# September 2015, Volume 24, Number 3 [DOI: 10.13164/re.2015-3]

**M. Bozzi, L. Pierantoni, S. Bellucci**
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[DOI: 10.13164/re.2015.0661]
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Applications of Graphene at Microwave Frequencies

In view to the epochal scenarios that nanotechnology discloses, nano-electronics has the potential to introduce a paradigm shift in electronic systems design similar to that of the transition from vacuum tubes to semiconductor devices. Since low dimensional (1D and 2D) nano-structured materials exhibit unprecedented electro-mechanical properties in a wide frequency range, including radio-frequencies (RF), microwave nano-electronics provides an enormous and yet widely undiscovered opportunity for the engineering community. Carbon nano-electronics is one of the main research routes of RF/microwave nano-electronics. In particular, graphene has shown proven results as an emblematic protagonist, and a real solution for a wide variety of microwave electronic devices and circuits. This paper introduces graphene properties in the microwave range, and presents a paradigm of novel graphene-based devices and applications in the microwave/RF frequency range.

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- DRAGOMAN, M., NECULOIU,, D., BUNEA, A.-C., DELIGEORGIS, G., ALDRIGO, M., VASILACHE, D., DINESCU, A., KONSTANTINIDIS, G., MENCARELLI, D., PIERANTONI, L., MODREANU, M. A tunable microwave slot antenna based on graphene. Applied Physics Letters, April 2015, vol. 106, no. 15, 153101. DOI: 10.1063/1.4917564
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Keywords: Nanotechnology, carbon nano-electronics, graphene, graphene nano-ribbons, plasmonics, ballistic electronics, graphene transistor, graphene antenna, graphene attenuator, graphene composites.

**J. Dobes, J. Michal, J. Popp, D. Cerny, M. Grabner, F. Vejrazka, J. Kakona, S. Matejka**
[references] [full-text]
[DOI: 10.13164/re.2015.0670]
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Precise Characterization and Multiobjective Optimization of Low Noise Amplifiers

Although practically all function blocks of the satellite navigation receivers are realized using the CMOS digital integrated circuits, it is appropriate to create a separate low noise antenna preamplifier based on a low noise pHEMT. Such an RF front end can be strongly optimized to attain a suitable tradeoff between the noise figure and transducer power gain. Further, as all the four principal navigation systems (GPS, GLONASS, Galileo, and COMPASS) work in similar frequency bands (roughly from 1.1 to 1.7 GHz), it is reasonable to create the low noise preamplifier for all of them. In the paper, a sophisticated method of the amplifier design is suggested based on multiobjective optimization. A substantial improvement of a standard optimization method is also outlined to satisfy a uniform coverage of Pareto front. Moreover, for enhancing efficiency of many times repeated solutions of large linear systems during the optimization, a new modification of the Markowitz criterion is suggested compatible with fast modes of the LU factorization. Extraordinary attention was also given to the accuracy of modeling. First, an extraction of pHEMT model parameters was performed including its noise part, and several models were compared. The extraction was carried out by an original identification procedure based on a combination of metaheuristic and direct methods. Second, the equations of the passive elements (including transmission lines and T-splitters) were carefully defined using frequency dispersion of their parameters as Q, ESR, etc. Third, an optimal selection of the operating point and essential passive elements was performed using the improved optimization method. Finally, the s-parameters and noise figure of the amplifier were measured, and stability and third-order intermodulation products were also checked.

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Keywords: Low noise amplifier, noise figure, transducer power gain, pHEMT, CAD, multiobjective optimization, goal attainment method, Pareto front, Markowitz criterion

**J. Puskely, T. Urbanec, T. Mikulasek, Z. Raida, V. Rericha, J. Bartyzal**
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[DOI: 10.13164/re.2015.0681]
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Novel Planar Horn Antenna for 75/85 GHz Experimental Wireless Link

In the paper, we describe a novel H-plane horn antenna for an experi¬mental wireless link operating in frequency bands 71 to 76 GHz and 81 to 86 GHz. The horn antenna was designed considering a substrate integrated waveguide (SIW) technology, The waveguide WR12 was used as a feeder. In order to improve transition between a thin-substrate SIW horn antenna and the air, we combined two approaches; a printed transition and a dielectric load. That way, a better impedance matching and better radiation properties were reached. In comparison with other planar horn antennas, we obtained a more directional radiation pattern with more than 5 dB higher gain and sufficient side lobe suppression in the E-plane. The novel planar H-plane horn antenna was compared with a designed conventional metallic horn antenna.

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- YAN, L., HONG, W., WU, K., CUI, T. J. Investigations on the propagation characteristics of the substrate integrated waveguide based on the method of lines. IEE Proceedings on Microwaves, Antennas and Propagation, 2005, vol. 152, no. 1, p. 35–42. DOI: 10.1049/ip-map:20040726

Keywords: H-plane horn antenna, SIW technology, conventional metallic horn antenna, millimeter waves, wireless experimental link

**P. Vsetula, Z. Raida, J. Lacik**
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[DOI: 10.13164/re.2015.0688]
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Multi-Objective Synthesis of Filtering Dipole Array Based on Tuning-Space Mapping

In the paper, we apply tuning-space mapping to multi-objective synthesis of a filtering antenna. The antenna is going to be implemented as a planar dipole array with serial feeding. Thanks to the multi-objective approach, we can deal with conflicting requirements on gain, impedance matching, side-lobe level, and main-lobe direction. MOSOMA algorithm is applied to compute Pareto front of optimal solutions by changing lengths of dipoles and parameters of transmission lines connecting them into a serial array. Exploitation of tuning space mapping significantly reduces CPU-time demands of the multi-objective synthesis: a coarse optimization evaluates objectives using a wire model of the filtering array (4NEC2, method of moments), and a fine optimization exploits a realistic planar model of the array (CST Microwave Studio, finite integration technique). The synthesized filtering antenna was manufactured, and its parameters were measured to be compared with objectives. The number of dipoles in the array is shown to influence the match of measured parameters and objectives.

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- KOZIEL, S., MENG, J., BANDLER, J. W., BAKR, M. H., CHENG, Q. S. Accelerated microwave design with tuning space mapping. IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques, 2009, vol. 57, no. 2, p. 383–394. DOI: 10.1109/TMTT.2008.2011313
- VSETULA, P., RAIDA, Z. Dipole antenna array with synthesized frequency dependency of gain and reflection coefficient. In Proceedings of the ICEAA 2013 Conference. Torino (Italy), 2013, p. 1087–1090. DOI: 10.1109/ICEAA.2013.6632410
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- ABBOSH, A. M., KAN, H. K., BIALKOWSKI, M. E. Compact ultra-wideband planar tapered slot antenna for use in a microwave imaging system. Microwave and Optical Technology Letters, 2006, vol. 48, no. 11, p. 2212–2216. DOI: 10.1002/mop.21906
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Keywords: Dipole antenna array, filtering antenna, filtenna, multi-objective optimization, tuning-space mapping.

**S. S. Olokede**
[references] [full-text]
[DOI: 10.13164/re.2015.0695]
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A Quasi-Lumped Element Series Array Resonator Antenna

This paper presents a 6-element series array quasi-lumped element resonator antenna. The proposed antenna employs an interdigital capacitor in parallel with a straight strip conductor whose centre finger is shorted across the capacitor. An array configuration is imperative as the gain of a single quasi-lumped element arrangement was only moderate and specifically put at about 9.4 dBi which may not be adequate for long distance communications. Relevant Equations for radiation pattern of the quasi-lumped element resonator (QLER) were derived and presented. The proposed antenna array exhibits a gain enhancement up to about 29.47% with a noticed size reduction of 80 × 30 sq. mm. Compared to standard long wire antenna and other approaches of capacitive loaded long wire antennas, it was proved that the proposed antenna has a relatively better performance yet with significant size reduction. Consequently, it is an ideal candidate for MMIC designs and wireless communication applications.

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Keywords: Coupled structure, loop, microstrip patch, triangular antenna, quarter wavelength.

**X. Guan, Y. Yuan, H. Liu, W. Huang**
[references] [full-text]
[DOI: 10.13164/re.2015.0703]
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A Three-Pole Substrate Integrated Waveguide Bandpass Filter Using New Coupling Scheme

A novel three-pole substrate integrated waveguide (SIW) bandpass filter (BPF) using new coupling scheme is proposed in this paper. Two high order degenerate modes (TE102 and TE201) of a square SIW cavity and a dominant mode (TE101) of a rectangular SIW cavity are coupled to form a three-pole SIW BPF. The coupling scheme of the structure is given and analyzed. Due to the coupling between two cavities, as well as the coupling between source and load, three transmission zeros are created in the stopband of the filter. The proposed three-pole SIW BPF is designed and fabricated. Good agreement between simulated and measured results verifies the validity of the design methodology well.

- CHE, W. Q., LEI, X., WANG, D. P., et al. Equivalence between substrate-integrated (SIRW) rectangular waveguide short-circuit load and its equivalent rectangular waveguide short-circuit load. Microwave and Optical Technology Letters, 2006, vol. 48, no. 9, p. 1694–1698. DOI: 10.1002/mop.21805
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- CHEN, X. P., DROLET, D., WU, K. Substrate integrated waveguide filters for airborne and satellite system applications. In Canadian Conf. on Electrical and Computer Engineering. Vancouver (Canada), 2007, p. 659–662. DOI: 10.1109/CCECE.2007.169
- SHEN, W., YIN, W. Y., SUN, X. W., et al. Compact coplanar waveguide-incorporated substrate integrated waveguide filter. Journal of Electromagnetic Waves and Application, 2010, vol. 24, no. 7, p. 871–879. DOI: 10.1163/156939310791285164
- SZYDLOWSKI, L., LESZCZYNSKA, N., LAMECKI, A., et al. A substrate integrated waveguide (SIW) bandpass filter in a box configuration with frequency-dependent coupling. IEEE Microwave and Wireless Components Letters, 2012, vol. 22, no. 11, p. 556–558. DOI: 10.1109/LMWC.2012.2221690
- LI, R. Q., TANG, X. H., XIAO, F. Substrate integrated waveguide dual-mode filter using slot lines perturbation. Electronics Letters, 2010, vol. 46, no. 12, p. 845–846. DOI: 10.1049/el.2010.0629
- SHEN, K., WANG, G. M., FU, S. H., GU, G. D., Highly selective bandpass filter based on substrate integrated waveguide. Electronics Letters, 2009, vol. 45, no. 14, p. 746–748. DOI: 10.1049/el.2009.0785
- CHEN, X. P., HONG, W., CUI, T., CHEN, J., WU, K. Substrate integrated waveguide (SIW) linear phase filter. IEEE Microwave and Wireless Components Letters, 2005, vol. 15, no. 11, p. 787 to 789. DOI: 10.1109/LMWC.2005.859021
- SHEN, W., YIN, W. Y., SUN, X. W. Compact substrate integrated waveguide (SIW) filter with defected ground structure. IEEE Microwave and Wireless Components Letters, 2011, vol. 21, no. 2, p. 83–85. DOI: 10.1109/LMWC.2010.2091402
- CHEN, X. P., HAO, Z. C., HONG, W., et al. Planar asymmetric dual-mode filters based on substrate integrated waveguide (SIW). In IEEE MTT-S International Microwave Symposium Digest. USA, 2005, p. 12–17. DOI: 10.1109/MWSYM.2005.1516782
- CHEN, X.-P., WU, K., LI, Z.-L. Dual-band and triple-band substrate integrated waveguide filters with Chebyshev and quasielliptic responses. IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Technique, 2007, vol. 55, no. 12, p. 2569–2578. DOI: 10.1109/TMTT.2007.909603
- DESLANDES, D., WU, K. Substrate integrated waveguide dualmode filters for broadband wireless systems. In Proceedings of Radio and Wireless Conference RAWCON. Boston (USA), 2003, p. 385–388. DOI: 10.1109/RAWCON.2003.1227973
- ALMALKAWI, M., ZHU, L., DEVABHAKTUNI, V. Dual-mode substrate integrated waveguide (SIW) bandpass filters with an improved upper stopband performance. In Proceedings of 36th International Conference on Infrared, Millimeter and Terahertz Waves IRMMW-THz 2011. Houston (USA), 2011, p. 1–2. DOI: 10.1109/irmmw-THz.2011.6105128
- AMARI, S., ROSENBERG, U., BORNEMANN, J. Adaptive synthesis and design of resonators with source/load-multiresonator coupling. IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Technique, 2002, vol. 50, no. 5, p. 1969–1978. DOI: 10.1109/TMTT.2002.801348
- SHEN, W., YIN, W. Y., SUN, X. W. Miniaturized dual-band substrate integrated waveguide filter with controllable bandwidths. IEEE Microwave and Wireless Components Letters, 2011, vol. 21, no. 8, p. 418–420. DOI: 10.1109/LMWC.2011.2158412

Keywords: Transmission zero, substrate integrated waveguide (SIW), degenerate mode, coupling matrix.

**S. S. Karthikeyan, R. S. Kshetrimayum**
[references] [full-text]
[DOI: 10.13164/re.2015.0708]
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Compact and Wide Stopband Lowpass Filter Using Open Complementary Split Ring Resonator and Defected Ground Structure

A compact (0.16 λg x 0.08 λg) and wide stop¬band lowpass filter design using open complementary split ring resonator (OCSRR) and defected ground structure (DGS) is presented in this paper. Low pass filter is con-structed using two cascaded stages of OCSRR. Since the rejection bandwidth of the OCSRR is narrow, tapered dumbbell shaped DGS section is placed under the OCSRR to enhance the bandwidth. The cutoff frequency (fc) of the proposed lowpass filter is 1.09 GHz. The rejection band¬width of the filter covers the entire ultra wideband spec¬trum. Hence the spurious passband suppression is achieved up to 10 fc. The designed filter has been fabri¬cated and validated by experimental results

- AHN, D., PARK, J.-S., KIM, C.-S., KIM, J., QIAN, Y., ITOH, T. A design of the low-pass filter using the novel microstrip defected ground structure. IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques, 2001, vol. 49, no. 1, p. 86–93. DOI: 10.1109/22.899965
- ABDEL-RAHMAN, A. B., VERMA, A. K., BOUTEJDAR, A., OMAR, S. Control of bandstop response of Hi-Lo microstrip lowpass filter using slot in ground plane. IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques, 2004, vol. 52, no. 3, p. 1008 to 1013. DOI: 10.1109/TMTT.2004.823587
- MANDAL, M., MONDAL, P., SANYAL, S., CHAKRABARTY, A. Low insertion-loss, sharp-rejection and compact microstrip lowpass filters. IEEE Microwave and Wireless Components Letters, 2006, vol. 16, no. 11, p. 600–602. DOI: 10.1109/LMWC.2006.884777
- WU, B., LI, B., LIANG, C. Design of lowpass filter using a novel split-ring resonator defected ground structure. Microwave and Optical Technology Letters, 2007, vol. 49, no. 2, p. 288–291. DOI: 10.1002/mop.22111
- LI, L., LI, Z.-F., WEI, Q.-F. Compact and selective lowpass filter with very wide stopband using tapered compact microstrip resonant cells. IEEE Electronics Letters, 2009, vol. 45, no. 5, p. 267–268. DOI: 10.1049/el:20092120
- AZNAR, F., VELEZ, A., BONACHE, J., MENES, J., MARTIN, F. Compact lowpass filters with very sharp transition bands based on open complementary split ring resonators. IEEE Electronics Letters, 2009, vol. 45, no. 6, p. 316–317. DOI: 10.1049/el.2009.2854
- LI, H.W., LI, Z.F., SUN, X.W., KURACHI, S., CHEN, J., YOSHIMASU, T. Theoretical analysis of dispersion characteristics of microstrip lines with defected ground structure. Journal of Active and Passive Electronic Devices, 2007, vol. 2, no. 4, p. 315–322.
- XU, S., MA, K., MENG, F., YEO, K.S. DGS embedded transformed radial stub for ultra-wide stopband lowpass ¿lter. IEEE Electronics Letters, 2012, vol. 48, no. 23, p. 1473–1475. DOI: 10.1049/el.2012.2568
- KARIMI, G., LALBAKHSH, A., SIAHKAMARI, H. Design of sharp roll-off lowpass filter with ultra wide stopband. Microwave and Wireless Components Letters, 2013, vol. 23, no. 6, p. 303 to 305. DOI: 10.1109/LMWC.2013.2261057

Keywords: Lowpass filter, defected ground structure (DGS), open complementary split ring resonator (OCSRR)

**As. Abdipour, Ar. Abdipour, S. Lotfi**
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[DOI: 10.13164/re.2015.0712]
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A Lowpass Filter with Sharp Roll - off and High Relative Stopband Bandwidth Using Asymmetric High - Low Impedance Patches

In this letter, a microstrip lowpass filter with -3 dB cut-off frequency at 1.286 GHz is proposed. By using two main resonators which are placed symmetrically around Y axis a sharp roll-off rate (250 dB/GHz) is obtained. The proposed resonators are consisted of two asymmetric high-low impedance patches. To achieve a high relative stopband bandwidth (1.82) four high - low impedance resonators and four radial stubs as suppressing cells are employed. Furthermore, a flat insertion loss in the passband and a low return loss in the stopband can prove desired in-band and out-band frequency response. The proposed LPF has a high FOM about 63483.

- VELIDI, V. K., SANYAL, S. Sharp roll-off lowpass filter with wide stopband using stub-loaded coupled-line hairpin unit. IEEE Microwave and Wireless Components Letters, 2011, vol. 21, no. 6, p. 301–303. DOI: 10.1109/LMWC.2011.2132120
- CUI, H., WANG, J., ZHANG, G. Design of microstrip lowpass filter with compact size and ultra-wide stopband. Electronics Letters, 2012, vol. 48, no. 14, p. 856–857. DOI: 10.1049/el.2012.1097
- MA, K., YEO, K. S. New ultra-wide stopband low-pass ¿lter using transformed radial stubs. IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques, 2011, vol. 59, no. 3, p. 604–611. DOI: 10.1109/TMTT.2010.2095031
- WANG, J., XU, L.-J., ZHAO, S., GUO, Y.-X., WU, W. Compact quasi-elliptic microstrip lowpass filter with wide stopband. Electronics Letters, 2010, vol. 46, no. 20, p. 1384–1385. DOI: 10.1049/el.2010.1569
- WANG, J., CUI, H., ZHANG, G. Design of compact microstrip lowpass filter with ultra-wide stopband. Electronics Letters, 2012, vol. 48, no. 14, p. 854–856. DOI: 10.1049/el.2012.1362
- LUO, S., ZHU, L., SUN, S. Stopband-expanded low-pass ¿lters using microstrip coupled-line hairpin units. IEEE Microwave and Wireless Components Letters, 2008, vol. 18, no. 8, p. 506–508. DOI: 10.1109/LMWC.2008.2001004
- WEI, X. B., WANG, P., LIU, M. Q., SHI, Y. Compact widestopband lowpass filter usi
- VELIDI, V. K., SANYAL, S. Sharp roll-off lowpass filter with wide stopband using stub-loaded coupled-line hairpin unit. IEEE Microwave and Wireless Components Letters, 2011, vol. 21, no. 6, p. 301–303. DOI: 10.1109/LMWC.2011.2132120
- CUI, H., WANG, J., ZHANG, G. Design of microstrip lowpass filter with compact size and ultra-wide stopband. Electronics Letters, 2012, vol. 48, no. 14, p. 856–857. DOI: 10.1049/el.2012.1097
- MA, K., YEO, K. S. New ultra-wide stopband low-pass ¿lter using transformed radial stubs. IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques, 2011, vol. 59, no. 3, p. 604–611. DOI: 10.1109/TMTT.2010.2095031
- WANG, J., XU, L.-J., ZHAO, S., GUO, Y.-X., WU, W. Compact quasi-elliptic microstrip lowpass filter with wide stopband. Electronics Letters, 2010, vol. 46, no. 20, p. 1384–1385. DOI: 10.1049/el.2010.1569
- WANG, J., CUI, H., ZHANG, G. Design of compact microstrip lowpass filter with ultra-wide stopband. Electronics Letters, 2012, vol. 48, no. 14, p. 854–856. DOI: 10.1049/el.2012.1362
- LUO, S., ZHU, L., SUN, S. Stopband-expanded low-pass ¿lters using microstrip coupled-line hairpin units. IEEE Microwave and Wireless Components Letters, 2008, vol. 18, no. 8, p. 506–508. DOI: 10.1109/LMWC.2008.2001004
- WEI, X. B., WANG, P., LIU, M. Q., SHI, Y. Compact widestopband lowpass filter using stepped impedance hairpin resonator with radial stubs. Electronics Letters, 2011, vol. 47, no. 15, p. 862 to 863. DOI: 10.1049/el.2011.1414
- GOMEZ-GARCIA, R., SANCHEZ-SORIANO, M. A., SANCHEZ RENEDO, M., TORREGROSA PENALVA, G., BRONCHALO, E. Extended-stopband microstrip lowpass filter using rat-race directional couplers. Electronics Letters, 2013, vol. 49, no. 4, p. 272–274. DOI: 10.1049/el.2012.4245
- WANG, C.-J., LIN, C.-H. Compact lowpass filter with sharp transition knee by utilising a quasi-ʌ-slot resonator and open stubs. IET Microwaves Antennas and Propagation, 2010, vol. 4, no. 4, p. 512–517. DOI: 10.1049/iet-map.2009.0001
- HONG, J.-S., LANCASTER, M. J. Microstrip Filters for RF/Microwave Applications. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 2001. ng stepped impedance hairpin resonator with radial stubs. Electronics Letters, 2011, vol. 47, no. 15, p. 862 to 863. DOI: 10.1049/el.2011.1414
- GOMEZ-GARCIA, R., SANCHEZ-SORIANO, M. A., SANCHEZ RENEDO, M., TORREGROSA PENALVA, G., BRONCHALO, E. Extended-stopband microstrip lowpass filter using rat-race directional couplers. Electronics Letters, 2013, vol. 49, no. 4, p. 272–274. DOI: 10.1049/el.2012.4245
- WANG, C.-J., LIN, C.-H. Compact lowpass filter with sharp transition knee by utilising a quasi-ʌ-slot resonator and open stubs. IET Microwaves Antennas and Propagation, 2010, vol. 4, no. 4, p. 512–517. DOI: 10.1049/iet-map.2009.0001
- HONG, J.-S., LANCASTER, M. J. Microstrip Filters for RF/Microwave Applications. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 2001.

Keywords: High-low impedance patches, lowpass filter, resonator, radial stub

**K. V. Phani Kumar, S. S. Karthikeyan**
[references] [full-text]
[DOI: 10.13164/re.2015.0717]
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A Compact 1:4 Lossless T-Junction Power Divider Using Open Complementary Split Ring Resonator

This paper presents the size miniaturized and harmonic suppressed lossless 1:4 T-junction unequal power divider using an open complementary split ring resonator (OCSRR). By embedding the OCSRR structure in the microstrip transmission line, slow wave effect is introduced and thereby size reduction is achieved. The dimensions of OCSRR are optimized to reduce the length of high impedance and low impedance quarter-wavelength transmission lines. In our design high impedance line length is reduced to 58.6%, and low impedance line length is reduced to 12% when compared to the conventional quarter wavelength lines. The proposed power divider is having small dimensions of 0.18 λg × 0.33 λg and is 51.94% smaller than the conventional unequal power divider.

- LIM, J.-S., LEE, S.-W., PARK, J.-S., AHN, D., NAM, S. A 4:1 unequal Wilkinson power divider. IEEE Microwave and Wireless Components Letters, 2001, vol. 11, p. 124–126. DOI: 10.1109/7260.915624
- ORAIZI, H., ESFAHLAN, M. S. Miniaturization of Wilkinson power divider by using defected ground structures. Progress In Electromagnetics Research Letters, 2008, vol. 4, p. 113–120. DOI: 10.2528/PIERL08060701
- PACKIARAJ, D., BHARGAVI, A., RAMESH, M., KALGHATGI, A. T. Compact power divider using defected ground structure for wireless applications. In Proceedings of the IEEE International Conference on Signal Processing, Communications and Networking. Chennai (China), 2008, p. 25–29. DOI: 10.1109/ICSCN.2008.4447155
- SHUM, K. M., XUE, Q., CHAN, C. H. A Novel microstrip ring hybrid incorporating a PBG cell. IEEE Microwave and Wireless Components Letters, 2001, vol. 11, p. 258–260. DOI: 10.1109/7260.928931
- LIN, C.-M., SU, H.-H., CHIU, J.-C., WANG, Y.-H. Wilkinson power divider using microstrip EBG cells for the suppression of harmonics. IEEE Microwave and Wireless Components Letters, 2007, vol. 17, p. 700–702. DOI: 10.1109/LMWC.2007.905595
- CHANG, C.-P., SU, C.-C., HUNG, S.-H., WANG, Y.-H. A 6:1 unequal Wilkinson power divider with EBG CPW. Progress In Electromagnetics Research Letters, 2009, vol. 8, p. 151–159. DOI: 10.2528/PIERL09032801
- SAENZ, E., CANTORA, A., EDERRA, I., GONZALO, R., DE MAAGT, P. A metamaterial T-junction power divider. IEEE Microwave Wireless Component Letters, 2007, vol. 17, p. 172–174. DOI: 10.1109/LMWC.2006.890447
- GARCIA-GARCIA, J., MARTIN, F., FALCONE, F., ET AL. Spurious passband suppression in microstrip coupled line bandpass filters by means of split ring resonators. IEEE Microwave Wireless Component Letters, 2004, vol. 14, p. 416–418. DOI: 10.1109/LMWC.2004.832066
- GARCIA-GARCIA, J., MARTIN, F., FALCONE, F., ET AL. Microwave filters with improved stopband based on sub-wavelength resonators. IEEE Transaction Microwave Theory Technology, 2005, vol. 53, p. 1997–2006. DOI: 10.1109/TMTT.2005.848828
- KARTHIKEYAN, S. S., KSHETRIMAYUM, R. S. Performance enhancement of microstrip bandpass filter using CSSRR. In International Conference on Advances in Computing, Control and Telecommunication Technologies ACT. Trivandrum (India), 2009, p. 67–70. DOI: 10.1109/ACT.2009.27
- ZHANG, J., CUI, B., GU, J.-Z., SUN, X.-W. A harmonic suppressed Wilkinson power divider using complementary split ring resonator. Journal of Electromagnetic Waves and Application, 2007, vol. 21, p. 811–819. DOI: 10.1163/156939307780749165
- AZNAR-BALLESTA, F., GARCIA-PEREZ, O., GONZALEZPOSADAS, V., SEGOVIA-VARGAS, D. Recursive active filter with metamaterial unequal Wilkinson power dividers. In European Microwave Conference. Paris (France), 2010, p. 930–933. ISBN: 9781424472321
- VELEZ, A., AZNAR, F., BONACHE, J., ET AL. Open complementary split ring resonators (OCSRRs) and their application to wideband CPW bandpass filters. IEEE Microwave Wireless Component Letters, 2009, vol. 19, no. 4, p. 197–199. DOI: 10.1109/LMWC.2009.2015490
- AZNAR, F., VELEZ, A., BONACHE, J., ET AL. Compact low pass filter with very sharp transition bands based on open complementary split ring resonator. Electronics Letters, 2009, vol. 45, no. 6, p. 316–317. DOI: 10.1049/el.2009.2854
- AZNAR, F., VELEZ, A., DURAN-SINDREU, M., ET AL. Elliptic-function CPW low pass filters implemented by means of open complementary split ring resonators (OCSRRs). IEEE Microwave Wireless Component Letters, 2009, vol. 19, no. 11, p. 689–691. DOI: 10.1109/LMWC.2009.2032000
- KARTHIKEYAN, S. S., KSHETRIMAYUM, R. S. Compact, deep and wide rejection bandwidth low-pass filter using open complementary split ring resonator. Microwave and Optical Technology Letters, 2011, vol. 53, no. 4, p. 845–848. DOI: 10.1002/mop.25874
- LIU, J. X., YIN, W. Y., HE, S. L. A new defected ground structure and its applications for miniaturized switchable antenna. Progress in Electromagnetic Research, 2010, vol. 107, p. 115–128. DOI: 10.2528/PIER10050904

Keywords: Open complementary split ring resonator (OCSRR), power divider, size miniaturization

**P. Jankowski-Mihulowicz, D. Kawalec, M. Weglarski**
[references] [full-text]
[DOI: 10.13164/re.2015.0722]
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Antenna Design for Semi-Passive UHF RFID Transponder with Energy Harvester

A novel microstrip antenna which is dedicated to UHF semi-passive RFID transponders with an energy harvester is presented in this paper. The antenna structure designed and simulated by using Mentor Graphics HyperLynx 3D EM software is described in details. The modeling and simulation results along with comparison with experimental data are analyzed and concluded. The main goal of the project is the need to eliminate a traditional battery form the transponder structure. The energy harvesting block, which is used instead, converts ambient energy (electromagnetic energy of typical radio communication system) into electrical power for internal circuitry. The additional function (gathering extra energy) of the transponder antenna causes the necessity to create new designs in this scope.

- FINKENZELLER, K. RFID Handbook. 3rd ed., Wiley, 2010. ISBN: 9780470695067
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Keywords: Antenna design, semi-passive chip, RFID technique, microstrip antenna, energy harvesting

**K. Kamardin, M. K. A. Rahim, P. S. Hall, N. A. Samsuri, M. E. Jalil, M. F. Abd Malek**
[references] [full-text]
[DOI: 10.13164/re.2015.0729]
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Textile Diamond Dipole and Artificial Magnetic Conductor Performance under Bending, Wetness and Specific Absorption Rate Measurements

Textile diamond dipole and Artificial Magnetic Conductor (AMC) have been proposed and tested under wearable and body centric measurements. The proposed antenna and AMC sheet are entirely made of textiles for both the substrate and conducting parts, thus making it suitable for wearable communications. Directive radiation patterns with high gain are obtained with the proposed AMC sheet, hence minimizing the radiation towards the human body. In this study, wearable and body centric measurements are investigated which include bending, wetness and Specific Absorption Rate (SAR). Bending is found not to give significant effect to the antenna and AMC performance, as opposed to wetness that yields severe performance distortion. However, the original performance is retrieved once the antenna and AMC dried. Moreover, notable SAR reduction is achieved with the introduction of the AMC sheet, which is appropriate to reduce the radiation that penetrates into human flesh.

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Keywords: Textile antenna, diamond dipole, textile artificial magnetic conductor, bending, wetness, Specific Absorption Rate

**Chunhui Zhao, Yunlong Xu, Hui Huang**
[references] [full-text]
[DOI: 10.13164/re.2015.0739]
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Sparse Localization with a Mobile Beacon Based on LU Decomposition in Wireless Sensor Networks

Node localization is the core in wireless sensor network. It can be solved by powerful beacons, which are equipped with global positioning system devices to know their location information. In this article, we present a novel sparse localization approach with a mobile beacon based on LU decomposition. Our scheme firstly translates node localization problem into a 1-sparse vector recovery problem by establishing sparse localization model. Then, LU decomposition pre-processing is adopted to solve the problem that measurement matrix does not meet the re¬stricted isometry property. Later, the 1-sparse vector can be exactly recovered by compressive sensing. Finally, as the 1-sparse vector is approximate sparse, weighted Cen¬troid scheme is introduced to accurately locate the node. Simulation and analysis show that our scheme has better localization performance and lower requirement for the mobile beacon than MAP+GC, MAP-M, and MAP-M&N schemes. In addition, the obstacles and DOI have little effect on the novel scheme, and it has great localization performance under low SNR, thus, the scheme proposed is robust.

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Keywords: Wireless sensor network, mobile beacon, localization, LU decomposition, compressive sensing

**M. Kenyeres, J. Kenyeres, V. Skorpil**
[references] [full-text]
[DOI: 10.13164/re.2015.0749]
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Split Distributed Computing in Wireless Sensor Networks

We designed a novel method intended to improve the performance of distributed computing in wireless sensor networks. Our proposed method is designed to rapidly increase the speed of distributed computing and decrease the number of the messages required for a network to achieve the desired result. In our analysis, we chose Average consensus algorithm. In this case, the desired result is that every node achieves the average value calculated from all the initial values in the reduced number of iterations. Our method is based on the idea that a fragmentation of a network into small geographical structures which execute distributed calculations in parallel significantly affects the performance.

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Keywords: Wireless sensor networks, distributed computing, improvement of distributed computing

**S. A. Hosseini, B. Abolhassani, S. M. S. Sadough**
[references] [full-text]
[DOI: 10.13164/re.2015.0757]
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A New Protocol for Cooperative Spectrum Sharing in Mobile Cognitive Radio Networks

To optimize the usage of limited spectrum resources, cognitive radio (CR) can be used as a viable solution. The main contribution of this article is to propose a new protocol to increase throughput of mobile cooperative CR networks (CRNs). The key challenge in a CRN is how the nodes cooperate to access the channel in order to maximize the CRN's throughput. To minimize unnecessary blocking of CR transmission, we propose a so-called new frequency-range MAC protocol (NFRMAC). The proposed method is in fact a novel channel assignment mechanism that exploits the dependence between signal's attenuation model, signal's frequency, communication range, and interference level. Compared .to the conventional methods, the proposed algorithm considers a more realistic model for the mobility pattern of CR nodes and also adaptively selects the maximal transmission range of each node over which reliable transmission is possible. Simulation results indicate that using NFRMAC leads to an increase of the total CRN's throughput by 6% and reduces the blocking rate by 10% compared to those of conventional methods.

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Keywords: Blocking rate, cognitive radio, cooperative spectrum sharing, secondary users, spectrum sharing.

**Dinh-Thuan Do**
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[DOI: 10.13164/re.2015.0765]
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Power Switching Protocol for Two-way Relaying Network under Hardware Impairments

In this paper, we analyze the impact of hardware impairments at relay node and source node (i.e. imperfect nodes) on network performance by evaluating outage probability based on the effective signal to noise and distortion ratio (SNDR). Especially, we propose energy harvesting protocol at the relay and source nodes, namely, power switching imperfect relay (PSIR) and power switching imperfect source (PSIS). Aiming to determine the performance of energy constrained network, we first derive closed-form expressions of the outage probability and then the throughput can be maximized in delay-limited transmission mode. The simulation results provide practical insights into the impacts of hardware impairments and power switching factors of the energy harvesting protocol on the performance of energy harvesting enabled two-way relaying network.

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Keywords: Amplify-and-forward, energy harvesting, two-way relaying network, wireless powered communication networks

**P. Fiala, R. Linhart**
[references] [full-text]
[DOI: 10.13164/re.2015.0772]
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Symbol Synchronization for SDR Using a Polyphase Filterbank Based on an FPGA

This paper is devoted to the proposal of a highly efficient symbol synchronization subsystem for Software Defined Radio. The proposed feedback phase-locked loop timing synchronizer is suitable for parallel implementation on an FPGA. The polyphase FIR filter simultaneously performs matched-filtering and arbitrary interpolation between acquired samples. Determination of the proper sampling instant is achieved by selecting a suitable polyphase filterbank using a derived index. This index is determined based on the output either the Zero-Crossing or Gardner Timing Error Detector. The paper will extensively focus on simulation of the proposed synchronization system. On the basis of this simulation, a complete, fully pipelined VHDL description model is created. This model is composed of a fully parallel polyphase filterbank based on distributed arithmetic, timing error detector and interpolation control block. Finally, RTL synthesis on an Altera Cyclone IV FPGA is presented and resource utilization in comparison with a conventional model is analyzed.

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Keywords: Digital communication, digital filters, FPGA, signal processing, synchronization, VHDL

**T. Palenik, P. Farkas, M. Rakus, J. Dobos**
[references] [full-text]
[DOI: 10.13164/re.2015.0783]
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Analysis of Minimal LDPC Decoder System on a Chip Implementation

This paper presents a practical method of potential replacement of several different Quasi-Cyclic Low-Density Parity-Check (QC-LDPC) codes with one, with the intention of saving as much memory as required to implement the LDPC encoder and decoder in a memory-constrained System on a Chip (SoC). The presented method requires only a very small modification of the existing encoder and decoder, making it suitable for utilization in a Software Defined Radio (SDR) platform. Besides the analysis of the effects of necessary variable-node value fixation during the Belief Propagation (BP) decoding algorithm, practical standard-defined code parameters are scrutinized in order to evaluate the feasibility of the proposed LDPC setup simplification. Finally, the error performance of the modified system structure is evaluated and compared with the original system structure by means of simulation.

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Keywords: LDPC code shortening, System on a Chip, fixed nodes decoder, Adaptive Coding and Modulation

**Wei-Qiang Pan, Xiao-Feng Liu, Xiao-Lan Zhao**
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[DOI: 10.13164/re.2015.0791]
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Novel Compact Three-Way Filtering Power Divider Using Net-Type Resonators

In this paper, we present a novel compact three-way power divider with bandpass responses. The proposed power divider utilizes folded net-type resonators to realize dual functions of filtering and power splitting as well as compact size. Equal power ratio with low magnitude imbalance is achieved due to the highly symmetric structure. For demonstration, an experimental three way filtering power divider is implemented. Good filtering and power division characteristics are observed in the measured results of the circuit. The area of the circuits is 14.5 mm x 21.9 mm or 0.16 λg x 0.24 λg, where the λg is the guide wavelength of the center frequency at 2.1 GHz.

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Keywords: Power divider, bandpass response, three-way division, compact size,miniaturization.

**Sovuthy Cheab, Peng Wen Wong**
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[DOI: 10.13164/re.2015.0795]
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Design and Synthesis of Quasi Dual-mode, Elliptic Coaxial Filter

This article introduces the design of a novel quasi dual-mode, elliptic coaxial filter. The transfer function is mapped to a generalized Chebyshev prototype with symmetrically located transmission zeros (TZs) where the coupling values are extracted. Furthermore, the miniaturization is achieved by incorporating stepped-impedance coaxial line with inductive element shunted at the center to exhibit a quasi dual-mode property. Theoretical analysis together with experimental prototype is presented. The center frequency of the filter is 2.7 GHz. The simulated and measured insertion loss/return loss are 1.2 dB/ 15 dB and 2.5 dB/11.5 dB respectively. Both theoretical and measured results show a very good agreement.

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Keywords: Bandpass filter, coaxial filter, elliptic, quasi dual-mode, source-load coupling

**M. Rezvanyvardom, E. Farshidi**
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[DOI: 10.13164/re.2015.0800]
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A Novel Cyclic Time to Digital Converter Based on Triple-Slope Interpolation and Time Amplification

This paper investigates a novel cyclic time-to-digital converter (TDC) which employs triple-slope analog interpolation and time amplification techniques for digitizing the time interval between the rising edges of two input signals(Start and Stop). The proposed converter will be a 9-bit cyclic time-to-digital converter that does not use delay lines in its structure. Therefore, it has a low sensitivity to temperature, power supply and process (PVT) variations. The other advantages of the proposed converter are low circuit complexity, and high accuracy compared with the time-to-digital converters that have previously been proposed. Also, this converter improves the time resolution and the dynamic range. In the same resolution, linear range and dynamic range, the proposed cyclic TDC reduces the number of circuit elements compared with the converters that have a similar circuit structure. Thus, the converter reduces the chip area, the power consumption and the figure of merit (FoM). In this converter, the integral nonlinearity (INL) and differential nonlinearity (DNL) errors are reduced. In order to evaluate the idea, the proposed time-to-digital converter is designed in TSMC 45 nm CMOS technology and simulated. Comparison of the theoretical and simulation results confirms the benefits of the proposed TDC.

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Keywords: Time-to-digital converter (TDC), cyclic TDC, analog interpolation, time amplifier (TA)

**J. Yu, Y. Li, X. Mu, J. Zhang, X. Miao, S. Wang**
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[DOI: 10.13164/re.2015.0808]
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Modeling the AgInSbTe Memristor

The AgInSbTe memristor shows gradual resistance tuning characteristics, which makes it a potential candidate to emulate biological plastic synapses. The working mechanism of the device is complex, and both intrinsic charge-trapping mechanism and extrinsic electrochemical metallization effect are confirmed in the AgInSbTe memristor. Mathematical model of the AgInSbTe memristor has not been given before. We propose the flux-voltage controlled memristor model. With piecewise linear approximation technique, we deliver the flux-voltage controlled memristor model of the AgInSbTe memristor based on the experiment data. Our model fits the data well. The flux-voltage controlled memristor model and the piecewise linear approximation method are also suitable for modeling other kinds of memristor devices based on experiment data.

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Keywords: Memristor, mathematical model, piecewise linear

**M. Guzan**
[references] [full-text]
[DOI: 10.13164/re.2015.0814]
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Variations of Boundary Surface in Chua’s Circuit

The paper compares the boundary surfaces with help of cross-sections in three projection planes, for the four changes of Chua’s circuit parameters. It is known that due to changing the parameters, the Chua’s circuit can be characterized in addition to a stable limit cycle also by one double scroll chaotic attractor, two single scroll chaotic attractors or other two stable limit cycles. Chua’s circuit can even start working as a binary memory. It is not known yet, how changes in parameters and conseqently in attractors in the circuit will affect the morphology of the boundary surface. The boundary surface separates the double scroll chaotic attractor from the stable limit cycle. In a variation of the parameters presented in this paper the boundary surface will separate even single scroll chaotic attractors from each other. Dividing the state space into regions of attractivity for different attractors, however, remains fundamentally the same.

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Keywords: Chua's circuit, boundary surface, chaos

**R. Yao, G. Li, J. Xu, L. Wang**
[references] [full-text]
[DOI: 10.13164/re.2015.0824]
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Space Alignment Based on Regularized Inversion Precoding in Cognitive Transmission

For a two-tier Multiple-Input Multiple-Output (MIMO) cognitive network with common receiver, the precoding matrix has a compact relationship with the capacity performance in the unlicensed secondary system. To increase the capacity of secondary system, an improved precoder based on the idea of regularized inversion for secondary transmitter is proposed. An iterative space alignment algorithm is also presented to ensure the Quality of Service (QoS) for primary system. The simulations reveal that, on the premise of achieving QoS for primary system, our proposed algorithm can get larger capacity in secondary system at low Signal-to-Noise Ratio (SNR), which proves the effectiveness of the algorithm.

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Keywords: Cognitive network, Multiple-Input Multiple-Output (MIMO), space alignment, precoding, channel capacity

**A. Samcovic**
[references] [full-text]
[DOI: 10.13164/re.2015.0830]
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Model for Estimation of Bounds in Digital Coding of Seabed Images

This paper proposes the novel model for estimation of bounds in digital coding of images. Entropy coding of images is exploited to measure the useful information content of the data. The bit rate achieved by reversible compression using the rate-distortion theory approach takes into account the contribution of the observation noise and the intrinsic information of hypothetical noise-free image. Assuming the Laplacian probability density function of the quantizer input signal, SQNR gains are calculated for image predictive coding system with non-adaptive quantizer for white and correlated noise, respectively. The proposed model is evaluated on seabed images. However, model presented in this paper can be applied to any signal with Laplacian distribution.

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Keywords: Image coding, entropy coding, image denoising, rate distortion theory, signal to noise ratio

**F. Shen, G. Xu, J. W. Cheong, H. Feng**
[references] [full-text]
[DOI: 10.13164/re.2015.0840]
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Unambiguous Acquisition and Tracking Technique for General BOC Signals

This article presents a new unambiguous acquisition and tracking technique for general Binary Offset Carrier (BOC) ranging signals, which will be used in modern GPS, European Galileo system and Chinese BeiDou system. The test criterion employed in this technique is based on a synthesized correlation function which completely removes positive side peaks while keeping the sharp main peak. Simulation results indicate that the proposed technique completely removes the ambiguity threat in the acquisition process while maintaining relatively higher acquisition performance for low order BOC signals. The potential false lock points in the tracking phase for any order BOC signals are avoided by using the proposed method. Impacts of thermal noise and multipath on the proposed technique are investigated; the simulation results show that the new method allows the removal of false lock points with slightly degraded tracking performance. In addition, this method is convenient to implement via logic circuits.

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Keywords: Modern GPS, Galileo, BeiDou, BOC, unambiguous acquisition and tracking, multipath, thermal noise.

**Y. J. Pan, X. F. Zhang, S. Y. Xie, J. J. Huang, N. C. Yuan**
[references] [full-text]
[DOI: 10.13164/re.2015.0850]
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An Ultra-fast DOA Estimator with Circular Array Interferometer Using Lookup Table Method

The time-consuming phase ambiguity resolution makes the uniform circular array (UCA) interferometer not suitable for real-time direction-of-arrival (DOA) estimation. This paper introduces the lookup table (LUT) method to solve this problem. The key of the method is that we look up the ambiguity numbers instead of the eventual DOA from the table, and then the DOA is obtained by relatively small amount of calculation. This makes it possible that we are able to shrink the table size while maintain the DOA estimation accuracy. The table addresses cover all possible measured phase differences (PDs), which enables the method to be free of spatial scanning. Moreover, without adding frequency index to the lookup table, the estimator can realize wideband application. As an example, a field-programmable gate array (FPGA) based DOA estimator with the estimation time of 180 ns is presented, accompanied by the measured results. This method possesses the advantages of ultra-high speed, high accuracy and low memory usage.

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Keywords: Direction-of-arrival estimation, circular array interferometer, phase ambiguity resolution, lookup table, FPGA.

**J. Zavrtalek, D. Kekrt, J. Hrad**
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[DOI: 10.13164/re.2015.0857]
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New Concept of PLC Modems: Multi-Carrier System for Frequency Selective Slow-Fading Channels Based on Layered SCCC Turbocodes

The article introduces a novel concept of a PLC modem as a complement to the existing G3 and PRIME standards for communications using medium- or high-voltage overhead or cable lines. The proposed concept is based on the fact that the levels of impulse noise and frequency selectivity are lower on high-voltage lines than on low-voltage ones. Also, the demands for “cost-effective” circuitry design are not so crucial as in the case of modems for low-voltage level. In contract to these positive conditions, however, there is the need to overcome much longer distances and to take into account low SNR on the receiving side. With respect to the listed reasons, our concept makes use of MCM, instead of OFDM. The assumption of low SNR is compensated through the use of an efficient channel coding based on a serially concatenated turbo code. In addition, MCM offers lower latency and PAPR compared to OFDM. Therefore, when using MCM, it is possible to excite the line with higher power. The proposed concept has been verified during experimental transmission of testing data over a real, 5 km long, 22kV overhead line.

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Keywords: Power line communication, multi-carrier modulation, serially concatenated convolutional codes, Iterative detection, BCJR forward-backward algorithm, soft-output Viterbi algorithm, soft-in soft-out module, expectation-maximization algorithm, soft decision directed synchronization, data aided synchronization, joint iterative synchronization and detection