# June 2019, Volume 28, Number 2 [DOI: 10.13164/re.2019-2]

**S. Rebhi, R. Barrak, M. Menif**
[references] [full-text]
[DOI: 10.13164/re.2019.0357]
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Flexible and Scalable Radio over Fiber Architecture

In this paper, we investigate a scalable Radio over Fiber (RoF) system compliant to 5G fronthauling requirements. The proposed RoF architecture is able to adjust the network resources and capacities to satisfy user demands in terms of service, data rate and bandwidth. The flexibility and the reconfigurability of the proposed topology are provided through the inclusion of flexible network nodes which are at the Central Office (CO), the Remote Node (RN) and the Remote Access Unit (RAU). The centralized management of the RoF system based on a Software Defined Networking (SDN) enables the monitoring of the overhaul RoF system and the reconfiguration of network nodes parameters. The proposed RoF system architecture is designed to support multi-standard operation and mm-wave services. We investigated multi-service operation assuming high speed mm-wave service at 60 GHz besides to conventional wireless services such as WiFi and WiMax. The introduced system is able to operate for different RF bands (2.4, 5.2 and 60 GHz) with various modulation schemas such as BPSK, QPSK, 16QAM and 64QAM, that may be associated to Orthogonal Frequency-Division Multiplexing (OFDM) and multi-data rates up to 5 Gbps. To validate the RoF system performances, we have considered the Error Vector Magnitude (EVM) and service constellation as figures of merit at the End User (EU). The simulated results testify the architecture viability.

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Keywords: Radio over Fiber, mm-wave, flexible RoF, software defined networking, multi-services, multi-band

**R. Bera, K. Kundu, N. N. Pathak**
[references] [full-text]
[DOI: 10.13164/re.2019.0369]
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Optimal Pattern Synthesis of Thinned and Non-Uniformly Excited Concentric Circular Array Antennas using Hybrid GSA-PSO Technique

Side Lobe Level (SLL) is considered as the most significant array pattern parameter as it helps in reducing surrounding noise and interference. As higher SLL value results in higher wastage of power in undesired direction, transmitters of wireless communication systems face serious problems. In this paper, the optimal design of seven different sets of concentric circular antenna arrays (CCAAs) of isotropic antenna has been represented with the goal of maximum reduction in SLL. Optimal pattern synthesis of the proposed arrays has been executed by optimizing the normalized current distributions of array elements having fixed inter-element spacing. In present work inter-ring spacing has been fixed at 0.5λ.In order to achieve low SLL in the radiation pattern of the optimized array antenna, many conventional optimization methods have been proposed in last few decades for handling complex, non-differentiable, discontinuous and highly nonlinear array factor. To deal with the problems of premature convergence (fall into local optima) feature of gravitational search algorithm (GSA) and particle swarm optimization (PSO) has been merged. In high-dimensional space, gravitational search algorithm hybridized with particle swarm optimization (GSA-PSO) is considered while preserving the fast converging property of them. Numerical results in the present text assume the pattern synthesis of thinned array and non-uniformly excited array for seven different sets of CCAA geometries. An exhaustive simulation results are presented and the radiation pattern performances are analyzed. As compared with conventional optimization techniques like GSA and PSO, hybrid GSA-PSO technique outperforms with the goal of maximum SLL suppression.

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Keywords: Concentric circular antenna array, Gravitational Search Algorithm (GSA), Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO), Side Lobe Level (SSL), thinning, Gravitational Search Algorithm hybridized with Particle Swarm Optimization (GSA-PSO)

**F. Sboui, J. Machac, A. Gharsallah**
[references] [full-text]
[DOI: 10.13164/re.2019.0386]
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Low-profile Slotted SIW Cavity Backed Antenna for Frequency Agility

The agile frequency antennas are widely used for wireless communication systems. This paper studies and designs a low-profile SIW antenna radiating from a circular slot graved in the ground plane, with the ability of alternating the frequency. The antenna is intentionally designed within a range of 1.8 GHz to 2.18 GHz obtained by varying the DC bias voltages from 0 to 26 V, which is able to cover the GSM1800, the LTE, and the UMTS wireless standards. The tuning technique consists in the integration of two varactor diodes across the circular slot. A prototype was manufactured, and the experiment results correspond well to those of the simulations.

- GUNDUMALLA, A., AGRAWAL, S., PARIHAR, M. S. Compact planar active integrated inverted-F antenna with frequency reconfigurable capability. IET Microwaves, Antennas & Propagation, 2018, vol. 12, no. 13, p. 2012–2018. DOI: 10.1049/iet-map.2018.5236
- CHUNG, K. L., XIE, S., LI, Y., et al. A circular-polarization reconfigurable Meng-shaped patch antenna. IEEE Access, 2018, vol. 6, p. 51419–51428. DOI: 10.1109/ACCESS.2018.2869410
- BOUKARKAR, A., LIN, X. Q., JIANG, Y., et al. Compact mechanically frequency and pattern reconfigurable patch antenna. IET Microwaves, Antennas & Propagation, 2018, vol. 12, no. 11, p. 1864–1869. DOI: 10.1049/iet-map.2017.0917
- WU, R. X., TAN, L. R., LOU, Q. Reconfigurable ferrite-loaded SIW antenna. In 2015 Asia-Pacific Microwave Conference (APMC). Nanjing (China), 2015, vol. 2, p. 1–3. DOI: 10.1109/APMC.2015.7413098
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- MAZLOUMAN, S. J., JIANG, X. J., MAHANFAR, A., et al. A reconfigurable patch antenna using liquid metal embedded in a silicone substrate. IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation, 2011, vol. 59, no. 12, p. 4406–4412. DOI: 10.1109/TAP.2011.2165501
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- HUSSAIN, R., GHALIB, A., SHARAWI, M. S. Annular slotbased miniaturized frequency agile MIMO antenna system. IEEE Antennas and Wireless Propagation Letters, 2017, vol. 16, p. 2489–2492. DOI: 10.1109/LAWP.2017.2726058
- ZHU, S., HOLTBY, D. G., FORD, K. L., et al. Compact low frequency varactor loaded tunable SRR antenna. IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation, 2013, vol. 61, no. 4, p. 2301–2304. DOI: 10.1109/TAP.2013.2239952
- SAGHATI A. P., ENTESARI, K. A tunable quarter-mode substrate integrated waveguide antenna. In 2016 IEEE International Symposium on Antennas and Propagation (APSURSI). Fajardo (Puerto Rico), 2016, p. 841–842. DOI: 10.1109/APS.2016.7696129
- SAGHATI A. P., ENTESARI, K. A reconfigurable SIW cavity backed slot antenna with one octave tuning range. IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation, 2013, vol. 61, no. 8, p. 3937–3945. DOI: 10.1109/TAP.2013.2263215
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Keywords: Substrate integrated waveguide, frequency reconfigurable antenna, cavity backed antenna

**R. Kumar, R. K. Chaudhary**
[references] [full-text]
[DOI: 10.13164/re.2019.0391]
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A New Bidirectional Wideband Circularly Polarized Cylindrical Dielectric Resonator Antenna using Modified J-shaped Ground Plane for WiMAX/LTE Applications

A new singly-fed bidirectional wideband circularly polarized cylindrical dielectric resonator antenna (CDRA) using modified J-shaped ground plane is investigated and presented in this paper. The designed antenna excited by a single microstrip feed line with the modified J-shaped ground plane, which supports the orthogonal mode generation i.e. HEM_11δ mode for realizing circular polarization (CP). Measured results show that proposed antenna achieved S11≤-10 dB, input impedance bandwidth of 41.44% (centered at 3.74 GHz) and 3-dB axial ratio bandwidth in broadside direction of 29.91% (centered at 3.61 GHz). The average measured gain and simulated radiation efficiency in broadside are 2.84 dBic and 94.69% respectively, throughout the working band. The proposed CPDRA is a bidirectional radiator, and the radiation patterns on both sides are nearly the same. The antenna radiates left-handed CP wave in +z-direction and right-handed CP wave in -z-direction for both the resonance frequencies, which has been confirmed by plotting CP radiation pattern. The presented design can be used for Wi-MAX (3.3-3.7 GHz) and LTE3400 (3400–3800 MHz) bands.

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Keywords: Bidirectional, wideband, circular polarization, dielectric resonator antenna, microstrip feed, J-shaped ground plane

**N. Kumar, U. K. Kommuri**
[references] [full-text]
[DOI: 10.13164/re.2019.0399]
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MIMO Antenna H-Plane Isolation Enhancement using UC-EBG Structure and Metal Line Strip for WLAN Applications

This paper presents design of novel uniplanar Compact Electromagnetic bandgap (EBG) structure and its application in enhancement of isolation in H-Plane of MIMO antenna system for WLAN (5.8 GHz). Isolation enhancement or coupling reduction of 5.6 dB is achieved by etching out the proposed EBG structure from the ground plane of microstrip patch MIMO antenna. Center to center distance is reduced to 0.45λo due to compactness of EBG. A metal line strip between radiating patches is used for further reduction in mutual coupling at 5.8 GHz. There is significant enhancement of 16.2 dB in isolation due to the introduction of metal line strip. Hence the total 21.8 dB reduction in mutual coupling is achieved and this coupling reduction is also verified by surface current plots and measured result. The envelope correlation coefficient (ECC) is less than 0.01 and channel capacity loss (CCL) is less than 0.1bps/Hz at operating frequency.

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- GHOSH, J., GHOSAL, S., MITRA, D., et al. Mutual coupling reduction between closely placed microstrip patch antenna using meander line resonator. Progress In Electromagnetics Research Letters, 2016, vol. 59, p. 115–122. DOI: 10.2528/PIERL16012202
- AL-HASAN, M. J., DENIDNI, T. A., SEBAK, A. R. Millimeterwave compact EBG structure for mutual coupling reduction applications. IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation, 2015, vol. 63, no. 2, p. 823–828. DOI: 10.1109/TAP.2014.2381229
- YANG, X., LIU, Y., XU, Y. X., GONG, S. X. Isolation enhancement in patch antenna array with fractal UC-EBG structure and cross slot. IEEE Antennas and Wireless Propagation Letters, 2017, vol. 16, p. 2175–2178. DOI: 10.1109/LAWP.2017.2703170
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- KUMAR, N., KIRAN KOMMURI, U. MIMO antenna mutual coupling reduction for WLAN using spiro meander line UC-EBG. Progress In Electromagnetics Research C, 2018, vol. 80, p. 65–77. DOI: 10.2528/PIERC17101601
- ARORA, A., KUMAR, N. To reduce mutual coupling in microstrip patch antenna arrays elements using electromagnetic band gap structures for X-band. In 2017 International Conference on Nextgen Electronic Technologies: Silicon to Software (ICNETS2). Chennai (China), 2017, p. 228–230. DOI: 10.1109/ICNETS2.2017.8067937
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- MOHAMADZADE, B., AFSAHI, M. Mutual coupling reduction and gain enhancement in patch array antenna using a planar compact electromagnetic bandgap structure. IET Microwaves, Antennas & Propagation, 2017, vol. 11, no. 12, p. 1719–1725. DOI: 10.1049/iet-map.2017.0080
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- MAVRIDOU, M., FERESIDIS, A. P. GARDNER, P. Tunable double-layer EBG structures and application to antenna isolation. IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation, 2016, vol. 64, no. 1, p. 70–79. DOI: 10.1109/TAP.2015.2496619
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Keywords: Electromagnetic Band Gap (EBG), MIMO antenna, mutual coupling

**B. Matolcsy, A. Zolomy**
[references] [full-text]
[DOI: 10.13164/re.2019.0407]
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Designing an Efficient Ultra Small Form Factor On-Chip Antenna for UHF RFID Application

The efficient design of electrically small antennas (ESA) has recently evolved to an outstandingly active area of research. This paper aims to present an improved performance electrically small on-chip antenna design, for the 920 MHz UHF-RFID frequency. Performance improvement is based on creating a slow-wave structure with three-dimensional spiral meandering and dielectric loading of the complete antenna structure. A single layer spiral on-chip antenna simulation is presented first, based on a commercially available product, then an improved single layer spiral antenna and finally an alternative 3D multi-layer spiral on-chip antenna is investigated. The proposed alternative on-chip antenna structure fills a 2.5 x 2.5 x 1.3 mm3 volume and has significantly improved radiation performance compared to the single layer solution.

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- PACHLER, W., BOSCH, W., HOLWEG, G., et al. A novel booster antenna design coupled to a one square millimeter coil-on-chip RFID tag enabling new medical applications. In European Microwave Conference. Nuremberg (Germany), 2013, p. 1003–1006. DOI: 10.23919/EuMC.2013.6686829
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- GS1 EPCTM Radio-Ferquency Identity Protocols Generation-2 UHF RFID, Specification for RFID Air Interface, Protocol for Communications at 860 MHz - 960 MHz, Version 2.0.1 Ratified
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- DU, M., XU, J., DING, X., et al. A low-profile wideband LTCC integrated circularly polarized helical antenna array for millimeter-wave applications. Radioengineering, 2018, vol. 27, no. 2, p. 455–462. DOI: 10.13164/re.2018.0455
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Keywords: On-chip antenna design, antenna design, electrically small antennas (ESA), UHF RFID tag design

**F. Mejri, T. Aguili**
[references] [full-text]
[DOI: 10.13164/re.2019.0414]
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Design of a New Radio-Frequency Switch Topology with Very Low Polarization Current

Embedded systems are generally powered by batteries, characterized by a limited duration of electrical energy storage. For that, low power consuming RF components are often used. This work focuses on the design of a new RF switch based on one varicap diode within a series/parallel circuit topology. The latter is low-power-consuming in both ON and OFF mode and inhibits eventual nonlinearities caused by series diodes such as common PIN diodes. Before performing simulations, the diode has been characterized experimentally in the whole UHF band of interest and the extracted S-parameters have been used in the simulations of the resonating structure. The optimized switch has been measured and has showed a good agreement with simulated results in terms of high isolation (50 dB) and low insertion loss (0.1 dB). These results showed better performances compared to other structures based on RF MEMS, PIN diode or FET transistor devices, available in the literature.

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Keywords: RF switch, micro-strip structure, microwave, varicap diode, parallel and series resonance, reconfigurable resonant circuit, very low polarization current

**L. N. P. Nepaya, R. H. Geschke**
[references] [full-text]
[DOI: 10.13164/re.2019.0422]
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Quasi-Lumped Element Implementation of a Wide-Band Dual-Band Filter based on Reactance Transformations

The synthesis and design of a quasi-lumped element dual-band filter is presented for a radiometry application. Band 1 is from 0.45 to 0.86 GHz and band 2 from 1.24 to 1.75 GHz. The filter circuit model has no theoretical bandwidth limitation and is implemented on multilayer substrate. Controlled suppression between the two bands is demonstrated. Agreement between simulation and measurement confirms the feasibility of the design method. The effect of dominant parasitic elements in the quasi-lumped element implementations is detailed.

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Keywords: Quasi lumped element filters, wide-band filter, dual-band filter, reactance transform method

**G. Stancic, M. Đuric, B. Jovanovic, S. Cvetkovic**
[references] [full-text]
[DOI: 10.13164/re.2019.0430]
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A Complexity Analysis of IIR Filters with an Approximately Linear Phase

In this paper, a comprehensive analysis of hardware complexity of different configurations for the realization of approximately linear phase filters is presented. Hardware complexity for the realization of the parallel all-pass structure (PA) is compared to the standard elliptic filters with the adequate group delay corrector (EC) in cascade. Both considered filters are designed to have the same cutoff frequency and magnitude approximation error, as well as the same maximal group delay error in all pass-bands. All analyzed infinite impulse response (IIR) filters will have an elliptic shape magnitude and approximately linear phase (i.e. constant group delay). In addition, the resulting group delay error of all the considered filters has an equiripple nature. The performed analysis revealed that consistently better results could be achieved with PA filters in terms of power consumption and hardware complexity. At the same time, the PA filters introduce significantly lower delay. The filter banks for efficient sub-band coding and signal transmission in communication systems could be successfully realized using the PA filters. The results presented here could be a valuable resource for designers of IIR filters to select the appropriate configuration for realization.

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Keywords: Elliptic filters, FPGA analysis, approximately linear phase, all-pass filters, equiripple approximation error, filter banks.

**Y. Xie, B. Li, Z. Yan, J. Fan, M. Yang**
[references] [full-text]
[DOI: 10.13164/re.2019.0439]
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A General Hybrid Precoding Method for mmWave Massive MIMO Systems

Recently, hybrid precoding architectures have been proposed for the purpose of practical implementation of massive Multiple-Input Multiple-Output (MIMO) systems in the Fifth Generation (5G) networks. In this paper, a general precoding method is investigated for Millimeter Wave (mmWave) multi-user systems, which is composed of the designs in analog Radio Frequency (RF) and digital baseband matrices. In the general hybrid architecture, the analog part is constituted of independent analog sub-arrays with full connection inside. The analog precoding matrix is considered by maximizing Signal-to-Leakage-plus-Noise Ratio (SLNR) with only the long-term statistics of user groups. Due to the constant module constraint of RF chains, a supplemental matrix is introduced to reduce the performance loss. The digital precoding matrix performs Regularized Zero-Forcing (RZF) with the reduced amount of effective channels. Finally, simulation results demonstrate the performance improvement of the proposed precoding method. Meanwhile, trade-off between the performance and the complexity is handled well by the proposed method.

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Keywords: Massive MIMO, hybrid precoding architectures, beamforming, millimeter wave

**Y. Hu, B. G. Yu, Z. X. Deng, G. D. He, H. J. Zhou**
[references] [full-text]
[DOI: 10.13164/re.2019.0447]
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Efficient Cycle Frequency Acquisition of a Cyclostationary Signal with the FACA Method

The cycle frequencies of a cyclostationary signal can be used for the signal identification and classification, separation of the overlapped signals in cycle domain, and so on. Efficient cycle frequency acquisition depends on the fast measurement of cyclic autocorrelation function (CAF) or spectral correlation function (SCF) of the signal. Presently the relative efficient CAF and SCF measuring methods mainly include the cyclic correlogram, the well-known fast Fourier transform accumulation method (FAM), and so on. Motivated by these methods, a new efficient cycle frequency acquisition method which integrates the fast Fourier transform (FFT) algorithm with the autocorrelated cyclic autocorrelation function, named FACA, is presented. With the presented method, we can acquire the cycle frequencies of a cyclostationary signal more efficiently with a given level of reliability. Meanwhile, by enlarging the FFT window width of the FACA method we can get the same cycle frequency resolution as the benchmarked method FAM, but the computation cost still can be spared at this case.

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Keywords: Cycle frequency acquisition, cyclostationary signal, FACA method, FFT algorithm

**F. Akram, I. Rashid, A. Ghafoor, A. M. Siddiqui**
[references] [full-text]
[DOI: 10.13164/re.2019.0456]
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Fast Convergence Algorithms for Coherence Optimization of Rank-1 Grassmannian Codebooks

Best Complex Antipodal Spherical Codes (BCASC) and Coherence Based Grassmannian Codebooks (CBGC) are state of the art algorithms to produce minimal coherence codebooks, however have high running time (relatively more in BCASC search than CBGC algorithm) which restricts their wider application. BCASC and CBGC algorithms are modified in a novel way by incorporating additional parameters adapted to three categories of codebooknovercompleteness to check stagnance of optimization and divergent behaviour to achieve faster convergence. The proposed algorithms are compared with BCASC and CBGC algorithms to achieve similar coherence results in much less time.

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Keywords: Grassmannian codebooks, hybrid metaheuristics, numerical optimization

**R. Bozovic, M. Simic**
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[DOI: 10.13164/re.2019.0464]
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Spectrum Sensing Based on Higher Order Cumulants and Kurtosis Statistics Tests in Cognitive Radio

In this paper, new algorithms for spectrum sensing in cognitive radio based on higher order cumulants and kurtosis are proposed. The cumulants represent statistical signal processing based on pattern recognition for signals of different structure, and has low implementation complexity. Kurtosis statistics are a well-known technique for testing the Gaussianity feature of the signals. Under the assumption that a detected signal can be modelled according to an autoregressive model, noise variance is estimated from that noisy signal. The simulation results show that spectrum sensing algorithms based on the estimated normalised values of joint higher order cumulants (of fourth and sixth orders) and kurtosis are reliable for a wide range of signal-to-noise ratio environments. In order to improve performances of the spectrum sensing, the combination of these statistics tests into unique one statistic test is proposed. Simulation results have verified improvement of the performances.

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Keywords: Cognitive radio, cumulants, energy detector, kurtosis, noise variance estimation, spectrum sensing

**Y. Dalveren, A. Kara**
[references] [full-text]
[DOI: 10.13164/re.2019.0473]
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Multipath Exploitation in Emitter Localization for Irregular Terrains

Electronic Support Measures (ESM) systems have many operational challenges while locating radar emitter’s position around irregular terrains such as islands due to multipath scattering. To overcome these challenges, this paper addresses exploiting multipath scattering in passive localization of radar emitters around irregular terrains. The idea is based on the use of multipath scattered signals as virtual sensor through Geographical Information System (GIS). In this way, it is presented that single receiver (ESM receiver) passive localization can be achieved for radar emitters. The study is initiated with estimating candidate multipath scattering centers over irregular terrain. To do this, ESM receivers’ Angle of Arrival (AOA) and Time of Arrival (TOA) information are required for directly received radar pulses along with multipath scattered pulses. The problem then turns out to be multiple-sensor localization problem for which Time Difference of Arrival (TDOA)-based techniques can easily be applied. However, there is high degree of uncertainty in location of candidate multipath scattering centers as the multipath scattering involves diffuse components over irregular terrain. Apparently, this causes large localization errors in TDOA. To reduce this error, a reliability based weighting method is proposed. Simulation results regarding with a simplified 3D model is also presented.

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Keywords: Emitter localization, multipath, scattering center, virtual sensor, Time Difference of Arrival (TDOA)

**K. Zyka**
[references] [full-text]
[DOI: 10.13164/re.2019.0483]
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The Digital Audio Broadcasting Journey from the Lab to Listeners - the Czech Republic Case Study

This paper describes the complex experiences and the results of the Digital Audio Broadcasting (DAB+) implementation in the conditions of the Czech Republic. It analyses the background of the EUREKA 147 program, its targets, and to what extent they were reached. The main focus is concentrated on the evaluation of the real steps which had to be done during the implementation process before the first regular broadcasting could be started and the difficulties encountered. The key point became experimental broadcasting “DAB Prague”. It demonstrated the advantages of this new platform and gave the opportunity to test its functions and physical behavior in real conditions, under the different parameter settings. The important issue is the allocation of the band III by National Regulatory Authority and the capacity of DAB+ multiplexes. The paper also demonstrates the experience from the setup of the DAB+ headend. It describes the content solution in context of using non-entropic audio coding, setting the codec algorithms and the way to use accompanying multimedia services. The results of the tests and measurements presented in this paper were used in the real project of the regular nationwide DAB+ network.

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Keywords: DAB+, Digital Audio Broadcasting, EUREKA 147, multiplex, headend, non-entropic audio coding

**M. Sameer, P. Agarwal**
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[DOI: 10.13164/re.2019.0491]
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Coplanar Waveguide Microwave Sensor for Label-Free Real-Time Glucose Detection

In this work, a~real-time label-free microwave diagnostic approach using Co-Planar Waveguide (CPW) design has been demonstrated for glucose detection. This mechanism has tremendous potential for the biomedical applications. Here, glucose biosensor is implemented with 50 Ω CPW transmission line, where the centre localized 3 mm diameter of CPW transmission line has been used for the sensing. Glucose sensor is implemented utilizing low cost multilayer PCB and polymer Poly-Di-Methyl-Siloxane(PDMS) fabrication technology. CPW transmission line is fabricated on FR4 microwave laminate board. To confine the Analyte Under Test (AUT) on the sensing area, PDMS polymer cavity is configured in the centre of CPW transmission line. The electromagnetic interaction with the varying dielectric constant of Glucose:DI water solution results shift in S11 parameter, which is closely observed to use as the source of sensing. CPW based glucose sensor is experimentally measured for S11 parameter using VNA, with varying glucose concentration range from 0 mg/ml (only DI water) to 4 mg/ml with the interval of 1 mg/ml. The measured results showed good sensitivity of 108.4 MHz/mg/ml and high accuracy with good linear regression coefficient of 0.9979.

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Keywords: CPW, polymer, microwave sensing, glucose sensor, label-free, real-time, PDMS