# June 2009, Volume 18, Number 2

**A. Sihvola**
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Metamaterials: A Personal View

This article discusses fundamental properties of metamaterials. Firstly, it is argued that the defining property of metamaterials is emergence and not that they should display properties not observable in nature. In addition, the regime where matter can be assigned effective properties will be quantified using concepts of metamaterialization period and number of generations.

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- ELEFTHERIADES, G. V., BALMAIN, K. G. Negative Refraction Metamaterials: Fundamental Principles and Applications. New York: IEEE Press/Wiley, 2005.
- ENGHETA, N., ZIOLKOWSKI, R. W. Metamaterials. Physics and Engineering Explorations. New York: IEEE Press/Wiley, 2006.
- CALOZ, C., ITOH, T. Electromagnetic Metamaterials: Transmission Line Theory and Microwave Applications. New York: Wiley-IEEE Press, 2006.
- SHALAEV, V. M., SARYCHEV, A. K. Electrodynamics of Metamaterials. Singapore: World Scientific, 2007.
- MARQUES, R., MARTIN, F., SOROLLA, M. Metamaterials with Negative Parameters: Theory, Design and Microwave Applications. New York: Wiley-Interscience, 2008.
- SOLYMAR, L. SHAMONINA, E. Waves in Metamaterials. Oxford University Press, 2009.
- MUNK, B. A. Metamaterials: Critique and Alternatives. New York: Wiley-Interscience, 2009.
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- WILTSHIRE, M. C. K., PENDRY, J. P., WILLIAMS, W., HAJNAL, J. V. An effective medium description of 'Swiss Rolls', a magnetic metamaterials. Journal of Physics: Condensed Matter, 2007, vol. 19, 456216 (16 pp).
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Keywords: Metamaterials, complex materials, artificial media, emergence, nanotechnology, metamaterialization period.

**A. E. Yilmaz, M. Kuzuoglu**
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Design of the Square Loop Frequency Selective Surfaces with Particle Swarm Optimization via the Equivalent Circuit Model

In this study, Particle Swarm Optimization is applied for the design of Square Loop Frequency Selective Surfaces (the conventional Square Loop, Gridded Square Loop, and Double Square Loop) via their equivalent circuits. For this purpose, first the derivation of the equivalent circuit formulation is revisited. Then an objective function, which is based on the transmission coefficients at various frequencies at the pass/stop-bands, is defined. By means of an ANSI C++ implementation, a platform independent console application (which depends on the Equivalent Circuit Models and continuous form of Particle Swarm Optimization) is developed. The obtained results are compared to those in the literature. It is observed that the Particle Swarm Optimization is perfectly suitable for this sort of problems, and the solution accuracy is limited to and dominated by that of the Equivalent Circuit Model.

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- LUO, X. F., TEO, P. T., QING, A., LEE, C. K. Design of double-square-loop frequency-selective surfaces using differential evolution strategy coupled with equivalent-circuit model. Microwave and Optical Technology Letters, 2005, vol. 44, p. 159 – 162.
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Keywords: Artificial electromagnetic material, equivalent circuit model, frequency selective surface, particle swarm optimization, periodic structure.

**F. Medina, F. Mesa, R. Rodriguez-Berral**
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Some Advances in the Circuit Modeling of Extraordinary Optical Transmission

The phenomenon of extraordinary optical transmission (EOT) through electrically small holes perforated on opaque metal screens has been a hot topic in the optics community for more than one decade. This experimentally observed frequency-selective enhanced transmission of electromagnetic power through holes, for which classical Bethe\'s theory predicts very poor transmission, later attracted the attention of engineers working on microwave engineering or applied electromagnetics. Extraordinary transmission was ﬁrst linked to the plasma-like behavior of metals at optical frequencies. However, the primary role played by the periodicity of the distribution of holes was soon made evident, in such a way that extraordinary transmission was disconnected from the particular behavior of metals at optical frequencies. Indeed, the same phenomenon has been observed in the microwave and millimeter wave regime, for instance. Nowadays, the most commonly accepted theory explains EOT in terms of the interaction of the impinging plane wave with the surface plasmon-polariton-Bloch waves (SPP-Bloch) supported by the periodically perforated plate. The authors of this paper have recently proposed an alternative model whose details will be brieﬂy summarized here. A parametric study of the predictions of the model and some new potential extensions will be reported to provide additional insight.

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- MEDINA, F.,MESA, F.,MARQUES, R. Extraordinary transmission through arrays of electrically small holes from a circuit theory perspective. IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques, 2008, vol. 56, no. 12, p. 3108 - 3120.
- MARQUES, R., MESA, F., JELINEK, L., MEDINA, F. Analytical theory of extraordinary transmission through metallic diffraction screens perforated by small holes. Optics Express, 2009, vol. 17, no. 7, p. 5571 - 5579.
- SKIGIN, D. C., DEPINE, R. A. Transmission resonances of metallic compound gratings with subwavelength slits. Physical Review Letters, 2005, vol. 95, p. 217402(1-4).
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- MEDINA, F., MESA, F., SKIGIN, D. C. Extraordinary transmission through arrays of slits: a circuit theory model. submitted to IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques, 2009.
- MEDINA, F., RUIZ-CRUZ, J. A., MESA, F., REBOLLAR, J., MONTEJO-GARAI, J.R., MARQUES, R. Extraordinary transmission without surface plasmons. submitted to Phys. Rev. Lett., 2009.
- KIRILENKO, A. A., PEROV, A. O. On the common nature of the enhanced and resonance transmission through the periodical set of holes. IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation, 2008, vol. 56, no. 10, p. 3210 - 3216.
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Keywords: Extraordinary optical transmission, diffraction gratings, circuit modeling, open resonators.

**I. Vendik, M. Odit, D. Kozlov**
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3D Metamaterial Based on a Regular Array of Resonant Dielectric Inclusions

The 3D regular lattice of bi-spherical dielectric resonant inclusions arranged in a cubic lattice as two sets of spheres made from the same dielectric material having different radii and embedded in a host dielectric material with lower dielectric permittivity was carefully investigated. The magnetic resonance corresponding to the first Mie resonance in the spherical particles is followed by forming a regular array of effective magnetic dipoles, and the structure of the identical spherical dielectric resonators can be designed as an isotropic μ-negative 3D-metamaterial. For the electric resonance it was found experimentally and by the simulation that the resonant response of the electric dipole was weakly pronounced and the μ-negative behavior was remarkably suppressed. To enhance the electric dipole contribution we considered another kind of the symmetry of the bi-spherical arrangement of the particles corresponding to the body-centered cubic symmetry instead of the symmetry of NaCl analog considered previously. Electromagnetic properties of a volumetric structure based on a regular lattice of identical cubic dielectric particles is also considered and analyzed as μ-negative metamaterial. The cubic particle based 3D-metamaterial is preferable for practical realization as compared with the spherical inclusions.

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- XIAOBING CAI, RUI ZHU, GENGKAI HU Experimental study for metamaterials based on dielectric resonators and wire frame. Metamaterials, 2008, vol. 2, no. 4, December 2008, p. 220-226.
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Keywords: Metamaterial, resonant inclusion, Mie resonance, magnetic dipole, electric dipole, isotropic, backward wave, cubic resonators.

**K. Y. Kim**
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Comparative Analysis of Guided Modal Properties of Double-Positive and Double-Negative Metamaterial Slab Waveguides

The guided modal properties of double-positive and double-negative metamaterial slab waveguides are numerically analyzed and compared when varying the dielectric and magnetic constants. As the cutoff frequencies of both slab waveguides remained unchanged when the absolute value of the refractive index was kept invariant, this enabled an effective comparison of the respective guided modes. Thus, the guided mode dispersion characteristics of the double-positive and double-negative slab waveguides were analyzed and compared, including several higher order modes. As a result, this comparative analysis provides greater physical insights and a better understanding of the guided modal characteristics of double-negative metamaterial slab waveguides.

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Keywords: Double-negative index, double-positive index, guided mode dispersions, metamaterial slab waveguide, surface polariton, surface wave.

**J. Yang, M. Huang, J. Peng**
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Directive Emission Obtained by Mu and Epsilon-Near-Zero Metamaterials

In this work, we use Mu and Epsilon-Near-Zero (MENZ) metamaterials to realize the substrates that can modify the emission of an embedded line source. Simulation results show that the cylindrical waves emitted from the line source can be perfectly converted to plane wave through the MENZ metamaterial slab with planar exit face. Hence the line source together with the metamaterial slab constructs a high directive slab antenna. The directive radiation pattern of the MENZ metamaterial-assisted slab antenna is independent on the thickness of the slab, the position of the line source, and the shape of the entrance face of the slab, but the slab with grooved entrance side will result in stronger far-field intensity. We also show that the MENZ metamaterials can be applied to the design of antenna array. Moreover, compared with the high directive slab antenna obtained by coordinate transformation approach, the MENZ metamaterial-assisted antenna is more preferable.

- ALU, A., SILVEIRINHA, M.G., SALANDRINO, A., ENGHETA, N. Epsilon-near-zero metamaterials and electromagnetic sources: Tailoring the radiation phase pattern. Phys. Rev. B, 2007, vol. 75, no. 15, p. 155410.
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- SILVEIRINHA, M. G., ENGHETA, N. Theory of supercoupling, squeezing wave energy, and field confinement in narrow channels and tight bends using ε near-zero metamaterials. Phys. Rev. B, 2007, vol. 76, no. 24, p. 245109.
- EDWARDS, B., ALU, A., YOUNG, M. E., SILVEIRINHA, M., ENGHETA, N. Experimental verification of epsilon-near-zero metamaterial coupling and energy squeezing using a microwave waveguide. Phys. Rev. Lett., 2008, vol..100, no. 3, p. 033903.
- POLLARD, R. J., MURPHY, A., HENDREN, W. R., EVANS, P. R., ATKINSON, R., WURTZ, G. A., ZAYATS, A. V. Optical nonlocalities and additional waves in epsilon-near-zero metamaterials. Phys. Rev. Lett., 2009, vol. 102, no. 12, p. 127405.
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- JIANG, W. X., CUI, T. J., CHENG, Q., CHIN, J. Y., YANG, X. M., LIU, R., SMITH, D. R. Design of arbitrarily shaped concentrators based on conformally optical transformation of nonuniform rational B-spline surfaces. Appl. Phys. Lett., 2008, vol. 92, no. 26, p. 264101.
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- WU, Z. Y., HUANG, M., YANG, J. J., YU, J., PENG, J. H. Properties of epsilon-near-zero materials and its potential application. Chinese Journal of Lasers, 2009, vol. 36, no. 2, p.458 to 461.
- ZHANG, J. J., LUO, Y., CHEN, H. S., RAN, L. X., WU, B. I., KONG, J. A. Directive emission obtained by coordinate transformation. Progress in Electromagnetic Research, 2008, vol. 81, p. 437-446.
- YANG, Y., ZHAO, X. M., WANG, T. J. Design of arbitrarily controlled multi-beam antennas via optical transformation. J. Infrared Milli Terahz Waves, 2009, vol. 30, p. 337-348.
- SILVEIRINHA, M., ENGHETA, N. Tunneling of electromagnetic energy through subwavelength channels and bends using ε-nearzero materials. Phys. Rev. Lett., 2006, vol. 97, no. 15, p. 157403 (4).
- STUTZMAN, W. L., THIELE, G. A. Antenna Theory and Design. 2nd ed. Beijin: Post & Telecom Press, 2006.

Keywords: Electromagnetic wave, finite element method, Mu and Epsilon-Near-Zero Metamaterials, slab antenna.

**D. Segovia-Vargas, F. J. Herraiz-Martinez, E. Ugarte-Munoz, J. Montero-De-Paz, V. Gonzalez-Posadas, L. E. Garcia-Munoz**
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Multifrequency Printed Antennas Loaded with Metamaterial Particles

This paper provides a review of printed antennas loaded with metamaterial particles. This novel technique allows developing printed antennas with interesting features such as multifrequency (simultaneous operation over two or more frequency bands) and multifunctionality (e. g. radiation pattern diversity). Moreover, compactness is also achieved and the main advantages of conventional printed antennas (light weight, low profile, low cost ...) are maintained. Different types of metamaterial-loaded printed antennas are reviewed: printed dipoles and patch antennas. Several prototypes are designed, manufactured and measured showing good results. Furthermore, simple but accurate equivalent models are proposed. These models allow an easy and quick design of metamaterial-loaded printed antennas. Finally, two interesting applications based on the proposed antennas are reviewed: the patch antennas are used as radiating elements of emerging active RFID systems in the microwave band and the metamaterial-loaded printed dipoles are employed to increase the performance of log-periodic arrays.

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- HERRAIZ-MARTINEZ, F. J., GARCIA-MUNOZ, L. E., GON- ZALEZ-OVEJERO, D., GONZALEZ-POSADAS V., , SEGO- VIA-VARGAS D. Dual-frequency printed dipole loaded with Split Ring Resonators. IEEE Antennas and Wireless Propagation Letters, 2009, vol. 8, pp. 137-140.
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- UGARTE-MUNOZ, E., HERRAIZ-MARTINEZ, F. J., GONZALEZ-POSADAS, V., SEGOVIA-VARGAS, D. Patch antenna based on metamaterials for a RFID transponder. Radioengineering, June 2008, vol. 17, no. 2, pp. 66 – 71.
- HERRAIZ-MARTINEZ, F. J., UGARTE-MUNOZ, E., GONZALEZ-POSADAS, V., GARCIA-MUNOZ, L. E., SEGOVIA-VARGAS, D. Self-diplexed patch antennas based on metamaterials for active RFID systems. IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques, Special Issue on RFID, May 2009, vol. 57, no. 5, part 2, pp. 1330 – 1340.

Keywords: Printed antennas, metamaterials, multifrequency antennas, multifunction antennas.

**G. Siso, M. Gil, M. Aranda, J. Bonache, F. Martin**
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Miniaturization of Planar Microwave Devices by Means of Complementary Spiral Resonators (CSRs): Design of Quadrature Phase Shifters

In this work, two compact quadrature phase shifters based on metamaterial transmission lines implemented by means of complementary spiral resonators (CSRs) have been designed, fabricated and measured. The structures consist on Y-junctions with output lines exhibiting 90º phase balance. The reported metamaterial-based devices present a size reduction of 64% and 77% as compared to the conventional one.

- HONG, J.-S., LANCASTER, M. J. Microstrip Filters for RF/Microwave Applications. New York (USA): John Wiley & Sons, 2001.
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- BONACHE, J., GIL, I., GARCIA-GARCIA, J., MARTIN, F. Novel microstrip band pass filters based on complementary split rings resonators. IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques, 2006, vol. 54, pp. 265-271.
- GIL, M., BONACHE, J., GIL, I., GARCIA-GARCIA, J., MARTIN, F. Miniaturization of planar microwave circuits by using resonant-type left handed transmission lines. IET Microwave Antennas and Propagation, 2007, vol. 1, pp. 73-79.
- SISO, G., BONACHE, J., GIL, M., GARCIA-GARCIA, J., MARTIN, F. Compact rat-race hybrid coupler implemented through artificial left handed and right handed lines. In IEEE MTT- S Int’l Microwave Symposium Digest, Honolulu, Hawaii (USA), 2007, pp. 25-28.
- BONACHE, J., SISO, G., GIL, M., INIESTA, A., GARCIA- RINCON, J., MARTIN, F. Application of composite right/left handed (CRLH) transmission lines based on complementary split ring resonators (CSRRs) to the design of dual-band microwave components. IEEE Microwave Wireless Comp. Lett., 2008, vol. 18, pp. 524-526.
- MARQUES, R., BAENA, J. D., MARTEL, J., MEDINA, F., FALCONE, F., SOROLLA, M., MARTIN, F. Novel small resonant electromagnetic particles for metamaterial and filter design. In Proceedings of the International Conference on Electromagnetics in Advanced Applications, ICEAA, Torino (Italy), 2003, pp. 439-443.
- BAENA, J. D., BONACHE, J., MARTIN, F., MARQUES, R., FALCONE, F., LOPETEGI, T., LASO, M. A. G., GARCIA, J., GIL, I., SOROLLA, M. Equivalent circuit models for split ring resonators and complementary split rings resonators coupled to planar transmission lines. IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques, 2005, vol. 53, pp. 1451-1461.
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- BONACHE, J., GIL, M., GARCIA-ABAD, O., MARTIN, F. Parametric analysis of microstrip lines loaded with complementary split ring resonators. Microwave and Optical Technology Letters, 2008, vol. 50(8), pp. 2093-2096.
- GIL, M., BONACHE, J., SELGA, J., GARCIA-GARCIA, J., MARTIN, F. Broadband resonant type metamaterial transmission lines. IEEE Microwave and Wireless Components Letters, 2007, vol. 17, pp. 97-99.
- SISO, G., GIL, M., BONACHE, J., MARTIN, F., Application of metamaterial transmission lines to design of quadrature phase shifters. Electronics Letters, 2007, vol. 43(20), pp. 1098-1100.
- GIL, M., BONACHE, J., MARTIN, F., Ultra vompact band pass filters implemented through complementary spiral resonators (CSRs). In IEEE MTT-S Int’l Microwave Symposium Digest, Atlanta, USA, 2008, pp. 1119-1122.
- SISO, G., BONACHE, J., MARTIN, F. Dual-band Y-junction power dividers implemented through artificial lines based on complementary resonators. In IEEE-MTT-S Int’l Microwave Symposium Digest, Atlanta, USA, 2008, pp. 663-666.

Keywords: Metamaterials, Complementary Spiral Resonators (CSRs), Phase Shifters

**S. K. Parui, S. Das**
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Modeling of Modified Split-Ring Type Defected Ground Structure and Its Application as Bandstop Filter

The shape of a popular split-ring defected ground structure (DGS) is modified by selecting different width of the sides with respect to microstrip line. The frequency characteristics of proposed DGS unit show an attenuation zero close to the attenuation pole frequency. The unit cell is modeled by 3rd order elliptical lowpass filter and an equivalent circuit is presented accordingly. For proposed DGS, both pole and zero frequencies are obtained at lower values compared to split-ring DGS unit with uniform width. The variation of the width of the sides, parallel to microstrip line influences pole frequency. Two DGS cells with different pole frequencies cascaded under High-Low microstrip line realize a sharp and deep bandstop filter. Three-cascaded cells underneath a highlow impedance microstrip line produce sharper and wider bandstop filter characteristics.

- KIM, C. S., PARK, J. S., AHN, D., LIM, J. B. A novel one dimensional periodic defected ground structure for planar circuits. IEEE Microwave and Guided Wave Letters, 2000, vol. 10, no. 4, p. 131 - 133.
- AHN, D., PARK, J. S., KIM, C. S., KIM, J., QIAN, Y., ITOH, T. A design of the lowpass filter using the novel microstrip defected ground structure. IEEE Trans. on Microwave Theory and Techniques, 2001, vol. 49, no. 1, p. 86 - 93.
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- PARUI, S., DAS, S. A novel asymmetric defected ground structure for implementation of elliptic filters. In Proc. of SBMO/ IEEE- MTTS International Microwave and Opto-electronics Conference (IMOC). Brazil, 2007, p. 946 - 949.
- PARUI, S., DAS, S., Design of planar filters suitable for satellite system using asymmetric defected ground structure technology. In Proc. of National Conference on Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS). Hydrabad (India), 2007, p. 157 - 160.
- ROY, S., PARUI, S., DAS, S. A new asymmetric defected ground structure with elliptical filtering response. In Proc. of Icon ’TiMES2008. Calcutta (India), 2008, p. 131 - 138.
- PARUI, S., DAS, S. A simple defected ground structure with elliptical lowpass filtering response. In Proc. of Asia Pacific Microwave Conference (APMC), 2007.
- PARUI, S., DAS, S. A new defected ground structure with elliptical band-reject and band-accept filtering characteristics. In Proc. of Asia Pacific Microwave Conference (APMC), 2007.
- WILLIAMS, A. B., TAYLOR, F. J. Electronic Filter Design Handbook. 2nd ed. McGraw-Hill, 1988

Keywords: Microstrip, defected ground structure, bandstop filter, elliptic filter.

**S. Gupta, C. Caloz**
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Analog Signal Processing in Transmission Line Metamaterial Structures

Several novel dispersion-engineered CRLH TL metamaterial analog signal processing systems, exploiting the broadband dispersive characteristics and design ﬂexibility of CRLH TLs, are presented. These systems are either guided-wave or radiated-wave systems, and employ either the group velocity or the group velocity dispersion parameters. The systems presented are: a frequency tunable impulse delay line, a pulse-position modulator, a frequency discriminator and real-time Fourier transformer, pulse generators, an analog real-time spectrum analyzer, a frequencyresolved electrical gating, a spatio-temporal Talbot effect imager, and analog true-time delayer. They represent a new class of impulse-regime metamaterial structures, while previously reported metamaterials were mostly restricted to the harmonic regime.

- CALOZ, C., ITOH, T. ElectromagneticMetamaterials, Transmission Line Theory and Microwave Applications. Wiley and IEEE Press, 2006.
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- COULOMBE, M., CALOZ, C. Reﬂection-type artiﬁcial dielectric substrate microstrip dispersive delay line (DDL) for analog signal processing. To appear in IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory and Techniques.
- GUPTA, S., ABIELMONA, S., CALOZ, C. CRLH carrier-frequency tunable impulse and continuous wave delay lines. In Proc. IEEE AP- S International Symposium. Honolulu, 2007, p. 5523 - 5526.
- ABIELMONA, S., GUPTA, S., CALOZ, C. Experimental demonstration and characterization of a tunable CRLH delay line system for impulse/continuous wave. IEEE Microwave Wireless Compon. Lett., 2007, vol. 17, no. 12, p. 864 - 866.
- NGUYEN, H. V., CALOZ, C. CRLH delay line pulse position modulation transmitter. IEEE Microwave Wireless Compon. Lett., 2008, vol. 18, no. 5, p. 527 - 529.
- ABIELMONA, S., GUPTA, S., CALOZ, C. Compressive receiver using a CRLH-based dispersive delay line for analog signal processing. Submitted to IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques.
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- ABIELMONA, S., CALOZ, C. Compressive receiver for frequency discrimination based on dispersion-engineered metamaterial delay line. In Proc. CNC/USNC URSI National Radio Science Meeting. Ottawa, CD-ROM.
- GUPTA, S., CALOZ, C., Temporal Talbot effect in left-handed metamaterial transmission lines, in Proc. International Symposium on Electromagnetic Theory (EMTS). Ottawa, 2007, CD-ROM.
- GOMEZ-DIAZ, J. S., GUPTA, S., ALVAREZ-MELCON, A., CALOZ, C. Impulse-regime CRLH resonator and its application to a tunable pulse rate multiplicator. To appear in Radio Science.
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- GUPTA, S., GOMEZ-DIAZ, J. S., CALOZ, C. Frequency resolved electrical gating (FREG) system based on a CRLH leaky-wave antenna for UWB signal characterization. To appear in Proc. 39th European Microwave Conf. (EuMC). Rome, 2009.
- GOMEZ-DIAZ, J. S., ALVAREZ-MELCON, A., GUPTA, S., CALOZ, C. Novel spatio-temporal Talbot phenomenon using metamaterial composite right/left-handed leaky-wave antennas. J. App. Phys., 2008, vol. 104, p. 104901 - 104907.
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Keywords: Analog signal processing, dispersion engineering, transmission line metamaterials, leaky-wave antennas, Talbot effect, real-time spectrum analyzers, pulseposition modulators, real-time Fourier transformation, true-time delayers.

**M. Bruno, J. Cousseau, S. Werner, J. Figueroa, M. Cheong, R. Wichman**
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An Efﬁcient CS-CPWL Based Predistorter

We study the performance of Hammerstein predistorters (PD) to model and compensate nonlinear effects produced by a high power ampliﬁer with memory. A novel Hammerstein model is introduced that includes, as the basic static nonlinearity, the complex simplicial canonical piecewise linear (CS-CPWL) description. Previous results by the authors have shown that the use of this kind of static nonlinearity leads to an efﬁcient representation of basic nonlinear models. Furthermore, different tradeoffs between modeling capability and performance are considered.

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Keywords: Digital predistortion, adaptive algorithm, Wiener model, Hammerstein model, piecewise linear function.

**F. Alimenti, M. Ercoli, V. Palazzari, L. Roselli**
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Superconductor Microwave Kinetic Inductance Detectors: System Model of the Readout Electronics

This paper deals with the readout electronics needed by superconductor Microwave Kinetic Inductance Detectors (MKIDs). MKIDs are typically implemented in the form of cryogenic-cooled high quality factor microwave resonator. The natural frequency of these resonators changes as a millimeter or sub-millimeter wave radiation impinges on the resonator itself. A quantitative system model of the readout electronics (very similar to that of a vector network analyzer) has been implemented under ADS environment and tested by several simulation experiments. The developed model is a tool to further optimize the readout electronic and to design the frequency allocation of parallel-connected MKIDs resonators. The applications of MKIDs will be in microwave and millimeter-wave radiometric imaging as well as in radio-astronomy focal plane arrays.

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Keywords: Microwave Kinetic Inductance Detectors, MKID, superconductors, microwave radiometers, radioastronomy, radiation detector, resonators.

**V. Rosner, R. Seller, L. Dudas, K. Kazi, G. Miko**
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Synthetic Aperture Radar - Hardware Development

Experimental real and synthetic aperture radar are developed from the base-band digital unit to the analogue RF parts, based on solid state units, using pulse compression for radar imaging. Proper QPSK code is found for matched filter.

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Keywords: Spread spectrum, matched filter, radar, microwave imaging, SLAR, SAR.

**J. Rovnakova, D. Kocur**
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Compensation of Wall Effect for Through Wall Tracking of Moving Targets

Through wall tracking of moving targets is of interest for rescue, surveillance and security operations. A useful method applies an ultra-wideband radar approach for this purpose since electromagnetic waves in the lower GHz- range penetrate most common building materials, such as bricks, wood, dry walls, concrete and reinforced concrete. However in consequence of a wall effect, estimated target track can be considerably spatially shifted and distorted. In the paper, two different methods for compensation of this ef- fect are described. Their effectiveness is evaluated at syn- thetic as well as real radar data. Obtained results prove that proposed novel approach reach the best outcomes.

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Keywords: Direct localization method, moving targets, through wall tracking, UWB radar, wall effect.

**B. Dimitrijevic, N. Milosevic, Z. Nikolic, P. Petrovic**
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UWB System Performance Improvement Using Smart Interference Rejection Filter

In this paper we proposed a smart interference rejection filter in TH-PPM UWB system, which improves the system\'s error probability for an order of magnitude in case of high power OFDM interference. The smart filter is based on an adaptive transversal filter. Based on the fulfillment of certain conditions, the filter activates or deactivates some parts of it.

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Keywords: Smart filtering, UWB radio, interference rejection, OFDM, performance evaluation.

**M. Bozzi, L. Perregrini, K. Wu, P. Arcioni**
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Current and Future Research Trends in Substrate Integrated Waveguide Technology

Substrate Integrated Waveguide (SIW) technology is the most promising candidate for the implementation of millimeter-wave (mm-wave) integrated circuits and systems for the next decade. Based on planar dielectric substrates with top and bottom metal layers perforated with metalized holes, SIW structures offer a compact, low loss, flexible, and cost-effective solution for integrating active circuits, passive components and radiating elements on the same substrate. This paper presents an overview of the current status and future trends of academic and industrial research on SIW technology. The historical development of SIW components and circuits is briefly outlined, and the current research topics are discussed: they include the development of numerical techniques for the modeling and design of SIW components, the investigation of novel compact and broadband interconnects, the determination of design solutions for loss minimization. Future research trends are also discussed: they mainly aim at the implementation of SIW components at higher frequency (60-350 GHz) and the integration of complete Systems-on-Substrate (SoS).

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- HAO, Z. C., HONG, W., CHEN, X. P., CHEN, J. X., WU, K. Compact super-wide bandpass Substrate Integrated Waveguide (SIW) filters. IEEE Trans. on Microwave Theory and Techniques, 2005, vol. 53, no. 9, pp. 2968–2977.
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- HONG, W., WANG, Y., LAI, Q. H., LIU, B. Half mode substrate integrated waveguide: A new guided wave structure for microwave and millimeter wave application. In Proc. Joint 31st Int. Conf. Infrared Millimeter Waves 14th Int. Conf. Terahertz Electronics. Shanghai (China), 2006, p. 219.
- ZHAI, G. H., HONG, W., WU, K., CHEN, J. X., CHEN, P., WEI, J., TANG, H. J. Folded half mode substrate integrated waveguide 3 dB coupler. IEEE Microwave and Wireless Components Letters, 2008, vol 18, no. 8, pp. 512-514.
- BOZZI, M., DESLANDES, D., ARCIONI, P., PERREGRINI, L., WU, K., CONCIAURO, G. Efficient analysis and experimental verification of substrate integrated slab waveguides for wideband microwave applications. Intern. J. of RF and Microwave Computer–Aided Engineering, May 2005, vol. 15, no. 3, pp. 296-306.
- CHE, W., LI, C., RUSSER, P., CHOW, Y. L. Propagation and band broadening effect of planar integrated ridged waveguide in multilayer dielectric substrates. In IEEE MTT-S International Microwave Symposium Digest (IMS 2008). Atlanta (GA), June 15- 20, 2008, pp. 217-220.
- BOZZI, M., WINKLER, S. A., WU, K. Novel compact and broadband interconnects based on ridge substrate integrated waveguide. In 2009 IEEE MTT-S International Microwave Symposium (IMS2009). Boston (MA, USA), June 7-12, 2009.
- BOZZI, M., PASIAN, M., PERREGRINI, L., WU, K. On the losses in substrate integrated waveguides. In 37th European Microwave Conference (EuMC 2007). Munich (Germany), Oct. 8- 12, 2007.
- SAMANTA, K. K., STEPHENS, D., ROBERTSON, I. D. Design and performance of a 60-GHz multi-chip module receiver employing substrate integrated waveguides. IET Microwave Antennas Propagation, 2007, vol. 1, no. 5, pp. 961–967.

Keywords: Millimeter-waves, passive waveguide components, System-on-Substrate (SoS), Substrate Integrated Waveguide (SIW), Substrate Integrated Circuits (SICs).

**Z. Biolek, D. Biolek, V. Biolkova**
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SPICE Model of Memristor with Nonlinear Dopant Drift

A mathematical model of the prototype of memristor, manufactured in 2008 in Hewlett-Packard Labs, is described in the paper. It is shown that the hitherto published approaches to the modeling of boundary conditions need not conform with the requirements for the behavior of a practical circuit element. The described SPICE model of the memristor is thus constructed as an open model, enabling additional modifications of non-linear boundary conditions. Its functionality is illustrated on computer simulations.

- STRUKOV, D.B., SNIDER, G.S., STEWART, D.R., WILLIAMS, R.S. The missing memristor found. Nature, 2008, vol. 453, 1 May 2008, p. 80 – 83.
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- WILLIAMS, R. S. How we found the missing memristor. IEEE Spectrum, 12/01/2008, p. 1-11, www.spectrum.ieee.org/print/7024.
- JOGLEKAR, Y.N., WOLF, S. J. The elusive memristor: properties of basic electrical circuits. arXiv:0807.3994 v2 [cond-mat.meshall] 13 January 2009, p.1-24.
- WANG, F.Y. Memristor for introductory physics. arXiv:0808.0286 v1 [physics.class-ph], 4 August 2008, p.1-4.

Keywords: Memristor, drift, window function, SPICE.

**V. Lakkundi, M. Kratzig**
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Wireless Sensor Networks: VAN-Project Perspectives

The emergence of wireless sensor networks and their potential for a multitude of novel applications, especially in the industrial automation domain, are noteworthy. This paper presents research and development perspectives on wireless sensor networks from the Virtual Automation Networks project in terms of prototype development and coexistence with other chosen wireless technologies. The project-specific design and specification aspects, implementation and integration issues, and coexistence tests, measurements and results are covered in detail. The paper illustrates the successful integration of wireless sensor networks into the overall prototype and shows that they can coexist with other wireless technologies.

- VAN-Developing the Future of Industrial Communication, an introductory abstract of the project, available for download at http://www.van-eu.eu
- VAN Deliverable D03.1-1: Status and Analysis of Wireless in Industries, December 2006.
- VAN Deliverable D03.2-1: Specification for Wireless in Industrial Environment and Industrial Embedded Devices, March 2007.
- VAN Deliverable D03.4-1: Design and Test Specifications for Wireless Prototype Implementations, August 2007.
- VAN Deliverable D03.4-2: Wireless Prototype System, May 2008.
- VAN Deliverable D03.5-1: Test Specification, Test Cases and Results, August 2008.
- IEEE 802.15.4 Standard: Part 15.4: Wireless Medium Access Control (MAC) and Physical Layer (PHY) Specifications for Low- Rate Wireless Personal Area Networks (WPANs), September 2006.
- VDI/VDE 2185, Funkgestutzte Kommunikation in der Automatisierungstechnik (Radio-based Communication in Industrial Automation), 2007 (in German).
- IEEE 802.15.2 Standard: Part 15.2: Coexistence of Wireless Personal Area Networks with Other Wireless Devices Operating in Unlicensed Frequency Bands, October 2003.
- SHIN, S. Y., PARK, H. S., CHOI, S., KWON, W. H. Packet error rate analysis of IEEE 802.15.4 under IEEE 802.11b interference. In Proceedings of the Third International Conference on Wired/Wireless Internet Communications WWIC 2005. Xanthi (Greece), 2005.
- RAUCHHAUPT, L., KRATZIG, M. How to assess reliability of industrial wireless solutions. In Proceedings of the 5th International Conference on Informatics in Control, Robotics and Automation. Madeira (Portugal), 2008, p. 122 - 130.
- KRATZIG, M., RAUCHHAUPT, L. Parameter to assess coexistence of industrial wireless solutions. In Proceedings of the 5th Symposium on Automatic Control. Wismar (Germany), 2008.
- RAUCHHAUPT, L., LAKKUNDI, V. Wireless Network Integration into Virtual Automation Networks. In Proceedings of the 17th IFAC World Congress. Seoul (Korea), 2008.

Keywords: Wireless sensor networks, industrial automation, ZigBee, wireless prototypes, coexistence of wireless technologies.

**J. Horak, Z. Raida**
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Influence of EBG Structures on the Far-Field Pattern of Patch Antennas

In this paper, the influence of the EBG structures on the far-field pattern of patch antennas is investigated. As a reference model, a conventional rectangular patch antenna on a high-permittivity substrate is used. The reference model is consequently equipped by an EBG substrate (instead of the conventional one), and by an EBG cover (so called EBG superstrate). The changes in the farfield radiation patterns are discussed.

In the second part of the paper, the substrate is perturbed by two different EBG structures designed for the coverage of two operation bands.

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Keywords: Patch antenna, EBG substrate, far-field radiation pattern, double-band antenna, superstrate.

**T. Svedek, M. Herceg, T. Matic**
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A Simple Signal Shaper for GMSK/GFSK and MSK Modulator Based on Sigma-Delta Look-up Table

Due to wide power spectrums of rectangular data streams, it is important for base-band signals to be heavily band limited before modulation. That can be achieved by pulse shaping of rectangular bits. Some of the most common are a half-sine pulse shaper and a Gaussian pulse shaper which are used in Minimum Shift Keying (MSK), Gaussian Minimum Shift Keying (GMSK) and Gaussian Frequency Shift Keying (GFSK) modulations, respectively. The most common solutions of such shapers use PCM based look-up-table (LUT), which requires an nbit D/A converter. We proposed the use of a 1-bit Sigma Delta Modulation (SDM) LUT, which results in smaller ROM capacity, a 1-bit wide output word, and a simple1-bit D/A converter realized as an out-of-chip first-order lowpass RC filter, or an in-chip charge pump. This article describes a simple, but efficient SDM LUT-based half-sine and Gaussian shaper that can be used for generation of MSK and GMSK/GFSK modulated signals. Oscillograms and power spectrums are measured on SDM LUT realized in FLEX AlteraTM PLD, for a 10-bit pseudo-noise sequence test input signal.

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Keywords: GMSK/GFSK, MSK, sigma-delta, Gaussian filter.

**J. Prochaska, R. Vargic**
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Using Digital Filtration for Hurst Parameter Estimation

We present a new method to estimate the Hurst parameter. The method exploits the form of the autocorrelation function for second-order self-similar processes and is based on one-pass digital filtration. We compare the performance and properties of the new method with that of the most common methods.

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Keywords: Self-similarity, Hurst parameter, autocorrelation function, fractional Gaussian noise.

**L. T. Jordanova, J. I. Nenkov**
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Distribution of Video-on-Demand Service over Cable Television Networks

The paper deals with investigations carried out to increase the effectiveness of video-on-demand (VoD) systems when cable television networks are used. A comparative analysis of the existing VoD architectures is made with respect to the equipment cost and the traffic load over the central transport network. Through statistical studies the main characteristics of a particular hybrid VoD are determined (such as twenty-four-hour distribution of the video traffic, average inter-arrival time of the VoD requests, average duration of video streams demanded, movies distribution according to the subscribers’ preferences). An algorithm for the videocontent flexible distribution among the distribution hubs is suggested. Thus a higher effectiveness of the system is achieved without significantly increasing the equipment cost.

- IneoQuest Technologies Inc., USA. Quality of Video-over-IP: Measuring the Quality of streaming MPEG-2 Transport Streams over IP. 9 pages. 2003. [Online] Cited 2009-03-12. Available at: http://www.ineoquest.com/sites/default/files/VideoOverIPStreamQ uality.pdf.
- ALLEN, M., ZHAO, B., WOLSKI, R. Deploying Video-on- Demand Services on Cable Networks. In Proceedings of the 27th International Conference on Distributed Computing Systems. Washington (USA), 2007, p. 63 - 71.
- Harmonic Inc., USA. Advanced Optical and Digital Architectures for Video-On-Demand. 10 pages. 2001. [Online] Cited 2009-03- 12. Available at: http://www.harmonicinc.com/view_collateral.cfm?ID=40.
- Sorrento Networks Inc., USA. Solution Architectures for Cable Video-on-Demand. 20 pages. 2002. [Online] Cited 2009-03-12. Available at: http://chapters.scte.org/cascade/Cable%20VOD.pdf.
- Fujitsu Network Communications Inc., USA. Fujitsu Gigabit Ethernet VOD Solutions. 10 pages. 2004. [Online] Cited 2009-03- 12. Available at: http://www.fujitsu.com/downloads/TEL/fnc/ whitepapers/VOD_wp.pdf.
- GONG, J., REED, D., SHAW, T., VIVIANCO, D., MARTIN, J. QAM Resource Allocation in Mixed-Format VoD Systems, Journal of Communications, 2007 vol. 2, no.1, p. 1 - 9.
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- GONZALEZ, S., A., NAVARRO, J., LOPEZ, ZAPATA, E., Load sharing in distributed VoD (Video on Demand) systems. Journal of Microscopy, 2002, vol. 205, no. 1, p. 33 - 42.

Keywords: HFC CATV, DVB-C, VoD architecture, SD and HD video streams, DHUB, CMTS, STB.