Y. Lee, N. H. Khamis, M. N. Dimon**
[references] [full-text]
[DOI: 10.13164/re.2018.0200]
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Wideband and Compact Wilkinson Power Divider Utilizing Series Delta-Stub and Folded Stepped-Impedance Transmission Line

In this paper, a Wilkinson power divider is modified using four-series delta-stub and folded stepped-impedance transmission line (FSITL) in order to achieve a reduced circuit size of 84% and fractional bandwidth of 116%. Series delta-stubs are used instead of open shunt stubs to obtain an optimum shifting frequency and wider bandwidth. Folded stepped-impedance transmission line (FSITL) is used to achieve reduced circuit size. The proposed power divider is fabricated using RT/duroid 5880 substrate with thickness of 0.38 mm. The dimension of the power divider is 13 mm × 6.5 mm. The proposed power divider has typical power division of -3 dB and insertion loss less than -1 dB, better than -13 dB of isolation, less than -10 dB return loss and phase imbalances less than 2° from 1.5 to 3 GHz. Both simulation and measurement results show a good agreement.

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Keywords: Wilkinson power divider, wideband, compact size, series delta-stub, folded stepped-impedance, S-parameters

**M. Kumar, Sk N. Islam, G. Sen, S. K. Parui, S. Das**
[references] [full-text]
[DOI: 10.13164/re.2018.0207]
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Design of Miniaturized 10dB Wideband Branch Line Coupler Using Dual and T-Shape Transmission Lines

This paper presents a design mechanism of miniaturized wideband branch line coupler (BLC) with loose coupling of 10 dB. Dual transmission lines are used as a feed network which provides a size reduction of 32% with a fractional bandwidth (FBW) of 60% for 10±0.5 dB coupling but return loss performance is found to be poor in the operating band. For further improvement of return loss performance as well as for size reduction of the BLC, a T- shape transmission lines are used instead of series quarter wavelength transmission lines, and hence the overall size reduction of around 44% with FBW of 50.4% is achieved. The return loss and isolation performance is found to be < 15 dB in the entire operating band (2.5–4.1 GHz) with respect to design frequency 3G Hz. The proposed BLC is analyzed, fabricated and tested.

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Keywords: Branch line coupler, dual line, miniaturization, T- shape transmission line (TL), wideband

**Y. Yuan, W. Wu, W. Yuan, S. Wu, N. Yuan**
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[DOI: 10.13164/re.2018.0214]
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A Method Based on the Theory of Small Reflections to Design Arbitrary Passband Microstrip Filters

A method to design a kind of microstrip filters consisting of only opened stubs and shorted stubs is proposed in this paper. This method is based on the Theory of Small Reflections, and the equations to calculate dimensions of this type of filters is exhibited. Two filters developed by our method are simulated and fabricated. The first filter has a passband on 5~8GHz. The second one is a dual-band filter and can work on both 2.4GHz and 5.8GHz. By using our method, the designed filters only contain opened stubs and shorted stubs, therefore, it is easy to design and fabricate this type of filters. The comparison between calculated and measured reflection coefficient curves shows a satisfactory fitting degree, this manifestation verifies that the method in our paper has a good application in filter design. The position of transmission zeros about the second filter are investigated. All the results show that our method can be a good guidance in microstrip filter design.

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Keywords: Theory of Small Reflections, reflection coefficient, broadband filter, dual-band filter

**P. Montezuma, A. Ferreira, R. Dinis, M. Beko**
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[DOI: 10.13164/re.2018.0221]
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Power Amplification Efficient Transmitter Structures for Massive MIMO with SC-FDE Schemes: A Promising Combination for 5G Systems?

It is well-known that massive multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) systems have high potential for future wireless broadband systems. Requirements such as high spectral and power efficiency are also crucial in 5G. Based on a multi-amplifier structure it is possible to define a double layered structure where each amplification branch is connected to an antenna array to achieve both constellation and power directivies, assuring at same time similar performances to systems using transmitters with 2-dimensional antenna arrays. Thus, a different path can be followed to improve energy efficiency of power amplification where the usage of parallel amplification branches is combined with big arrays of antennas and multi-stream communication systems. These systems can be combined with single-carrier with frequency domain equalization (SC-FDE) schemes to improve the power efficiency in uplink due to the low envelope fluctuations.

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Keywords: massive MIMO, multi-amplifier, power efficiency, double layered structure

**J. Tan, C. G. Shi, J. J. Zhou**
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[DOI: 10.13164/re.2018.0234]
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Novel Power Control Scheme for Target Tracking in Radar Network with Passive Cooperation

Distributed radar network systems (DRNS) have been shown to provide significant performance improvement. With the recent development, radar network has become an attractive platform for target tracking. In practice, the netted radars in DRNS are supposed to maximize their transmitting power to achieve better target tracking performance, which may be in contradiction with low probability of intercept (LPI). This paper investigates the problem of adaptive resource scheduling based on time difference of arrival (TDOA) cooperation for target tracking by DRNS consisting of a dedicated radar netting station and multiple netted radars. Firstly, the standard interacting multiple model (IMM) algorithm incorporating extended Kalman filter (EKF) is improved by modifying the Markov transition probability with current measurements. Then, a novel resource scheduling strategy based on TDOA cooperation is presented, in which the LPI perfor¬mance for target tracking in DRNS is improved by optimiz¬ing the radar revisit interval and the transmitted power for a predefined target tracking accuracy. The comparison of the predictive error covariance matrix and the expected error covariance matrix is utilized to control the radar netting station under intermittent-working state with TDOA cooperation. Due to the lack of analytical closed-form expression for receiver operating characteristics (ROC), we utilize several popular information-theoretic criteria, namely, Bhattacharyya distance, Kullback-Leibler (KL) divergence, J-divergence, and mutual information (MI) as the metrics for target detection performance in target tracking process. The resulting optimization problems which are associated with different information-theoretic criteria are unified under a common framework. The non¬linear programming (NP) based genetic algorithm (GA) or else known as NPGA is employed to encounter with the highly nonconvex and nonlinear optimization problems in the framework. Numerical results demonstrate that the proposed algorithm not only has excellent target tracking accuracy, but also has better LPI performance comparing to other methods.

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Keywords: Low probability of intercept (LPI), resource scheduling, distributed radar network systems (DRNS), target tracking, time difference of arrival (TDOA)

**D. Du, X. Zeng, X. Jian, F. Yu, L. Miao**
[references] [full-text]
[DOI: 10.13164/re.2018.0249]
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Analysis of Three-Dimensional Spatial Selectivity for Rician Channel

The spatial selectivity of multipath fading determines the spatial diversity strategy to increase the performance of the communication system. This paper analyses the three-dimensional (3-D) spatial selectivity of Rician channel to strive to alleviate the current lack of analytical studies. A~3-D multipath angular power density (APD) model for Rician channel is proposed. Analytical expressions of the 3-D multipath shape factors are given based on the APD using the multipath shape factors theory. Finally, some important spatial fading statistics like the fading rate variance, level crossing rate (LCR), average fade duration (AFD), spatial correlation and coherence distance are derived, and the analysis on the impact of 3-D spatial angular directions on these spatial fading statistics is presented through simulations. The results would provide useful insight on quantifying and simplifying the analysis and design of the 3-D multiple input multiple output (MIMO) beamforming technology and smart antenna arrays.

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Keywords: three-dimensional spatial selectivity; Rician channel;multipath shape factors; angular power density

**Z. Zhou, Z. Tang, J. Wei, X. Xia**
[references] [full-text]
[DOI: 10.13164/re.2018.0256]
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General Time-Division AltBOC Modulation Technique for GNSS Signals

In this paper, a general time-division alternate binary offset carrier (GTD-AltBOC) modulation method is proposed, which is an extension of TD-AltBOC and time-multiplexed offset-carrier quadrature phase shift keying (TMOC-QPSK) with high design flexibility. In this method, binary complex subcarriers and a time-division technique with flexible time slot assignment are used to achieve constant envelope modulation of the signal components with a variable power allocation ratio (PAR). The underlying principle of GTD-AltBOC and the constraints related to the PAR are investigated. For the generation of GTD-AltBOC signals, a lookup table (LUT)-based scheme is presented; the minimum required clock rate is half or less of that for existing non-time-division methods. The receiver processing complexities are analyzed for three typical receiving modes, and the power spectral densities (PSDs), cross-correlation functions, multiplexing efficiencies and code-tracking performance are simulated; the results show that GTD-AltBOC enables a significant decrease in receiving complexity compared with existing methods while maintaining high performance in terms of multiplexing efficiency and code tracking.

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Keywords: Global navigation satellite system (GNSS), AltBOC, Modulation, Time-division, Signal design

**P. Rakesh, T. Kishore Kumar, F. Albu**
[references] [full-text]
[DOI: 10.13164/re.2018.0270]
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Novel Sparse Algorithms based on Lyapunov Stability for Adaptive System Identification

Adaptive filters are extensively used in the identification of an unknown system. Unlike several gradient-search based adaptive filtering techniques, the Lyapunov Theory-based Adaptive Filter offers improved convergence and stability. When the system is described by a sparse model, the performance of Lyapunov Adaptive (LA) filter is degraded since it fails to exploit the system sparsity. In this paper, the Zero-Attracting Lyapunov Adaptation algorithm (ZA-LA), the Reweighted Zero-Attracting Lyapunov Adaptation algorithm (RZA-LA) and an affine combination scheme of the LA and proposed ZA-LA filters are proposed. The ZA-LA algorithm is based on ℓ1-norm relaxation while the RZA-LA algorithm uses a log-sum penalty to accelerate convergence when identifying sparse systems. It is shown by simulations that the proposed algorithms can achieve better convergence than the existing LMS/LA filter for a sparse system, while the affine combination scheme is robust in identifying systems with variable sparsity.

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Keywords: Sparse system identification, Lyapunov adaptive filter (LA), ℓ1-norm, Zero-attracting LA, Reweighted ZA-LA, Affine combination, Convergence, Mean square deviation, Mean square error

**J. Oravec, J. Turan, L. Ovsenik, T. Ivaniga, D. Solus, M. Marton**
[references] [full-text]
[DOI: 10.13164/re.2018.0281]
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Asymmetric Image Encryption Approach with Plaintext-Related Diffusion

This paper deals with topic of image encryption based on chaotic maps. A solution which has advantage of robustness against chosen-plaintext attacks is proposed. Permutations of image pixels are carried out in a way that enables operations on grayscale images with arbitrary resolution. All calculations done with user key and also all diffusion processes employ the same chaotic map. This feature enables usage of look-up tables which reduce computational times. The paper includes several experiments which verify achieved results and also briefly describes advantages and drawbacks of proposed solution.

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Keywords: Arnold's cat map, confusion, diffusion, chaotic maps, image encryption, logistic map

**S. Hou, Y. Zhou, H. Liu, N. Zhu**
[references] [full-text]
[DOI: 10.13164/re.2018.0289]
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Exploiting Support Vector Machine Algorithm to Break the Secret Key

Template attacks (TA) and support vector machine (SVM) are two effective methods in side channel attacks (SCAs). Almost all studies on SVM in SCAs assume the required power traces are sufficient, which also implies the number of profiling traces belonging to each class is equivalent. Indeed, in the real attack scenario, there may not be enough power traces due to various restrictions. More specifically, the Hamming Weight of the S-Box output results in 9 binomial distributed classes, which significantly reduces the performance of SVM compared with the uniformly distributed classes. In this paper, the impact of the distribution of profiling traces on the performance of SVM is first explored in detail. And also, we conduct Synthetic Minority Oversampling TEchnique (SMOTE) to solve the problem caused by the binomial distributed classes. By using SMOTE, the success rate of SVM is improved in the testing phase, and SVM requires fewer power traces to recover the key. Besides, TA is selected as a comparison. In contrast to what is perceived as common knowledge in unrestricted scenarios, our results indicate that SVM with proper parameters can significantly outperform TA.

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Keywords: Power analysis, support vector machine, synthetic minority oversampling technique, Hamming Weight class

**S. Kozlowski**
[references] [full-text]
[DOI: 10.13164/re.2018.0299]
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A Carrier Synchronization Algorithm for SDR-based Communication with LEO Satellites

In this work a carrier synchronization algorithm for communication with low Earth orbit (LEO) satellites was proposed. The algorithm has a form of a software routine and is intended to be run on a typical personal computer (PC) providing computational resources for a software defined radio (SDR) receiver. Due to limited computational power of PCs in comparison with other devices, such as FPGAs, the work was focused on providing carrier synchronization with minimal processing. The algorithm includes a nonlinear operation for recovering carrier wave from the received signal, a software 2nd order type 2 phase locked loop for tracking the recovered carrier, and a correction block for removing frequency shift from the received signal. Computer simulations were performed to investigate algorithm’s behavior. Additionally, execution time was measured to determine maximal symbol rate of a signal to be processed.

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Keywords: Software defined radio, satellite communication, frequency synchronization, phase locked loop

**W. AbuShehab, S. Althunibat, G. AlSukkar**
[references] [full-text]
[DOI: 10.13164/re.2018.0307]
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A Practical Method for Performance Estimation for Collaborative Sensing in Cognitive Radio Networks

This paper presents a novel practical method for evaluating the local sensing performance of the participating users in collaborative spectrum sensing in cognitive radio networks. The proposed method considers data delivery as a base to evaluate the local sensing performance of each user. Moreover, the proposed method does not rely on any prior information about users. The estimated local sensing performance of all users is used further to evaluate the global performance of the whole network. Mathematical analysis and simulation results demonstrate the high accuracy of the proposed method.

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Keywords: Cognitive Radio; Cognitive Radio Networks; Collaborative Spectrum Sensing; Performance Estimation.

**P.Kavitha, S.Shanmugavel**
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[DOI: 10.13164/re.2018.0313]
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Analytical Evaluation of Chunk-Based Tractable Multi-cell OFDMA system

This paper evaluates thoroughly the performance of multi-cell OFDMA system. The two types of deployment in multi-cell OFDMA system, such as Strict Fractional Frequency Reuse (FFR) and Soft FFR (SFR) were evaluated. In order to model the base station locations, homogeneous Poisson point processes were used, i.e. tractable model instead of hexagonal grid was considered. In order to reduce complexity, chunk-based resource allocation scheme was embedded. Each cell divides the users into the users of the central cell area and the users of the cell edge area according to their average received Signal to Interference and Noise Ratio (SINR) compared with FFR threshold. The primary stage of the analysis includes the spectral efficiency’s expression deriving from these two deployment scenarios, followed by the analysis with the use of coverage probability. However, the improvement of spectral efficiency is achieved in the case of SFR. On the contrary, coverage probability is far improved by using strict FFR scheme. Through numerical anaysis, We have shown that the optimal FFR threshold to achieve the highest spectral efficiency was 12 dB for both Strict FFR as well as SFR.

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Keywords: Chunk,Spectral Efficiency, Coverage Probability,Multi-Cell OFDMA, Resource Allocation, Frequency Reuse, Poisson Model.

**N.Zhao, X.F.Chi, L.L.Zhao, Y.H.Zhu**
[references] [full-text]
[DOI: 10.13164/re.2018.0326]
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A Spectrum Efficient Self-Admission Framework for Coexisting IEEE 802.15.4 Networks under Heterogeneous Traffics

Due to the limited bandwidth resource and the interference among networks, it is challengeable to coordinate the bandwidth resource of multiple IEEE 802.15.4-based wireless personal area networks (WPANs) with heterogeneous traffics, especially in a distributed mode. In this paper, to handle this problem, we first propose a renewal carrier sense multiple access (CSMA)-based self-admission access mechanism for coexisting WPANs in order to maximize the frequency resource utilization and satisfy the diverse rate requirements of heterogeneous traffics. Secondly, we propose the time-space-hard core point process (TS-HCPP) to abstract the renewal CSMA-based self-admission access process for the IEEE 802.15.4 network with multi-channels. TS-HCPP considers the correlation of time and space, and appropriately judges the strong interference between coexisting WPANs, which can solve the density underestimation problems of traditional HCPP. Finally, relying on the TS-HCPP, we obtain the optimum combination of access parameters, which meets the minimum service rate requirements for heterogeneous traffics and maximizes the frequency resource utilization. The simulation results show that the density of coexisting WPANs evaluated by the TS-HCPP matches the experimental results, and an improvement in spectral efficiency of coexisting WPANs can be achieved in our proposed self-admission framework.

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Keywords: Coexisting IEEE 802.15.4 network, time-space-hard core point process (TS-HCPP), spectral efficiency, renewal carrier sense multiple access (CSMA)-based self-admission process

**Qiang DU, Yaoliang SONG, Zeeshan AHMAD**
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[DOI: 10.13164/re.2018.0335]
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Fractional Delayer Utilizing Hermite Interpolation with Caratheodory Representation

Fractional delay is indispensable for many sorts of circuits and signal processing applications. Fractional delay filter (FDF) utilizing Hermite interpolation with an analog differentiator is a straightforward way to delay discrete signals. This method has a low time-domain error, but a complicated sampling module than the Shannon sampling scheme. A simplified scheme, which is based on Shannon sampling and utilizing Hermite interpolation with a digital differentiator, will lead a much higher time-domain error when the signal frequency approaches the Nyquist rate. In this letter, we propose a novel fractional delayer utilizing Hermite interpolation with Caratheodory representation. The samples of differential signal are obtained by Caratheodory representation from the samples of the original signal only. So, only one sampler is needed and the sampling module is simple. Simulation results for four types of signals demonstrate that the proposed method has significantly higher interpolation accuracy than Hermite interpolation with digital differentiator.

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Keywords: Delayer, fractional delay, Hermite interpolation, Caratheodory representation

**K. Ulovec, M. Smutny**
[references] [full-text]
[DOI: 10.13164/re.2018.0342]
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Perceived Audio Quality Analysis in Digital Audio Broadcasting Plus System Based on PEAQ

Broadcasters need to decide on bitrates of the services in the multiplex transmitted via Digital Audio Broadcasting Plus system. The bitrate should be set as low as possible for maximal number of services, but with high quality, not lower than in conventional analog systems. In this paper, the objective method Perceptual Evaluation of Audio Quality is used to analyze the perceived audio quality for appropriate codecs --- MP2 and AAC offering three profiles. The main aim is to determine dependencies on the type of signal --- music and speech, the number of channels --- stereo and mono, and the bitrate. Results indicate that only MP2 codec and AAC Low Complexity profile reach imperceptible quality loss. The MP2 codec needs higher bitrate than AAC Low Complexity profile for the same quality. For the both versions of AAC High-Efficiency profiles, the limit bitrates are determined above which less complex profiles outperform the more complex ones and higher bitrates above these limits are not worth using. It is shown that stereo music has worse quality than stereo speech generally, whereas for mono, the dependencies vary upon the codec/profile. Furthermore, numbers of services satisfying various quality criteria are presented.

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Keywords: Objective audio quality assessment, Digital Audio Broadcasting Plus (DAB+), Perceptual Evaluation of Audio Quality (PEAQ), MP2, AAC codec family, number of services