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June 2014, Volume 23, Number 2

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M. Shahabinejad, Z. Mohammadian, S. Talebi, [references] [full-text] [Download Citations]
New Full-Diversity Space-Time-Frequency Block Codes with Simplified Decoders for MIMO-OFDM Systems

Multiple-input multiple-output orthogonal frequency-division multiplexing (MIMO-OFDM) is known as a promising solution for wideband wireless communications. This is why it has been considered as a powerful candidate for IEEE 802.11n standard. Numerous space-frequency block codes (SFBCs) and space-time- frequency block codes (STFBCs) have been proposed so far for implementing MIMO-OFDM systems. In this paper, at first we propose new full-diversity STFBCs with high coding gain in time-varying channels; the construct method for this structure is using orthogonal space-time block code for any arbitrary number of transmit antenna and then we propose a decoder with linear complexity for our proposed coding scheme. Simulation results verify that the proposed STFBCs outperform other recently published STFBCs.

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  17. LEE, K., KIM, Y., KANG, J. A novel orthogonal space-timefrequency block code for OFDM systems. IEEE Communications Letters, vol. 13, no. 9, p. 652 - 654.
  18. MA, X., GIANNAKIS, G. B. Space-time-multipath coding using digital phase sweeping or circular delay diversity. IEEE Transactions on Signal Processing, 2005, vol. 53, no. 3, p. 1121 - 1131.
  19. ZHANG, W., XIA, X.-G., CHING, P. C. High-rate full-diversity space time-frequency codes for broadband MIMO block-fading channels. IEEE Transactions on Communications, 2007, vol. 55, p. 25 - 34.

Keywords: Channel delay profile, fading channels, space-time-frequency coding, MIMO-OFDM systems.

E. E. B. Adam, Li Yu, R. Haruna, A. A. Mohammed [references] [full-text] [Download Citations]
Performance Analysis of Best Relaying Protocol Selection with Interferences at Relays

In this paper, we investigate the performance of selecting the best protocol between amplify and forward (AF) and decode and forward (DF) in multiple relay networks with multiple interferences at relays. In the selection scheme, the best protocol between AF and DF is selected depending on the comparisons of signal-to-interference and noise ratio (SINR) for all source-relay links. All relays measure the received SINR to decide forwarding signal or not. When SINR is above a certain threshold then DF is used otherwise AF is used. Particularly, we develop an accurate mathematical model for best relaying protocol by considering the effect of interferences to our scheme. Firstly, we derive the asymptotic closed form expression for the symbol error rate (SER) for the system under study. Also we derive an upper and lower bound of symbol error rate and show how they were tight with exact SER. Furthermore an approximate expression for the outage probability is derived. Numerical results are finally presented to validate the theoretical analysis with a different number of relays.

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Keywords: Relaying protocol, wireless network, multiple interferences, symbol error rate, outage probability

T. Zhou, C. Tao, L. Liu, Z. H. Tan [references] [full-text] [Download Citations]
Ricean K-Factor Measurements and Analysis for Wideband High-Speed Railway Channels at 2.35 GHz

This paper presents the analysis of Ricean K-factor for wideband high-speed railway channels at 2.35 GHz, based on radio channel measurements under viaduct and U-shape cutting scenarios. We characterize the K-factor from the perspective of narrowband, wideband and delay, according to the measured channel responses. The timefrequency varying narrowband K-factors in the two scenarios are analyzed and compared. A distance-based statistical narrowband K-factor model that covers the frequency variability is proposed. Then, the channel bandwidth dependent property of the wideband K-factor is investigated and we establish a simple bandwidth-based wideband K-factor model. Moreover, the K-factor for each delay bin is discussed. These results are provided for use in wireless system design and channel modeling of high-speed railway.

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Keywords: High-speed railway, Ricean K-factor, channel measurement, viaduct, U-shape cutting

Y. J. Xu, X. H. Zhao [references] [full-text] [Download Citations]
Mixed Power Control Strategies for Cognitive Radio Networks under SINR and Interference Temperature Constraints

Without consideration of the minimum signal-to-interference-plus-noise ratio (SINR) and frequent information exchange, traditional power control algorithms can not always satisfy SINR requirements of secondary users (SUs) and primary users (PUs) in cognitive radio networks. In this paper, a distributed power control problem for maximizing total throughput of SUs is studied subject to the SINR constraints of SUs and the interference constraints of PUs. To reduce message exchange among SUs, two improved methods are obtained by dual decomposition approaches. For a large-scale network, an average interference constraint is presented at the cost of performance degradation. For a small-scale network, a weighted interference constraint with fairness consideration is proposed to obtain good performance. Simulation results demonstrate that the proposed algorithm is superior to ADCPC and TPCG algorithms.

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Keywords: Cognitive radio networks, SINR requirement,distributed power control, interference temperature

F. Kozak, P. Hudec [references] [full-text] [Download Citations]
Radio Sensor for Monitoring of UMTS Mobile Terminals

Relatively simple and low-cost radio sensor for monitoring of 3rd generation (3G) UMTS mobile terminals (i.e., phones) has been designed and practically tested. The main purpose of this sensor is to serve as an extending module that can be installed into systems used for monitoring of standard 2nd generation (2G) GSM and DCS mobile phones in highly guarded buildings and areas. Since the transmitted powers of UMTS mobile terminals can be very low in relation to GSM and DCS specifications, the new UMTS sensor is based on a highly sensitive receiver and additional signal processing. The radio sensor was practically tested in several scenarios representing worst-case mobile terminal - base station relations. The measured detection ranges attain values from approx. 11 m inside of rooms to more than 30 m in corridors, which seems to be sufficient for the expected application. Results of all performed tests correspond fairly well with the presented theoretical descriptions. An extended version of the radio sensor can be used for monitoring of mobile terminals of all existing voice or data formats.

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Keywords: Radio sensor, UMTS detection and monitoring, sensor network, security applications, 3G mobile phone.

M. Mileusnic, P. Jovanovic, M. Popovic, A. Lebl, D. Mitic, Z. Markov [references] [full-text] [Download Citations]
Influence of Intra-cell Traffic on the Output Power of Base Station in GSM

In this paper we analyze the influence of intracell traffic in a GSM cell on the base station output power. It is proved that intracell traffic increases this power. If offered traffic is small, the increase of output power is equal to the part of intracell traffic. When the offered traffic and, as the result, call loss increase, the increase of output power becomes less. The results of calculation are verified by the computer simulation of traffic process in the GSM cell. The calculation and the simulation consider the uniform distribution of mobile users in the cell, but the conclusions are of a general nature.

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Keywords: GSM, intracell traffic, output power, power distribution.

L. Song, X. Zhao [references] [full-text] [Download Citations]
Box-Particle Cardinality Balanced Multi-Target Multi-Bernoulli Filter

As a generalized particle filtering, the box-particle filter (Box-PF) has a potential to process the measurements affected by bounded error of unknown distributions and biases. Inspired by the Box-PF, a novel implementation for multi-target tracking, called box-particle cardinality balanced multi-target multi-Bernoulli (Box-CBMeMBer) filter is presented in this paper. More important, to eliminate the negative effect of clutters in the estimation of the numbers of targets, an improved generalized likelihood is derived. The approach can not only track multiple targets and estimate the unknown number of targets, but also handle three sources of uncertainty: stochastic, set-theoretic and data association uncertainty. The advantage of the Box-CBMeMBer filter over the SMC- CBMeMBer filter is that it reduces the number of particles significantly when they reach similar accurate results and therefore remarkably decreases the runtime. The numerical study demonstrates it.

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Keywords: Multi-target tracking, CBMeMBer Filter, Box-Particle Filter, Resampling, Interval Measurements

D. Kekrt, T. Lukes, M. Klima, K. Fliegel [references] [full-text] [Download Citations]
2D Iterative MAP Detection: Principles and Applications in Image Restoration

The paper provides a theoretical framework for the two-dimensional iterative maximum a posteriori detection. This generalization is based on the concept of detection algorithms BCJR and SOVA, i.e., the classical (one-dimensional) iterative detectors used in telecommunication applications. We generalize the one-dimensional detection problem considering the spatial ISI kernel as a two-dimensional finite state machine (2D FSM) representing a network of the spatially concatenated elements. The cellular structure topology defines the design of the 2D Iterative decoding network, where each cell is a general combination-marginalization statistical element (SISO module) exchanging discrete probability density functions (information metrics) with neighboring cells. In this paper, we statistically analyse the performance of various topologies with respect to their application in the field of image restoration. The iterative detection algorithm was applied on the task of binarization of images taken from a CCD camera. The reconstruction includes suppression of the defocus caused by the lens, CCD sensor noise suppression and interpolation (demosaicing). The simulations prove that the algorithm provides satisfactory results even in the case of an input image that is under-sampled due to the Bayer mask.

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  2. KEKRT, D., KLIMA, M., FLIEGEL, K. The iterative detection network based suppression of the thermal noise and blurring due to object moving in black and white pictures shot by a camera with CCD/CMOS sensor. In Proceedings of SPIE 7076, Optics and Photonics. San Diego (USA), 2008, p. 70760M-1 - 70760M-9.
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Keywords: Iterative detection, 2D iterative decoding netwoks, maximum a posteriori probability criterion, defocus suppression, deconvolution, denoising, de-mosaicing, binary image restoration, image processing.

A.Lazaro, J.Lorenzo, R.Villarino, D.Girbau [references] [full-text] [Download Citations]
Backscatter Transponder Based on Frequency Selective Surface for FMCW Radar Applications

This paper describes an actively-controlled frequency selective surface (FSS) to implement a backscatter transponder. The FSS is composed by dipoles loaded with switching PIN diodes. The transponder exploits the change in the radar cross section (RCS) of the FSS with the bias of the diodes to modulate the backscattered response of the tag to the FMCW radar. The basic operation theory of the system is explained here. An experimental setup based on a commercial X-band FMCW radar working as a reader is proposed to measure the transponders. The transponder response can be distinguished from the interference of non-modulated clutter, modulating the transponder’s RCS. Some FSS with different number of dipoles are studied, as a proof of concept. Experimental results at several distances are provided.

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Keywords: Transponder, FMCW radar, Frequency Selective Surface (FSS), RFID

S. Park, K. Kim, K. H. Ko [references] [full-text] [Download Citations]
Multi-Feature Based Multiple Landmine Detection Using Ground Penetration Radar

This paper presents a novel method for detection of multiple landmines using a ground penetrating radar (GPR). Conventional algorithms mainly focus on detection of a single landmine, which cannot linearly extend to the multiple landmine case. The proposed algorithm is composed of four steps; estimation of the number of multiple objects buried in the ground, isolation of each object, feature extraction and detection of landmines. The number of objects in the GPR signal is estimated by using the energy projection method. Then signals for the objects are extracted by using the symmetry filtering method. Each signal is then processed for features, which are given as input to the support vector machine (SVM) for landmine detection. Three landmines buried in various ground conditions are considered for the test of the proposed method. They demonstrate that the proposed method can successfully detect multiple landmines.

  1. MACDONALD, J., LOCKWOOD, J. R., MCFEE, J., ALTSHULER, T., BROACH, T., CARIN, L., HARMON, R., RAPPAPORT, C., SCOTT, W., WEAVER, R. Alternatives for Landmine Detection. Rand Corporation, 2003.
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  5. NISHIMOTO, M., UENO, S., KIMURA, Y. Feature extraction from GPR data for identification of landmine-like objects under rough ground surface. Journal of Electromagnetic Waves and Applications, 2006, vol. 20, no. 12, p. 1577-1586.
  6. GADER, P. D., MYSTKOWSKY, M., ZHAO, Y. Landmine detection with ground penetration radar using hidden Markov models. IEEE Transactions on Geoscience and Remote Sensing, 2011, vol. 39, no. 6, p. 1231-1244.
  7. SATO, M., KOBAYASHI, T., TAKAHASHI, K., FUJIWARA, J., FENG, X. Vehicle mounted SAR-GPR and its evaluation. In Proceedings of SPIE. Orlando (U.S.A.), 2006, vol. 6217.
  8. HARMON, R. S., HOLLOWAY, J. H., BROACH, J. T. Processing of GPR data from NIITEK landmine detection system. In Proceedings of SPIE. Maryland (U.S.A.), 2003, vol. 5089.
  9. YAROVOY, A., SAVELYEV, T., ZHUGE, X., AUBRY, P., LIGTHART, L., SCHAVEMAKER, J., TETTELAAR, P., DEN BREEJEN, E. Performance of UWB array-based radar sensor in a multi-sensor vehicle-based suit for landmine detection. In Radar Conference EuRAD 2008. Amsterdam (The Netherlands), 2008, p. 288-291.
  10. NATH, B., BHUIYAN, A. A geometrical feature based sensor fusion model of GPR and IR for detection and classification of anti-personnel mines. In Proc. of the 7th Internat. Conf. on Intelligent Systems Design and Applications ISDA '07. 2007, p. 849-856.
  11. HUANG, X., ZHANG, L., LI, P. Classification and extraction of spatial features in urban areas using high-resolution multispectral imagery. IEEE Geoscience and Remote Sensing Letters, 2007, vol. 4, no. 2, p. 260-264.
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  13. TORRIONE, P., COLLINS, L. M. Texture features for antitank landmine detection using ground penetrating radar. IEEE Transactions on Geoscience and Remote Sensing, 2007, vol. 45, no. 2, p. 2374-2382.
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Keywords: Ground Penetrating Radar, Landmine Detection, Support Vector Machine, PCA, Geometric Feature, Multiple Landmine

B. Nikolov, N. Kostov [references] [full-text] [Download Citations]
Motion Detection Using Adaptive Temporal Averaging Method

Motion detection methods are widely integrated in modern intelligent video surveillance systems. Many of these methods use background subtraction techniques to separate the foreground objects from the background. Temporal averaging is one of the most commonly used and simple method for background subtraction. In this paper we propose new version of the original Temporal averaging algorithm. The speed of updating the background model has been modified to be adaptive and determined by pixel difference. Another approach with simultaneously adaptive threshold and background update speed is also proposed. Our goal is increasing the F-measure of the method by making the algorithm more versatile for different scene scenarios. Experimental results are shown and analyzed. The quality parameters of the original method and the proposed method are compared.

  1. VARGAS, M., TORAL, S. L., BARRERO, F., MILLA, J. M. An enhanced background estimation algorithm for vehicle detection in urban traffic video. In Proceedings of the 11th International IEEE Conference on Intelligent Transportation Systems. Beijing (China), Oct 2008, p. 784–790.
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  7. DICKINSON, P., HUNTER, A. Scene modelling using an adaptive mixture of Gaussians in colour and space. In IEEE Conf. on Advanced Video and Signal based Surveillance, AVSS 2005. Como (Italy), September, 2005, p. 64–69.
  8. WANG, H., MILLER, P. Regularized online mixture of Gaussians for background subtraction. In IEEE International Conference on Advanced Video and Signal-Based Surveillance, AVSS 2011. Klagenfurt (Austria), September, 2011, p. 249–254.
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Keywords: Motion detection, Background subtraction, Video surveillance

R. Krupicka, Z. Szabo, S. Viteckova, E. Ruzicka [references] [full-text] [Download Citations]
Motion Capture System for Finger Movement Measurement in Parkinson Disease

Parkinson’s disease (PD) is a chronic neurodegenerative disorder that affects almost 1% of the population in the age group above 60 years. The key symptom in PD is the restriction of mobility. The progress of PD is typically documented using the Unified Parkinson’s Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS), which includes a finger-tapping test. We created a measurement tool and a methodology for the objective measurement of the finger-tapping test. We built a contactless three-dimensional (3D) capture system using two cameras and light-passive (wireless) reflexive markers. We proposed and implemented an algorithm for extracting, matching, and tracing markers. The system provides the 3D position of spherical or hemispherical markers in real time. The system’s functionality was verified with the commercial motion capture system OptiTrack. Our motion capture system is easy to use, saves space, is transportable, and needs only a personal computer for data processing—the ideal solution for an outpatient clinic. Its features were successfully tested on 22 patients with PD and 22 healthy control subjects.

  1. ESPAY, A. J., GIUFFRIDA, J. P., CHEN, R., PAYNE, M., MAZZELLA, F., DUNN, E., VAUGHAN, J. E., DUKER, A. P., SAHAY, A., KIM, S. J., REVILLA, F. J., HELDMAN, D. A. Differential response of speed, amplitude, and rhythm to dopaminergic medications in Parkinson's disease. Mov Disord, UC Neuroscience Institute, Department of Neurology, Gardner Center for Parkinson's Disease and Movement Disorders, University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, Ohio 45267-0525. 2011, vol. 26, p. 2504-2508.
  2. FAHN, S., ELTON, R. L., and UPDRS program members. Unified Parkinson’s disease rating scale. In Recent Developments in Parkinson’s Disease. Edited by S. Fahn, C. D. Marsden, M. Goldstein, and D. B. Calne (Macmillan Healthcare Information, Florham Park, NJ, 1987), vol. 2, p. 153–163 and 293–304.
  3. YOKOE, M., OKUNO, R., HAMASAKI, T., KURACHI, Y., AKAZAWA, K., SAKODA, S. Opening velocity, a novel parameter, for finger tapping test in patients with Parkinson's disease. Parkinsonism & Related Disorders, 2009, no. 15, p. 440 to 444.
  4. CALAUTTI, C., JONES, P., PERSAUD, N., GUINCESTRE, J.-Y., NACCARATO, M., WARBURTON, E., BARON, J.-C. Quantification of index tapping regularity after stroke with tri-axial accelerometry. Brain Research Bulletin, 2006, vol. 70, p. 1-7.
  5. PATEL, S., SHERRILL, D., HUGHES, R., HESTER, T., LIENEMETH, T., BONATO, P., STANDAERT, D., HUGGINS, N. Analysis of the severity of dyskinesia in patients with Parkinson's disease via wearable sensors. In Proceedings of the International Workshop on Wearable and Implantable Body Sensor Networks, IEEE Computer Society, 2006, p. 123-126.
  6. GRANDEZ, K., SOLAS, G., BUSTAMANTE, P., SEDANO, B. Sensor device for testing activities in Parkinson and ALS patients. In 4th International Conference on Pervasive Computing Technologies for Healthcare, Pervasive Health 2010, 2010.
  7. LAINSCSEK, C., ROWAT, P., SCHETTINO, L., LEE, D., SONG, D., LETELLIER, C., POIZNER, H. Finger tapping movements of Parkinson’s disease patients automatically rated using nonlinear delay differential equations. Chaos: An Interdisciplinary Journal of Nonlinear Science, 2012, vol. 22, no. 1.
  8. JOBBAGY, A., HARCOS, P., KAROLY, R., FAZEKAS, G. Analysis of finger-tapping movement. Journal of Neuroscience Methods, 2005, vol. 141, p. 29-39.
  9. VAN HILTEN, J. J., VAN EERD, A. A., WAGEMANS, E. A., MIDDELKOOP, H. A., ROOS, R. A. Bradykinesia and hypokinesia in Parkinson's disease: what's in a name? J Neural Transm, Department of Neurology. Leiden University Medical Center, The Netherlands, 1998, vol. 105, p. 229-237.
  10. ESPAY, A. J., BEATON, D. E., MORGANTE, F., GUNRAJ, C. A., LANG, A. E., CHEN, R. Impairments of speed and amplitude of movement in Parkinson's disease: a pilot study. Mov Disord, Toronto Western Research Institute, Division of Neurology, Department of Medicine, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada, 2009, vol. 24, p. 1001-1008.
  11. GOETZ, C., STEBBINS, G. Assuring interrater reliability for the UPDRS motor section: Utility of the UPDRS teaching tape. Movement Disorders, 2004, vol. 19, p. 1453-1456.
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  13. KRUPICKA, R., SZABO, Z., JIRINA, M. Motion camera system for measuring finger tapping in Parkinson's disease. In IFMBE Proceedings [CD-ROM]. Berlin: Springer Science+Business Media, 2011, p. 846-849. ISBN 978-3-642-23507-8.
  14. BRADSKI, G., KAEHLER, A. Learning OpenCV Computer Vision with the OpenCV Library. O'Reilly Media, 2008. ISBN 978-0-596-51613-0.
  15. BURKARD, R., DELL'AMICO, M., MARTELLO, S. Assignment Problems. Society for Industrial and Applied Mathematics, 2009.
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  17. GOETZ, C. G., POEWE, W., RASCOL, O., SAMPAIO, C., STEBBINS, G. T., COUNSEL, C., GILADI, N., HOLLOWAY, R.G., MOORE, C.G., WENNING, G. K., YAHR, M. D., SEIDL, L. Movement Disorder Society Task Force Report on the Hoehn and Yahr staging scale: Status and recommendations. The Movement Disorder Society Task Force on Rating Scales for Parkinson’s Disease. Movement Disorders, 2004, vol. 19, no. 9, p. 1020–1028.
  18. LANGSTON, J. W., WIDNER, H., GOETZ, C. G., BROOKS, D., FAHN, S., FREEMAN, T., WATTS, R. Core assessment program for intracerebral transplantations (CAPIT). Mov. Disord., 1992, vol. 7, p. 2–13. doi: 10.1002/mds.870070103

Keywords: motion capture, bradykinesia, Parkinson’s disease, marker matching, marker tracing, finger-tapping test

Z. N. Milivojevic, D. Brodic, M. Z. Milivojevic [references] [full-text] [Download Citations]
The Effects of the Active Hypoxia to the Speech Signal Inharmonicity

When the people are climbing on the mountain, they are exposed to decreased oxygen concentration in the tissue, which is commonly called the active hypoxia. This paper addressed the problem of an acute hypoxia that affects the speech signal at the altitude up to 2500 m. For the experiment, the speech signal database that contains the articulation of vowels was recorded at different alti¬tudes. This speech signal was processed by the originally developed algorithm, which extracted the fundamental frequency and the inharmonicity coefficient. Then, they were subjected to the analysis in order to derive the effects of the acute hypoxia. The results showed that the hypoxia level can be determined by the change of the inharmonicity coefficient. Accordingly, the degree of hypoxia can be estimated.

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Keywords: Acute hypoxia, Inharmonicity coefficient, Fundamental frequency, Speech analysis, Speech processing

K. C. Peng, Y. R. Lu, Z. H. Huang [references] [full-text] [Download Citations]
Quantization Noise Cancellation of Fractional-N Frequency Synthesizers Using Pre-distortion Technique

This work proposes a novel pre-distortion technique for the quantization noise cancellation of fractional-N frequency synthesizers. The proposed technique utilizes the coordinate rotation digital computer (CORDIC) algorithm to pre-distort the baseband signal of a wireless system with the quantization noise. The pre-distorted signal then modulates the noisy output signal of the fractional-N frequency synthesizer. The transmitter (Tx) modulation quality is thereby improved. In the receiver (Rx) mode, the phase noise of the Rx carrier signal can also be improved by modulation with a pre-distorted sinusoidal signal rather than a baseband signal. Experimental results demonstrate that the novel pre-distortion technique effectively improves the modulation quality of a Tx by an error vector magnitude (EVM) of about 10 % under a 13 Mbps QPSK modulation. The carrier in-band and out-band phase noise of the fractional-N frequency synthesizer is improved by approximately 6 dB and 10 dB, respectively.

  1. MUSCHALLIK, C. Influence of RF oscillators on an OFDM signal. IEEE Transactions on Consumer Electronics, 1995, vol. 41, no. 3, p. 592 - 603.
  2. CHRISTOFFERS, N., KOKOZINSKI, R., KOLNSBERG, S., HOSTICKA, B. J. High loop-filter-order sigma-delta fractional-N frequency synthesizers for use in frequency-hopping-spreadspectrum communication-systems. In Proceeding of the 2003 IEEE International Symposium on Circuits and Systems. 2003, p. 216 - 219.
  3. SHU, K., SANCHEZ-SINENCIO, E., MALOBERTI, F., EDURI, U. A comparative study of digital ΣΔ modulators for fractional-N synthesis. In Digest of the 8th IEEE International Conference on Electronics, Circuits and Systems. 2001, p. 1391 - 1394.
  4. PENG, K. C., HUANG, C. H., Li, C. J., HORNG, T. S. High performance frequency hopping transmitters using two-point deltasigma modulation. IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques, 2004, vol. 52, no. 11, p. 2529 - 2535.
  5. PENG, K. C., WU, P. S. High Performance fractional–N frequency synthesizer using a two-point channel selection technique. In Digest of the 2009 IEEE Asia-Pacific Microwave Conference. 2009, p. 1275 - 1278.
  6. PENG, K. C., LIN C. C., CHAO C. H. A novel three-point modulation technique for fractional-N frequency synthesizer applications. Radioengineering, 2013, vol. 22, no. 1, p. 269 – 275.
  7. ZHANG, L., YU, X., SUN, Y., PHEE,W., WANF, D., WANG, Z., CHEN, H. A hybrid spur compensation technique for finitemodulo fractional-N phase-locked loops. IEEE Journal of Solid- State Circuit, 2009, vol. 44, no. 11, p. 2922 - 2934.
  8. SHEKHAR, S., GANGOPADHYAY, D., WOO, E. C., ALLSTOT, D. A 2.4-GHz extended-range type-I ΣΔ fractional-N synthesizer with 1.8-MHz loop bandwidth and -110 dBc/Hz phase noise. IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems II, Express Briefs, 2011, vol. 58, no. 8, p. 472 - 476.
  9. WANG, H. New Strategies for Low Noise, Agile PLL Frequency Synthesis. Ph.D. dissertation. London (UK): Dept. Electronic & Electrical Eng. Univ. College London, 2009.
  10. HAYKIN, S. Communication Systems, 5th ed. John Wiley & Sons, 2009.
  11. ZHAO, B., LIAN, Y., YANG H. A low-power fast-settling bondwire frequency synthesizer with a dynamic-bandwidth scheme. IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems I, Regular Papers, 2013, vol. 60, no. 5, p. 1188 - 1199.
  12. AGGARWAL, S., MEHER, P. K., KHARE, K. Scale-free hyperbolic CORDIC processor and its application to waveform generation. IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems I, Regular Papers, 2013, vol. 60, no. 2, p. 314 - 326.

Keywords: Fractional-N frequency synthesizer, delta-sigma modulation, quantization noise, CORDIC, pre-distortion

D. Vinko, T. Svedek, D. Zagar [references] [full-text] [Download Citations]
Performance Improvement in Passive Backscatter Based RFID System with Low DCR Modulations

This paper presents application of the low Duty Cycle Ratio (DCR) modulations: isochronous Digital Pulse Position Modulation (DPPM) and anisochronous Digital Pulse Interval Modulation (DPIM) in backscatter based passive RFID communication system. The proposed modulations are compared to commonly used Amplitude Shift Keying (ASK) modulation. Low DCR modulations are customized for data transmission through inductively coupled link between reader and the tag operating at frequency of 13.56 MHz. The RFID system is mathematically formulated and the performances of the tag are evaluated for each modulation. Observed parameters are modulation depth of backscattered signal, voltage-current characteristics of tag rectifier circuit and ripple of rectifier output voltage. The application of proposed low DCR modulation techniques improves the performance of the RFID system by up to 250%.

  1. GONG, C.-S. A., SHIUE, M.-T., YAO, K.-W., CHEN, T.-Y., CHANG, Y., SU, C.-H. A truly low-cost high-efficiency ASK demodulator on self-sampling scheme for bioimplantable applications. IEEE Trans. Circuits and Systems-I, July 2008, vol. 55, no. 6, p. 1464–1477.
  2. WANG, C.-C., LEE, T.-J., CHIO, U. F., HSIAO, Y.-T., CHEN, J.- J. J. A 570-kbps ASK demodulator without external capacitors for low-frequency wireless bio-implants. Microelectronics Journal, 2008, vol. 39, p. 130–136.
  3. NAKAMOTO. H., YAMAZAKI, D., YAMAMOTO, T., KURATA, H., YAMADA, S., MUKAIDA, K., NINOMIYA, T., OHKAWA, T., MASUI, S., GOTOH, K. A passive UHF RF identification CMOS tag IC using ferroelectric RAM in 0.35-μm technology. IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits, 2007, vol. 42, no.1, p. 101–109.
  4. KHAW, M. K., MOHD-YASIN, F., REAZ, M. B. I. The design of Tag-ItTM compatible 13.56 MHz passive RFID transponder IC employing TSMC 0.18μm process. In Proceedings of the 5th WSEAS Int. Conf. on Circuits, Systems, Electronics, Control & Signal Processing, 2006, p. 110–113.
  5. PUERS, R., CARTYSSE, M., VANDEVOORDE, G., COLLIER, R. J., LOURIDAS, E., BURNY, F., DONKERWOLCKE, M., MOULART, F. A telemetry system for the detection of hip prosthesis loosening by vibration analysis. Sensors and Actuators, 2000, vol. 85, p. 42–47.
  6. ASHRY, A., SHARAF, K., IBRAHIM, M. A compact low-power UHF RFID tag. Microelectronics Journal, 2009, vol. 40, p. 1504 to 1513.
  7. CATRYSSE, M., HERMANS, B., PUERS, R. An inductive power system with integrated bi-directional data-transmission. Sensors and Actuators, 2004, vol. A115, p. 221-229.
  8. MYNY, K., STEUDEL, S., VICCA, P., BEENHAKKERS, M. J., VAN AERLE, N. A. J. M., GELINCK, G. H., GENOE, J., DEHAENE, W., HEREMANS, P. Plastic circuits and tags for 13.56 MHz radio-frequency communication. Solid-State Electronics, 2009, vol. 53, p. 1220–1226.
  9. SVEDEK, T., RUPCIĆ, S. Anisochronous modulation methods for optical short-range wireless communication. In Proceedings of 2000 IEEE International Conference on Intelligent Engineering Systems, 2000, p. 249–252.
  10. LENAERTS, B., PUERS, R. Inductive powering of a freely moving system. Sensors and Actuators, 2006, vol. A123-124, p. 522–530.
  11. SEHIL, M., SAWAN, M., KHOUAS, A. Modeling efficient inductive power transfer required to supply implantable devices. In Proc. of 10th Annual Conference of the International FES Society. July 2005.
  12. CHEVALERIAS, O., O’REILLY, S., ALDERMAN, J. Inductive powering for biomedical applications. In Proc. of 9th Annual Conference of the International FES Society. September 2004.
  13. VINKO, D., SVEDEK, T., HERCEG, M. Effects of power consumption and modulation of the passive RFID tag on the transmission range of backscattered signal. In Proc. 51st Int. Symposium ELMAR-2009. Zadar (Croatia), 2009, p. 263–266.
  14. VINKO, D., SVEDEK, T., ZAGAR, D. Rectifier and modulator architecture in passive RFID transponders. In Proc. 5th ECCSC’10. Belgrade (Serbia), 2010, p. 169–172.

Keywords: Low power electronics, Performance analysis, RFID tags, Wireless powering

M. Kumngern, F. Khateb, P. Phasukkit, S. Tungjitkusolmun, S. Junnapiya [references] [full-text] [Download Citations]
ECCCII-Based Current-Mode Universal Filter with Orthogonal Control of w_o and Q

This paper presents a new current-mode current-controlled four-input five-output universal filter employing one current-controlled current conveyor (CCCII), one electronically tunable CCCII and two grounded capacitors. The proposed configuration provides lowpass, bandpass, highpass, bandstop and allpass current responses that taken from the high-output impedance terminals, which enable easy cascadability of the current-mode operation. The filter also offers both orthogonal and electronic controls of the natural frequency and the quality factor through adjusting the bias current of the CCCIIs. For realizing all the filter responses, the proposed filter does not require passive component-matching condition and both active and passive sensitivities are low. In addition, a new current-mode current-controlled single-input five-output universal filter can be achieved by using an additional multiple-output minus-type CCCII. The proposed filter is simulated using PSPICE simulations to confirm the theoretical analysis.

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Keywords: Universal filter, current-mode circuit, electronically tunable current conveyor, analog filter

A. Kitipongwatana, P. Koseeyaporn, J. Koseeyaporn, P. Wardkein [references] [full-text] [Download Citations]
Fundamental Behavior Analysis of Single-Frequency Sine Wave Forced Oscillator based on Linear Model and Multi-Time Technique

In this article, an excited oscillator which is analyzed by using a multi-time linear analytical model is proposed. An obtained closed-form solution can be exploited not only to explain phenomena in the beat and locked states that are mostly studied in literature but also in an additional state called the non-locked state. With the proposed analysis, it is found that the non-locked state of the oscillator behaves similarly to the up-conversion process. It provides a new point-of-view to the phase noise oscillator. Moreover, our principle indicates that the important factor defining the behavior in each state and state transition is the transfer function of the system. The proposed mathematical model is verified by the experimental and numerical results.

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Keywords: Forced oscillators, Non-Locked state, Beat state, Locked state, Locked Range

C. Ho, K. Chen, T. Horng, J. Wu, C. Huang [references] [full-text] [Download Citations]
Method of Measuring Common-Mode Current Conversion Coefficient for Estimating Variation in Radiated Emission from Printed Circuit Board Components

This work describes the measurement of the common-mode current conversion coefficient for a microstrip line with solid and slotted ground planes by using a VNA with a BCI probe. The radiated emissions estimated by the common-mode current conversion coefficient are further compared with those obtained by the FAC measurements. Furthermore, the proposed method was used to estimate radiated emissions from a microstrip bandpass filter. For all of the case studies, results of electromagnetic (EM) simulation demonstrate the validity of the measurement results by the proposed method. Highly promising for use in EMI measurement application, the proposed method can estimate the radiated emissions by miniaturized microstrip components on a PCB when pre-tested for compliance with EMI regulations.

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Keywords: Vector network analyzer (VNA), bulk current injection (BCI) probe, common-mode current, far-field radiated emission, microstrip components, fullyanechoic chamber (FAC), microstrip line, electromagnetic interference (EMI), printed circuit board (PCB), microstrip bandpass filters (BPFs)

S.S. Olokede, C. A. Adamariko, T. A. Almohammad, E, A. Jiya [references] [full-text] [Download Citations]
A Novel T-Fed 4-Element Quasi-Lumped Resonator Antenna Array

In this paper, electrically small corporately T-fed quasi-lumped element resonator antenna array is investigated. The radiating element, a quasi-lumped element resonator is excited by a novel semi hybrid ring-like T-shaped corporate feed network. The characteristics losses due to Ohmic and discontinuities along the feed line which invariably constitutes complex feed structures are mitigated at the instance of the proposed antenna. Technique to implement the compact array with the intent to enhance the gain is presented. The operation dynamics of the feed along with its theoretical explanation is also reported. Findings indicates that the measured gain is 10.97 dBi for antenna of an estate area of about 0.677λ_0 × 1.257λ_0 sq. mm. Valuable insight to the optimum design in terms of compactness, good gain, and ease of fabrication is documented.

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  19. OLOKEDE S. S., AIN, M. F. A linear array quasi-lumped element resonator antenna with a corporate-feed network. Journal of Electromagnetic Waves and Applications, 2014, vol. 28, no. 1, p. 1-12.
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Keywords: Corporate array, T-fed, power divider, quasi-lumped element, quarter wave transformer.

R. Addaci, A. Diallo, C. Luxey, P. Le Thuc, R. Staraj [references] [full-text] [Download Citations]
Design of Multi-Antenna System for UMTS Clamshell Mobile Phones with Ground Plane Effects Considerations

In this paper, the influence of the ground plane dimensions on the port-to-port isolation of two closely-spaced Universal Mobile Telecommunications System (UMTS) Planar Inverted-F Antennas (PIFAs) with and without neutralization line is first presented. Parametric studies show the existence of an optimal size of the ground plane allowing optimizing the isolation and the efficiency of the considered antenna-system. The results obtained with this study are used in the second part to develop an efficient neutralized multi-antenna system for clamshell-type mobile phones. The obtained results, in terms of isolation, matching and diversity for the two possible configurations of the clamshell system in use namely the open and the closed states, show that good performance are obtained in the open state and preserved in the closed state. Prototypes of these two configurations are realized and measurement results are in good agreement with the simulations.

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Keywords: Clamshell system, Multi-antenna system, Diversity and MIMO, Ground plane effect

Y. L. Li, W. Shao, J. T. Wang, H. Chen [references] [full-text] [Download Citations]
An Improved NSGA-II and its Application for Reconfigurable Pixel Antenna Design

Based on the elitist non-dominated sorting genetic algorithm (NSGA-II) for multi-objective optimization problems, an improved scheme with self-adaptive crossover and mutation operators is proposed to obtain good optimization performance in this paper. The performance of the improved NSGA-II is demonstrated with a set of test functions and metrics taken from the standard literature on multi-objective optimization. Combined with the HFSS solver, one pixel antenna with reconfigurable radiation patterns, which can steer its beam into six different directions (θDOA = ± 15°, ± 30°, ± 50°) with a 5 % overlapping impedance bandwidth (S11 < − 10 dB) and a realized gain over 6 dB, is designed by the proposed self-adaptive NSGA-II.

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  19. RODRIGO, D., JOFRE, L. Frequency and radiation pattern reconfigurability of a multi-size pixel antenna. IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation, 2012, vol. 60, no. 5, p. 2219-2225.
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Keywords: Elitist non-dominated sorting genetic algorithm (NSGA-II), multi-objective, pixel antenna, radiation pattern reconfigurability, self-adaptive

A. Acharyya, J. Goswami, S. Banerjee, J. P. Banerjee [references] [full-text] [Download Citations]
Estimation of Most Favorable Optical Window Position Subject to Achieve Finest Optical Control of Lateral DDR IMPATT Diode Designed to Operate at W-Band

The optimum position of the optical window (OW) of illuminated lateral double-drift region (DDR) impact avalanche transit time (IMPATT) device has been determined subject to achieve the finest optical control of both DC and RF properties of the device. The OW is a tiny hole that has to be created on the oxide layer through which the light energy of appropriate wavelength can be coupled to the space charge region of the device. A non-sinusoidal voltage is assumed to be applied across the diode and the corresponding terminal current response is obtained from a two-dimensional (2-D) large-signal (L-S) simulation technique developed by the authors for illuminated lateral DDR IMPATT diode. Both the DC and L-S properties of the illuminated device based on Si, designed to operate at W-band frequencies (75 – 110 GHz) are obtained from the said L-S simulation. Simulation is carried out for different incident optical power levels of different wavelengths (600 – 1000 nm) by varying the position of the fixed sized OW on the oxide layer along the direction of electrical conduction of the device. Results show that, the most favorable optical tuning can be achieved when the OW is entirely created over the p-type depletion layer, i.e. when the photocurrent is purely electron dominated. Also the 700 nm wavelength is found to be most suitable wavelength for obtaining the maximum optical modulation of both DC and RF properties of the device.

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Keywords: Lateral DDR IMPATTs, finite difference method, optical window, W-band.

U.Kesavan,M.I.Rafiqul, T.A.Rahman, M.S.Assis [references] [full-text] [Download Citations]
Monthly and Diurnal Variability of Rain Rate and Rain Attenuation during the Monsoon Period in Malaysia

Rain is the major source of attenuation for microwave propagation above 10 GHz. In tropical and equatorial regions where the rain intensity is higher, designing a terrestrial and earth-to-satellite microwave links is very critical and challenging at these frequencies. This paper presents the preliminary results of rain effects in a 23 GHz terrestrial point-to-point communication link 1.3km long. The experimental test bed had been set up at Skudai, Johor Bahru, Malaysia. In this area, a monsoon equatorial climate prevails and the rainfall rate can reach values well above 100mm/h with significant monthly and diurnal variability. Hence, it is necessary to implement a mitigation technique for maintaining an adequate radio link performance for the action of very heavy rain. Since we now know that the ULPC (Up Link Power Control) cannot guarantee the desired performance, a solution based on frequency band diversity is proposed in this paper. Here, a secondary radio link operating in a frequency not affected by rain (C band for instance) is placed parallel with the main link. Under no rain or light rain conditions, the secondary link carries without priority radio signals. When there is an outage of the main link due to rain, the secondary link assumes the priority traffic. The outcome of the research shows a solution for higher operating frequencies during rainy events.

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Keywords: Rainfall rate, rain distribution, rain attenuation, diurnal variability, monthly variability, power control, frequency diversity, radio link, system availability