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Radioengineering

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Proceedings of Czech and Slovak Technical Universities

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September 2024, Volume 33, Number 3 [DOI: 10.13164/re.2024-3]

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A. Atanaskovic, A. Djoric, N. Males Ilic, B. P. Stosic, D. Budimir [references] [full-text] [DOI: 10.13164/re.2024.0339] [Download Citations]
Linearization of the Fifth Generation Power Amplifiers by Injection of the Second Order Digitally Processed Signals

This paper conducts a validation of two linearization approaches that utilize baseband nonlinear linearization signals of the 2nd order, through practical experiments on an asymmetrical two-way microstrip Doherty amplifier (ADA), and simulations on a symmetrical two-way Doherty amplifier (DA) as well as the single stage power amplifier (PA) for the post-OFDM 5G modulation formats. In the first approach, linearization signals are led at the input and output of the carrier transistor in the DA, while in the second approach, they are injected at the outputs of both the carrier and peaking amplifiers. The DA was tested in simulation for the FBMC signal of 20 MHz bandwidth, while the experimental measurements were performed for the FBMC signal on the ADA for different useful signal frequency bandwidths, 5 MHz, 7.5 MHz, and 10 MHz. The maximal improvement of DA linearity obtained in simulation is 10 dB for lower power and 5 dB for maximum amplifier output power, while the second approach gives around 2 dB better results for higher power levels. The experimental test for ADA performed for considered signal bandwidths indicates 3 dB to 5 dB linearity improvement for the implemented approaches and more symmetrical results achieved by the second approach. Additionally, the simulation tests for the PA were carried out for the FBMC, UFMC, and FOFDM signals of 100 MHz bandwidth, with the application of the first linearization approach. The minimal achieved linearization improvement is 13 dB for the FOFDM signal and a maximal of 18 dB for the FBMC signal.

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Keywords: The post-OFDM 5G modulations, broadband power amplifier, Doherty amplifier, baseband signal, second harmonic, linearization

S. Kittiwittayapong, D. Torrungrueng, K. Phaebua, K. Sukpreecha, T. Lertwiriyaprapa, P. Janpugdee [references] [full-text] [DOI: 10.13164/re.2024.0349] [Download Citations]
Miniaturization of Power Dividers by Using Asymmetric CMRC Structures and QWLTs with Low-Cost Materials

This paper presents the miniaturization of power dividers using asymmetric compact-microstrip-resonant-cell (CMRC) structures employing low-cost materials based on a quarter-wave-like transformer (QWLT). The proposed CMRC-based QWLT power divider is intended for operation at a frequency of 2.4 GHz, utilizing the FR-4 print circuit board (PCB) with a dielectric constant of 4.3 and a substrate thickness of 1.6 mm. The CMRC dimensions include a width of 5.32 mm and a length of 8.52 mm. It is found that a significant 50% size reduction of length is achieved compared to a conventional power divider, while maintaining an insertion loss (IL) of 3.3 dB, as well as achieving the return loss and isolation loss of 20 dB.

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Keywords: Power divider, quarter-wave transformer (QWT), quarter-wave-like transformer (QWLT), compact microstrip resonant cell (CMRC)

Z. Wang, D. Zhang, M. Gao, H. Liu, S. Fang [references] [full-text] [DOI: 10.13164/re.2024.0358] [Download Citations]
Microstrip Circularly-Polarized Leaky-Wave Antenna with Wide Axial Ratio Bandwidth for X-Band Application

A microstrip circularly polarized (CP) leaky-wave antenna (LWA) operating in the X-band, and having the characteristics of a broad axis-ratio bandwidth is proposed. The proposed LWA is made up of 13 unit cells in series through microstrip feeding lines. Elliptical and rectangular slots are etched in each unit cell to achieve the radiation of CP waves. The open stopband at the broadside frequency can be suppressed by shifting the feeding line position and etching two circular notches on both sides of each radiation patch. To validate the proposed method, a prototype antenna operating in the X-band is manufactured and measured. The measured result demonstrates that the −10-dB impedance bandwidth of the microstrip CP LWA is 42.2% (7.96-12.22 GHz); the 3-dB axial ratio bandwidth is 26.4% (9.2-12.2 GHz); the gain of the antenna is 16.0 dBic. Besides, the main beam maintains good CP radiation properties while it continues to scan from −22° to +18°.

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Keywords: Leaky-wave antenna, circular polarization, open stopband, axial ratio bandwidth

Z. Wang, Q. Wang, X. Dang [references] [full-text] [DOI: 10.13164/re.2024.0368] [Download Citations]
Altitude Range and Throughput Analysis for Directional UAV-assisted Backscatter Communications Networks

In the realm of Internet of Things (IoT) networks, Backscatter communication (BackCom) is a promising technique that allows devices to send data through the reflecting surrounding radio frequency (RF) signals. Integrating unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) with BackCom technology to establish UAV-assisted BackCom networks presents an opportunity to provide self-generated RF signals for backscatter devices, establishing self-sustaining data collection systems. This paper investigates directional UAV-assisted BackCom networks where UAVs are equipped with directional antennas, which differs from previous studies that mainly consider omni-directional antennas. To ensure the quality of BackCom, we develop a theoretical model that analyzes the valid altitude range of UAVs, which is often ignored in previous studies. Based on the altitude range of UAVs, we then derive the throughput of directional UAV-assisted BackCom networks. Extensive simulations are conducted to verify our theoretical model, revealing correlations between the UAV altitude range, the throughput, directional antennas, and other key parameters. Results indicate that UAVs need to set the proper UAV altitude according to multiple parameters to ensure successful communication. In addition, adjusting the beamwidth of directional antennas can enhance both the altitude range of UAVs and the throughput of networks.

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  3. JIANG, X., SHENG, M., ZHAO, N., et al. Outage analysis of UAV aided networks with underlaid ambient backscatter communications. IEEE Transactions on Wireless Communications, 2023, vol. 22, no. 11, p. 7492–7505. DOI: 10.1109/TWC.2023.3251979
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  5. YANG, H., YE, Y., CHU, X., et al. Energy efficiency maximization for UAV-enabled hybrid backscatter-harvest-then-transmit communications. IEEE Transactions on Wireless Communications, 2022, vol. 21, no. 5, p. 2876–2891. DOI: 10.1109/TWC.2021.3116509
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Keywords: Backscatter communications, UAV-assisted networks, directional antennas, altitude range, throughput

Y. Feng, J. Nie, G. Xie, H. Lv [references] [full-text] [DOI: 10.13164/re.2024.0376] [Download Citations]
Soil Moisture Content Inversion by Coupling AEA and ARMA

This study aimed to explore the inversion method of soil moisture content by using numerical simulation and field detection. The researchers used the early signal amplitude envelope (AEA) method to directly invert soil moisture in the shallow part of the soil, which avoided the transmission error of the Topp formula. The Auto-Regressive Moving Average Model (ARMA) was used to calculate the power spectrum of radar signals, and the BP neural network was used to train the power spectrum of different Gaussian windows, so as to improve the inversion accuracy. According to the study, the average error of soil moisture content inverted by AEA method was 0.45% in the range of 0-0.41m, while the error of ARMA method in depth range of 0.1-1.0m was less than 1%. The results showed that the combination of the two methods can effectively invert the soil moisture content within the radar detection range.

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Keywords: Ground penetrating radar, AEA, ARMA, soil moisture content, BP neural network

Y. Wang, H. Tian, M. Liu [references] [full-text] [DOI: 10.13164/re.2024.0387] [Download Citations]
EFU Net: Edge Information Fused 3D Unet for Brain Tumor Segmentation

Brain tumors refer to abnormal cell proliferation formed in brain tissue, which can cause neurological dysfunction and cognitive impairment, posing a serious threat to human health. Therefore, it becomes a very challenging work to full-automaticly segment brain tumors using computers because of the mutual infiltration and fuzzy boundary between the focus areas and the normal brain tissue. To address the above issues, a segmentation method which integrates edge features is proposed in this paper. The overall segmentation architecture follows the encoder decoder structure, extracting rich features from the encoder. The first two layers of features are input to the edge attention module, and to extract tumor edge features which are fully fused with the features of the decoder segment. At the same time, an adaptive weighted mixed loss function is introduced to train the network by adaptively adjusting the weights of different loss parts in the training process. Relevant experiments were carried out using the public brain tumor data set. The Dice mean values of the proposed segmentation model in the whole tumor area (WT), the core tumor area (TC), and the enhancing tumor area (ET) reach 91.10%, 87.16%, and 88.86%, respectively, and the mean values of Hausdorff distance are 3.92, 5.12, and 1.92 mm, respectively. The experimental results showed that the proposed method can significantly improve segmentation accuracy, especially the segmentation effect of the edge part.

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Keywords: Deep learning, brain tumor segmentation, encoder decoder structure, edge attention mechanism, hybrid loss function