# April 2002, Volume 11, Number 1

**H. Ymeri, B. Nauwelaers, K. Maex, S. Vandenberghe, D. de, Roest, M. Stucchi**
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Analysis of Coplanar On-Chip Interconnects on Lossy Semiconducting
Substrates

In this paper, a method for analysis and modeling of coplanar transmission interconnect lines that are placed on top of silicon-silicon oxide substrates is presented. The potential function is expressed by series expansions in terms of solutions of the Laplace equation for each homogeneous region of layered structure. The expansion coefficients of different series are related to each other and to potentials applied to the conductors via boundary conditions. In the plane of conductors, boundary conditions are satisfied at Nd discrete points with Nd being equal to the number of terms in the series expansions. The resulting system of inhomogeneous linear equations is solved by matrix inversion. No iterations are required. A discussion of the calculated line admittance parameters as functions of width of conductors, thickness of the layers, and frequency is given. The interconnect capacitance and conductance per unit length results are given and compared with those obtained using full wave solutions, and good agreement have been obtained in all the cases treated.

- EO, Y., EISENSTADT, W. R. High-speed VLSI interconnect modelling based on S-parameters measurements. IEEE Trans. Comp. Hybrids, Manuf. Technol. 1993, vol. 16, no. 8, p. 555 - 562.
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- WARNS, C., MENZEL, W., SCHUMACHER, H. Transmission lines and passive elements for multilayer coplanar circuits on silicon. IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 1998, vol. MTT-46, no. 5, p. 616 - 622.
- ZAAGE, S., GROTELUSCHEN, E. Characterization of the broadband transmission behaviour of interconnects on silicon substrates. IEEE Trans. Comp. Hybrids, Manuf. Technol. 1993, vol. 16, no. 11, p. 686 - 691.
- GROTELUSCHEN, E., DUTTA, L. S., ZAAGE, S. Quasi-analytical analysis of the broadband properties of multiconductor transmission lines on semiconducting substrates. IEEE Trans. Comp. Pack. Manuf. Technol., Part B. 1994, vol. 17, no. 8, p. 376 - 382.
- SORRENTINO, R., LEUZZI, G., SILBERMAN, A. Characte-ristics of metal-insulator-semiconductor coplanar waveguides for monolithic microwave circuits. IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 1984, vol. MTT-32, no. 4, p. 410 - 416.
- MU, T. C., OGAWA, H., ITOH, T. Characteristics of multicon-ductor, asymmetric, slow-wave microstrip transmission lines. IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 1986, vol. MTT-34, no. 12, p. 1471 - 1477.
- SHIBATA, T., SANO, E. Characterization of MIS structure co-planar transmission lines investigation of signal propagation in integrated circuits. 1990, IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech., vol. MTT-38, no. 7, p. 881 - 890.
- AUBOURG, M., VILLOTTE, J. P., GODON, F., GARAULT, Y. Finite element analysis of lossy waveguides-application of microstrip lines on semiconductor substrate. IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 1983, vol. MTT-31, no. 4, p. 326 - 331.
- KWON, Y. R., HIETALA, V. M., CHAMPLIN, K. S. Champlin Quasi-TEM analysis of 'slow-wave' mode propagation on co-planar microstructure MIS transmission lines. IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 1987, vol. MTT-35, no. 6, p. 545 - 551.
- ZHENG, J., HAHM, Y.-C., TRIPATHI, V. K., WEISSHAAR, A. CAD-oriented equivalent-circuit modeling of on-chip interconnects on lossy silicon substrate. IEEE Trans. Microwave The-ory Tech. 2000, vol. MTT-48, no. 9, p. 1443 - 1451.
- YMERI, H., NAUWELAERS, B., MAEX, K. Fast and accurate analysis of the multiconductor interconnects. in Proc. of the European Workshop Materials for Advanced Metallization (MAM 2000), p. 142-143, 2000.
- YMERI, H., NAUWELAERS, B., MAEX, K., DE ROEST, D. Simple and accurate analysis of interconnects in high speed integrated circuits. Microelectronic Engineering. 2001, vol. 55, p. 37 - 42.
- YMERI, H., NAUWELAERS, B., MAEX, K. Computation of capacitance matrix for integrated circuit interconnnects using semi-analytical Green's function method. INEGRATION, the VLSI journal. 2000, vol. 30, p. 55 - 63.
- JONES, D. S. Methods in Electromagnetic Wave Propagation. Oxford: Clarendon, 1979.
- DAVIS, H. Fourier Analysis and Orthogonal Functions. New York: Dover Publications, Inc., 1963.

**Z. Tobes, Z. Raida**
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Improvements of Analog Neural Networks Based on Kalman Filter

In the paper, original improvements of recurrent analog neural networks, which are based on Kalman filter, are presented. These improvements eliminate some disadvantages of the classical Kalman neural network and enable a real time processing of quickly changing signals, which appear in adaptive antennas and similar applications. This goal is reached using such circuit elements, which increase the convergence rate of the network and decrease the dependence of convergence rate on the ratio of eigenvalues of the correlation matrix of input signals.

- RAIDA, Z Improvement of Convergence Properties of Wang's Neural Network. Electronics Letters. 1994, vol. 30, no. 22, p. 1864 - 1866.
- RAIDA, Z. Stability of digital adaptive antennas. Ph.D. thesis. Brno: Brno UT, 1994 (in Czech).
- KLEMES, M. A Practical Method of Obtaining Constant Convergence Rates in LMS Adaptive Arrays. IEEE Trans. on Antennas and Propagation. 1986, vol. 34, no. 3, p. 440 - 446.
- TOBES, Z., RAIDA, Z. Stability Problems of Wang's Neural Networks. In Proc. of the Conference Radioelektronika '96. Brno: Brno UT. 1996, p. 366 - 369.
- BARTSCH, H.J. Mathematical formulas. Praha: SNTL Praha, 1987 (in Czech).
- WANG,J. Electronic Realisation of Recurrent Neural Network for Solving Simultaneous Linear Equations. Electronics Letters. 1992, vol. 28, no. 5, p. 493 - 495.

**J. Mitrych**
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The LFSR and BCA VHDL Models for Built-in Self-test Circuits

The various test structures are proposed for BIST techniques [1], [2]. A typical structure used for generation of pseudo-random test sets is the linear feedback shift register (LFSR). The BIST techniques have wide application in testing whole devices and embedded components. We focus on the analysis of the state coverage, fault coverage, and optimal structure of BIST schemes.

- AGRAVAL, V. D., KIME, C. R., SALUJA, K. S. A Tutorial on Built-in Self-test, Part 1: Principles. IEEE Design & Test of Computers. 1993, vol. 10, no. 3, p. 73 - 82.
- HLAVICKA, J., NOVAK, O. Built-in Self-Test Equipment. In Proceedings of the conference DDECS '97. Beskydy Mountains (Czech Republic), 1997, p. 22 - 31.
- CIGANEK, P., DRABEK, V. Synthesis and Modelling of Binary Cellular Automata. In Proceedings of the conference DDECS '97. Beskydy Mountains (Czech Republic), 1997, pp. 79-85.
- VLCEK, K., MIKLIK, D. The VHDL Model of DEC-TED Memory Checker. In Proceedings of 9th European Workshop on De-pend. Comp. Gdansk (Poland), 1998, p. 54 - 58.
- SOSNOWSKI, J., PAWLOWSKI, M. Universal and Application Dependent Testing of FPGAs. In Proceedings of EDCC-2 Workshop on Dependable Comp. Gliwice (Poland), 1996, p. 111 - 120.
- VLCEK, K. Compression and Error-Control Coding in Multimedia Communication. Praha: BEN technicka literatura, 2000.

**J. Kovalsky, K. Vlcek, J. Mitrych**
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VHDL Models with Usage of the LFSR_PCKG Package

LFSRs (Linear Feedback Shift Registers) are very often used in the BIST (Built-In Self-Test) methodology. Implementation of the LFSRs to the design or application of digital system, which supports BIST techniques or which only uses these LFSRs, can be done by VHDL language. This paper presents VHDL models of the devices and subroutines (e.g. test pattern generators, signature analysers). Models are based on LFSR structures with usage of the LFSR_PCKG package described in the (Kovalsky and Vlcek, 2001), which can be used in the applications supporting BIST techniques. Devices are described as behavioural and structural models. These models and descriptions can be used e.g. in the (Kovalsky, 2001). The LFSR_PCKG was modified and new approach is presented. Naturally, there are presented some synthesis conclusions of the VHDL models and applications in this paper.

- ABRAMOVICI, M., BREUER, M. A., FRIEDMAN, A. D. Digital System Testing and Testable Design. Piscataway: IEEE Press, 1995. ISBN 0-7803-1062-4
- COHEN, B. VHDL Coding Styles and Methodologies: an In-Depth Tutorial. Boston/Dordrecht/London: Kluwer Academic Publishers, 1995. ISBN 0-7923-9598-0
- HLAWICZKA, A. Latwo testowalne uklady i pakiety cyfrowe. Warszawa (Poland): Wydawnictwa Naukowo-Techniczne, 1993. Pages 105 - 121. ISBN 83-204-1518-7
- KOVALSKY, J. Vestavene diagnosticke prostredky pro FPGA. (BIST for FPGA). Sdelovaci technika. 2000, vol. 48, no. 9, p. 27 - 29. ISSN 0036-9942
- KOVALSKY, J. VHDL Model of BIST Controller. In Proceed-ings of the International Conference RADIOELEKTRONIKA 2001. Brno (Czech Republic): Brno University of Technology, 2001, p. 366 - 369. ISBN 80-214-1861-3
- KOVALSKY, J., VLCEK, K. Efficient VHDL Descriptions of the LFSRs Defined by Text String Polynomial. In Proceedings of IWCIT' 01. Ostrava (Czech Republic): Technical University of Ostrava, 2001, p. 39 - 44. ISBN 80-7078-907-7
- NOVAK, O. Pseudo-exhaustive Test Set Generators for FPGAs. In Proceedings of the International Conference on Programmable Devices and Systems PDS '96. Ostrava (Czech Republic): Technical University of Ostrava, 1996, p. 55 - 61. ISBN 80-85988-12-7
- VLCEK, K., MUSIL, V. The n-Bit Generic Model of LFSR. In Proceedings of the Conference EDS '01. Brno: Brno University of Technology, 2001, p. 165 - 176. ISBN 80-214-1960-1

**V. Ricny**
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Digital Realization of the Test Signal Generator Sin^2 20T

The paper deals with the digital implementation of the generator of test signal sin^2 20T. This function has a limited spectrum in the luminance and chrominance areas of the color composite signal. The signal is frequently used for measurements of the transmission channels in color television technology. The paper arises from the contribution [1].

- RICNY, V. Digital Realization of the sin22T Generator. In: Proceeding of the 11th International Scientific Conference RADIOELEKTRONIKA 2001. Brno: FEI VUT, 2001
- JANECKA, V. Generator of signals sin2T and sin22T. Diploma thesis. Brno: FEI VUT, 1999
- SVATOS, J. Electronics of TV devices. Praha: FEL CVUT, 94.

**J. Polec, J. Pavlovicova, T. Karlubikova**
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Application of Shape-Independent Orthogonal Transforms for Image
Interpolation

In the contribution we develop a new method for object-oriented interpolation of images. It is an important tool in image processing, since using interpolation we can considerably decrease amount of data, necessary for image reconstruction. Application of this interpolation enables to down-sample the object separately. The selected object can be processed at the different sampling level. This approach allows object oriented zoom, for example. Moreover, object - oriented approach is a very novel idea that helps to understand the content of image. Method is created from cosine approximation implemented to coding with shape - independent basis functions.

- ORAVEC, M., POLEC, J., Discrete Orthogonal Transforms and Neural Networks for Image Interpolation. Radioengi-neering. 1999, vol. 8, no. 3, p. 26-29.
- KAUP, A., AACH, T., Coding of Segmented Images Using Shape-Independent Basis Functions. IEEE Trans. on Image Processing, 1998. vol. 7, no. 7, p. 937-947.
- HUANG,L.K., WANG,M.J.J., Image thresholding by minimizing the measures of fuzziness. Pattern Recognition. vol. 28, no. 1, p. 41-51.
- ORAVEC, M., Neural networks for feature extraction, com-pression and image recognition. Habilitation thesis, Bratislava: FEI STU, May 2001.
- GILGE, M., ENGELHARDT, T., MEHLAN, R., Coding of Ar-bitrarily Shaped Image Segments Based on a Generalized Orthogonal Transform. Signal Processing: Image Communication. 1989, vol. 1, p. 153-180.

**R. Lukac**
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Performance of Basic Vector Directional Filters According to Used Angle
Distance

Color images are typical examples of vector-valued signals. For that reason, vector processing represents an optimal approach. Although widely used vector filter is a vector median based on a reduced ordering, the directional processing with utilizing of the angle between input vectors can be used, too. By this way can be achieved well estimates, since vector directional filters preserve color chromaticity, whereas vector median filters may not satisfy this requirement. So, this paper is focused on the performance of basic vector directional filter in dependence on the various angle distances.

- ASTOLA, J., HAAVISTO, P., NEUVO, Y. Vector Median Fil-ters. Proceedings of the IEEE, Vol. 78, No. 4, April 1990, pp. 678 - 689.
- LUKAC, R.: Vector LUM Smoothers as Impulse Detector for Color Images. Proceedings of European Conference on Circuit Theory and Design ECCTD '01 "Circuit Paradigm in the 21st Century" in Espoo, Finland, August 28-31, 2001, submitted.
- LUKAC, R. New structures of LUM Smoothers and Impulse Detectors for Noisy Images. Thesis work, Kosice, February 2001, (in Slovak).
- LUKAC, R., MARCHEVSKY, S. Color Image Processing by LUM Smoothers. Acta Avionica, Scientific Journal, Vol. 2, No. 2, 2000, pp. 55 - 60.
- LUKAC, R. - MARCHEVSKY, S. Adaptive Vector LUM Smoother. Proceedings of the IEEE Signal Processing Society ICIP 2001 in Thessaloniki, Greece, October 7-10, 2001, submitted.
- LUKAC, R., MARCHEVSKY, S. Impulse Detection in Noised Color Images. Journal of Electrical Engineering, submitted.
- MOUCHA, V., MARCHEVSKY, S., LUKAC, R., STUPAK, C.: Digital Filtering of Image Signals. Edition Centre of Military Airborne Academy gen. M. R. Stefanika of Kosice, Kosice 2000, (in Slovak).
- PITAS, I., TSAKALIDES, P. Multivariate Ordering in Color Image Filtering. IEEE Trans. on Circuits and Systems for Videotechnology, Vol. 1, No. 3, September 1991, pp. 247-259.
- PITAS, I., KLINIKLIS, P. Multichannel Techniques in Color Image Enhancement and Modeling. IEEE Transactions on Image Processing, Vol. 5, No. 1, January 1996, pp. 168-171.
- PLATANOITIS, K. N., ANDROUTSOS, D., VINAYAGAMOORTHY, S., VENETSANOPOULOS, A. N. Color Image Proces-sing Using Adaptive Multichannel Filters. IEEE Transactions on Image Processing, Vol. 6, No. 7, July 1997, pp. 933-949.
- PLATANOITIS, K. N., ANDROUTSOS, D., VENETSANOPOULOS, A. N.: Color Image Processing Using Adaptive Vector Directional Filters. IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems II, Vol. 45, No. 10, October 1998, pp. 1414-1419.
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- ZHENG, J., VALAVANIS, K. P., GAOUCH, J. M. Noise Removal from Color Images. Journal of Intelligent and Robotic Systems, Vol. 7, 1993, pp. 257-285.

**J. Pika**
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New Predicted Spiral Search Block Matching Algorithm - PSSBMA

This article describes the modification of the full search algorithm ESBMA (Exhaustive Search Block Matching Algorithm), which leads up to 40% speed increase. The modification is based on the ESBMA motion field analysis results. The major modifications to the ESBMA are: - Introduction of sub-optimality by thresholding the matching criterion (MAEthr); - Respecting constraints on motion vectors resulting from "head and shoulder" scenes by changing the position of the search start; - Respecting the dependence of motion vectors (MV) by prediction introduction.

- BHASKARAN, V., KONSTANTINIDES, K. Image and Video Compression Standards. Norwell, Kluwer Academic Publis-hers, 1997.
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- Video codec for audiovisual services at px64 kbps, ITU-T Re-commendation H.261, 1990.
- Video codec for low bit rate communication, ITU-T Recom-mendation H.263, 1996.
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- YIH CHUAN LIN, SHEN CHUAN TAI Fast Full-Search Block-Matching Algorithm for Motion-Compensated Video Compression. IEEE Transactions on Communications. 1997, vol. 45, p. 527 - 531.
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