# September 2017, Volume 26, Number 3 [DOI: 10.13164/re.2017-3]

**L. Sekanina, Z. Vasicek, V. Mrazek**
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[DOI: 10.13164/re.2017.0623]
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Approximate Circuits in Low-Power Image and Video Processing: The Approximate Median Filter

Low power image and video processing circuits are crucial in many applications of computer vision. Traditional techniques used to reduce power consumption in these applications have recently been accompanied by circuit approximation methods which exploit the fact that these applications are highly error resilient and, hence, the quality of image processing can be traded for power consumption. On the basis of a literature survey, we identified the components whose implementations are the most frequently approximated and the methods used for obtaining these approximations. One of the components is the median image filter. We propose, evaluate and compare two approximation strategies based on Cartesian genetic programming applied to approximate various common implementations of the median filter. For filters developed using these approximation strategies, trade-offs between the quality of filtering and power consumption are investigated. Under conditions of our experiments we conclude that better trade-offs are achieved when the image filter is evolved from scratch rather than a conventional filter is approximated.

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Keywords: Approximate computing, circuit design, evolutionary computation, image filter

**C. Tomassoni, M. Bozzi**
[references] [full-text]
[DOI: 10.13164/re.2017.0633]
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Substrate Integrated Waveguide Cavity Filters: Miniaturization and New Materials for IoT Applications

This paper presents an overview of the current research trends in the field of substrate integrated waveguide (SIW) technology, with particular emphasis on the issues related to the emerging applications in the framework of the Internet of Things (IoT) and the fifth generation of mobile communication (5G). More specifically, different techniques adopted to miniaturize SIW cavities are described, with the aim of reducing the footprint of SIW components and filters. Moreover, the use of innovative materials, like paper, textile and 3D printed dielectric substrates, is presented and discussed, and the implementation of ecofriendly, wearable, and fully 3D structures is illustrated.

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Keywords: Substrate integrated waveguide (SIW), filters, paper-based electronics, wearable microwave components, additive manufacturing.

**A. G. Correa-Mena, I. E. Zaldivar-Huerta, M. W. Lee, A. Garcia-Juarez, L. A. Garcia-Delgado**
[references] [full-text]
[DOI: 10.13164/re.2017.0642]
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Performance Evaluation of an Optoelectronic Oscillator Based on a Band-Pass Microwave Photonic Filter Architecture

The experimental performance evaluation of an optoelectronic oscillator based on a band-pass microwave photonic filter architecture is carried out. The novelty of this proposal resides in the fact that the architecture used allows enhancing the free spectral range of the optoelectronic oscillator. Considering the optical spectral characteristics of the multimode laser diode used as an optical source, the length and the chromatic dispersion parameter of the optical fiber which acts as a feedback loop, it is possible to determine the appearance of a series of spectrally pure microwave signals widely spaced. In particular, the experimental results show a phase noise as low as -92.69 dBc/Hz at 10 kHz offset frequency from the 2.26 GHz carrier for an optical delay line of 25.24 km and a Q factor of 2.04×109.

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Keywords: Optoelectronic oscillator, band-pass microwave photonic filter, microwave signals, phase noise.

**A. Verma, M. S. Parihar**
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[DOI: 10.13164/re.2017.0647]
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Multifunctional Antenna with Reconfigurable Ultra-Wide Band Characteristics

In this paper a multifunctional antenna is presented which offers an ultra-wideband (UWB) operation, an UWB operation with two switchable notches and reconfigurable dual-band operation for WiMAX and WLAN applications, respectively. Total seven functions/states could be achieved from a single antenna using an electronic switching. The antenna uses dual slots on the ground plane to provide a wide bandwidth, ranging from 3.1 GHz to 10.6 GHz. U-Shaped slot and C-Shaped printed strip in the ground are used to generate two notches at 3.6 GHz(WiMAX) and 5.2 GHz (WLAN/ WiFi) bands, respectively. Moreover, four parasitic strips are added in the feed side to make antenna functional at either3.6 GHz or 5.2 GHz or both. Total Five PIN diodes are required to obtain seven operations from the proposed antenna. Seven structures are fabricated and measured to verify the seven states and results are found in good agreement with estimated results obtained from the simulation.

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Keywords: Reconfigurable antenna, UWB antenna, C-shaped strip, PIN diode, parasitic strip

**M. U. Hassan, F. Arshad, S. I. Naqvi, Y. Amin, H. Tenhunen**
[references] [full-text]
[DOI: 10.13164/re.2017.0655]
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A Compact Flexible and Frequency Reconfigurable Antenna for Quintuple Applications

A novel, compact coplanar waveguide fed flexible antenna is presented. The proposed design uses flexible Rogers RT/duroid 5880 (0.508mm thickness) as a substrate with small size of 30×28.4 mm^2. Two switches are integrated on the antenna surface to change the current distribution which consequently changes the resonance frequency under different conditions of switches, thereby making it a frequency reconfigurable antenna. The antenna design is simulated on CST®MWS®. The proposed antenna exhibits VSWR<2 and appreciable radiation patterns with positive gain over desired frequency bands. Good agreement exists between simulated and measured results. On the basis of results, the proposed antenna is envisioned to be deployed for the following applications; aeronautical radio navigation [4.3 GHz], AMT fixed services [4.5 GHz], WLAN [5.2 GHz], Unlicensed WiMAX [5.8 GHz] and X-band [7.5 GHz].

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Keywords: Flexible antennas, reconfigurable antenna, coplanar waveguide-fed, switches

**W. D. Ma, G. M. Wang, Y. W. Wang, B. F. Zong**
[references] [full-text]
[DOI: 10.13164/re.2017.0662]
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Compact Microstrip Antenna with Pattern-Reconfigurable Characteristic

In this paper, a compact microstrip antenna with radiation pattern reconfigurable characteristic employing MEMS switches is proposed and investigated. This novel antenna mainly includes four parts: a circular-shaped patch, six MEMS switches, six fan-shaped coupling cells and six fan-shaped radiation cells. Through controlling the states of MEMS switches, radiation pattern selectivity of the proposed antenna can be achieved. When switching operation states of the antenna from state 1 to state 12 sequentially, the main radiation beam direction in azimuth planes could rotate 30˚ from 0˚ to 330˚ with each switch. Meanwhile, the radiation beam directions in elevation plane and the operation frequencies of proposed antenna for different operation states are stable at about 35˚ and 4GHz, respectively. With the consideration of MEMS switches actual size, the antenna structure and dimensions were optimized and adjusted. The simulated and measured results were analyzed and compared, indicating this compact antenna can be widely used for multifunctional applications and modern wireless communication systems.

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Keywords: Reconfigurable antenna, compact microstrip antenna, radiation pattern reconfigurability, MEMS switch.

**S. Mohammadi-Asl, J. Nourinia, Ch. Ghobadi, M. Majidzadeh**
[references] [full-text]
[DOI: 10.13164/re.2017.0668]
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A Compact Array Antenna: Explicit Design for C and X Band Applications

A novel and compact design of a circularly polarized slot antenna (CPSA) is elaborated. With the aim of generating CP feature and enhancing the impedance bandwidth, four rectangular stubs are wisely embedded in the antenna feed line structure and slotted ground plane to excite two orthogonal E vectors. Subsequently, a suitable arrangement of CPSAs in the form of 2 × 2 and 4 × 4 array antennas provokes higher functionalities in C and X band applications, respectively. Sequentially rotated (SR) feed technique is adopted to excite the antenna structure in array configurations. Measured and simulated results confirm outperformance of the array antennas with respect to the previously proposed designs. Compact size, wider impedance and axial ratio (AR) bandwidth, higher gain, and suitable radiation characteristics, both in single and array configurations, confirm suitability of the proposed designs for communication systems.

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- ZONG, B.F., WANG, G.M., ZENG, H.Y., et al. SCRLH-TL based sequential rotation feed network for broadband circularly polarized antenna array. Radioengineering, 2016, vol. 25, no. 1, p. 81–88. DOI: 10.13164/re.2016.0081
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Keywords: Circular polarization (CP), C and X band applications, sequential rotated (SR) feed network, array antenna, high gain.

**Haoyu Lin, Zhenfei Song, Xuetian Wang, Hongmin Gao**
[references] [full-text]
[DOI: 10.13164/re.2017.0675]
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An Improved Antenna Group Delay Measurement Method Using a Three-antenna Extrapolation Technique

In order to minimize the error due to multiple reflections between antennas in the conventional group delay (GD) measurement, an improved antenna GD measurement method is proposed. In this method, antenna group delay is measured as a function of distances using a three-antenna extrapolation method. The GD is determined by averaging a set of measured GD values according to a derived multiple-reflection error model. Measurement in frequency band of (1575.42±16) MHz for a circularly polarised helical antenna is presented, which gives the detail measurement procedures and validates the method. The uncertainty evaluation for this measurement was carried out as well, and an expanded uncertainty of 0.20 ns (k = 2) has been achieved. One more measurement example in frequency band of (4000±10) MHz for a standard gain horn antenna with an expanded uncertainty of 0.12 ns (k = 2) is also presented briefly in this paper.

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Keywords: Group delay, antenna measurement, three-antenna extrapolation, uncertainty evaluation

**A. Janeliauskas, V. Markevicius, D. Navikas, D. Andriukaitis, A. Valinevicius, M. Zilys**
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[DOI: 10.13164/re.2017.0682]
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Initial Design and Quick Analysis of SAW Ultra–Wideband HFM Transducers

This paper presents techniques for initial design and quick fundamental and harmonic operation analysis of surface acoustic waves ultra–wideband hyperbolically frequency modulated (HFM) interdigital transducer (IDT). The primary analysis is based on the quasi–static method. Quasi–electrostatic charge's density distribution was approximated by Chebyshev polynomials and the method of Green’s function. It assesses the non uniform charge distribution of electrodes, electric field interaction and the end effects of a whole transducer. It was found that numerical integration (e.g. Romberg, Gauss–Chebyshev) requires a lot of machine time for calculation of the Chebyshev polynomial and the Green’s function convolution when integration includes coordinates of a large number of neighboring electrodes. In order to accelerate the charge density calculation, the analytic expressions are derived. Evaluation of HFM transducer fundamental and harmonics' operation amplitude response with simulation single–dispersive interdigital chirp filter structure is presented. Elapsed time of HFM IDT with 589 electrodes simulations and 2000 frequency response point is only 54 seconds (0.027 s/point) on PC with CPU Intel Core I7–4770S. Amplitude response is compared with linear frequency modulated (LFM) IDT response. It was determined that the HFM transducer characteristic is less distorted in comparison with LFM transducer.

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Keywords: Surface acoustic wave, SAW, hyperbolically frequency modulated waveforms, HFM, interdigital transducer, IDT, quasi–static method, Chebyshev polynomial approximation, Green’s function, interdigital chirp filter, harmonics' operation

**Z. Zhang, X. Cao, J. Gao, S. Li, L. Xu**
[references] [full-text]
[DOI: 10.13164/re.2017.0691]
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Half-Mode Substrate Integrated Waveguide Yagi Array with Low Cross Polarization

Low cross polarization Yagi array with mirrored arrangement is proposed. First, the half-mode substrate integrated waveguide (HMSIW) and magnetic wall are introduced to realize the miniaturization of Yagi antenna. Simulated results shows that the total area of the Yagi antenna is 1.82λ×0.57λ and the peak gain is about 6.0~7.9 dBi in the 10.5% relative bandwidth. Then the element arrangement of Yagi array composed by the HMSIW Yagi antenna is analyzed to accomplish cross polarization elimination. It is found that the mirrored arrangement eliminates the far field cross-polar component and leads to the lower cross polarization than the other non-mirrored arrays under the condition that they have almost the same bandwidth, peak gain and beam direction. The low cross polarization four-element array with mirrored arrangement is fabricated and measured, and experimental results agree well with the simulation.

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Keywords: Half-mode substrate integrated waveguide, low cross polarization, mirrored arrangement, Yagi array

**Y. Zhou, X. Cao, J. Gao, S. Li**
[references] [full-text]
[DOI: 10.13164/re.2017.0699]
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A C/X Dual-band Wide-angle Reflective Polarization Rotation Metasurface

In this paper, a C/X dual-band wide-angle re¬flective polarization rotation metasurface (PRMS) with high rotation efficiency is proposed and realized. Aiming to miniaturize the size of the unit cell, a metallic flower-like shape ring is selected to extend the current path and the 45 degree slanting stitch along diagonal direction is used to form the asymmetric structure. The simulated results show that the proposed PRMS achieves polarization rotation at 4.61 GHz and 8.67 GHz with high efficiency, at which the linear polarization incident wave is converted into its orthogonal polarization after reflection. Furthermore, the high polarization rotation efficiency of the proposed PRMS is maintained under an oblique incident direction from 0° to 60°. To verify the simulated results, the proposed PRMS is fabricated and measured. The measured results are in good accordance with the simulated ones.

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Keywords: Polarization rotation metasurface, dual band, wide angle

**Z. Zhang, X. Cao, J. Gao, S. Li, L. Xu**
[references] [full-text]
[DOI: 10.13164/re.2017.0705]
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Polarization-Dependent Multi-Functional Metamaterial as Polarization Filter, Transparent Wall and Circular Polarizer using Ring-Cross Resonator

We propose a polarization-dependent multi-functional metamaterial using ring-cross resonator. Based on the analysis of surface current distributions induced by different polarized incidence, we demonstrate that the proposed metamaterial serves as a polarization filter, a transparent wall and a circular polarizer under different polarization normal incidence. Additionally, parameter analyses on the control of resonance are discussed to complementally explain the physical origin. Simulated results show that the proposed metamaterial functions as a polarization filter eliminating the x-polarization wave at 10.1 GHz and y-polarization wave at 14.3 GHz, a transparent wall transmitting both x-polarized and y-polarized incident waves at 12.6 GHz, and a broadband circular polarizer converting the +45° polarized (-45° polarized) incident wave to the left (right) handed circularly polarized wave from 10.8 to 12.8 GHz, respectively. Measured results agree well with the simulation and validate the performance of the proposed multifunctional metamaterial.

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Keywords: Metamaterial, polarization filter, circular polarizer

**J. G. Liang, C. Wang, N. Y. Kim**
[references] [full-text]
[DOI: 10.13164/re.2017.0713]
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Dual-Band Ultra-Wideband Bandpass Filter with Eight-Resonant Modes and Quad-Transmission Zeros Employing Synchronous-Quasi-Resonance

This paper presented a dual-band ultra-wideband bandpass filter, which employs three sets of T-shape stub-loaded resonators (TSSLRs). The new generation approaches of resonant mode (RM), which was named here as the synchronous-quasi-resonance (SQR), to generate more RMs were firstly presented and discussed. Five intrinsic RMs were generated by the even-/odd-mode resonances of the TSSLRs, while the other three additional RMs were achieved by the SQR among different TSSLRs. The fractional bandwidths of the dual-band filter were 42% (or 1.7 GHz) and 22% (or 1.1 GHz) with center frequencies of 3.45 and 5.10 GHz, respectively. The insertion loss of the filter was lower than 0.9 dB, and the return loss was higher than 17 dB. The frequency response of the filter was lower than 20 dB from 5.9 GHz to 8.4 GHz. The high skirt selectivity and excellent out-of-band rejection were achieved by four controllable transmission zeros, which were generated by the virtual ground of the loaded-stub and the source-load coupling of the feed-lines. The proposed harmonic-suppressed dual-band ultra-wideband bandpass filter was fabricated on a Teflon substrate in order to verify the simulation results.

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- LI, J., HUANG, S. S., ZHAO, J. Z. Compact dual-wideband bandpass filter using a novel penta-mode resonator (PMR). IEEE Microwave and Wireless Components Letters, 2014, vol. 24, no. 10, p. 668–670. DOI: 10.1109/LMWC.2014.2341014
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Keywords: Dual-band ultra-wideband, T-shape stub-loaded resonator, resonant mode, transmission zero, synchronous-quasi-resonance

**C. Dogusgen (Erbas)**
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[DOI: 10.13164/re.2017.0721]
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Impact of Deep Soil Layer on Terrestrial Microwave Emission for a Bare Agricultural Field

In this study, we investigated the deep (semi-infinite) soil contribution to the brightness temperature at 1.4 GHz calculated through a modified incoherent radiative transfer model. We reproduced the measured brightness temperature collected by a dual L-band radiometer in a bare agricultural field. We found that exclusion of a semi-infinite soil layer in the incoherent model significantly decreased the brightness temperature when the measurement depth in the model was closer to the emitting depth, which is the first few centimeters from the top of soil. The maximum brightness temperature differences between the cases with and without the semi-infinite layer in the incoherent model were computed to be 6.8444 K, 2.8891 K, 0.2477 K and 0.0004 K for the measurement depths of 4 cm, 5 cm, 8 cm and 16 cm, respectively. Based on a comparison with another coherent radiative transfer model, we observed that inclusion of the deep soil layer significantly improved the precision of the incoherent model regardless of the measurement depth. Our results could be one example of improving the accuracy of radiative transfer models, which might be applied to other radiative transfer models and increase the precision of soil moisture retrieval calculations.

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Keywords: Radiative transfer model, soil moisture, bare soil, incoherent model, brightness temperature, microwave radiometry

**Ming Du, Jun Xu, Yuliang Dong, Xiao Ding**
[references] [full-text]
[DOI: 10.13164/re.2017.0728]
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Low-Cost and High-Gain SIW Circularly Polarized Circular-Horn-Loaded Antenna for Broadband Millimeter-Wave Applications

A wideband, low-cost and high-gain circularly polarized (CP) circular-horn-loaded antenna based on substrate integrated waveguide (SIW) technology operating at Ka band is presented. The proposed antenna, which is built on a single-layer substrate, consists of five parts: a short-ended SIW, a centro-symmetric wide slot, an L-shaped probe, a circular horn and a transition from SIW to air-filled rectangular waveguide for measurement. The slot is etched on the upper ground of the SIW, while the L-shaped probe for generating CP wave is printed inside the slot and connected to the SIW. A circular horn is also loaded on the surface of the SIW slot for high gain. Then, the proposed antenna with a dimension of 45×45×24.16 mm3 was fabricated and measured. The measured results show that the antenna has a wide impedance matching bandwidth of 28.6% from 30 to 40 GHz for |S11| ≤10 dB and a wide axial ratio (AR) bandwidth of 22.8% from 31.5 to 39.6 GHz for AR ≤ 3 dB. The measured maximum gain is 15.6 dBi at 36 GHz with slight fluctuations over the 30–40-GHz frequency range. This kind of antenna merits low cost and easy integration with common differential circuits at the same time.

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Keywords: Substrate integrated waveguide (SIW), circularly polarized (CP), horn, low cost, high gain, broadband millimeter-wave (mmW) antenna

**K. Siakavara, S. Goudos, A. Theopoulos, J.N. Sahalos**
[references] [full-text]
[DOI: 10.13164/re.2017.0735]
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Passive UHF RFID Tags with Specific Printed Antennas for Dielectric and Metallic Objects Applications

Design process and respective results for the synthesis of specific Radiofrequency Identification(RFID) tag antennas, suitable for dielectric and metallic objects, are presented. The antennas were designed for the UHF(865MHz-869MHz) band and their basic configuration is that of the printed spiral type. Six modification steps to the classical spiral layout are proposed and it was proved that they can lead to tags with high readability and reading distances up to 10m when designed for dielectric object and up to 7m in the case of metallic objects. The results of the measurements of the fabricated tags are explained via theoretical evaluations which take into account reflection phenomena, that are present in a real environment at which the tags are used.

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Keywords: Printed antennas, RFID tags, spiral antennas

**S. Sharma, C.C. Tripathi**
[references] [full-text]
[DOI: 10.13164/re.2017.0746]
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An Integrated Frequency Reconfigurable Antenna for Cognitive Radio Application

A novel integrated antenna that consists of spectrum sensing and frequency reconfigurable antenna, printed on a single substrate is presented here. The integration of both antennas is based on the fact that reasonably large metallization area of UWB antenna can be use as a space for printing another narrowband antenna. Prominently, the second antenna should be place on region of large UWB antenna where there is less distribution of E field. The proposed antenna senses the spectrum over a wide frequency range from 2 GHz – 12 GHz via a U shape monopole having partial ground structure. After sensing the spectrum condition, the slot antenna with reconfigurable feeding structure can switch its operating bands among six narrowband: 5.65 GHz, 3.6 GHz, 5 GHz, 2.94 GHz, 4.5 GHz, 2.15 GHz and two dual bands at 2 GHz, 5.48 GHz and 1.7 GHz, 5 GHz. In addition to this, proposed antenna can also reconfigure its frequency in wide-bandwidth using two ground stubs. Since wide band response for spectrum sensing and each of eight frequency state works independently, therefore, there is no interference among various signals.

- HUSSAIN, R., SHARAWI, M. S. A cognitive radio reconfigurable MIMO and sensing antenna system. IEEE Antennas and Wireless Propagation Letters, 2015, vol. 14, p. 257–260. DOI: 10.1109/LAWP.2014.2361450
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- SHARMA, S., TRIPATHI, C. C. Frequency reconfigurable U-slot antenna for SDR application. Progress in Electromagnetics Research Letters, 2015, vol. 55, p. 129–136. DOI: 10.2528/PIERL15071304
- ABOUFOUL, T., ALOMAINY, A., PARINI, C. Reconfiguring UWB monopole antenna for cognitive radio applications using GaAs FET switches. IEEE Antennas and Wireless Propagation Letters, 2012, vol. 11, p. 392–395. DOI: 10.1109/LAWP.2012.2193551
- TAWK, Y., BKASSINY, M., EL HOWAYEK, G., et al. Reconfigurable front-end antennas for cognitive radio applications. IET Microwaves, Antennas and Propagation, 2011, vol. 5, no. 8, p. 985–992. DOI: 10.1049/iet-map.2010.0358
- WU, G. T., LI, R. L., EOM, S. Y., et al. Switchable quad-band antennas for cognitive radio base station applications. IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation, 2010, vol. 58, no. 5, p. 1468–1476. DOI: 10.1109/TAP.2010.2044472
- EBRAHIMI, E., KELLY, J. R., HALL, P. S. Integrated widenarrowband antenna for multi-standard radio. IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation, 2011, vol. 59, no. 7, p. 2628–2635. DOI: 10.1109/TAP.2011.2152353
- MANTEGHI, M. A switch-band antenna for SDR applications. IEEE Antennas and Wireless Propagation Letters, 2009, vol. 8, p. 3–5. DOI: 10.1109/LAWP.2008.2005256
- AUGUSTIN, G., DENIDNI, T. A. An integrated ultra wideband /narrow band antenna in uniplanar configuration for cognitive radio systems. IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation, 2012, vol. 60, no. 11, p. 5479–5484. DOI: 10.1109/TAP.2012.2207688
- HAMID, M. R., GARDNER, P., HALL, P. S., et al. Vivaldi antenna with integrated switchable band pass resonator. IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation, 2011, vol. 59, no. 11, p. 4008–4015. DOI: 10.1109/TAP.2011.2164197
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Keywords: Cognitive radio, frequency reconfiguration, slot antenna, spectrum sensing, wideband antenna

**P. Chomtong, P. Akkaraekthalin**
[references] [full-text]
[DOI: 10.13164/re.2017.0755]
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Dual Band Square Planar Dipole Antennas with Interdigital Capacitors for Base Stations

A dual band antenna based on the square planar dipole structure with interdigital capacitors is proposed. With this technique, the harmonic frequency band can be controlled as desired. The dipole element is constructed using two square copper plates. The size of antenna is 21.6 cm x 13.8 cm. The bandwidths of the proposed antenna are 170MHz (1.71-1.88GHz) and 200MHz (5.15-5.35GHz), while the gains are 10 dB and 8 dB, respectively. To increase the antenna gain, the array antenna composing of the two designed dipoles is studied. The size of array antenna is 21.6 cm x 24.4 cm. The improved gains of 13.1 dB for the first band and 10.1 dB for the second band are obtained. The array antenna with four designed dipoles is also investigated. The high gains of 16.8 dB for the first band and 12.6 dB for the second band are obtained. The proposed array antennas have higher gains compared with the conventional array antennas with the same element numbers. Therefore, the proposed antennas are suitably used for LTE and WLAN base stations.

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Keywords: Square dipole antenna, array antenna, interdigital technique

**M. Sumi , A. Pradeep, B. Paul, S. Mridula**
[references] [full-text]
[DOI: 10.13164/re.2017.0765]
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High Security Chipless RFID Tags Using Frequency Shift Coding Technique

A high security chipless RFID tag designed using E shaped resonator is presented in this paper. The tag identity is encoded using Frequency Shift Coding technique. 144 different code words are possible in 2.78 to 3.85 GHz band using two E shaped resonators. The tag identity can be decoded from either amplitude or group delay information. The resonators are designed and fabricated on substrate C-MET LK4.3 of dielectric constant 4.3 and loss tangent 0.0018. Different tag combinations are designed and tested using bistatic measurement setup. Measurement results on realized prototypes are provided to ensure the reliability of the proposed design.

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- NOOR, T., HABIB, A., AMIN, Y., et al. High-density chipless RFID tag for temperature sensing. Electronics Letters, 2016, vol. 52, no. 8, p. 620–622. DOI: 10.1049/el.2015.4488
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- SAKOUHI, S., et al. A novel meander complementary split ring resonator-based RFID chipless tag. In Proceedings of the 2014 Mediterranean Microwave Symposium (MMS2014). Marrakech (Morocco), 2014, p. 1–5. DOI: 10.1109/MMS.2014.7088792
- NIJAS, C. M., et al. Chipless RFID tag using multiple microstrip open stub resonators. IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation, 2012, vol. 60, no. 9, p. 4429–4432. DOI: 10.1109/TAP.2012.2207081
- NIJAS, C. M., et al. Optimisation of quarter wave microstrip open stub resonators for chipless RFID applications. In Proceedings of the IEEE Antennas and Propagation Society International Symposium (APSURSI). Orlando, FL (USA), 2013, p. 1506–1507. DOI: 10.1109/APS.2013.6711412
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- PRERADOVIC, S., KARMAKAR, N. C. Multiresonator-based chipless RFID system for low-cost item tracking. IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques, 2009, vol. 57, no. 5, p. 1411–1419. DOI: 10.1109/TMTT.2009.2017323

Keywords: Bistatic measurement, chipless RFID tag, E shaped resonator, frequency shift coding technique, group delay

**S. Kumar, K. Saha, H. Gupta**
[references] [full-text]
[DOI: 10.13164/re.2017.0772]
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A 28-nm 32Kb SRAM For Low-VMIN Applications Using Write and Read Assist Techniques

In this paper new write and read assist techniques, reduced coupling signal negative bitline (RCS-NBL) and low power disturbance noise reduction (LP-DNR) of 6T static random-access memory (SRAM) to improve its minimal supply voltage (VMIN), have been presented. To observe the improvements in VMIN and power consumption of SRAM with the help of proposed assist techniques, a 32 Kb capacity SRAM, with 128 words of 256 bits width, is designed and simulated in 28-nm bulk CMOS technology. New RCS-NBL scheme, shows an improvement in SRAM write VMIN by 295 mV and also reduces overstress on pass transistor (PG) of the selected bitcell by 40 mV. Proposed LP-DNR scheme demonstrates an improvement in SRAM read VMIN by 35 mV and also shows a saving of the power loss in the existing DNR scheme during the read access which occurs due to continuous flow of current from the cross coupled latch to the discharge block path after the bitlines have settled. The static power consumption of this SRAM macro is improved by 48.9 % and 11.7 % while dynamic power by 91.7 % and 8.1 % with the help of proposed write and read assist techniques respectively. Area overheads of these proposed RCS-NBL and LP-DNR assist techniques for this macro are less than 0.79 % and 3.70 % respectively.

- CHEN, Y.-H., CHAN, W.-M., WU, W.-C., et al. A 16 nm 128 Mb SRAM in high-k metal-gate FinFET technology with write-assist circuitry for low-vmin applications. IEEE Journal of Solid-State Circuits, 2015, vol. 50, no. 1, p. 170–177. DOI: 10.1109/JSSC.2014.2349977
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- GROSSAR, E., STUCCHI, M., MAEX, K., et al. Read stability and write-ability analysis of SRAM cells for nanometer technologies. IEEE Journal of Solid-State Circuits, 2006, vol. 41, no. 11, p. 2577–2588. DOI: 10.1109/JSSC.2006.883344
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- ZHANG, K., BHATTACHARYA, U., CHEN, Z., et al. A 3-GHz 70-mb SRAM in 65-nm CMOS technology with integrated columnbased dynamic power supply. IEEE Journal of Solid-State Circuits, 2006, vol. 41, no. 1, p. 146–151. DOI: 10.1109/JSSC.2005.859025
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- TAKEDA, K., SAITO, T., ASAYAMA, S., et al. Multistep word-line control technology in hierarchical cell architecture for scaled-down high-density SRAMs. In Proceedings of the IEEE Symposium on VLSI Circuits. 2010, p. 101–102. DOI: 10.1109/VLSIC.2010.5560336
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Keywords: Low voltage, low power, SRAM, process variation, write assist, read assist, disturbance noise reduction (DNR)

**J. Marek, J. Hospodka, O. Subrt**
[references] [full-text]
[DOI: 10.13164/re.2017.0781]
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Guidelines on the Switch Transistors Sizing Using the Symbolic Description for the Cross-Coupled Charge Pump

This paper presents a symbolic description of the design process of the switch transistors for the cross- coupled charge pump applications. Discrete-time analog circuits are usually designed by the numerical algorithms in the professional simulator software which can be an extremely time-consuming process in contrast to described analytical procedure. The significant part of the pumping losses is caused by the reverse current through the switch transistors due to continuous-time voltage change on the main capacitors. Design process is based on the analytical expression of the time response characteristics of the pump stage as an analog system with using BSIM model equations. The main benefit of the article is the analytical transistors sizing formula, so that the maximum voltage gain is achieved. The diode transistor is dimensioned for the pump requirements, as the maximal pump output ripple voltage, current, etc. The characteristics of the proposed circuit has been verified by simulation in ELDO Spice. Results are valid for N-stage charge pump and also applicable for other model equations as PSP, EKV.

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Keywords: Time response characteristics, reverse current, cross-coupled charge pump, BSIM model, high-voltage

**B. Horvath, B. Botlik**
[references] [full-text]
[DOI: 10.13164/re.2017.0791]
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Optimization of Tone Reservation-Based PAPR Reduction for OFDM Systems

A major drawback of orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) is its high peak-to-average power ratio (PAPR). Tone reservation (TR) is one of the numerous methods for reducing the PAPR. Two parameters, the weight factor and the clipping ratio have significant impact on the PAPR reduction capability of TR methods. In this paper we thoroughly analyze the effect of these parameters. Based on these investigations two novel schemes, the globally and locally improved clipping ratio are introduced. Both methods rely on the feature that the CR can be adjusted between iterations. The main advantage of the globally improved clipping ratio is that, after offline preprocessing, it improves the PAPR reduction capabilities of the conventional TR scheme with same real-time computation complexity. The locally improved method can further enhance PAPR reduction capabilites on the cost of computation time.

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Keywords: OFDM, tone reservation, PAPR reduction, clipping ratio, optimization

**Y. Hu, M. Z. Song, X. Y. Dang, H. L. Yan**
[references] [full-text]
[DOI: 10.13164/re.2017.0798]
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Interference Mitigation for the GPS Receiver Utilizing the Cyclic Spectral Analysis and RR-MSWF Algorithm

A method utilizing the cyclic spectral analysis (CSA) and reduced-rank multistage Wiener filtering (RR-MSWF) algorithm to mitigate the interference for the GPS receiver is proposed. In many cases, interference from adjacent channel or from cochannel overlaps on the weak global positioning system (GPS) signal in both time and frequency domains, and it is hard to mitigate this kind of strong interference with the conventional filtering techniques. While with the proposed method given in the paper, we can mitigate the interference effectively. The general process of the proposed method is that first we get the cyclic frequencies (CFs) of the strong interference by CSA of the received GPS signal. And then with the obtained CFs of the interference, we use the blind adaptive frequency shift (BA-FRESH) filter to get the principal process of mitigating the strong interference and separating the weak GPS signal. Finally by utilizing the efficient RR-MSWF algorithm to implement the BA-FRESH filtering, we can mitigate the strong interference effectively and hence improve the performance of the GPS receiver.

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Keywords: GPS, interference mitigation, cyclic spectral analysis, frequency shift filtering (FRESH), reduced-rank multistage Wiener filtering algorithm (RR-MSWF)

**R. Vojinovic, M. Dakovic**
[references] [full-text]
[DOI: 10.13164/re.2017.0808]
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Optimization of Adaptive Three-Mode GBN Scheme Control Parameters

An adaptive three-mode system based on mbox{Go-Back-N} (GBN) protocol is analyzed within this paper. An ideal mode selection procedure based on a-priori known packet error probability is defined. When packet error probability is unknown the system state transition is controlled by several system parameters. A procedure for optimal parameters selection is proposed and tested on a simulated system. The procedure is based on minimization of mean square deviation of the system throughput from the ideal one.

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Keywords: Go-Back-N, packet error probability, wireless communications, throughput, TS-ARQ scheme, optimization, control parameters

**N. Tai, C. Wang, L. Liu, W. Wu, N. Yuan**
[references] [full-text]
[DOI: 10.13164/re.2017.0813]
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Deceptive Jamming Method with Micro-motion Property Against ISAR

Airborne target's micro-motion such as rotation or vibration causes phase modulation, termed as micro-Doppler effect, into radar signals. The feature of micro-motion is one of the most obvious features for radar recognition in mid-course phase. In traditional works, it is assumed that the micro-motion of the scatterer is the same as the ballistic target. However, with the variation of the aspect angle of ISAR, the position of the scatterer changes. In this paper, the movement of a ballistic missile in mid-course is modeled and analyzed. A false target jamming method is proposed by combining the micro-motion modulation and the electromagnetic scattering modulation. Compared with the methods using ideal point models, our method is able to generate a vivid false target with structural information, micro-motion and variation of the scatterer's RCS. The micro-motion effect of the false target is presented through ISAR imaging and time-frequency analysis. The effectiveness and correctness of the algorithm is verified by simulation.

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- ZHANG, R. W., LI, Y. P., JIAO, Y. F. Cognitive radar waveform diversity for anti-passive false target jamming in an active radar seeker. In Proceedings of the 15th International Conference on Instrumentation and Measurement, Computer, Communication and Control (IMCCC). Qinhuangdao (China), 2015, p. 1742–1745. DOI: 10.1109/IMCCC.2015.370
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Keywords: Micro-motion, false target, ISAR, jammer

**M. Imran, B. A. Harvey**
[references] [full-text]
[DOI: 10.13164/re.2017.0823]
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A Blind Adaptive Color Image Watermarking Scheme Based on Principal Component Analysis, Singular Value Decomposition and Human Visual System

A blind adaptive color image watermarking scheme based on principal component analysis, singular value decomposition, and human visual system is proposed. The use of principal component analysis to decorrelate the three color channels of host image, improves the perceptual quality of watermarked image. Whereas, human visual system and fuzzy inference system helped to improve both imperceptibility and robustness by selecting adaptive scaling factor, so that, areas more prone to noise can be added with more information as compared to less prone areas. To achieve security, location of watermark embedding is kept secret and used as key at the time of watermark extraction, whereas, for capacity both singular values and vectors are involved in watermark embedding process. As a result, four contradictory requirements; imperceptibility, robustness, security and capacity are achieved as suggested by results. Both subjective and objective methods are acquired to examine the performance of proposed schemes. For subjective analysis the watermarked images and watermarks extracted from attacked watermarked images are shown. For objective analysis of proposed scheme in terms of imperceptibility, peak signal to noise ratio, structural similarity index, visual information fidelity and normalized color difference are used. Whereas, for objective analysis in terms of robustness, normalized correlation, bit error rate, normalized hamming distance and global authentication rate are used. Security is checked by using different keys to extract the watermark. The proposed schemes are compared with state-of-the-art watermarking techniques and found better performance as suggested by results.

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Keywords: Image watermarking, principal component analysis, singular value decomposition, human visual system, imperceptibility, robustness

**G. Chang, X. Yu, C. Yu**
[references] [full-text]
[DOI: 10.13164/re.2017.0835]
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Discrete Frequency and Phase Coding Waveform for MIMO Radar

In multi-input multi-output (MIMO) radar system, good orthogonality between transmitting waveforms will fairly simplify the signal processing, along with improve the targets detection as well as the parameters estimation performance of the system. In this paper, a discrete frequency and phase coding waveform (DFPCW), which attains good orthogonality by varying the carrier frequency and initial phase of each pulse in the pulse train, is designed. The theoretical derivations of ambiguity function (AF) and cross ambiguity function (CAF) of the DFPCW are also given. After then, a generic algorithm (GA) is applied by optimizing the carrier frequency code sequence and initial phase code sequence to minimize both the auto-correlation sidelobe peaks (ASP) and cross-correlation peaks (CP) of the waveforms. The simulation results demonstrate that DFPCW has better orthogonality and sidelobe property compared with the traditional discrete frequency coding waveform and widely employed frequency modulated continuous wave (FMCW), henceforth this new waveform may become to an alternative option for MIMO radar.

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Keywords: MIMO radar, orthogonal waveform design, discrete frequency and phase coding waveform

**N. Daryasafar, R. A. Sadeghzadeh, M. Naser-Moghadasi**
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[DOI: 10.13164/re.2017.0842]
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Promotion of GM-PHD Filtering Approach for Single-Target Tracking in Raw Data of Synthetic Aperture Radar in Spotlight Imaging Mode

So far multi-antenna techniques have been used in Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) to track moving targets. These techniques carry out the tracking of moving targets in an imaging area, using a combination of the data received by two or several antennas. The aim of this paper is single-target tracking in SAR Spotlight imaging mode based on the promoted PHD filter. In most applications, target tracking in densely cluttered environment using radar system demands robust filtering so as to increase the tracking efficiency. Therefore, tracking of moving targets in the presence of high density clutters in environment, as the particular capability of the PHD filter, has turned it into a robust approach in SAR to track moving targets. Also as the simulation results show, using Range Cell Migration Compensation (RCMC) on SAR raw data before tracking, makes it possible to track a moving target with high quality.

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Keywords: Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR), Probability Hypothesis Density (PHD) filter, Linear Frequency Modulation (LFM), Range Cell Migration Compensation (RCMC), Random Finite Set (RFS)

**R. Irfan, H. Rasheed, W. A. Toor**
[references] [full-text]
[DOI: 10.13164/re.2017.0851]
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FPGA-based Low Latency Inverse QRD Architecture for Adaptive Beamforming in Phased Array Radars

The main objective of this paper is to facilitate the adaptive beamforming which is one of the most challenging task in phased array radars receivers. Recursive least square (RLS) is considered as the most well suited adaptive algorithm for the applications where beamforming is mandatory, because of its good numerical properties and convergence rate. In this paper, some RLS variants are discussed and the most numerically suitable algorithm Inverse QRD is selected for efficient adaptive beamforming. A novel architecture for IQRD RLS is also presented, which offers low latency and low area occupation for Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) implementation. This approach reduces the computations by utilizing the standard pipelining methodology. Hence, efficient adder and multipliers and LUT based solution for square root and division, has highly enhanced the performance of the algorithm. The proposed IQRD RLS architecture has been coded in Verilog and analyze its performance in terms of throughput, hardware resources and efficiency.

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Keywords: Adaptive filters, beamforming, phased-array radars, Recursive Least Square (RLS), Inverse QR Decomposition (IQRD), Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA)

**T. N. Nguyen, P. T. Tran, H. S. Nguyen, D. T. Do, M. Voznak**
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[DOI: 10.13164/re.2017.0860]
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On the Performance of a Wireless Powered Communication System Using a Helping Relay

This paper studies the outage performance and system throughput of a bidirectional wireless information and power transfer system with a helping relay. The relay helps forward wireless power from the access point (AP) to the user, and also the information from the user to the AP in the reverse direction. We assume that the relay uses time switching based energy harvesting protocol. The analytical results provide theoretical insights into the effect of various system parameters, such as time switching factor, source transmission rate, transmitting-power-to-noise ratio to system performance for both amplify-and-forward and decode-and-forward relaying protocols. The optimal time switching ratio is determined in each case to maximize the information throughput from the user to the AP subject to the energy harvesting and consumption balance constraints at both the relay and the user. All of the above analyses are confirmed by Monte-Carlo simulation.

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Keywords: Amplify-and-forward, bidirectional relay, decode-and-forward, wireless powered communications, time-switching

**D. T. Do, H. S. Nguyen, M. Voznak, T. S. Nguyen**
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[DOI: 10.13164/re.2017.0869]
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Wireless Powered Relaying Networks Under Imperfect Channel State Information: System Performance and Optimal Policy for Instantaneous Rate

In this investigation, we consider wireless powered relaying systems, where energy is scavenged by a relay via radio frequency (RF) signals. We explore hybrid time switching-based and power splitting-based relaying protocol (HTPSR) and compare performance of Amplify-and-Forward (AF) with Decode-and-Forward (DF) scheme under imperfect channel state information (CSI). Most importantly, the instantaneous rate, achievable bit error rate (BER) are determined in the closed-form expressions under the impact of imperfect CSI. Through numerical analysis, we evaluate system insights via different parameters such as power splitting (PS) and time switching (TS) ratio of the considered HTPSR which affect outage performance and BER. It is noted that DF relaying networks outperform AF relaying networks. Besides that, the numerical results are given to prove the optimization problems of PS and TS ratio to obtain optimal instantaneous rate.

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- JU, H., ZHANG, R. Optimal resource allocation in fullduplex wireless-powered communication network. IEEE Transactions on Communications, 2014, vol. 62, no. 10, p. 3528–3540. DOI: 10.1109/TCOMM.2014.2359878
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Keywords: Amplify-and-forward, decode-and-forward, throughput, channel state information, outage probability, cooperative network, bit error rate, energy harvesting

**S. Mughal, F. F. Yang, S. Ejaz, S. H. Ahmed, R. Umar**
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[DOI: 10.13164/re.2017.0878]
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Asymmetric Turbo Code for Coded-Cooperative Wireless Communication Based on Matched Interleaver with Channel Estimation and Multi-Receive Antennas at the Destination

This paper investigates the multiple relay coded-cooperation scheme based on asymmetric turbo code (ATC) with multiple receive antennas over Rayleigh block fading channels. An encoding scheme based on ATC is proposed for coded-cooperation i.e. distributed asymmetric turbo code (DATC). The code matched interleaver (CMI) is selected by a rigorous comparison with a uniform-random interleaver (URI). This optimum choice of interleaver at the relay nodes provides maximum benefit from DATC coded-cooperation scheme. Practically in any wireless communication system, the channel side information (CSI) is usually unknown at the receiver. Therefore, spatial normalized least mean square (NLMS) adaptive transversal filters are employed to estimate the CSI at the destination node. Moreover, in coded-cooperation scheme, the effectiveness and validation of spatial NLMS adaptive transversal filters is also verified by simulation results. Quadrature phase shift keying (QPSK) is used in coded-cooperation scheme and corresponding soft-demodulators are employed along with joint iterative soft-input soft-output (SISO) decoder at the destination node. Monte Carlo simulations shows that the proposed scheme incorporates coding gain, diversity gain and cooperation gain successfully, which eventually results in net gain of 2.7 to 3.5 dBs over non-cooperation ATC counterpart.

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Keywords: Joint iterative SISO decoder, coded-cooperation, distributed asymmetric turbo code, CMI, channel side information, multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO)

**S. Hou, Y. Zhou, H. Liu, N. Zhu**
[references] [full-text]
[DOI: 10.13164/re.2017.0890]
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Wavelet Support Vector Machine Algorithm in Power Analysis Attacks

Template attacks and machine learning are two powerful methods in the field of side channel attack. In this paper, we aimed to contribute to the novel application of support vector machine (SVM) algorithm in power analysis attacks. Especially, wavelet SVM can approximate arbitrary nonlinear functions due to the multidimensional analysis of wavelet functions and the generalization of SVM. Three independent datasets were selected to compare the performance of template attacks and SVM based on various kernels. The results indicated that wavelet SVM successfully recovered the offset value of the masked AES implementation for each trace, which was obviously 5 to 8 percentage points higher than SVM-RBF. And also, the time required was almost reduced by 40% when using the optimal parameters of wavelet SVM. Moreover, wavelet SVM only required an average of 5.4 traces to break the secret key for the unmasked AES implementation and less than 7 traces for the masked AES implementation.

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Keywords: Power analysis attacks, template attacks, support vector machine, wavelet analysis, kernel function

**J. Kubak, P. Sovka, M. Vlcek**
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[DOI: 10.13164/re.2017.0903]
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Evaluation of Computing Symmetrical Zolotarev Polynomials of the First Kind

This report summarize and compares with each other various methods for computing the symmetrical Zolotarev Polynomial of the first kind and its spectrum. Suitable criteria are suggested for the comparison. The best numerical stability shows the method employing Chebyshev polynomial recurrence. In case of the polynomial spectrum computation the best method is the one using the difference backward recursion introduced by M. Vlcek. Both methods are able to generate the polynomial of high degree up to, at least, 2000, using 32-bit IEEE floating point arithmetics.

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Keywords: Chebyshev polynomial, symmetrical Zolotarev polynomial of the first kind, spectrum of Zolotarev polynomial, power expansion, trigonometric functions, forward and backward recursion, binomial coefficients