June 2014, Volume 23, Number 2
Multiple-input multiple-output orthogonal frequency-division multiplexing (MIMO-OFDM) is known as a promising solution for wideband wireless communications. This is why it has been considered as a powerful candidate for IEEE 802.11n standard. Numerous space-frequency block codes (SFBCs) and space-time- frequency block codes (STFBCs) have been proposed so far for implementing MIMO-OFDM systems. In this paper, at first we propose new full-diversity STFBCs with high coding gain in time-varying channels; the construct method for this structure is using orthogonal space-time block code for any arbitrary number of transmit antenna and then we propose a decoder with linear complexity for our proposed coding scheme. Simulation results verify that the proposed STFBCs outperform other recently published STFBCs.
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Keywords: Channel delay profile, fading channels, space-time-frequency coding, MIMO-OFDM systems.
In this paper, we investigate the performance of selecting the best protocol between amplify and forward (AF) and decode and forward (DF) in multiple relay networks with multiple interferences at relays. In the selection scheme, the best protocol between AF and DF is selected depending on the comparisons of signal-to-interference and noise ratio (SINR) for all source-relay links. All relays measure the received SINR to decide forwarding signal or not. When SINR is above a certain threshold then DF is used otherwise AF is used. Particularly, we develop an accurate mathematical model for best relaying protocol by considering the effect of interferences to our scheme. Firstly, we derive the asymptotic closed form expression for the symbol error rate (SER) for the system under study. Also we derive an upper and lower bound of symbol error rate and show how they were tight with exact SER. Furthermore an approximate expression for the outage probability is derived. Numerical results are finally presented to validate the theoretical analysis with a different number of relays.
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Keywords: Relaying protocol, wireless network, multiple interferences, symbol error rate, outage probability
This paper presents the analysis of Ricean K-factor for wideband high-speed railway channels at 2.35 GHz, based on radio channel measurements under viaduct and U-shape cutting scenarios. We characterize the K-factor from the perspective of narrowband, wideband and delay, according to the measured channel responses. The timefrequency varying narrowband K-factors in the two scenarios are analyzed and compared. A distance-based statistical narrowband K-factor model that covers the frequency variability is proposed. Then, the channel bandwidth dependent property of the wideband K-factor is investigated and we establish a simple bandwidth-based wideband K-factor model. Moreover, the K-factor for each delay bin is discussed. These results are provided for use in wireless system design and channel modeling of high-speed railway.
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Keywords: High-speed railway, Ricean K-factor, channel measurement, viaduct, U-shape cutting
Without consideration of the minimum signal-to-interference-plus-noise ratio (SINR) and frequent information exchange, traditional power control algorithms can not always satisfy SINR requirements of secondary users (SUs) and primary users (PUs) in cognitive radio networks. In this paper, a distributed power control problem for maximizing total throughput of SUs is studied subject to the SINR constraints of SUs and the interference constraints of PUs. To reduce message exchange among SUs, two improved methods are obtained by dual decomposition approaches. For a large-scale network, an average interference constraint is presented at the cost of performance degradation. For a small-scale network, a weighted interference constraint with fairness consideration is proposed to obtain good performance. Simulation results demonstrate that the proposed algorithm is superior to ADCPC and TPCG algorithms.
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Keywords: Cognitive radio networks, SINR requirement,distributed power control, interference temperature
Relatively simple and low-cost radio sensor for monitoring of 3rd generation (3G) UMTS mobile terminals (i.e., phones) has been designed and practically tested. The main purpose of this sensor is to serve as an extending module that can be installed into systems used for monitoring of standard 2nd generation (2G) GSM and DCS mobile phones in highly guarded buildings and areas. Since the transmitted powers of UMTS mobile terminals can be very low in relation to GSM and DCS specifications, the new UMTS sensor is based on a highly sensitive receiver and additional signal processing. The radio sensor was practically tested in several scenarios representing worst-case mobile terminal - base station relations. The measured detection ranges attain values from approx. 11 m inside of rooms to more than 30 m in corridors, which seems to be sufficient for the expected application. Results of all performed tests correspond fairly well with the presented theoretical descriptions. An extended version of the radio sensor can be used for monitoring of mobile terminals of all existing voice or data formats.
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Keywords: Radio sensor, UMTS detection and monitoring, sensor network, security applications, 3G mobile phone.
In this paper we analyze the influence of intracell traffic in a GSM cell on the base station output power. It is proved that intracell traffic increases this power. If offered traffic is small, the increase of output power is equal to the part of intracell traffic. When the offered traffic and, as the result, call loss increase, the increase of output power becomes less. The results of calculation are verified by the computer simulation of traffic process in the GSM cell. The calculation and the simulation consider the uniform distribution of mobile users in the cell, but the conclusions are of a general nature.
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Keywords: GSM, intracell traffic, output power, power distribution.
As a generalized particle filtering, the box-particle filter (Box-PF) has a potential to process the measurements affected by bounded error of unknown distributions and biases. Inspired by the Box-PF, a novel implementation for multi-target tracking, called box-particle cardinality balanced multi-target multi-Bernoulli (Box-CBMeMBer) filter is presented in this paper. More important, to eliminate the negative effect of clutters in the estimation of the numbers of targets, an improved generalized likelihood is derived. The approach can not only track multiple targets and estimate the unknown number of targets, but also handle three sources of uncertainty: stochastic, set-theoretic and data association uncertainty. The advantage of the Box-CBMeMBer filter over the SMC- CBMeMBer filter is that it reduces the number of particles significantly when they reach similar accurate results and therefore remarkably decreases the runtime. The numerical study demonstrates it.
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Keywords: Multi-target tracking, CBMeMBer Filter, Box-Particle Filter, Resampling, Interval Measurements
The paper provides a theoretical framework for the two-dimensional iterative maximum a posteriori detection. This generalization is based on the concept of detection algorithms BCJR and SOVA, i.e., the classical (one-dimensional) iterative detectors used in telecommunication applications. We generalize the one-dimensional detection problem considering the spatial ISI kernel as a two-dimensional finite state machine (2D FSM) representing a network of the spatially concatenated elements. The cellular structure topology defines the design of the 2D Iterative decoding network, where each cell is a general combination-marginalization statistical element (SISO module) exchanging discrete probability density functions (information metrics) with neighboring cells. In this paper, we statistically analyse the performance of various topologies with respect to their application in the field of image restoration. The iterative detection algorithm was applied on the task of binarization of images taken from a CCD camera. The reconstruction includes suppression of the defocus caused by the lens, CCD sensor noise suppression and interpolation (demosaicing). The simulations prove that the algorithm provides satisfactory results even in the case of an input image that is under-sampled due to the Bayer mask.
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Keywords: Iterative detection, 2D iterative decoding netwoks, maximum a posteriori probability criterion, defocus suppression, deconvolution, denoising, de-mosaicing, binary image restoration, image processing.
This paper describes an actively-controlled frequency selective surface (FSS) to implement a backscatter transponder. The FSS is composed by dipoles loaded with switching PIN diodes. The transponder exploits the change in the radar cross section (RCS) of the FSS with the bias of the diodes to modulate the backscattered response of the tag to the FMCW radar. The basic operation theory of the system is explained here. An experimental setup based on a commercial X-band FMCW radar working as a reader is proposed to measure the transponders. The transponder response can be distinguished from the interference of non-modulated clutter, modulating the transponder’s RCS. Some FSS with different number of dipoles are studied, as a proof of concept. Experimental results at several distances are provided.
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Keywords: Transponder, FMCW radar, Frequency Selective Surface (FSS), RFID
This paper presents a novel method for detection of multiple landmines using a ground penetrating radar (GPR). Conventional algorithms mainly focus on detection of a single landmine, which cannot linearly extend to the multiple landmine case. The proposed algorithm is composed of four steps; estimation of the number of multiple objects buried in the ground, isolation of each object, feature extraction and detection of landmines. The number of objects in the GPR signal is estimated by using the energy projection method. Then signals for the objects are extracted by using the symmetry filtering method. Each signal is then processed for features, which are given as input to the support vector machine (SVM) for landmine detection. Three landmines buried in various ground conditions are considered for the test of the proposed method. They demonstrate that the proposed method can successfully detect multiple landmines.
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Keywords: Ground Penetrating Radar, Landmine Detection, Support Vector Machine, PCA, Geometric Feature, Multiple Landmine
Motion detection methods are widely integrated in modern intelligent video surveillance systems. Many of these methods use background subtraction techniques to separate the foreground objects from the background. Temporal averaging is one of the most commonly used and simple method for background subtraction. In this paper we propose new version of the original Temporal averaging algorithm. The speed of updating the background model has been modified to be adaptive and determined by pixel difference. Another approach with simultaneously adaptive threshold and background update speed is also proposed. Our goal is increasing the F-measure of the method by making the algorithm more versatile for different scene scenarios. Experimental results are shown and analyzed. The quality parameters of the original method and the proposed method are compared.
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Keywords: Motion detection, Background subtraction, Video surveillance
Parkinson’s disease (PD) is a chronic neurodegenerative disorder that affects almost 1% of the population in the age group above 60 years. The key symptom in PD is the restriction of mobility. The progress of PD is typically documented using the Unified Parkinson’s Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS), which includes a finger-tapping test. We created a measurement tool and a methodology for the objective measurement of the finger-tapping test. We built a contactless three-dimensional (3D) capture system using two cameras and light-passive (wireless) reflexive markers. We proposed and implemented an algorithm for extracting, matching, and tracing markers. The system provides the 3D position of spherical or hemispherical markers in real time. The system’s functionality was verified with the commercial motion capture system OptiTrack. Our motion capture system is easy to use, saves space, is transportable, and needs only a personal computer for data processing—the ideal solution for an outpatient clinic. Its features were successfully tested on 22 patients with PD and 22 healthy control subjects.
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Keywords: motion capture, bradykinesia, Parkinson’s disease, marker matching, marker tracing, finger-tapping test
When the people are climbing on the mountain, they are exposed to decreased oxygen concentration in the tissue, which is commonly called the active hypoxia. This paper addressed the problem of an acute hypoxia that affects the speech signal at the altitude up to 2500 m. For the experiment, the speech signal database that contains the articulation of vowels was recorded at different alti¬tudes. This speech signal was processed by the originally developed algorithm, which extracted the fundamental frequency and the inharmonicity coefficient. Then, they were subjected to the analysis in order to derive the effects of the acute hypoxia. The results showed that the hypoxia level can be determined by the change of the inharmonicity coefficient. Accordingly, the degree of hypoxia can be estimated.
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Keywords: Acute hypoxia, Inharmonicity coefficient, Fundamental frequency, Speech analysis, Speech processing
This work proposes a novel pre-distortion technique for the quantization noise cancellation of fractional-N frequency synthesizers. The proposed technique utilizes the coordinate rotation digital computer (CORDIC) algorithm to pre-distort the baseband signal of a wireless system with the quantization noise. The pre-distorted signal then modulates the noisy output signal of the fractional-N frequency synthesizer. The transmitter (Tx) modulation quality is thereby improved. In the receiver (Rx) mode, the phase noise of the Rx carrier signal can also be improved by modulation with a pre-distorted sinusoidal signal rather than a baseband signal. Experimental results demonstrate that the novel pre-distortion technique effectively improves the modulation quality of a Tx by an error vector magnitude (EVM) of about 10 % under a 13 Mbps QPSK modulation. The carrier in-band and out-band phase noise of the fractional-N frequency synthesizer is improved by approximately 6 dB and 10 dB, respectively.
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Keywords: Fractional-N frequency synthesizer, delta-sigma modulation, quantization noise, CORDIC, pre-distortion
This paper presents application of the low Duty Cycle Ratio (DCR) modulations: isochronous Digital Pulse Position Modulation (DPPM) and anisochronous Digital Pulse Interval Modulation (DPIM) in backscatter based passive RFID communication system. The proposed modulations are compared to commonly used Amplitude Shift Keying (ASK) modulation. Low DCR modulations are customized for data transmission through inductively coupled link between reader and the tag operating at frequency of 13.56 MHz. The RFID system is mathematically formulated and the performances of the tag are evaluated for each modulation. Observed parameters are modulation depth of backscattered signal, voltage-current characteristics of tag rectifier circuit and ripple of rectifier output voltage. The application of proposed low DCR modulation techniques improves the performance of the RFID system by up to 250%.
- GONG, C.-S. A., SHIUE, M.-T., YAO, K.-W., CHEN, T.-Y., CHANG, Y., SU, C.-H. A truly low-cost high-efficiency ASK demodulator on self-sampling scheme for bioimplantable applications. IEEE Trans. Circuits and Systems-I, July 2008, vol. 55, no. 6, p. 1464–1477.
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Keywords: Low power electronics, Performance analysis, RFID tags, Wireless powering
This paper presents a new current-mode current-controlled four-input five-output universal filter employing one current-controlled current conveyor (CCCII), one electronically tunable CCCII and two grounded capacitors. The proposed configuration provides lowpass, bandpass, highpass, bandstop and allpass current responses that taken from the high-output impedance terminals, which enable easy cascadability of the current-mode operation. The filter also offers both orthogonal and electronic controls of the natural frequency and the quality factor through adjusting the bias current of the CCCIIs. For realizing all the filter responses, the proposed filter does not require passive component-matching condition and both active and passive sensitivities are low. In addition, a new current-mode current-controlled single-input five-output universal filter can be achieved by using an additional multiple-output minus-type CCCII. The proposed filter is simulated using PSPICE simulations to confirm the theoretical analysis.
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Keywords: Universal filter, current-mode circuit, electronically tunable current conveyor, analog filter
A. Kitipongwatana, P. Koseeyaporn, J. Koseeyaporn, P. Wardkein
Fundamental Behavior Analysis of Single-Frequency Sine Wave Forced Oscillator based on Linear Model and Multi-Time Technique
In this article, an excited oscillator which is analyzed by using a multi-time linear analytical model is proposed. An obtained closed-form solution can be exploited not only to explain phenomena in the beat and locked states that are mostly studied in literature but also in an additional state called the non-locked state. With the proposed analysis, it is found that the non-locked state of the oscillator behaves similarly to the up-conversion process. It provides a new point-of-view to the phase noise oscillator. Moreover, our principle indicates that the important factor defining the behavior in each state and state transition is the transfer function of the system. The proposed mathematical model is verified by the experimental and numerical results.
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Keywords: Forced oscillators, Non-Locked state, Beat state, Locked state, Locked Range
C. Ho, K. Chen, T. Horng, J. Wu, C. Huang
Method of Measuring Common-Mode Current Conversion Coefficient for Estimating Variation in Radiated Emission from Printed Circuit Board Components
This work describes the measurement of the common-mode current conversion coefficient for a microstrip line with solid and slotted ground planes by using a VNA with a BCI probe. The radiated emissions estimated by the common-mode current conversion coefficient are further compared with those obtained by the FAC measurements. Furthermore, the proposed method was used to estimate radiated emissions from a microstrip bandpass filter. For all of the case studies, results of electromagnetic (EM) simulation demonstrate the validity of the measurement results by the proposed method. Highly promising for use in EMI measurement application, the proposed method can estimate the radiated emissions by miniaturized microstrip components on a PCB when pre-tested for compliance with EMI regulations.
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Keywords: Vector network analyzer (VNA), bulk current injection (BCI) probe, common-mode current, far-field radiated emission, microstrip components, fullyanechoic chamber (FAC), microstrip line, electromagnetic interference (EMI), printed circuit board (PCB), microstrip bandpass filters (BPFs)
In this paper, electrically small corporately T-fed quasi-lumped element resonator antenna array is investigated. The radiating element, a quasi-lumped element resonator is excited by a novel semi hybrid ring-like T-shaped corporate feed network. The characteristics losses due to Ohmic and discontinuities along the feed line which invariably constitutes complex feed structures are mitigated at the instance of the proposed antenna. Technique to implement the compact array with the intent to enhance the gain is presented. The operation dynamics of the feed along with its theoretical explanation is also reported. Findings indicates that the measured gain is 10.97 dBi for antenna of an estate area of about 0.677λ_0 × 1.257λ_0 sq. mm. Valuable insight to the optimum design in terms of compactness, good gain, and ease of fabrication is documented.
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Keywords: Corporate array, T-fed, power divider, quasi-lumped element, quarter wave transformer.
R. Addaci, A. Diallo, C. Luxey, P. Le Thuc, R. Staraj
Design of Multi-Antenna System for UMTS Clamshell Mobile Phones with Ground Plane Effects Considerations
In this paper, the influence of the ground plane dimensions on the port-to-port isolation of two closely-spaced Universal Mobile Telecommunications System (UMTS) Planar Inverted-F Antennas (PIFAs) with and without neutralization line is first presented. Parametric studies show the existence of an optimal size of the ground plane allowing optimizing the isolation and the efficiency of the considered antenna-system. The results obtained with this study are used in the second part to develop an efficient neutralized multi-antenna system for clamshell-type mobile phones. The obtained results, in terms of isolation, matching and diversity for the two possible configurations of the clamshell system in use namely the open and the closed states, show that good performance are obtained in the open state and preserved in the closed state. Prototypes of these two configurations are realized and measurement results are in good agreement with the simulations.
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- DIALLO, A., LE THUC, P., LUXEY, C., STARAJ, R., KOSSIAVAS, G., FRANZEN, M., KILDAL, P.S. Diversity characterization of optimized two-antenna systems for UMTS handsets. EURASIP Journal on Wireless Communications and Networking, 2007, Article ID 37574, 9 p., doi:10.1155/2007/37574. http: //www.hindawi.com/GetArticle.aspx?doi=10.1155/2007/37574.
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- ADDACI, R., STARAJ, R. Artificial neural networks modeling technique for fast analysis and design of multi-antenna systems. In 7th European Conference on Antenna and Propagation. Gothenburg (Sweden), 8-12 April 2013, p. 2034-2037.
Keywords: Clamshell system, Multi-antenna system, Diversity and MIMO, Ground plane effect
Based on the elitist non-dominated sorting genetic algorithm (NSGA-II) for multi-objective optimization problems, an improved scheme with self-adaptive crossover and mutation operators is proposed to obtain good optimization performance in this paper. The performance of the improved NSGA-II is demonstrated with a set of test functions and metrics taken from the standard literature on multi-objective optimization. Combined with the HFSS solver, one pixel antenna with reconfigurable radiation patterns, which can steer its beam into six different directions (θDOA = ± 15°, ± 30°, ± 50°) with a 5 % overlapping impedance bandwidth (S11 < − 10 dB) and a realized gain over 6 dB, is designed by the proposed self-adaptive NSGA-II.
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Keywords: Elitist non-dominated sorting genetic algorithm (NSGA-II), multi-objective, pixel antenna, radiation pattern reconfigurability, self-adaptive
A. Acharyya, J. Goswami, S. Banerjee, J. P. Banerjee
Estimation of Most Favorable Optical Window Position Subject to Achieve Finest Optical Control of Lateral DDR IMPATT Diode Designed to Operate at W-Band
The optimum position of the optical window (OW) of illuminated lateral double-drift region (DDR) impact avalanche transit time (IMPATT) device has been determined subject to achieve the finest optical control of both DC and RF properties of the device. The OW is a tiny hole that has to be created on the oxide layer through which the light energy of appropriate wavelength can be coupled to the space charge region of the device. A non-sinusoidal voltage is assumed to be applied across the diode and the corresponding terminal current response is obtained from a two-dimensional (2-D) large-signal (L-S) simulation technique developed by the authors for illuminated lateral DDR IMPATT diode. Both the DC and L-S properties of the illuminated device based on Si, designed to operate at W-band frequencies (75 – 110 GHz) are obtained from the said L-S simulation. Simulation is carried out for different incident optical power levels of different wavelengths (600 – 1000 nm) by varying the position of the fixed sized OW on the oxide layer along the direction of electrical conduction of the device. Results show that, the most favorable optical tuning can be achieved when the OW is entirely created over the p-type depletion layer, i.e. when the photocurrent is purely electron dominated. Also the 700 nm wavelength is found to be most suitable wavelength for obtaining the maximum optical modulation of both DC and RF properties of the device.
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Keywords: Lateral DDR IMPATTs, finite difference method, optical window, W-band.
Rain is the major source of attenuation for microwave propagation above 10 GHz. In tropical and equatorial regions where the rain intensity is higher, designing a terrestrial and earth-to-satellite microwave links is very critical and challenging at these frequencies. This paper presents the preliminary results of rain effects in a 23 GHz terrestrial point-to-point communication link 1.3km long. The experimental test bed had been set up at Skudai, Johor Bahru, Malaysia. In this area, a monsoon equatorial climate prevails and the rainfall rate can reach values well above 100mm/h with significant monthly and diurnal variability. Hence, it is necessary to implement a mitigation technique for maintaining an adequate radio link performance for the action of very heavy rain. Since we now know that the ULPC (Up Link Power Control) cannot guarantee the desired performance, a solution based on frequency band diversity is proposed in this paper. Here, a secondary radio link operating in a frequency not affected by rain (C band for instance) is placed parallel with the main link. Under no rain or light rain conditions, the secondary link carries without priority radio signals. When there is an outage of the main link due to rain, the secondary link assumes the priority traffic. The outcome of the research shows a solution for higher operating frequencies during rainy events.
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Keywords: Rainfall rate, rain distribution, rain attenuation, diurnal variability, monthly variability, power control, frequency diversity, radio link, system availability