# April 2020, Volume 29, Number 1 [DOI: 10.13164/re.2020-1]

**C. Tomassoni, M. Bozzi**
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[DOI: 10.13164/re.2020.0001]
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Microwave Components Realized by Additive Manufacturing Techniques

This paper presents an overview of the use of additive manufacturing (AM) technologies for the implementation of microwave components. Two major technological solutions, based on the AM of plastic materials, are discussed: in the former case, the AM plastic is used as a dielectric material that constitutes the component. Conversely, in the latter case, the plastic material is a mere support of the metallization, thus avoiding the contact of the AM plastic with the electromagnetic field and reducing losses. Several examples are illustrated and discussed, to highlight benefits and limitations of AM techniques in the current scenario of microwave applications.

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Keywords: Additeve manufacturing, microwave components, microwave filters, slab waveguides, microwave sensors

**M. R. Rufuie, A. Lamecki, P. Sypek, M. Mrozowski**
[references] [full-text]
[DOI: 10.13164/re.2020.0010]
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Residue-Pole Methods for Variability Analysis of S-parameters of Microwave Devices with 3D FEM and Mesh Deformation

This paper presents a new approach for variability analysis of microwave devices with a high dimension of uncertain parameters. The proposed technique is based on modeling an approximation of system by its poles and residues using several modeling methods, including ordinary kriging, Adaptive Polynomial Chaos (APCE), and Support Vector Machine Regression (SVM). The computational cost is compared with the traditional Monte-Carlo method. To improve the efficiency, mesh deformation is applied within 3D FEM framework.

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Keywords: kriging, uncertainty quantification, surrogate models, microwave filters, vector fitting, mesh-morphing

**G. Baudoin**
[references] [full-text]
[DOI: 10.13164/re.2020.0021]
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On Segmented Predistortion for Linearization of RF Power Amplifiers

This paper presents a general survey of digital predistortion (DPD) techniques with segmentation. A comparison of global DPD with two segmented approaches namely Vector-Switched DPD and Decomposed Vector Rotation DPD is presented with the support of experimentation on a strongly non-linear 3 ways Doherty PA. It shows the interest of both segmented approaches in terms of linearization performance, complexity and ease of implementation compared to the global DPD. The paper starts with some mathematical generalities on interpolation and splines. It focuses on segmented models derived from Volterra series even if the presented principles can also be applied to neural networks.

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Keywords: Digital predistortion, piecewise models, splines, vector-switched DPD, decomposed vector rotation DPD, power amplifiers

**M. U. Hadi, J. Nanni, O. Venard, G. Baudoin, J. L. Polleux, G. Tartarini**
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[DOI: 10.13164/re.2020.0037]
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Practically Feasible Closed-Loop Digital Predistortion for VCSEL-MMF-Based Radio-over-Fiber links

The article demonstrates a novel Digital Predistortion (DPD) architecture for Mobile Front Haul links for the advanced Long-Term Evolution (LTE) and upcoming 5G networks. Precisely, the use of a feedback approximation method has been proposed and experimentally demonstrated herein that simplifies the complexities in realizing the practical DPD technique for Multi-Mode VCSELs and Multi-Mode Fibers based Radio over Fiber systems. As a figure of merit, linearization efficiency is provided in terms of Adjacent Channel Power Ratio, Normalized Mean Square Error and Error Vector Magnitude referring to a complete LTE frame occupying 10 MHz with 256-QAM modulation format.

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Keywords: Radio over Fiber (RoF), Digital Predistortion (DPD), Indirect Learning Architecture (ILA), Adjacent Channel Power Ratio (ACPR), Vertical Cavity Surface Emitting Lasers (VCSEL), Long Term Evolution (LTE)

**A. Zaidi, W. A. Awan, N. Hussain, A. Baghdad**
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[DOI: 10.13164/re.2020.0044]
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A Wide and Tri-band Flexible Antennas with Independently Controllable Notch Bands for Sub-6-GHz Communication System

A wide-band and tri-band flexible antenna for fifth-generation (5G) sub-6-GHz communication systems is investigated in this paper. The proposed wideband antenna covers the 5G new radio (NR) mid-band, ranging from 2.8 to 5.35 GHz, while the tri-band antenna is resonating at three different allocated frequency bands (2.45 GHz, 3.5 GHz, and 4.7 GHz) for 5G sub-6-GHz communications. This functionality is achieved by introducing hexagonal split-ring resonators in the radiating element, which can be controlled independently without affecting antenna performance to avoid problems of interference in this frequency spectrum. In addition, the antenna also presents a good conformability characteristic, and the simulated results are confirmed with the measurements of the fabricated prototype.

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- AWAN, W. A., ZAIDI, A., BAGHDAD, A. Super wide band miniaturized patch antenna design for 5G communications. In International Conference on Wireless Technologies, Embedded and Intelligent Systems (WITS). Fez (Morrocco), 2019, p. 1–2. DOI: 10.1109/WITS.2019.8723762
- AWAN, W. A., HUSSAIN, N., LE, T. T. Ultra-thin flexible fractal antenna for 2.45 GHz application with wideband harmonic rejection. AEU-International Journal of Electronics and Communication, 2019, vol. 101, p. 1–7. DOI: 10.1016/j.aeue.2019.152851
- AWAN, W. A., ZAIDI, A., HUSSAIN, N., et al. Stub loaded, low profile UWB antenna with independently controllable notch bands. Microwave and Optical Technology Letters, 2019, vol. 61, no. 11, p. 2447–2454. DOI: 10.1002/mop.31915
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- DATTATREYA, G., NAIK, K. K. A low volume flexible CPWfed elliptical-ring with split-triangular patch dual-band antenna. International Journal of RF and Microwave Computer-Aided Engineering, 2019, vol. 29, no. 8, p. 1–9. DOI: 10.1002/mmce.21766
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Keywords: Flexible antenna, sub-6-GHz, tri-bands, 5G mid-band, conformal structure

**Sk. N. Islam, S. Das**
[references] [full-text]
[DOI: 10.13164/re.2020.0052]
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Isosceles Triangular Resonator Based Compact Triple Band Quad Element Multi Terminal Antenna

A triple band quad element multi-input-multi-output (MIMO) antenna is proposed for Bluetooth (2.4 GHz), WLAN (2.5/4.9 GHz) and LTE (3.7 GHz) applications. A compact triangular ring-shaped structure is used as an antenna element. An isosceles triangular ring resonator is designed in such a way that it offers dual-band and another ring resonator is placed inside the empty space of the first resonator to obtain the third band. The antenna element is studied in terms of |S11| and also the current distributions are observed at three resonance frequencies to find out the resonance mechanism. The proposed quad element MIMO antenna is compact in total area (0.45λ0×0.45λ0). Isolation better than 20 dB is achieved with minimum inter-element spacing of 0.07λ0 without extra isolation circuit. Gain, radiation patterns, envelope correlation coefficient (ECC), diversity gain (DG), channel capacity loss (CCL) and total active reflection coefficient (TARC) values are studied to comprehend the MIMO performance of the proposed design.

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- KUMARI, T., DAS, G., SHARMA, A., et al. Design approach for dual element hybrid MIMO antenna arrangement for wideband applications. International Journal of RF and Microwave Computer‐Aided Engineering, 2019, vol. 29, no. 1, p. 1–10. DOI: 10.1002/mmce.21486
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Keywords: Isosceles triangular ring resonator, triple band antenna, MIMO antenna, isolation

**L. Zou, X. T. Wang, W. Wang, W. Y. Du**
[references] [full-text]
[DOI: 10.13164/re.2020.0059]
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Ku-Band High Performance Monopulse Microstrip Array Antenna Based on Waveguide Coupling Slot Array Feeding Network

A high gain low sidelobe monopulse microstrip array antenna for Ku-band frequency modulated conti-nuous wave (FMCW) radar application is proposed. The design consists of microstrip array radiation front-end and waveguide coupling slot array feeding network back-end. The microstrip array comprises 16×32 series-fed patches etched on the top side and slotted ground on the bottom side. A series of shunt slots in the broad-wall are loaded on a WR51 standard magic Tee waveguide to form a compact low loss monopulse comparator and hybrid feeding network. The radiation front and feeding network is individually fabricated with standard printed circuit board (PCB) and machining process and then can be integrated by advanced assembling process. Precise alignment of waveguide slots and ground slots is obtained during these procedures to achieve accurate excitation. Measured results are in accordance with simulation results and show about 32.5dBi max gain and -25dB sidelobe level (SLL) of sum pattern in E plane and -27dB null-depth of difference pattern at 17 GHz center frequency.

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Keywords: FMCW radar, monopulse antenna, high performance, microstrip array, waveguide coupling slot array, array feeding network

**A. Siahcheshm, J. Nourinia, Ch. Ghobadi, M. Shokri**
[references] [full-text]
[DOI: 10.13164/re.2020.0067]
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Circularly Polarized Printed Helix Antenna for L- and S-Bands Applications

The first aim of this work is to design a new geometry of printed helix antennas in a simple structure that only uses planar FR4 substrates, unlike conventional wire helix antennas. The main body of helix comprises four rectangular substrates containing helix arms forming a box. The printed helix arms are designed in a way that they meet each other in the edges of substrates when placed next to one another. The most important advantages of this work are introducing a method that makes the helix antenna fabrication and also the impedance matching procedure simpler. The presented helix antenna has end-fire radiation in Z-direction with circular polarization suitable for L- and S-bands applications. Simulated and measured results show that the proposed antenna has a wide impedance bandwidth of 1.37 GHz from 1.56 GHz to 2.93 GHz (more than 61%), the 3 dB axial ratio bandwidth of 1.18 GHz from 1.58 GHz to 2.76 GHz (more than 54%) and a maximum gain of 11.3 dBiC at 1.6 GHz.

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- WONG, J., KING, H. Broadband quasi-taper helical antennas. IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation, 1979, vol. 27, no. 1, p. 72–78. DOI: 10.1109/tap.1979.1142033
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Keywords: Helix antenna, end-fire radiation pattern, circular polarization, L- and S-bands applications

**P. Saha, D. Mitra, S. K. Parui**
[references] [full-text]
[DOI: 10.13164/re.2020.0074]
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A Frequency and Polarization Agile Disc Monopole Wearable Antenna for Medical Applications

A combined frequency and polarization reconfigurable textile based wearable disc monopole antenna is proposed in this paper. The antenna consists of a disc monopole as the radiator and four PIN diodes for realizing the agility property. By varying the different switching combination of the PIN diodes, frequency reconfigurability is achieved between the GSM and ISM band. Two circular polarization states, right hand circular polarization (RHCP) and left hand circular polarization (LHCP) are also realized in each operating frequency band. The upper band polarization state is controlled by a L shaped stub introduced in the ground plane whereas the lower band polarization agility depends on the length of the parasitic arc placed around the main radiator. The antenna is fabricated and its performance is measured to validate the proposed design.

- QIN, P.Y., GUO, Y. J., CAI, Y., et al. A reconfigurable antenna with frequency and polarization agility. IEEE Antennas and Wireless Propagation Letters, 2011, vol. 10, p. 1373–1376. DOI: 10.1109/LAWP.2011.2178226
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- LI, P. K., SHAO, Z. H., WANG, Q., et al. Frequency and pattern reconfigurable antenna for multi-standard wireless applications. IEEE Antennas and Wireless Propagation Letters, 2014, vol. 14, p. 333–336. DOI: 10.1109/LAWP.2014.2359196
- LIN, W., WONG, H. Polarization reconfigurable wheel-shaped antenna with conical-beam radiation pattern. IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation, 2015, vol. 63, no 2, p. 491–499. DOI: 10.1109/TAP.2014.2381263
- LI, T., ZHAI, H., WANG, X., et al. Frequency-reconfigurable bow-tie antenna for Bluetooth, WIMAX, and WLAN applications. IEEE Antennas and Wireless Propagation Letters, 2014, vol. 14, p. 171–147. DOI: 10.1109/LAWP.2014.2359199
- KIM, B., PAN, B., NIKOLAOU, S., et al. A novel single-feed circular microstrip antenna with reconfigurable polarization capability. IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation, 2008, vol. 56, no. 3, p. 630–638. DOI: 10.1109/TAP.2008.916894
- SARASWAT, K., HARISH, A. R. A polarization reconfigurable CPW fed monopole antenna with L-shaped parasitic element. International Journal of RF and Microwave Computer Aided Engineering, 2018, vol. 28, no. 6, p. 1–6. DOI: 10.1002/mmce.21285
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- BHATTACHARJEE, A., DWARI, S., MANDAL, M. K. Polarization-reconfigurable compact monopole antenna with wide effective bandwidth. IEEE Antennas and Wireless Propagation Letters, 2019, vol. 18, no. 5, p. 1040–1045. DOI: 10.1109/LAWP.2019.2908661
- CUI, Y., QI, C., LI, R. A low-profile broadband quad-polarization reconfigurable omnidirectional antenna. IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation, 2019, vol. 67, no. 6, p. 4178–4183. DOI: 10.1109/TAP.2019.2905987
- QIN, P. Y., GUO, Y. J., DING, C. A dual-band polarization reconfigurable antenna for WLAN systems. IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation, 2013, vol. 61, no. 11, p. 5706–5713. DOI: 10.1109/TAP.2013.2279219
- SIMORANGKIR, R. B. V. B., YANG, Y., ESSELLE, K. P., et al. A method to realize robust flexible electronically tunable antennas using polymer-embedded conductive fabric. IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation, 2018, vol. 66, no. 1, p. 50–58. DOI: 10.1109/TAP.2017.2772036
- TAHIR, F. A., JAVED, A. A compact dual-band frequency reconfigurable textile antenna for wearable applications. Microwave and Optical Technology Letters, 2015, vol. 57, no. 10, p. 2251–2257. DOI: 10.1002/mop.29311
- YAN, S., VANDENBOSCH G. A. E. Radiation patternreconfigurable wearable antenna based on metamaterial structure. IEEE Antennas and Wireless Propagation Letters, 2016, vol. 15, p. 1715–1718. DOI: 10.1109/LAWP.2016.2528299
- TONG, X., LIU, C., LIU, X., et al. Switchable ON-/OFF-body antenna for 2.45 GHz WBAN applications. IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation, 2018, vol. 66, no. 2, p. 967–971. DOI: 10.1109/TAP.2017.2780984
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- Data Sheet of BAP64-03 Silicon PIN diode.

Keywords: Wearable antenna, frequency reconfigurable antenna, polarization reconfigurable antenna, disc monopole, medical applications

**W. P. Zhao, J. Li, J. Zhao, D. Zhao, J. Lu, X. Wang**
[references] [full-text]
[DOI: 10.13164/re.2020.0081]
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XGB Model : Research on Evaporation Duct Height Prediction Based on XGBoost Algorithm

Evaporation duct is a specific atmospheric structure at sea, which has an important influence on the propagation path of electromagnetic waves (EW). Considering the limit of existing evaporation duct height (EDH) prediction models and aiming at prpoposing more accurate and stronger generalization ability of EDH models, we applied eXtreme Gradient Boosting (XGBoosting) algorithm to the field of evaporation duct for the first time. And we proposed the new EDH prediction model using XGBoost algorithm(XGB model). Simultaneously, traditional Paulus-Jeske (PJ) model and deep learning Multilayer Perceptron (MLP) model were introduced into the experiment to make a comparison. In terms of comprehensive performance, XGB model is optimal in all sub-regions and total area. Finally, cross-learning experiments were carried out to test the generalization ability of XGB model. The results show that the generalization ability of XGB model is better than that of MLP model.

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Keywords: Evaporation duct, machine learning, XGBoost algorithm, XGB model, Paulus-Jeske (PJ) model

**R. K. Barik, Q. S. Cheng, N. C. Pradhan, K. S. Subramanian**
[references] [full-text]
[DOI: 10.13164/re.2020.0094]
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A Compact SIW Power Divider for Dual-Band Applications

In this paper, a novel design of highly compact power divider employing substrate-integrated waveguide (SIW) is proposed for dual-band applications. The double-ring asymmetric complimentary split-ring resonators (CSRRs) are utilized to obtain dual-band operation. The asymmetric double-ring CSRRs create mixed magnetic and electric coupling resulting two distinct resonating frequencies which exhibits bandpass behaviour below the resonating frequency of the cavity. The resonating passbands can be designed individually by varying the dimensions of the proposed CSRRs. In addition, the position of output ports can be varied to achieve arbitrary power division. To demonstrate the proposed analysis, three prototypes (two equal power division and one unequal power division) of dual-band SIW power dividers are designed and fabricated. Measurement performance provides a good consistency with that of simulated one. The circuit areas of the fabricated prototypes 1, 2 and 3 excluding microstrip transitions are 0.053λg2, 0.088λg2 and 0.033λg2, respectively. The proposed design process exhibits dual-band performance with smaller circuit-area, suitable isolation and hence appropriate for dual-band communication services.

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Keywords: Dual-band, SIW, compact, power divider

**H.P. Li, I. Hussain, Y. Wang, Q. S. Cao**
[references] [full-text]
[DOI: 10.13164/re.2020.0101]
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Smart-Mesh Strategy in DGTD Method for Partially Filled Cavity with Uncertain Interface Parameters

To achieve high quality localization of nodes, a smart-mesh strategy is employed in the discontinuous Galerkin time-domain (DGTD) simulation. The strategy is able to adjust adaptively the nodes defined on the unstructured triangular element in real-time simulation, thus an arbitrary or uncertain shaped object can be modeled accurately. The benefits of smart-mesh strategy are demonstrated for a partially dielectric filled cavity with microscale random material height and uncertain rough interface. Numerical experiments show that the smart-mesh approach can capture fine structural information and achieve more effective positions to match variable shapes.

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Keywords: DGTD, partially filled cavity, smart mesh, uncertain interface parameters, resonant frequency

**I. M. Mashriki, S. M. J. Razavi, S. H. M. Armaki**
[references] [full-text]
[DOI: 10.13164/re.2020.0109]
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Analyzing the Resonance Resultant from the Capacitive Effects in Bulk Current Injection Probe

In this paper, the effect of the slot distance, existed between the two parts of BCI-probe shield, on its performance is studied, therefore, two ferrite materials with the same size and different characteristics are used to implement two identical BCI-probes. The input impedance and reflection coefficient are measured for four different values of slot distance 0.5, 1, 2 and 3 mm. Practical results show a notable effect of the slot distance on measured quantities. Measured impedance analysis shows the appearance of three capacitive regions in its spectra, therefore, a three dimensional electromagnetic (EM) model is implemented in CST-Microwave Studio (MWS) software to disclose the main source parameters responsible for it. Results of achieved study, using developed EM model, were in accordance with measured data for the implemented prototypes, and showed the same resonance phenomena.

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Keywords: Bulk current injection (BCI) probe, electromagnetic compatibility (EMC), shield effect, slot capacitance, dielectric constant of ferrite

**K. Sarmah , S. Goswami, S. Baruah**
[references] [full-text]
[DOI: 10.13164/re.2020.0117]
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Surrogate Model Assisted Design of CSRR Structure using Genetic Algorithm for Microstrip Antenna Application

Soft-computational approaches have enabled quicker and more efficient means for antenna design. In the present work, a genetic algorithm (GA) based method is reported for the design of complementary split ring resonator (CSRR) structures for antenna design. A multi-objective optimization problem is formulated to design the antenna. The cost function of the optimization problem is calculated from a surrogate model of the CSRR structure. The surrogate model is created first using an analytical model of the CSRR structure and then using an artificial neural network (ANN). A comparative study of the result shows that the ANN based surrogate model is more accurate compared to the surrogate model using an analytical model. An antenna with an integrated filter is built using a CSRR structure designed using the proposed method. The performance of the antenna is validated from simulation and measurement results.

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Keywords: Artificial neural network, surrogate model, complementary split ring resonator, microstrip antenna, genetic algorithm, soft-computational design

**S. Wu, J. Wang, J. Liu, D. Y Cheng, Y. B. Wu, R. F. Li, M. Q. Li**
[references] [full-text]
[DOI: 10.13164/re.2020.0125]
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A Novel Design of Single Branch Wideband Rectifier for Low-Power Application

This paper proposes a novel design of single branch wideband rectifier working at low input power level. Both the impedance tuning part and a dual-band matching network are adopted for wideband impedance matching. Theoretical analysis of the proposed wideband rectifier is presented and its closed-form design equations are derived. As an illustrated example, a wideband rectifier is designed and fabricated. Experimental results show that the fabricated rectifier features wide operated fractional bandwidth of more than 50%, low input power level from -5.0 dBm to 5 dBm, as well as a simple circuit structure and design procedure.

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Keywords: Wideband, rectifier, wireless energy harvesting, impedance matching

**M. Prieto, M. A. de Pablo, M. Ramos, J. J. Jimenez**
[references] [full-text]
[DOI: 10.13164/re.2020.0132]
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Experimental Tests and Performance Evaluation of a VHF Data Transceiver Prototype for Operation in the Antarctic Regions

This paper presents the study and implementation results of a point to point radio data link carried out by the PERMASNOW project Research Team in the Gabriel de Castilla (GdC) Spanish Antarctic Station (Deception Island, South Shetland archipelago, Antarctica) under challenging Non Line-of Sight (NLOS) conditions. Our final goal is to succeed in the remote data access of the multiple and dispersed measurement stations deployed in the surrounding area of the Antarctic Stations without the use of costly satellite communication systems. For so, a wireless sensor network scheme is proposed in which the key element is the node radio data transceiver characterized in this paper. The main design driver is the harsh Antarctic environmental conditions, which leads to a low power and rugged wireless solution. This study confirms the usefulness of the amateur-radio bands and equipment, which mainly give versatility in frequencies, modulations and power configurations. The terrain topography shows to be the key factor in the short-range segment, notably affecting the propagation conditions. For the long-range segment, the best solution still shows to be a satellite link but promising ionospheric data link has been successfully tested.

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Keywords: Data-link, Sensor network, APRS, Antarctica, NLOS

**V. T. Pham, D. S. Ali, N. M. G. Al-Saidi, K. Rajagopal, F. E. Alsaadi, S. Jafari**
[references] [full-text]
[DOI: 10.13164/re.2020.0140]
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A Novel Mega-stable Chaotic Circuit

In recent years designing new multistable chaotic oscillators has been of noticeable interest. A multistable system is a double-edged sword which can have many benefits in some applications while in some other situations they can be even dangerous. In this paper, we introduce a new multistable two-dimensional oscillator. The forced version of this new oscillator can exhibit chaotic solutions which makes it much more exciting. Also, another scarce feature of this system is the complex basins of attraction for the infinite coexisting attractors. Some initial conditions can escape the whirlpools of nearby attractors and settle down in faraway destinations. The dynamical properties of this new system are investigated by the help of equilibria analysis, bifurcation diagram, Lyapunov exponents’ spectrum, and the plot of basins of attraction. The feasibility of the proposed system is also verified through circuit implementation.

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Keywords: Multistability, chaotic oscillators, basin of attraction, coexisting attractors

**S. Dautovic, N. Samardzic, A. Juhas**
[references] [full-text]
[DOI: 10.13164/re.2020.0147]
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Takacs Model of Hysteresis in Mathematical Modeling of Memristors

In this paper, the mathematical modeling of memristor via Takacs model of hysteresis is presented along with a modification of this model tailored to describe the asymmetric hysteresis loop and first order reversal curves. In particular, it is shown that there is a class of differential equations of the Duhem model of hysteresis where every member of the class could play a role of the state equation of memristor. Within this class of Duhem differential equations, there are two distinct subclasses: one corresponding to the Takacs model and the other one corresponding to the state equations of the memristor model with the Biolek window function of various degrees p. These two subclasses have a non-empty intersection, which contains the state equation of the memristor model with the Biolek window function for p=1. To demonstrate the proposed approach, three examples are presented.

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Keywords: Hysteresis loop, Takacs model, pinched hysteresis loop, memristor

**A. Lomayev, V. Kravtsov, M. Genossar, A. Maltsev, A. Khoryaev**
[references] [full-text]
[DOI: 10.13164/re.2020.0159]
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Method for Phase Noise Impact Compensation in 60 GHz OFDM Receivers

This paper presents a method for phase noise impact compensation in 60 GHz OFDM receivers and provides the results of performance evaluation using OFDM PHY parameters defined in the IEEE 802.11ay standard. It is shown that the phase noise in 60 GHz band has a critical impact on the OFDM performance for high data rate transmission employing high order modulation constellations. The proposed compensation method combines time domain algorithm predicting the linear average phase trend on the OFDM symbol duration and estimation in frequency domain of phase noise spectrum realization and convolution with correction filter response. Both algorithms use Maximum A Posteriori Probability (MAP) estimation approach to find the optimal solution and are applied successively. The proposed algorithms have moderate implementation complexity which is especially important for high speed 11ay hardware modem architecture. The performance of the proposed algorithms is evaluated in the frequency flat and frequency selective channels with phase noise model adopted in the IEEE 802.11ay.

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Keywords: Phase noise, 60 GHz, OFDM, linear phase trend, deconvolution, Maximum A Posteriori Probability, MAP, IEEE 802.11ay

**P. Kurada, S. Maruvada, K. R. Sanagapallea**
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[DOI: 10.13164/re.2020.0174]
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Speech Bandwidth Extension Using DWT-FFT-Based Data Hiding

A novel transform-domain speech bandwidth extension algorithm is proposed to transmit information about the missing speech frequencies over a hidden channel, i.e., the related encoded spectral envelope parameters are hidden within the narrowband speech signal using discrete wavelet transform-fast Fourier transform-based data hiding (DWTFFTBDH) technique. The hidden information is recovered reliably at the receiver to produce a wideband speech signal of much higher quality. Obtained results confirm the excellent reconstructed wideband speech quality of the proposed algorithm over traditional methods.

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Keywords: Public Switched Telephone Network (PSTN), bandwidth extension of narrowband speech, DWT-FFT-based data hiding, speech quality, spread spectrum

**X. Fan, Z. Tan, P. Song, L. Chen**
[references] [full-text]
[DOI: 10.13164/re.2020.0182]
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A Variable Step-size CLMS Algorithm and Its Analysis

In this paper, a hyperbolic tangent variable step-size convex combination of the least mean square (HTVSCLMS) algorithm is proposed and analyzed. This work avoids the compromise between the convergence speed and the steady-state error for two filters in convex combination of the least mean square (CLMS) algorithm. In the proposed algorithm, the big step-size filter is replaced by a filter whose iteration step-size is a modified function based on hyperbolic tangent function. Thus it constructs hyperbolic tangent nonlinear relationship between step-size and error. At the same time, the small step-size filter remains unchanged but fixed. So, it conquers the slow convergence speed and the weak anti-interference ability of fixed step-size CLMS. Simulation results show that HTVSCLMS algorithm, compared with CLMS algorithm and variable step-size CLMS (VSCLMS) algorithm, not only has superior capability of tracking in the presence of noise and in a stable and even non-stable environment, but also can maintain a better convergence.

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Keywords: Least mean square (LMS) filters, convex combination, variable step-size, hyperbolic tangent function

**J. Kolar, J. Sykora, U. Spagnolini**
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[DOI: 10.13164/re.2020.0189]
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Distributed Network Tomography Applied to Stochastic Delay Profile Estimation

In this paper is shown, how delay properties of the edges of a network with stochastic properties can be estimated cooperatively by individual nodes that retain the delay profiles of the entire network. The proposed algorithm adopts null-space projection-based consensus among agents to find individual entries from a set of arbitrary sum-cumulative entities associated with graph edges (e.g., delays associated with edges) based on sums over the network paths. The local estimates of delay profile are estimated using Least Squares (LS). A modified, tailored, iterative consensus algorithm is then employed to distribute information among the neighbors. The distributed network tomography is compared to the conventional centralized solution and also to iterative solvers based on Cimmino, CAV, and Landweber methods applied in a distributed manner.

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Keywords: Network tomography, network delay profile, distributed consensus algorithm, projection-based consensus.

**X. Y. Pan, Q. P. Xie, J. Y. Chen, S. P. Xiao**
[references] [full-text]
[DOI: 10.13164/re.2020.0197]
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Two-Dimensional Underdetermined DOA Estimation of Quasi-Stationary Signals using Parallel Nested Array

In this paper, a two dimensional underdetermined direction of arrival estimation (DOA) of quasi-stationary signals using a parallel nested array structure is investigated. The quasi-stationary signals have the statistical property that they remain locally static over one frame but exhibit differences from one time frame to others. The special time domain property enables us to perform underdetermined direction-of-arrival estimation in time domain. By exploiting the temporary diversity of the quasi-stationary signals and effective difference coarray virtual array aperture provided inherently in the parallel nested array, more degrees of freedom can be used to resolve DOA estimation. The Khatri-Rao operation for the cross covariance matrix of the subarrays received data is adopted to convert the 2-D DOA estimation problem into two separate one-dimensional DOA estimation problems. Then, a subspace-based estimation of signal parameters via rotational invariance technique and a sparsity-based sparse Bayesian learning are proposed to realize the according one-dimensional DOA estimation. And the estimated azimuth and elevation angles can be properly automatically paired. Simulation results are carried out to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed algorithms for the 2-D underdetermined DOA estimation.

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Keywords: 2-D DOA estimation, parallel nested subarrays, quasi-stationary signals, ESPRIT, SBL, Khatri-Rao operation

**Y. Wang, H. Chen, W. Liu, Z. Liu, F. Wang**
[references] [full-text]
[DOI: 10.13164/re.2020.0206]
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Real-Time Triple-Frequency Cycle Slip Detection and Repair Algorithm Based on the Optimal Fixing Probability

Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) is now being speedily expanded to our daily life, but the positioning precision still can hardly meet the demands of many applications, such as approaching landing system on airports. Due to the development of GNSS, triple-frequency signals are now available which can contribute to positioning precision. Positioning precision cannot be improved by triple-frequency carrier phases until cycle slips are detected and repaired. Traditional cycle slip detection and repair algorithms choose detection combinations with long wavelength, weak ionospheric delay and small combination noise separately. However, these three conditions cannot be satisfied simultaneously. In this paper, these three conditions are not considered separately. On the contrary, the eventual fixing probability of cycle slip is set as the optimal goal to determine the three detection combinations. The combined ionospheric delay and noise in cycles can be regard as bias and variance respectively. The proposed algorithm has been tested on observations with simulated and real cycle slips. The results show that the proposed algorithm can detect and repair even single cycle slips in real time effectively.

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Keywords: GNSS, triple-frequency, cycle slip, fixing probability

**B. Vondra, D. Bonefacić**
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[DOI: 10.13164/re.2020.0215]
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Mitigation of the Effects of Unknown Sea Clutter Statistics by Using Radial Basis Function Network

In this paper, we investigate feasibility of employing Radial Basis Function (RBF) network into non-coherent detection process, for detection of targets embedded in sea clutter of unknown statistics. We particularly have in mind Croatian part of Adriatic Sea, the local sea whose clutter statistic properties are not available in open literature. Performance of the detection process employing proposed RBF network is tested with simulated clutter samples based on real sea clutter data. These data were collected under sea state conditions that represent two thirds of the total wave heights in Adriatic and textcolor{red}{are} chosen to represent unknown clutter statistics due to the fact that no single probability density function equally well fits amplitude distribution of the range bins under test. It is demonstrated that, compared to the traditional [zlog(z)] method, RBF network with just four components and lognormal basis function, yields operating characteristics that better match designed ones.

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Keywords: Sea clutter, Adriatic sea, lognormal, non-coherent detection, RBF, [zlog(z)] method

**B. Amin, M. M. Riaz, A.Ghafoor**
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[DOI: 10.13164/re.2020.0228]
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Automatic Image Matting of Synthetic Aperture Radar Target Chips

A matting technique to extract the targets from synthetic aperture radar (SAR) images is presented. Binary segmentation is performed initially for rough identification of target boundaries. Trimap is then estimated by combining the boundary structures of the input and segmented images using guided filter. In order to improve the accuracy of estimated trimap, super-pixels based segmentation is performed. A propagation based matting algorithm is then applied to separate the target from non-target region. Simulations conducted on different SAR images from MSTAR database show significance of proposed technique.

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Keywords: Image matting, Trimaps, SAR target detection, Superpixels

**K. Zyka**
[references] [full-text]
[DOI: 10.13164/re.2020.0235]
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DAB+ Network Implementation in the Czech Republic and Impact of the Audio Coding on Subjective Perception of Sound Quality

Digital Audio Broadcasting (DAB+) is becoming a reality in the Czech Republic. The first nationwide DAB+ network, based on the regular broadcasting, is being completed. This paper presents the principles that were used to achieve a quick and efficient penetration of the DAB+ signal in the Czech population and the highways. Attention is focused on practical experience with the use of High-Efficiency Advanced Audio Coding (HE-AAC) emphasizing maximum efficiency of the multiplex. This is done with respect to the subjective perception of sound quality by the audience. Final audio processing and appropriate signal pre-processing are considered. The paper also focuses on how to use Forward Error Correction (FEC) coding to increase the reach of transmitters and the reasons for employing the specific transmitter network configuration, including indoor reception. The results of this complex method are demonstrated on the network rollout in particular periods, while the key assumptions were verified. The entire development process can be monitored on the maps of coverage.

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Keywords: DAB, DAB+, Digital Audio Broadcasting, network, non-entropic audio coding, HE-AAC, transmitter, FEC, implementation, broadcast audio processing

**G. Ilievski, P. Latkoski**
[references] [full-text]
[DOI: 10.13164/re.2020.0243]
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Efficiency of Supervised Machine Learning Algorithms in Regular and Encrypted VoIP Classification within NFV Environment

Cloudification of all computing environments is an undergoing process. The process has overpassed the classical Virtual Machines (VM) and Software-Defined Networking (SDN) approach and has moved towards dockerizing, microservices, app functions, network functions etc. 5G penetration is another trend, and it is built on such platforms. In this environment we are investigating the efficiency of supervised machine learning algorithms for classification of regular and encrypted Voice over IP (VoIP) traffic that 5G relies on, within a virtualized Network Functions Virtualization (NFV) environment and an east-west based network traffic. We are using statistical methods for classification of network packets without the need of inspecting the payload data and without the source, destination and port information of the packets. The efficiency is analyzed from a point of precision of the classification, but also from a point of time consumption, as adding delay to the original traffic may cause a problem, especially within 5G environments where packet delay is crucial.

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Keywords: VoIP, classification, supervised algorithms, machine learning, NFV, 5G

**A. Ghassemi, K. Kazemi, S. Sefidbakht, H. Danyali**
[references] [full-text]
[DOI: 10.13164/re.2020.0251]
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Reliable Estimation of the Intra-Voxel Incoherent Motion Parameters of Brain Diffusion Imaging Using θ-Teaching-Learning-Based Optimization

Intra-voxel incoherent motion (IVIM) imaging can characterize diffusion and perfusion of tissues. Traditionally, the least-square method has been used to determine IVIM parameters consisting of pure diffusion coefficient (D), pseudo-diffusion coefficient (D*) and the micro-vascular volume fraction (f). This paper proposes an accurate estimation method for IVIM parameters in human brain tissues using θ-teaching-learning-based-optimization (θ-TLBO). θ-TLBO as an evolutionary algorithm provides high quality solutions for parameter estimations in curve fitting problems. Evaluation of the proposed method was performed on simulated data with different levels of noise and experimental data. The estimated parameters were compared with the results of TLBO and three conventional algorithms: Segmented-Unconstrained (“SU”), Segmented-Constrained (“SC”) and “Full”. The results show that the proposed θ-TLBO has higher accuracy, precision and robustness than other methods in estimating parameters of simulated and experimental data in human brain images especially in low SNR images according to analysis of variance (ANOVA), coefficient of variation (CV), relative bias and relative root mean square errors.

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Keywords: Human brain, Intra-Voxel Incoherent Motion (IVIM), diffusion, perfusion, θ-Teaching-Learning-Based Optimization (θ-TLBO).

**B. Yang , Z. LI, E. Cao**
[references] [full-text]
[DOI: 10.13164/re.2020.0259]
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Facial Expression Recognition Based on Multi-dataset Neural Network

Facial activity is the most powerful and natural means for understanding emotional expression for humans. Recent years, extensive efforts have been devoted to facial expression recognition by using neural networks. However, automated emotion recognition in the wild from facial images remains a challenging problem. In this paper, an effective facial expression recognition scheme is proposed. A multi-dataset neural network is developed to learn facial expression features in several different but related datasets. The novel multi-dataset network fuses the intermediate layers of a deep convolutional neural network (CNN) by using separate CNNs and a multi-dataset loss function. Experimental results performed on emotion database demonstrate that our proposed method outperforms state-of-the-art.

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Keywords: Facial expression recognition, design of network architecture, deep learning, human–computer interaction, convolutional neural network