June 2009, Volume 18, Number 2
This article discusses fundamental properties of metamaterials. Firstly, it is argued that the defining property of metamaterials is emergence and not that they should display properties not observable in nature. In addition, the regime where matter can be assigned effective properties will be quantified using concepts of metamaterialization period and number of generations.
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Keywords: Metamaterials, complex materials, artificial media, emergence, nanotechnology, metamaterialization period.
In this study, Particle Swarm Optimization is applied for the design of Square Loop Frequency Selective Surfaces (the conventional Square Loop, Gridded Square Loop, and Double Square Loop) via their equivalent circuits. For this purpose, first the derivation of the equivalent circuit formulation is revisited. Then an objective function, which is based on the transmission coefficients at various frequencies at the pass/stop-bands, is defined. By means of an ANSI C++ implementation, a platform independent console application (which depends on the Equivalent Circuit Models and continuous form of Particle Swarm Optimization) is developed. The obtained results are compared to those in the literature. It is observed that the Particle Swarm Optimization is perfectly suitable for this sort of problems, and the solution accuracy is limited to and dominated by that of the Equivalent Circuit Model.
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Keywords: Artificial electromagnetic material, equivalent circuit model, frequency selective surface, particle swarm optimization, periodic structure.
The phenomenon of extraordinary optical transmission (EOT) through electrically small holes perforated on opaque metal screens has been a hot topic in the optics community for more than one decade. This experimentally observed frequency-selective enhanced transmission of electromagnetic power through holes, for which classical Bethe\'s theory predicts very poor transmission, later attracted the attention of engineers working on microwave engineering or applied electromagnetics. Extraordinary transmission was ﬁrst linked to the plasma-like behavior of metals at optical frequencies. However, the primary role played by the periodicity of the distribution of holes was soon made evident, in such a way that extraordinary transmission was disconnected from the particular behavior of metals at optical frequencies. Indeed, the same phenomenon has been observed in the microwave and millimeter wave regime, for instance. Nowadays, the most commonly accepted theory explains EOT in terms of the interaction of the impinging plane wave with the surface plasmon-polariton-Bloch waves (SPP-Bloch) supported by the periodically perforated plate. The authors of this paper have recently proposed an alternative model whose details will be brieﬂy summarized here. A parametric study of the predictions of the model and some new potential extensions will be reported to provide additional insight.
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Keywords: Extraordinary optical transmission, diffraction gratings, circuit modeling, open resonators.
The 3D regular lattice of bi-spherical dielectric resonant inclusions arranged in a cubic lattice as two sets of spheres made from the same dielectric material having different radii and embedded in a host dielectric material with lower dielectric permittivity was carefully investigated. The magnetic resonance corresponding to the first Mie resonance in the spherical particles is followed by forming a regular array of effective magnetic dipoles, and the structure of the identical spherical dielectric resonators can be designed as an isotropic μ-negative 3D-metamaterial. For the electric resonance it was found experimentally and by the simulation that the resonant response of the electric dipole was weakly pronounced and the μ-negative behavior was remarkably suppressed. To enhance the electric dipole contribution we considered another kind of the symmetry of the bi-spherical arrangement of the particles corresponding to the body-centered cubic symmetry instead of the symmetry of NaCl analog considered previously. Electromagnetic properties of a volumetric structure based on a regular lattice of identical cubic dielectric particles is also considered and analyzed as μ-negative metamaterial. The cubic particle based 3D-metamaterial is preferable for practical realization as compared with the spherical inclusions.
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Keywords: Metamaterial, resonant inclusion, Mie resonance, magnetic dipole, electric dipole, isotropic, backward wave, cubic resonators.
The guided modal properties of double-positive and double-negative metamaterial slab waveguides are numerically analyzed and compared when varying the dielectric and magnetic constants. As the cutoff frequencies of both slab waveguides remained unchanged when the absolute value of the refractive index was kept invariant, this enabled an effective comparison of the respective guided modes. Thus, the guided mode dispersion characteristics of the double-positive and double-negative slab waveguides were analyzed and compared, including several higher order modes. As a result, this comparative analysis provides greater physical insights and a better understanding of the guided modal characteristics of double-negative metamaterial slab waveguides.
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Keywords: Double-negative index, double-positive index, guided mode dispersions, metamaterial slab waveguide, surface polariton, surface wave.
In this work, we use Mu and Epsilon-Near-Zero (MENZ) metamaterials to realize the substrates that can modify the emission of an embedded line source. Simulation results show that the cylindrical waves emitted from the line source can be perfectly converted to plane wave through the MENZ metamaterial slab with planar exit face. Hence the line source together with the metamaterial slab constructs a high directive slab antenna. The directive radiation pattern of the MENZ metamaterial-assisted slab antenna is independent on the thickness of the slab, the position of the line source, and the shape of the entrance face of the slab, but the slab with grooved entrance side will result in stronger far-field intensity. We also show that the MENZ metamaterials can be applied to the design of antenna array. Moreover, compared with the high directive slab antenna obtained by coordinate transformation approach, the MENZ metamaterial-assisted antenna is more preferable.
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Keywords: Electromagnetic wave, finite element method, Mu and Epsilon-Near-Zero Metamaterials, slab antenna.
D. Segovia-Vargas, F. J. Herraiz-Martinez, E. Ugarte-Munoz, J. Montero-De-Paz, V. Gonzalez-Posadas, L. E. Garcia-Munoz
Multifrequency Printed Antennas Loaded with Metamaterial Particles
This paper provides a review of printed antennas loaded with metamaterial particles. This novel technique allows developing printed antennas with interesting features such as multifrequency (simultaneous operation over two or more frequency bands) and multifunctionality (e. g. radiation pattern diversity). Moreover, compactness is also achieved and the main advantages of conventional printed antennas (light weight, low profile, low cost ...) are maintained. Different types of metamaterial-loaded printed antennas are reviewed: printed dipoles and patch antennas. Several prototypes are designed, manufactured and measured showing good results. Furthermore, simple but accurate equivalent models are proposed. These models allow an easy and quick design of metamaterial-loaded printed antennas. Finally, two interesting applications based on the proposed antennas are reviewed: the patch antennas are used as radiating elements of emerging active RFID systems in the microwave band and the metamaterial-loaded printed dipoles are employed to increase the performance of log-periodic arrays.
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Keywords: Printed antennas, metamaterials, multifrequency antennas, multifunction antennas.
G. Siso, M. Gil, M. Aranda, J. Bonache, F. Martin
Miniaturization of Planar Microwave Devices by Means of Complementary Spiral Resonators (CSRs): Design of Quadrature Phase Shifters
In this work, two compact quadrature phase shifters based on metamaterial transmission lines implemented by means of complementary spiral resonators (CSRs) have been designed, fabricated and measured. The structures consist on Y-junctions with output lines exhibiting 90º phase balance. The reported metamaterial-based devices present a size reduction of 64% and 77% as compared to the conventional one.
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Keywords: Metamaterials, Complementary Spiral Resonators (CSRs), Phase Shifters
The shape of a popular split-ring defected ground structure (DGS) is modified by selecting different width of the sides with respect to microstrip line. The frequency characteristics of proposed DGS unit show an attenuation zero close to the attenuation pole frequency. The unit cell is modeled by 3rd order elliptical lowpass filter and an equivalent circuit is presented accordingly. For proposed DGS, both pole and zero frequencies are obtained at lower values compared to split-ring DGS unit with uniform width. The variation of the width of the sides, parallel to microstrip line influences pole frequency. Two DGS cells with different pole frequencies cascaded under High-Low microstrip line realize a sharp and deep bandstop filter. Three-cascaded cells underneath a highlow impedance microstrip line produce sharper and wider bandstop filter characteristics.
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Keywords: Microstrip, defected ground structure, bandstop filter, elliptic filter.
Several novel dispersion-engineered CRLH TL metamaterial analog signal processing systems, exploiting the broadband dispersive characteristics and design ﬂexibility of CRLH TLs, are presented. These systems are either guided-wave or radiated-wave systems, and employ either the group velocity or the group velocity dispersion parameters. The systems presented are: a frequency tunable impulse delay line, a pulse-position modulator, a frequency discriminator and real-time Fourier transformer, pulse generators, an analog real-time spectrum analyzer, a frequencyresolved electrical gating, a spatio-temporal Talbot effect imager, and analog true-time delayer. They represent a new class of impulse-regime metamaterial structures, while previously reported metamaterials were mostly restricted to the harmonic regime.
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Keywords: Analog signal processing, dispersion engineering, transmission line metamaterials, leaky-wave antennas, Talbot effect, real-time spectrum analyzers, pulseposition modulators, real-time Fourier transformation, true-time delayers.
We study the performance of Hammerstein predistorters (PD) to model and compensate nonlinear effects produced by a high power ampliﬁer with memory. A novel Hammerstein model is introduced that includes, as the basic static nonlinearity, the complex simplicial canonical piecewise linear (CS-CPWL) description. Previous results by the authors have shown that the use of this kind of static nonlinearity leads to an efﬁcient representation of basic nonlinear models. Furthermore, different tradeoffs between modeling capability and performance are considered.
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Keywords: Digital predistortion, adaptive algorithm, Wiener model, Hammerstein model, piecewise linear function.
This paper deals with the readout electronics needed by superconductor Microwave Kinetic Inductance Detectors (MKIDs). MKIDs are typically implemented in the form of cryogenic-cooled high quality factor microwave resonator. The natural frequency of these resonators changes as a millimeter or sub-millimeter wave radiation impinges on the resonator itself. A quantitative system model of the readout electronics (very similar to that of a vector network analyzer) has been implemented under ADS environment and tested by several simulation experiments. The developed model is a tool to further optimize the readout electronic and to design the frequency allocation of parallel-connected MKIDs resonators. The applications of MKIDs will be in microwave and millimeter-wave radiometric imaging as well as in radio-astronomy focal plane arrays.
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Keywords: Microwave Kinetic Inductance Detectors, MKID, superconductors, microwave radiometers, radioastronomy, radiation detector, resonators.
Experimental real and synthetic aperture radar are developed from the base-band digital unit to the analogue RF parts, based on solid state units, using pulse compression for radar imaging. Proper QPSK code is found for matched filter.
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Keywords: Spread spectrum, matched filter, radar, microwave imaging, SLAR, SAR.
Through wall tracking of moving targets is of interest for rescue, surveillance and security operations. A useful method applies an ultra-wideband radar approach for this purpose since electromagnetic waves in the lower GHz- range penetrate most common building materials, such as bricks, wood, dry walls, concrete and reinforced concrete. However in consequence of a wall effect, estimated target track can be considerably spatially shifted and distorted. In the paper, two different methods for compensation of this ef- fect are described. Their effectiveness is evaluated at syn- thetic as well as real radar data. Obtained results prove that proposed novel approach reach the best outcomes.
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Keywords: Direct localization method, moving targets, through wall tracking, UWB radar, wall effect.
In this paper we proposed a smart interference rejection filter in TH-PPM UWB system, which improves the system\'s error probability for an order of magnitude in case of high power OFDM interference. The smart filter is based on an adaptive transversal filter. Based on the fulfillment of certain conditions, the filter activates or deactivates some parts of it.
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Keywords: Smart filtering, UWB radio, interference rejection, OFDM, performance evaluation.
Substrate Integrated Waveguide (SIW) technology is the most promising candidate for the implementation of millimeter-wave (mm-wave) integrated circuits and systems for the next decade. Based on planar dielectric substrates with top and bottom metal layers perforated with metalized holes, SIW structures offer a compact, low loss, flexible, and cost-effective solution for integrating active circuits, passive components and radiating elements on the same substrate. This paper presents an overview of the current status and future trends of academic and industrial research on SIW technology. The historical development of SIW components and circuits is briefly outlined, and the current research topics are discussed: they include the development of numerical techniques for the modeling and design of SIW components, the investigation of novel compact and broadband interconnects, the determination of design solutions for loss minimization. Future research trends are also discussed: they mainly aim at the implementation of SIW components at higher frequency (60-350 GHz) and the integration of complete Systems-on-Substrate (SoS).
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- BOZZI, M., PERREGRINI, L., WU, K. Modeling of losses in substrate integrated waveguide by boundary integral-resonant mode expansion method. In IEEE MTT-S International Microwave Symposium (IMS2008). Atlanta (GA, USA), June 10-15, 2008.
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- ZHAI, G. H., HONG, W., WU, K., CHEN, J. X., CHEN, P., WEI, J., TANG, H. J. Folded half mode substrate integrated waveguide 3 dB coupler. IEEE Microwave and Wireless Components Letters, 2008, vol 18, no. 8, pp. 512-514.
- BOZZI, M., DESLANDES, D., ARCIONI, P., PERREGRINI, L., WU, K., CONCIAURO, G. Efficient analysis and experimental verification of substrate integrated slab waveguides for wideband microwave applications. Intern. J. of RF and Microwave Computer–Aided Engineering, May 2005, vol. 15, no. 3, pp. 296-306.
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- BOZZI, M., WINKLER, S. A., WU, K. Novel compact and broadband interconnects based on ridge substrate integrated waveguide. In 2009 IEEE MTT-S International Microwave Symposium (IMS2009). Boston (MA, USA), June 7-12, 2009.
- BOZZI, M., PASIAN, M., PERREGRINI, L., WU, K. On the losses in substrate integrated waveguides. In 37th European Microwave Conference (EuMC 2007). Munich (Germany), Oct. 8- 12, 2007.
- SAMANTA, K. K., STEPHENS, D., ROBERTSON, I. D. Design and performance of a 60-GHz multi-chip module receiver employing substrate integrated waveguides. IET Microwave Antennas Propagation, 2007, vol. 1, no. 5, pp. 961–967.
Keywords: Millimeter-waves, passive waveguide components, System-on-Substrate (SoS), Substrate Integrated Waveguide (SIW), Substrate Integrated Circuits (SICs).
A mathematical model of the prototype of memristor, manufactured in 2008 in Hewlett-Packard Labs, is described in the paper. It is shown that the hitherto published approaches to the modeling of boundary conditions need not conform with the requirements for the behavior of a practical circuit element. The described SPICE model of the memristor is thus constructed as an open model, enabling additional modifications of non-linear boundary conditions. Its functionality is illustrated on computer simulations.
- STRUKOV, D.B., SNIDER, G.S., STEWART, D.R., WILLIAMS, R.S. The missing memristor found. Nature, 2008, vol. 453, 1 May 2008, p. 80 – 83.
- CHUA, L.O. Memristor – the missing circuit element. IEEE Trans. Circuit Theory, 1971, vol. CT-18, no. 5, p. 507 – 519.
- WILLIAMS, R. S. Electrically actuated switch. United States Patent Application 20080090337, 04/17/2008.
- WILLIAMS, R. S. How we found the missing memristor. IEEE Spectrum, 12/01/2008, p. 1-11, www.spectrum.ieee.org/print/7024.
- JOGLEKAR, Y.N., WOLF, S. J. The elusive memristor: properties of basic electrical circuits. arXiv:0807.3994 v2 [cond-mat.meshall] 13 January 2009, p.1-24.
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Keywords: Memristor, drift, window function, SPICE.
The emergence of wireless sensor networks and their potential for a multitude of novel applications, especially in the industrial automation domain, are noteworthy. This paper presents research and development perspectives on wireless sensor networks from the Virtual Automation Networks project in terms of prototype development and coexistence with other chosen wireless technologies. The project-specific design and specification aspects, implementation and integration issues, and coexistence tests, measurements and results are covered in detail. The paper illustrates the successful integration of wireless sensor networks into the overall prototype and shows that they can coexist with other wireless technologies.
- VAN-Developing the Future of Industrial Communication, an introductory abstract of the project, available for download at http://www.van-eu.eu
- VAN Deliverable D03.1-1: Status and Analysis of Wireless in Industries, December 2006.
- VAN Deliverable D03.2-1: Specification for Wireless in Industrial Environment and Industrial Embedded Devices, March 2007.
- VAN Deliverable D03.4-1: Design and Test Specifications for Wireless Prototype Implementations, August 2007.
- VAN Deliverable D03.4-2: Wireless Prototype System, May 2008.
- VAN Deliverable D03.5-1: Test Specification, Test Cases and Results, August 2008.
- IEEE 802.15.4 Standard: Part 15.4: Wireless Medium Access Control (MAC) and Physical Layer (PHY) Specifications for Low- Rate Wireless Personal Area Networks (WPANs), September 2006.
- VDI/VDE 2185, Funkgestutzte Kommunikation in der Automatisierungstechnik (Radio-based Communication in Industrial Automation), 2007 (in German).
- IEEE 802.15.2 Standard: Part 15.2: Coexistence of Wireless Personal Area Networks with Other Wireless Devices Operating in Unlicensed Frequency Bands, October 2003.
- SHIN, S. Y., PARK, H. S., CHOI, S., KWON, W. H. Packet error rate analysis of IEEE 802.15.4 under IEEE 802.11b interference. In Proceedings of the Third International Conference on Wired/Wireless Internet Communications WWIC 2005. Xanthi (Greece), 2005.
- RAUCHHAUPT, L., KRATZIG, M. How to assess reliability of industrial wireless solutions. In Proceedings of the 5th International Conference on Informatics in Control, Robotics and Automation. Madeira (Portugal), 2008, p. 122 - 130.
- KRATZIG, M., RAUCHHAUPT, L. Parameter to assess coexistence of industrial wireless solutions. In Proceedings of the 5th Symposium on Automatic Control. Wismar (Germany), 2008.
- RAUCHHAUPT, L., LAKKUNDI, V. Wireless Network Integration into Virtual Automation Networks. In Proceedings of the 17th IFAC World Congress. Seoul (Korea), 2008.
Keywords: Wireless sensor networks, industrial automation, ZigBee, wireless prototypes, coexistence of wireless technologies.
In this paper, the influence of the EBG structures on the far-field pattern of patch antennas is investigated. As a reference model, a conventional rectangular patch antenna on a high-permittivity substrate is used. The reference model is consequently equipped by an EBG substrate (instead of the conventional one), and by an EBG cover (so called EBG superstrate). The changes in the farfield radiation patterns are discussed.
In the second part of the paper, the substrate is perturbed by two different EBG structures designed for the coverage of two operation bands.
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- YANG, L., FAN, M., CHEN, F., SHE, J., FENG, Z. A novel compact electromagnetic-bandgap (EBG) structure and its applications for microwave circuits. IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques, 2005, vol. 53, no. 1, p. 183–190.
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- LIN, Q., ZHU, F., HE, S. A new photonic bandgap cover for a patch antenna with a photonic bandgap substrates. Journal of Zhejiang University, 2004, no. 5, p. 269–273.
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Keywords: Patch antenna, EBG substrate, far-field radiation pattern, double-band antenna, superstrate.
Due to wide power spectrums of rectangular data streams, it is important for base-band signals to be heavily band limited before modulation. That can be achieved by pulse shaping of rectangular bits. Some of the most common are a half-sine pulse shaper and a Gaussian pulse shaper which are used in Minimum Shift Keying (MSK), Gaussian Minimum Shift Keying (GMSK) and Gaussian Frequency Shift Keying (GFSK) modulations, respectively. The most common solutions of such shapers use PCM based look-up-table (LUT), which requires an nbit D/A converter. We proposed the use of a 1-bit Sigma Delta Modulation (SDM) LUT, which results in smaller ROM capacity, a 1-bit wide output word, and a simple1-bit D/A converter realized as an out-of-chip first-order lowpass RC filter, or an in-chip charge pump. This article describes a simple, but efficient SDM LUT-based half-sine and Gaussian shaper that can be used for generation of MSK and GMSK/GFSK modulated signals. Oscillograms and power spectrums are measured on SDM LUT realized in FLEX AlteraTM PLD, for a 10-bit pseudo-noise sequence test input signal.
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Keywords: GMSK/GFSK, MSK, sigma-delta, Gaussian filter.
We present a new method to estimate the Hurst parameter. The method exploits the form of the autocorrelation function for second-order self-similar processes and is based on one-pass digital filtration. We compare the performance and properties of the new method with that of the most common methods.
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Keywords: Self-similarity, Hurst parameter, autocorrelation function, fractional Gaussian noise.
The paper deals with investigations carried out to increase the effectiveness of video-on-demand (VoD) systems when cable television networks are used. A comparative analysis of the existing VoD architectures is made with respect to the equipment cost and the traffic load over the central transport network. Through statistical studies the main characteristics of a particular hybrid VoD are determined (such as twenty-four-hour distribution of the video traffic, average inter-arrival time of the VoD requests, average duration of video streams demanded, movies distribution according to the subscribers’ preferences). An algorithm for the videocontent flexible distribution among the distribution hubs is suggested. Thus a higher effectiveness of the system is achieved without significantly increasing the equipment cost.
- IneoQuest Technologies Inc., USA. Quality of Video-over-IP: Measuring the Quality of streaming MPEG-2 Transport Streams over IP. 9 pages. 2003. [Online] Cited 2009-03-12. Available at: http://www.ineoquest.com/sites/default/files/VideoOverIPStreamQ uality.pdf.
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- Harmonic Inc., USA. Advanced Optical and Digital Architectures for Video-On-Demand. 10 pages. 2001. [Online] Cited 2009-03- 12. Available at: http://www.harmonicinc.com/view_collateral.cfm?ID=40.
- Sorrento Networks Inc., USA. Solution Architectures for Cable Video-on-Demand. 20 pages. 2002. [Online] Cited 2009-03-12. Available at: http://chapters.scte.org/cascade/Cable%20VOD.pdf.
- Fujitsu Network Communications Inc., USA. Fujitsu Gigabit Ethernet VOD Solutions. 10 pages. 2004. [Online] Cited 2009-03- 12. Available at: http://www.fujitsu.com/downloads/TEL/fnc/ whitepapers/VOD_wp.pdf.
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Keywords: HFC CATV, DVB-C, VoD architecture, SD and HD video streams, DHUB, CMTS, STB.