# April 2021, Volume 30, Number 1 [DOI: 10.13164/re.2021-1]

**I. E. Lager**
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[DOI: 10.13164/re.2021.0001]
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Causal Excitation in Antenna Simulations

The critical relevance of ensuring the excitation’s causality in electromagnetic (EM) simulations is validated via theoretical arguments and simulation results. Two families of model pulses with an implicitly causal behavior, namely the windowed-power (WP) and the power-exponential (PE) ones, are elaborately discussed. After introducing their unipolar prototypes, the relevant families are supplemented with monocycle and ringing variants, and are used for building signatures with almost rectangular spectral contents. Their utility is evidenced by contrasting their performance with that of other types of excitations that are habitually employed an antenna simulations. The WP pulse is also shown to be an almost exact replica of signatures generated by physical circuitry and to be singularly expedient for improving the effectiveness of EM computational packages.

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Keywords: Antennas, causality, time-domain analysis, numerical analysis, pulse generation

**M. A. Ilgaz, A. Lavric, B. Batagelj**
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[DOI: 10.13164/re.2021.0010]
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Phase-Noise Degradation of an Optically Distributed Local Oscillator in a Radio Access Network

The experimental evaluation of the phase-noise degradation of an optically distributed opto-electronic oscillator (OEO) signal is presented. The assembled setup is simulating a possible topology for a 5G radio access network (RAN), in which the local oscillator (LO) signal is distributed from the central-office to the base-stations via an existing optical distribution network (ODN). TheOEOin our experiment has a phase noise of -105 dBc/Hz and -124 dBc/Hz at 1 kHz and 10 kHz offsets from the 10.5 GHz carrier, respectively. The degradation of the phase noise of the signal distributed to the base-station within a distance of 20 km is within 4 dB and 6 dB for 1 kHz and 10 kHz offsets from the carrier, respectively. These are promising results for further research and the development of the 5G RAN with a centralized OEO signal distribution.

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Keywords: Opto-electronic oscillator, phase-noise degradation, microwave, radio access network, optical distribution network

**T. Pasupathi, J. Arputha Vijaya Selvi**
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[DOI: 10.13164/re.2021.0016]
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Design, Testing and Performance Evaluation of Beam Positioning System for Free Space Optical Communication System

Beam wandering and the wavefront distortion are the significant sources for the power loss in Wireless Optical Communication (WOC). In this paper Full Factorial Design (FFD) and Back Propagation Neural Network (BPNN) controller based autonomous beam monitoring, positioning and recovery system for fine steering of the laser beam at the focal point of the FSOC receiver is proposed. The proposed controllers process the intensity information of the received optical beam as inputs and produce the control signals as outputs. These control signals bring the beam at the focal point of the receiver and avoid the power loss of the optical link. The work describes, performance analysis of Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) based novel digital architecture of FFD and BPNN controller. Real time experimental verification of the stability and suitability of the developed adaptive controllers are tested for percentage of prediction error, Bit Error Rate (BER) and beam wander reduction ability and the same is demonstrated with suitable results. The experimental result shows that the BPNN controller gives high accurate approximation towards the control for the control signals Cx and Cy with the minimum and maximum values of 99.29% and 99.86% respectively. With the chosen parameters, the neuro-controller exhibits fast response for the error changes. The proposed BPNN controller provides prediction error very close to -0.5 to +1.0%, the values lie in the range of -0.06781% and 0.9862% which shows that the BPNN controller is efficient for the real time tracking and control for FSOC, LIDAR imaging, micro/nano positioning, atomic force microscopes, scanning tunnelling microscopes, etc.

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Keywords: Optical communication, attenuation, opto-electronic, adaptive optics, neural network, beam steering.

**H. Ayadi , J. Machac, S. Beldi , L. Latrach**
[references] [full-text]
[DOI: 10.13164/re.2021.0025]
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Planar Hexagonal Antenna with Dual Reconfigurable Notched Bands for Wireless Communication Devices

In this paper, a planar hexagonal antenna with dual tunable notched band using varactor diodes is presented. The designed antenna operates in the frequency range of 2 GHz to 8 GHz and is loaded by a complementary split ring resonator (CSRR) to achieve the notch-band characteristics. The CSRR produced two stop-bands at the frequencies 3 GHz and 6.8 GHz. In order to obtain the reconfigurability, one varactor diode was used on each ring of the CSRR. The variation of the DC bias of the diodes produced double notched bands yielding a tunable coverage in the 0.6 GHz and 1.6 GHz ranges. The continuous agility and the wide tuning range of the notched bands are the major advantages of this structure. The antenna prototype was manufactured and a good agreement has been achieved between the measured and simulated results. The proposed antenna can be a good candidate for wireless applications that cover the UMTS, the Wi-Fi and the WiMAX bands.

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Keywords: Reconfigurable antenna, complementary split ring resonator (CSRR), notched-band

**L. Zhang, J. Jiang, Y. Liu, W. Li**
[references] [full-text]
[DOI: 10.13164/re.2021.0034]
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Single-fed Patch Antenna with Reconfigurable Orbit Angular Momentum Order

Order reconfiguration of orbital angular momentum (OAM) is the foundation for wireless communications based on OAM state multiplexing. As the symmetry of a circular patch is disturbed by an arc segment, two degenerate modes can be synthesized under the single-fed condition to generate OAM waves. Due to arc segment independent of the radiation patch, its effective length is controlled by a switching diode to select different order degenerate modes for synthesis. Based on this idea, a reconfiguration of first-order and second-order OAM modes is achieved. In comparison, the performance of low-order OAM mode is better than that of high-order mode.

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- ZHU, H. L., CHEUNG, S. W., LIU, X. H., et al. Design of polarization reconfigurable antenna using metasurface. IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation, 2014, vol. 62, no. 6, p. 2891–2898. DOI: 10.1109/TAP.2014.2310209
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Keywords: Orbital angular momentum (OAM), reconfigurable antenna, patch antenna, degenerate mode

**D. G. Patanvariya, A. Chatterjee**
[references] [full-text]
[DOI: 10.13164/re.2021.0040]
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A Compact Bow-tie Shaped Wide-band Microstrip Patch Antenna for Future 5G Communication Networks

In this paper, a novel compact bow-tie shaped microstrip patch antenna for wide-band application is presented. The proposed geometry consists of a modified bow-tie structure at the top of the Rogers RT-5880 substrate with a 50 Ω feed-line and 8 × 8 mm2 full ground plane. The diagonal slots inside the geometry have been implemented for exact resonating. The circuit analysis and various parametric analyses of the proposed geometry have been studied. The prototype of the antenna resonates at 27.77 GHz. The antenna has a fractional bandwidth of 6.77% (26.81–28.69 GHz) in simulation and 6.30% (26.89–28.64 GHz) in measurement respectively. The measured linear gain and radiation efficiency of the antenna are 7.00 dBi and 74% respectively. Also, it has a low sidelobe-level and cross-polarization level over the entire-space. The proposed wide-band antenna gives good time-domain characteristics as well as provides an acceptable FBR and impedance matching over the resonating band. All the properties suggest that the proposed antenna suits well for 5G communication along with various wireless systems.

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Keywords: Bow-tie shape, microstrip patch antenna, 5G communication, millimeter wave

**A. Bhattacharyya, K. Patra, B. Gupta**
[references] [full-text]
[DOI: 10.13164/re.2021.0048]
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Design of HIS-backed Miniaturized Cross Slotted Antenna for Circular Polarization Using Modal Analysis: A Novel Approach

This work presents a novel design technique of a circularly polarized miniaturized cross slotted antenna backed by a High Impedance Surface using substructure based Characteristic Mode analysis. The electromagnetic behavior of the antenna and the HIS is studied while the two structures are in close vicinity, with no air gap isolation between them. Such problem of proximity induced near field interaction of the finite HIS with the antenna has rarely been systematically attempted in literature. The chosen operating frequency of the cross slotted antenna is synchronized with the frequency of high impedance operation of the HIS by analysing the structure. This work explains how the characteristics of HIS can be determined when placed at the near electromagnetic field of an antenna. Circularly polarized radiation is obtained at 2.45 GHz with a 3-dB axial ratio bandwidth close to 1.46% with a 10-dB impedance bandwidth of 4.4%. The overall size of the designed antenna is 0.23 Llambda_0 x 0.23 lamba_0 x 0.039 lambda_0 including the substrate dimensions at 2.45 GHz (lambda_0 is the free space wavelength). The area reduction of the complete antenna and only the slotted patch is achieved as 78% and 88% respectively, as compared to the fundamental mode half wavelength antenna at this frequency.

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- DONG, Y., TOYAO, H., ITOH, T. Compact circularly-polarized patch antenna loaded with metamaterial structures. IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation, 2011, vol. 59, no. 11, p. 4329–4333. DOI: 10.1109/TAP.2011.2164223
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- CHUKWUKA, O., SEETHARAMDOO, D., RABAH, M. H. Coupling analysis of metamaterial inspired structures using the theory of characteristic modes. In Proceedings of the 13th European Conference on Antennas and Propagation (EuCAP). Krakow (Poland), 2019, p. 1–5. ISBN: 978-88-907018-8-7
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Keywords: High impedance surface (HIS), characteristic modes (CM), circular polarization (CP), miniaturization, cross slotted antenna

**D. Z. Nazif, I. S. Mohamed, A. A. Gaafar, M. Abdalla**
[references] [full-text]
[DOI: 10.13164/re.2021.0056]
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UWB Notch Antennas in MIMO System with High Isolation Performance

This article presents a detailed analysis and design of an ultra-wideband (3.1 GHz – 10.6 GHz) notch antennas in a two-element MIMO system with high isolation performance. The wideband spectrum is notched at the WiMAX band at 5.8 GHz centre frequency using a highly selective electromagnetic bandgap structure coupled to the antenna feeding lines. An array of electromagnetic bandgap structure is used to achieve wideband isolation between the two elements. The two antenna elements achieve wideband reflection coefficient for good matching below -10 dB, except the notch where it becomes higher than – 2 dB. On the other hand, the antenna elements have a minimum of 20 dB isolation. Thanks to the achieved results, the antenna MIMO elements have small envelop correlation (less than 0.05) and also small channel capacity loss (less than 0.2 bit/s/Hz). The obtained results are verified using experimental measurements and all circuit/ EM needed simulations.

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Keywords: Multi-Input-Multi-Output (MIMO), notched-UWB antenna, electromagnetic bandgap (EBG) array, envelope correlation, diversity

**P. S. Reddy, R. Mondal, P. P. Sarkar**
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[DOI: 10.13164/re.2021.0065]
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Cylindrical Dielectric Resonator Antenna Offering Low Cross-Polarization for Point-to-Point Communication Systems

In this paper, a cylindrical dielectric resonator antenna (CDRA) offering low cross-polarization (XP) for point-to-point communication systems is presented. Three linear arrays of air vias (LAAV) are incorporated along the H-plane of a conventionalCDRAin order toweaken the undesired XP generating fields due to the orthogonally resonating HEM21X mode. A set of parametric studies are conducted on the design parameters of the 3-LAAV in CDRA to understand the sensitivity of boresight XPD on the 3-LAAV design parameters. Field distributions in CDRA before and after the incorporation of LAAV are extensively studied to draw a conclusive inference. The 3-LAAV loaded CDRA offers 39 dB higher boresight XP suppression in comparison to the conventional CDRA. The proposed technique is experimentally validated. The measured result shows an XP isolation of 56 dB at the boresight, 55 dB and 38 dB over ±15 % of half-power beamwidth (HPBW) in the E-plane and H-plane of radiation, respectively. This result is well above the minimum cross-polarization discrimination (XPD) requirements for the satellite earth station antennas.

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Keywords: Cross-polarization, dielectric resonator antenna, point-to-point communication, parabolic reflector antenna

**S. Ballav, G. A. Sarkar, S. K. Parui**
[references] [full-text]
[DOI: 10.13164/re.2021.0073]
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Filtering DRA Array and Its Applications in MIMO for Sub-6 GHz Band

A dielectric resonator-based filtering array antenna along with multi input - multi output (MIMO) characteristics is represented in this paper. Two rectangular dielectric resonators, together with a filtering power splitter (PS) is used to get a high gain filtering response. The PS, which consists of a simple T-junction 3-dB power splitters and two pairs of band-rejection resonators, provides four transmission zeros outside the passband. Detail study with an equivalent circuit is presented to understand the working principle of the filtering PS. By utilizing this PS, a two element DRA array is designed at sub-6 GHz frequency band (3.20 GHz-3.54 GHz) with an average broadside gain of 7.8 dBi in the passband and four radiation dips outside the passband. The proposed filtering DRA array effectively suppresses the out-of-band signal, delivers sharp selectivity at band edges. Finally, coalescing the two-filtering array, a MIMO antenna system is presented here. The filtering array MIMO antenna gives reasonable port isolation of greater than 20 dB throughout the operating band. All the major diversity parameters to establish MIMO characteristics e.g. envelop correlation coefficient (ECC), diversity gain (DG), channel loss capacity (CCL), and total reflection coefficient (TARC) persists within their tolerable ranges.

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Keywords: Array, filtering power splitter, high gain, radiation dip, filtering MIMO

**P. Saha, D. Mitra, S. K. Parui**
[references] [full-text]
[DOI: 10.13164/re.2021.0081]
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Control of Gain and SAR for Wearable Antenna Using AMC Structure

Herein, a compact, low profile flexible wearable antenna with an AMC (Artificial Magnetic Conductor) embedded structure is presented. The proposed AMC-integrated antenna is fabricated using layers of leather and operates at the Industrial Scientific Medical (ISM) 5.8 GHz band. The overall dimension of the low-profile AMC antenna is 40.5×40.5×6 mm3. AMC structure is incorporated to reduce the backward scattering wave toward the human body which in turn increases the gain to 7.47 dB and reduces the specific absorption rate (SAR) about 90%. The fabricated antenna prototype with the integrated AMC is investigated by placing it on different parts of the human body. The performance studies of the AMC backed antenna also reveals that it can tolerate the loading due to the bent surface as well as the crumpled surface. The obtained results show that the proposed antenna is safe and suitable for biomedical applications.

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Keywords: Artificial Magnetic Conductor (AMC), flexible antenna, leather antenna, wearable antenna, biomedical application

**S. Saha, N. Begam, S. Biswas, P. P. Sarkar**
[references] [full-text]
[DOI: 10.13164/re.2021.0089]
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A Cascaded Tunable Wide Stop Band Frequency Selective Surface with High Roll-off Band Edge

A three-layer wide-band reflective Frequency Selective Surface (FSS) reflector with a high roll off band edge is proposed in this paper. Each layer of the structure is patch type FSS. The proposed FSS has merits of wideband response over S band and lower C band with bandwidth of 3.6 GHz for transmission < -10 dB with 94% bandwidth and significant stability for different incident angles up to 40 degree. The polarization insensitivity of the FSS also added an extra dimension of the structure. The simulation process as well as the experimental measurement process and ECM (equivalent circuit model) analysis of the FSS have been done. The good agreement in simulated, measured and ECM results verifies the wide stop band for the proposed FSS. The tunable and switchable transmission behavior of the FSS for variation in width of the internal air gap and lateral sliding of the middle layer of the structure respectively are also presented here.

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Keywords: Frequency Selective Surface, reflector, wide stop band, roll off, cascade structure, incidence angle stability, polarization insensitivity, equivalent circuit model, tunable and switchable transmission coefficient

**G. Srinivas, D. Vakula**
[references] [full-text]
[DOI: 10.13164/re.2021.0096]
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High Gain and Wide Band Antenna Based on FSS and RIS Configuration

In this paper, a novel technique using frequency selective surface (FSS) superstrate is proposed to increase the antenna gain. In addition to that, a combination of reactive impedance surfaces (RIS) is included to enhance the bandwidth. So, a conventional pentagon shape patch antenna is designed at 5.3 GHz. The frequency selective surface is designed as a 6×6 array of unit cell structures to operate around 5.3 GHz. Each unit cell consists of three metal conductive layers with substrates in between them. Reactive Impedance Surface is considered as an array size of 6×6 square patches embedded between two substrates. FSS is designed on Rogers 4003C and FR4 is used for RIS. The pentagon shape patch antenna is designed on RIS. A cavity created by the contribution of these layers acts like a fabry perot resonator which improves the gain and bandwidth simultaneously. The proposed antenna has an impedance bandwidth of 17.72% (4.93-5.89 GHz); this is about a 10 percent improvement over the impedance bandwidth of a conventional pentagon shape antenna and the axial ratio bandwidth is 2.4% (5.01-5.14 GHz). The designed antenna gain is around 12dBi; this is about a 9 dBi improvement over the gain of a conventional pentagon shape antenna.

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Keywords: Pentagon patch antenna, circular polarization frequency selective surface superstrate, reactive impedance surface, gain, bandwidth improvement

**S. Sarkar, B. Gupta**
[references] [full-text]
[DOI: 10.13164/re.2021.0104]
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A Dual-Band Fabry-Perot Cavity Antenna with a Single Partially Reflecting Surface and Reduced Cavity Height for WLAN Applications

This paper proposes a dual-band Fabry-Perot Cavity Antenna (FPCA) operating at two important WLAN bands – the 2.4 GHz band and 5.8 GHz band. It exhibits Circular Polarization (CP) at 2.4 GHz and Linear Polarization (LP) at5.8 GHz. The proposed antenna uses only a single Partially Reflecting Surface (PRS) layer to achieve good 3dB gain bandwidths in both the bands. The cavity height of the antenna is also significantly reduced by using an Artificial Magnetic Conductor (AMC) ground plane. The antenna achieves a 3dB axial ratio bandwidth (AR-BW) of 7.9% at 2.4 GHz with peak measured gains of 14.3 dBi and 15.5 dBi at 2.4 GHz and 5.8 GHz respectively. The antenna also exhibits a 3dB gain BW of 7.8% in the first band and 5.5% in the second band.

- KUKREJA, J., CHOUDHARY, D. K., CHAUDHARY, R. K. A metamaterial inspired ZOR antenna using IDC and spiral inductor with partial ground plane for WLAN applications. Wireless Personal Communications, 2019, vol. 107, p. 137–147. DOI: 10.1007/s11277-019-06244-x
- KUKREJA, J., CHOUDHARY, D. K., CHAUDHARY, R. K. A short-ended compact metasurface antenna with interdigital capacitor and U-shaped strip. Wireless Personal Communications, 2019, vol. 108, p. 2149–2158. DOI: 10.1007/s11277-019-06514-8
- CHOUDHARY, D. K., CHAUDHARY, R. K. Compact filtering antenna using asymmetric CPW-fed based CRLH structure. AEU International Journal of Electronics and Communications, 2020, vol. 126, p. 1–6. DOI: 10.1016/j.aeue.2020.153462
- TRENTINI, G. V. Partially reflecting sheet arrays. IRE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation, 1956, vol. AP-4, no. 4, p. 666–671. DOI: 10.1109/TAP.1956.1144455
- MU, J., WANG, H., WANG, H., HUANG, Y. Low-RCS and gain enhancement design of a novel partially reflecting and absorbing surface antenna. IEEE Antennas and Wireless Propagation Letters, 2017, vol. 16, p. 1903–1906.DOI: 10.1109/LAWP.2017.2685623
- AKBARI, M., GUPTA, S., FARAHANI, M., et al. Gain enhancement of circularly polarized dielectric resonator antenna based on FSS superstrate for MMW applications. IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation, 2016, vol. 64, no. 12, p. 5542–5546. DOI: 10.1109/TAP.2016.2623655
- WEILY, A. R., BIRD, T. S., GUO, Y. J. A reconfigurable highgain partially reflecting surface antenna. IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation, 2008, vol. 56, no. 11, p. 3382–3390. DOI: 10.1109/TAP.2008.2005538
- ABBOU, D., VUONG, T. P., TOUHAMI, R., et al. High-gain wideband partially reflecting surface antenna for 60 GHz systems. IEEE Antennas and Wireless Propagation Letters, 2017, vol. 16, p. 2704–2707. DOI: 10.1109/LAWP.2017.2742862
- RAZI, Z. M., REZAEI, P., VALIZADE, A. A novel design of Fabry-Perot antenna using metamaterial superstrate for gain and bandwidth enhancement. AEU International Journal of Electronics and Communications, 2015, vol. 69, no. 10, p. 1525–1532. DOI: 10.1016/j.aeue.2015.05.012
- WANG, N., LIU, Q., WU, C., et al. Wideband Fabry-Perot resonator antenna with two complementary FSS layers. IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation, 2014, vol. 62, no. 5, p. 2463–2471. DOI: 10.1109/TAP.2014.2308533
- KONSTANTINIDIS, K., FERESIDIS, A. P., HALL, P. S. Multilayer partially reflective surfaces for broadband Fabry-Perot cavity antennas. IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation, 2014, vol. 62, no. 7, p. 3474–3481. DOI: 10.1109/TAP.2014.2320755
- LALBAKHSH, A., AFZAL, M. U., ESSELLE, K. P., et al. Singledielectric wideband partially reflecting surface with variable reflection components for realization of a compact high-gain resonant cavity antenna. IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation, 2019, vol. 67, no. 3, p. 1916–1921. DOI: 10.1109/TAP.2019.2891232
- ZEB, B. A., GE, Y.., ESSELLE, K. P., et al. A simple dual-band electromagnetic band gap resonator antenna based on inverted reflection phase gradient. IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation, 2012, vol. 60, no. 10, p. 4522–4529. DOI: 10.1109/TAP.2012.2207331
- ABDELGHANI, M. L., ATTIA, H., DENIDNI, T. A. Dual- and wideband Fabry-Perot resonator antenna for WLAN applications. IEEE Antennas and Wireless Propagation Letters, 2017, vol. 16, p. 473–476. DOI: 10.1109/LAWP.2016.2585087
- MENG, F., SHARMA, S. K. A dual-band high-gain resonant cavity antenna with a single layer superstrate. IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation, 2015, vol. 63, no. 5, p. 2320–2325. DOI: 10.1109/TAP.2015.2405082
- LIMA, E. B., COSTA, J. R., FERNANDES, C. A. Multiple-beam focal-plane dual-band Fabry-Perot cavity antenna with reduced beam degradation. IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation, 2019, vol. 67, no. 7, p. 4348–4356. DOI: 10.1109/TAP.2019.2911365
- CHEN, J., ZHAO, Y., GE, Y., et al. Dual-band high-gain FabryPerot cavity antenna with a shared aperture FSS layer. IET Microwaves, Antennas and Propagation, 2018, vol. 12, no. 13, p. 2007–2011. DOI: 10.1049/iet-map.2018.5183

Keywords: Artificial Magnetic Conductor (AMC), Circular Polarization (CP), dual-band, Fabry-Perot Cavity Antenna (FPCA), Partially Reflecting Surface (PRS), positive reflection phase gradient, WLAN

**N. Mishra, R. K. Chaudhary**
[references] [full-text]
[DOI: 10.13164/re.2021.0111]
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Compact Band-Pass Filter Using Modified Ω-shaped Resonator and Source Load Coupling for Transmission Zero Improvement

This article investigates a compact band-pass filter using modified Ω-shaped resonator and source load coupling for transmission zero improvement. In this article, source load coupling has been used to improve the insertion loss response and a number of transmission zeros in the upper stop-band, so that the chance of interference from adjacent wireless bands can be reduced. In order to determine the metamaterial characteristics for the designed filter structure dispersion diagram and vectored electric-field with no phase variation has been illustrated. The simulated and measured 3dB fractional bandwidth for the designed filter structure is 26.05% and 26.12% at the center frequency of 2.38 and 2.33 GHz respectively. It offers compactness with an electrical footprint area of 0.245λg × 0.201λg, where λg is the guided wavelength at the center frequency of 2.33 GHz. The presented filter structure seems a potential candidate for different wireless applications such as Bluetooth (2.4-2.48 GHz), WLAN/Wi-Fi (2.4-2.49 GHz) and Wi-MAX (2.5-2.69 GHz).

- POZAR D. M. Microwave Engineering. 4th ed. USA: Wiley, 2011. ISBN: 978-0-470-63155-3
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- ALLISON, R. C. Compact edge coupled filter. United States Patent 6762660 B2, July 2004.
- CALOZ, C., ITOH, T. Electromagnetic Metamaterials: Transmission Line Theory and Microwave Applications. USA: Wiley, 2006. DOI:10.1002/0471754323
- LUO, X., QIAN, H., MA, J-G., et al. Wideband bandpass filter with excellent selectivity using new CSRR-based resonator. Electronics Letters, 2010, vol. 46, no. 20, p. 1390–1391. DOI: 10.1049/el.2010.1817
- XIAO, J. K., ZHU, M., LI, Y., et al. Coplanar waveguide bandpass filters with separated electric and magnetic couplings. Electronics Letters, 2016, vol. 52, no. 2, p. 122–124. DOI: 10.1049/el.2015.3112
- TANG, M.-C., SHI, T., TAN, X. A novel triple‐mode hexagon bandpass filter with meander line and central‐loaded stub. Microwave and Optical Technology Letters, 2016, vol. 58, no. 1, p. 9–12. DOI: 10.1002/mop.29483
- FENG, W., GAO, X., CHE, W. Bandpass filters with improved selectivity based on dual-mode ring resonators. Progress In Electromagnetics Research Letters, 2015, vol. 56, p. 1–7. DOI: 10.2528/PIERL15072609
- CHOUDHARY, D. K., CHAUDHARY, R. K. A compact CPWbased dual-band filter using modified complementary split ring resonator. AEU - International Journal of Electronics and Communications, 2018, vol. 89, p. 110–115. DOI: 10.1016/j.aeue.2018.03.032
- CHOUDHARY, D. K., CHAUDHARY, R. K. Compact lowpass and dual-band bandpass filter with controllable transmission zero/center frequencies/passband bandwidth. IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems II: Express Briefs, 2019, vol. 67, no. 6, p. 1044–1048. DOI: 10.1109/TCSII.2019.2931446
- NWAJANA, A. O., DAINKEH, A., YEO, K. S. K. Substrate integrated waveguide (SIW) bandpass filter with novel microstripCPW-SIW input coupling. Journal of Microwaves, Optoelectronics and Electromagnetic Applications, 2017, vol. 16, p. 393–402. DOI: 10.1590/2179-10742017v16i2793
- WANG, K., TANG, H., WU, R., et al. A novel compact dual-band filter based on quarter-mode substrate integrated waveguide and complementary split ring resonator. Microwave and Optical Technology Letters, 2016, vol. 58, no. 11, p. 2704–2707. DOI: 10.1002/mop.30131
- MISHRA, N., CHAUDHARY, R. K. A miniaturized ZOR antenna with enhanced bandwidth for Wi-MAX applications. Microwave and Optical Technology Letters, 2016, vol. 58, no. 1, p. 71–75. DOI: 10.1002/mop.29494
- LIAO, C. K., CHANG, C.-Y. Design of microstrip quadruplet filters with source-load coupling. IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques, 2005, vol. 53, no. 7, p. 2302–2308. DOI: 10.1109/TMTT.2005.850442
- MABROUK, M., BOUSBIA, L. Study and enhanced design of RF dual band bandpass filter validation and confirmation of experimental measurements. Circuits and Systems, 2011, vol. 2, p. 293–296. DOI: 10.4236/cs.2011.24041

Keywords: Compact, bandpass filter, zeroth order resonance, source-load coupling

**M. Danaeian**
[references] [full-text]
[DOI: 10.13164/re.2021.0117]
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Novel Miniaturized Equal/Unequal HMSIW Filtering Power Dividers Based on the Evanescent Mode Technique

In this paper, three miniaturized equal/unequal filtering power dividers (FPDs) applying the half-mode substrate integrated waveguide (HMSIW) and metamaterial concepts are offered. The operational method of the presented structures is based on the theory of evanescent mode propagation. The stepped-impedance resonator (SIR) technique has been employed to reduce the dimension of the conventional complementary split ring resonator (CSRR) unit-cell. In this technique, the slot lines in the conventional CSRR are replaced by the stepped-impedance slot lines in the improved metamaterial unit-cell which is called SIR-CSRR unit-cell. By means of the SIR-CSRR unit-cell, three equal/unequal FPDs with arbitrary power-dividing ratio have been reported. Additionally, to further size reduction of the proposed FPDs, the HMSIW platforms are used. All of the proposed HMSIW PDs are designed at 2.4 GHz which are suitable for WLAN applications. For demonstration of the applied procedures in the proposed HMSIW FPDs, the suggested equal/unequal HMSIW FPDs have been fabricated and measured. A reasonable agreement between simulated and measured results has been achieved. The entire size of the suggested equal/unequal HMSIW FPDs is about 0.11 × 0.09 λ_g^2.

- DANAEIAN, M., AFROOZ, K., HAKIMI, A. Miniaturization of substrate integrated waveguide filters using novel compact metamaterial unit-cells based on SIR technique. AEU-International Journal of Electronics and Communications, 2018, vol. 84, p. 62–73. DOI: 10.1016/j.aeue.2017.11.008
- DANAEIAN, M., AFROOZ, K. Compact metamaterial unit-cell based on stepped-impedance resonator technique and its application to miniaturize substrate integrated waveguide filter and diplexer. International Journal of RF and Microwave Computer‐Aided Engineering, 2019, vol. 29, no. 2, p. 1–13. DOI: 10.1002/mmce.21537
- ZHU, Y., SONG, K., FAN, M., et al. Wideband single-ended-tobalanced power divider with intrinsic common-mode suppression. IEEE Microwave and Wireless Components Letters, 2020, vol. 30, no. 4, p. 379–382. DOI: 10.1109/LMWC.2020.2973863
- FENG, T., MA, K., WANG, Y. A self-packaged power divider with compact size and low loss. IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems II: Express Briefs, 2020, vol. 67, no. 11, p. 2437–2441. DOI: 10.1109/TCSII.2020.2965970
- HAYATI, M., ZARGHAMI, S. Analysis of asymmetric coupling lines and design of a Wilkinson power divider based on harmonic suppression network. AEU-International Journal of Electronics and Communications, 2020, vol. 115, p. 1–11. DOI: 10.1016/j.aeue.2019.153047
- MOZNEBI, A.-R., AFROOZ, K., DANAEIAN, M., et al. Fourway filtering power divider using SIW and eighth-mode SIW cavities with ultra-wide out-of-band rejection. IEEE Microwave and Wireless Components Letters, 2019, vol. 29, no. 9, p. 586–588. DOI: 10.1109/LMWC.2019.2931115
- MOZNEBI, A.-R., DANAEIAN, M., ZAREZADEH, E., et al. Ultra-compact two‐way and four‐way SIW/HMSIW power dividers loaded by complementary split‐ring resonators. International Journal of RF and Microwave Computer‐Aided Engineering, 2019, vol. 29, no. 10, p. 1–8. DOI: 10.1002/mmce.21878
- MOZNEBI, A.-R., AFROOZ, K., DANAEIAN, M., et al. Compact filtering power divider based on corrugated third‐mode circular SIW cavities. Microwave and Optical Technology Letters, 2020, vol. 62, no. 5, p. 1900–1905. DOI: 10.1002/mop.32259
- DANAEIAN, M., MOZNEBI, A.-R., AFROOZ, K., et al. Miniaturized equal/unequal SIW power divider with bandpass response loaded by CSRRs. Electronics Letters, 2016, vol. 52, no. 22, p. 1864–1866. DOI: 10.1049/el.2016.2203
- DANAEIAN, M., MOZNEBI, A.-R., AFROOZ, K., et al. Miniaturized filtering SIW power divider with arbitrary powerdividing ratio loaded by open complementary split-ring resonators. International Journal of Microwave and Wireless Technologies, 2017, vol. 9, no. 9, p. 1827–1832. DOI: 10.1017/S175907871700071X
- CAO, Q., LIU, H., GAO, L. Design of high selectivity filtering power divider with high out-of-band rejection. Electromagnetics, 2019, vol. 39, no. 7, p. 473–480. DOI: 10.1080/02726343.2019.1658162
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- WANG, X., ZHU, X-W., TIAN, L., et al. Design and experiment of filtering power divider based on shielded HMSIW/QMSIW technology for 5G wireless applications. IEEE Access, 2019, vol. 7, p. 72411–72419. DOI: 10.1109/ACCESS.2019.2920150
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Keywords: Filtering power divider (FPD), half mode substrate integrated waveguide (HMSIW), evanescent mode technique, electric dipoles, stepped-impedance resonators, arbitrary power division and miniaturization

**J. Milanovic, A. Katalinic Mucalo, M. Gal**
[references] [full-text]
[DOI: 10.13164/re.2021.0125]
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Comparison between Measured Data-Carrying VDSL2 Cable Radiation and Radiation Limits for Wire-Line Telecommunication Networks

Digital subscriber line (DSL) is a technology that are widely used for bringing high-speed Internet access to the users’ premises. Unfortunately, the use of the DSL over existing copper telecommunication networks can result in radiation that can cause interference to radio systems operating in the same frequency range. To restrict such radio disturbances various radiation limits for wire-line telecommunication networks have been proposed. However, radiation limits differ significantly from each other which makes it difficult to adopt common protection criteria. In this paper, the comparison between defined radiation limits and measurements of the E-field radiation from the copper telecommunication cable is performed based on the measurement methodology described in the ITU-T K.60 Recommendation. The aim of the measurement was to assess whether the radiation from the aerial copper telecommunication cable (type: TK59U-xDSL) when VDSL2 profile 17a technology is used, meets radiation limits mostly used in the European Union. Measurement results have shown that the radiation from the cable is approximately 6 dB above limits proposed by the ECC/REC(05)04 Recommendation, which could cause intolerable errors in radio signal reception, thus disabling radio service to operate as intended. The obtained results show that the power spectral density (PSD) should be reduced by 10 dB in order to assure an adequate protection of radio services.

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Keywords: Electromagnetic interference, radio emission, radiation limits, TK59U-xDSL cable, VDSL2

**A. A. Althuwayb**
[references] [full-text]
[DOI: 10.13164/re.2021.0135]
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Design of Quad-Band Rat-Race Coupler for GSM/WiMAX/WLAN/Satellite Applications

In this communication, a novel quad-band rat-race coupler (RRC) is developed for GSM/WiMAX/WLAN/Satellite applications. A conventional RRC is converted to exhibit quad-band operation by using a quad-band microstrip-line (QBML). The proposed QBML is constructed by two coupled-lines, one series transmission-line and two short-ended stubs. The ABCD matrix method is applied to develop the design formulas. Based on these formulas, a quad-band RRC operating at 1.8 GHz, 3.5 GHz, 5.4 GHz, and 7.1 GHz is designed and verified through fabrication and measurement. The measurement and full-wave simulation responses are very much consistent as expected.

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Keywords: Rat-race coupler, quad-band, coupled-line

**K. Krestovnikov, E. Cherskikh, A. Saveliev**
[references] [full-text]
[DOI: 10.13164/re.2021.0142]
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Structure and Circuit Solution of a Bidirectional Wireless Power Transmission System in Applied Robotics

In this paper the development of structure and circuit solution for a bidirectional wireless power transmission system is presented, based on current fed push-pull inverter. Existing solutions are analyzed, as well their structures and characteristics. The principle of operation of the developed circuit solution is described in receiving/transmitting mode, an electrical principal circuit is given with respective ratios calculated. The SPICE modeling of the system was performed, and the theoretically calculated dependency of energy transmission efficiency from the transmitted power was obtained. The developed structure includes a step-up DC-DC converter, which enables to obtain the output voltage of the system, active in receiving mode, being equal or higher than the voltage of the power supply of energy-transmitting system. Therefore, the proposed bidirectional wireless power transmitting system can be utilized within a swarm robotic system with unified robots, having identical power supply batteries. Practical application of the proposed solution is relevant for energy transmission among autonomous robots, energy transmission from power supply source to robot and in reverse direction.

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Keywords: Bidirectional wireless power transmission system, current fed push-pull inverter, swarm robotics, synchronous rectifier

**A. Contreras, M. Urdaneta**
[references] [full-text]
[DOI: 10.13164/re.2021.0150]
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Analysis of Variance of the Diode Parameters in Multiband Rectifiers for RF Energy Harvesting

The aim of this work was the characterization of the diode parameters from the single diode and voltage doubler rectifiers employed in multiband rectennas. For that, an analysis of variance was made through the 2: factorial design for determining the effects on the RF-DC conversion efficiency, with basis on the diode families that have been used in this type of rectennas. For both types of rectifiers the most influential parameters were the junction capacitance and the saturation current. The results in the trends of the parameter levels showed that the diode must have a high level of saturation current and a low level of junction capacitance, mainly. Additionally, these must have a low level of series resistance and emission coefficient. There were no interactions of the parameters for each evaluated load resistance. Among the diode families employed in literature, there was no particular family that complies with these criteria. Therefore, the selection of the diode family must be made through a trade-off between the parameters, which is accomplished by the family SMS-763x.

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Keywords: Diode Parameters, Multiband Rectifier, ANOVA, RF Energy Harvesting

**V. J. Dowling, V. A. Slipko, Y. V. Pershin**
[references] [full-text]
[DOI: 10.13164/re.2021.0157]
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Modeling Networks of Probabilistic Memristors in SPICE

Efficient simulation of stochastic memristors and their networks requires novel modeling approaches. Utilizing a master equation to find occupation probabilities of network states is a recent major departure from typical memristor modeling [Chaos, solitons fractals 142, 110385 (2021)]. In the present article we show how to implement such master equations in SPICE – a general purpose circuit simulation program. In the case studies we simulate the dynamics of acdriven probabilistic binary and multi-state memristors, and dc-driven networks of probabilistic binary and multi-state memristors. Our SPICE results are in perfect agreement with known analytical solutions. Examples of LTspice code are included.

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Keywords: Memristors, SPICE, networks, probabilistic computing

**K. Bhardwaj, M. Srivastava**
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[DOI: 10.13164/re.2021.0164]
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Emulation of Three-Pinch-Off Memristor Emulator Based on Highly Non-Linear Charge-Flux Characteristics

The presented work describes an exclusive mathematical model for the multi-pinch-off behaviour generated by such non-linear memristors. The described mathematical results are based on the calculation of inflection points present on the memristor charge-flux curve, which have not been studied so far. The consideration of inflection points can be very useful in deciding various aspects of non-linear memristive applications. On the basis of derived mathematical conditions; VDTA active element based, a three-pinch-off memristor emulator has been developed, without employing any multiplier IC. For the first time, such compact emulator circuit has been proposed, which uses only two VDTAs and three grounded passive elements, to emulate multi-pinch-off behaviour at moderate frequencies. The behaviour of presented emulator is studied by performing simulations under PSPICE environment for CMOS VDTA. The presented VDTA based three-pinch-off memristor is also implemented using commercially available IC LM13700 and verified.

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Keywords: Three-pinch-off memristor, LM13700, memristor, VDTA

**C. L. Zhao, F. F. Yang, D. K. Waweru**
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[DOI: 10.13164/re.2021.0172]
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Reed-Solomon Coded Cooperative Spatial Modulation Based on Nested Construction for Wireless Communication

This paper proposes the Reed-Solomon coded cooperative spatial modulation (RSCC-SM) scheme based on nested construction of two Reed-Solomon (RS) codes over quasi-static Rayleigh fading channel. In this construction, the RS code with larger number of consecutive roots is employed at the relay node while the RS code with less number of consecutive roots is employed at the source node. The RS code with excessive roots at the relay node offers some extra redundancy. The enhanced bit error rate (BER) performance will be obtained if source and relay RS codes are jointly decoded at the destination node. Therefore, the authors propose the joint RS decoding based on two different approaches known as naive approach and smart approach. Monte Carlo simulated results reveal that the proposed RSCC-SM scheme utilizing smart approach not only outperforms its corresponding coded non-cooperative scheme but also outperforms its counterpart RSCC-SM scheme employing naive approach under identical conditions.

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Keywords: Reed-Solomon (RS) code, joint RS decoding, nested construction, coded cooperation, Spatial Modulation (SM)

**P. Ma, X. Tang, S. Lou, K. Liu, G. Ou**
[references] [full-text]
[DOI: 10.13164/re.2021.0184]
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Code Tracking Performance Analysis of GNSS Receivers with Blanking Model under Periodic Pulse Interference

As one of the most common types of interference, pulse interference and its suppression methods have been widely studied, in which the blanking method consumes less hardware resources and it is more commonly used in the Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) receivers. Previous studies used carrier-to-noise ratio (CNR) as an indicator to evaluate the performance of the receiver after pulse suppression. However, CNR is not the most important parameter that should be measured. The main function of the GNSS receiver is to measure the distance between the satellite and the receiver. How the pulse interference with different periods and duty cycle affects the ranging performance of the navigation receiver after blanking has not been fully studied. This paper focuses on the influence of the blanking method on the code tracking performance. Through derivation and simulation, it can be found that the ranging accuracy of the delay locked loop may not be deteriorated sometimes when the blanking operation plays a role of narrow correlation and the frequency of the pulse interference is close to the pseudo code. However, the blanking algorithm will cause large code tracking deviation, which will seriously affect the ranging performance of the receiver.

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Keywords: Pulse interference, pulse blanking, code tracking, delay locked loop, GNSS receiver

**J. Liu, S. Wang, Z. Hao, J. Zhang**
[references] [full-text]
[DOI: 10.13164/re.2021.0196]
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Satellite Communication Synchronization Based on Combining Multi-Differential Correlations in the High Doppler Channel

In this paper, a pilot-aided synchronization method based on combining multi-differential correlations (MDCS) is proposed to overcome the obstacles in the synchronization of high-speed mobile satellite communication links. The proposed approach can optimally use the original synchronization pilot, and the existing transmitter would not need any modification. Additionally, the performance of proposed method is investigated on theoretical level, including the principle of mitigating the frequency offset deterioration and the derivation of closed synchronization probability expression. Finally, a set of simulations were operated to verify the MDCS performance, and the results proved that the MDCS significantly outperformed the existing approaches for large frequency offset and strong channel noise.

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Keywords: Satellite communication, pilot-aided synchronization, multi-differential correlation, high Doppler channel, frequency offset

**M. Simic, M. Stankovic, V. D. Orlic**
[references] [full-text]
[DOI: 10.13164/re.2021.0204]
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Automatic Modulation Classification of Real Signals in AWGN Channel Based on Sixth-Order Cumulants

Automatic modulation classification (AMC) represents an important integral part of modern communication systems. While novel AMC algorithms based on complex neural network structures showed significant performance improvements, in practical applications low algorithm complexity of AMC algorithms based on higher-order cumulants still make them very attractive. AMC algorithm based on sixth-order cumulants showed very good performance in this context, especially when it comes to distinguishing Binary Phase Shift Keying (BPSK) signals from complex constellations. Still, no further analysis of expected performance with other real constellations was presented for this algorithm so far. In this paper, the performance was explored in a wider context of real signals classification, by observing various Pulse Amplitude Modulation (PAM) constellations, whose statistical features are presented for the first time. Their classification performance was tested via Monte – Carlo simulations, and explained through the presence of bias under conditions of strong additive white Gaussian noise channel, reported in this paper for real signals for the first time. One new approach in AMC is proposed, which ensures improvement in the classification of real signal constellations. Achieved improvement is confirmed in many Monte – Carlo experiments, where proposed new AMC scheme is tested versus the most popular standard higher-order cumulants-based algorithms.

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Keywords: Automatic modulation classification, feature-based, cumulants, pulse amplitude modulation, real constellations, AWGN

**J. Suganya, J. A. Baskaradas, U. Sciacca, A. Zirizzotti**
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[DOI: 10.13164/re.2021.0215]
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Simplified Analytical Approach for an Airborne Bent Wire Ground Penetrating RADAR Antenna System

In this paper, modified analytical equations for the total electric field intensity in the far field region of a 10 MHz bent wire antenna have been proposed. The antenna system is meant for the airborne ground penetrating RADAR application for bedrock survey. This bent antenna is having vertical, slant and horizontal segments joined together along with the parasitic element. The current in the antenna wire is assumed to be a sinusoidal distribution which drops to zero at the ends. Current in both the energized and parasitic elements contribute to the fields in the far field region of the antenna system. Separate field equations for the various segments of the antenna system have been derived and finally summed to obtain the required equation for the electric field intensity at the far field region of the antenna. The MATLAB R2017b© simulation results of the far field antenna analytical equations show good agreement with the HFSS© simulation results of the 10 MHz antenna system. Direct measurements of these radiation characteristics in a typical GPR environment present a lot of practical difficulties. In this work, the influence of the helicopter on the 10 MHz GPR antenna during the airborne survey, is simulated using EMPro© and analysed. This placement analysis resuls from the simulation gives us the appropriate range of distance values that can be maintained between the helicopter and antenna during the glaciological survey before performing the real time survey. A tradeoff between scattering parameter (S11) and directivity is considered to propose the optimum distance. The Overall antenna structure seems to be a promising candidate for low frequency airborne GPR glacier explorations.

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Keywords: Analytical equations, bent wire antenna, electric field intensity, far field equations, placement analysis, parasitic element

**H. P. Wang, Z. Y. Bi, Y. X. Zhou, F. Li, K. P. Wang, X. Y. Lu, Z. G. Wang**
[references] [full-text]
[DOI: 10.13164/re.2021.0227]
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Wearable and Wireless Distributed Multi-site FES Prototype for Selective Stimulation and Fatigue Reduction: A Case Study

The objective of the work is to evaluate the feasibility of improving selective stimulation and reducing muscle fatigue in upper extremity rehabilitation with a self-designed multi-site functional electrical stimulation (FES) prototype. The design of the prototype is a distributed architecture concept, and all the modules communicate within a single local area network controlled by the Android application (APP). To improve the efficiency of the prototype, the APP was developed to utilize a simple online algorithm to perform a rapid real-time search for the optimal stimulation site. One healthy subject participated in a multi-site FES trial consisting of a search for the optimal stimulating electrode test and a fatigue stimulation test. Comparing the results of the online automatic search for the optimal stimulation site test with the results of the offline analysis, the average Location Error for the extension and flexion motions were 1.5 cm and 2.8 cm, respectively. For the fatigue stimulation test, all the assessments of the multi-site sequential stimulation group were higher than those of the conventional stimulation, with a significant 193% higher Fatigue Index (P=0.003) and 300% longer Fatigue Time (P=0.005). These results suggest that multi-site FES may exert positive effects on selective stimulation and stimulation fatigue reduction in healthy subjects.

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Keywords: Functional electrical stimulation (FES), wireless communication, local area network, wearable device

**R. Duarte, M. Alencar, W. Lopes, F. Carvalho, W. Queiroz, D. Almeida**
[references] [full-text]
[DOI: 10.13164/re.2021.0237]
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Performance of Cell-Free Systems with Channel Reciprocity Errors

Cell-free systems are characterized by the absence of a cell-based spatial subdivision. In these systems a large number of access points may serve each user, which contribute to improve signal transmission conditions. In this context, it is important to obtain equations that describe the behavior of the system, as a function of its main parameters. Such equations become more complete when more effects are taken into account. One of these effects is the loss of channel reciprocity due to radiofrequency (RF) mismatch. This paper proposes the introduction of a multiplicative model for the reciprocity errors resulting from RF mismatch in all devices of a cell-free model. Additionally, it also proposes the use of different levels of mismatch for each device. The main contribution of this work is an analytical expression for the downlink achievable rates in the presence of multiplicative reciprocity errors due to RF mismatch. Based on it, one can compute the approximate value of the achievable rates. The analytical expression is used in scenarios with and without line-of-sight. It is shown that the analytical expression is very close when there is line-of-sight, as it provides achievable rate values closer to that obtained by using Monte Carlo simulation.

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Keywords: Achievable rates, cell-free systems, channel reciprocity, line-of-sight, RF mismatch

**C. Kantana, G. Baudoin, O. Venard,**
[references] [full-text]
[DOI: 10.13164/re.2021.0250]
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Thresholds Optimization of Decomposed Vector Rotation Model for Digital Predistortion of RF Power Amplifier

In this paper, we propose an efficient approach for optimizing the decomposed vector rotation (DVR) model for digital predistortion (DPD). The DVR model’s basis functions are constructed piecewise by dividing the input space into segments bounded by thresholds. This paper investigates how to set the thresholds optimally using an iterative approach based on the decomposition of the global optimization problem into a set of unimodal sub-problems so that a unidirectional minimization can be used to optimize the positions of thresholds. The proposed approach has been evaluated using measurements from a real power amplifier (PA). The experimental results illustrate the efficiency of the proposed optimization approach and show that the thresholds’ optimization improves linearization performances significantly compared to conventional DVR with uniform segmentation.

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Keywords: Power amplifiers, digital predistortion, DVR, optimization of thresholds