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June 2022, Volume 31, Number 2 [DOI: 10.13164/re.2022-2]

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P. Skryja, J. Poliak, O. Wilfert [references] [full-text] [DOI: 10.13164/re.2022.0167] [Download Citations]
Multi-Spot Tracking System for Free-Space Optical Communication

This article describes a multi-spot tracking system for free space optic communications systems suitable for tracking optical terminals observed within the field-of-view of a wide angle telescope. The article explains the conversion of the terminal position to the position in the plane of the tracking sensor and the subsequent recognition and tracking of terminals. In the first part of the article camera image processing is described. Then, basic projection of optical terminal into the tracking sensor plane (into the active surface of a camera) is expressed by using geometry and matrix optics. Afterwards, the angle resolution of optical terminal in plane of the receiver is obtained by using the Airy disk approximation. The basic projection is then extended to the calculation of the Earth-satellite system followed by spot tracking, where method for determining the optical terminal and the state machine is explained.

  1. ZEDINI, E., KAMMOUN, A., ALOUINI, M. S. Performance of multibeam very high throughput satellite systems based on FSO feeder links with HPA nonlinearity. IEEE Transactions on Wireless Communications, 2020, vol. 19, no. 9, p. 5908–5923. DOI: 10.1109/TWC.2020.2998139
  2. WERNER, M., DONNER, A., LUTZ, E., et al. SatNEx - the European satellite communications network of excellence. In IEEE Vehicular Technology Conference (VTC). Milan (Italy), 2004, p. 1–1. DOI: 10.1109/VETECS.2004.1391442
  3. LUTZ, E. Co-channel interference in high-throughput multibeam satellite systems. In IEEE International Conference on Communications (ICC). London (UK), 2015, p. 885–891. DOI: 10.1109/ICC.2015.7248434
  4. WEIGEL, T., DREISCHER, T.Wide angle cross-folded telescope for multiple feeder links. In International Conference on Space Optical Systems and Applications (ICSOS). Ajaccio (Corsica, France), 2012, p. 1–5.
  5. LI, Q., LIU, L., YANG, H. High accuracy and multi-target acquisition, pointing and tracking under satellite micro-vibrations. Microgravity Science and Technology, 2020, vol. 32, no. 4, p. 715–727. DOI: 10.1007/s12217-020-09804-0
  6. JIANG, L., ZHANG, L.-Z., WANG, C., et al. Optical multiaccess free-space laser communication system. Optical Engineering, 2016, vol. 55, no. 8, p. 1–8. DOI: 10.1117/1.OE.55.8.086102
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  10. ZHOU, P., WANG, X., HUANG, Q., et al. Laser spot center detection based on improved circled fitting algorithm. In IEEE Advanced Information Management, Communicates, Electronic and Automation Control Conference (IMCEC). Xian (China), 2018, p. 316–319. DOI: 10.1109/ISISE.2010.15
  11. SINGH, S., SAURAV, S., SAINI, R., et al. Comprehensive review and comparative analysis of hardware architectures for Sobel edge detector. ISRN Electronics, 2014, vol. 2014, p. 1–9. DOI: 10.1155/2014/857912
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  17. MUDGE, K. A., SILVA, K. K.M. B. D., CLARE, B. A., et al. Scintillation index of the free space optical channel: Phase screen modelling and experimental results. In International Conference on Space Optical Systems and Applications (ICSOS). Santa Monica (CA, USA), 2011, p. 403–409. DOI: 10.1109/ICSOS.2011.5783706

Keywords: Multi-spot tracking system, spot detection, spot projection, matrix optic, tracking optical terminal

O. Fiser, M. Kovalchuk [references] [full-text] [DOI: 10.13164/re.2022.0176] [Download Citations]
On Theoretical Accuracy of Meteorological Targets Measurement by Radar

We draw your attention to the fact that meteorological radar does not actually measure a commonly used quantity “radar reflectivity factor,” (which is not dependent on frequency) but a different quantity called “radar reflectivity.” We present the usual recalculation which is based on frequency dependency used by Rayleigh approximation of radar cross-sections (back scattering cross section of rain, cloud, fog drop). But this approximation is valid in Rayleigh region only. We concluded that for admitting error lower than 2 dB in the radar reflectivity factor determination we can use the “effective radar reflectivity factor” for frequencies up to 19 GHz only. Otherwise the error will increase. As we use (and present in this article) the Mie algorithm we can replace the Rayleigh frequency dependence estimation by more accurate radar reflectivity factor determination using the Mie scattering. The correction is presented in the form of “Correction function C” dependent on frequency and rain rate in the graphical form and polynomial approximation. Beside this we present the simplification of back scattering cross sections for Rayleigh and Optical regions and the borders values of size parameter for these regions. We added the meteorological radar equation derivation. This should support the radar measurement understanding.

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Keywords: Electromagnetic reflection, meteorological radar, radar cross-sections, radar measurements

Y. Ma, S. Wu , Y. Yuan, N. Yuan [references] [full-text] [DOI: 10.13164/re.2022.0185] [Download Citations]
Parametric Modeling of Microwave Structure with Customization Responses by Combining RBF Neural Network and Pole-Residue-Based Transfer Functions

This paper proposed a parametric modeling technique for the microwave structures with a customization magnitude response by combining the RBF neural network and pole-residue-based transfer functions. The Latin hypercube sampling method is used for sampling given physical ranges and obtaining the EM behaviors of the microwave structures. A pole sorting process and a modified pole-residues splitting process are proposed to solve the pole sequence chaos and order-changing problems which occur in the modeling process. The pole-residues parameters after the above preprocessing steps are used as the inputs of the RBF neural network and the physical parameters are used as the outputs of RBF network. Then, the known magnitude response of the microwave structure are used as the prior knowledge to guide obtaining the goal pole-residues values corresponding to the giving magnitude response specification. After the training process of the RBF model, the goal pole-residues are input into the trained RBF network and the goal physical parameters corresponding to the customization responses is obtained. Finally, this model technique is illustrated by the two examples of microwave structures.

  1. BRANDL, S., DYCZIJ-EDLINGER, R. Parametric model-order reduction for accelerating the gradient-based optimization of microwave structures using finite-elements. IFAC-PapersOnLine, 2018, vol. 51, no. 2, p. 190–195. DOI: 10.1016/j.ifacol.2018.03.033
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  5. MKADEM, F., BOUMAIZA, S. Physically inspired neural network model for RF power amplifier behavioral modeling and digital predistortion. IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques, 2011, vol. 59, no. 4, p. 913–923. DOI: 10.1109/TMTT.2010.2098041
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  8. SADROSSADAT, A., CAO, Y., ZHANG, Q. Parametric modeling of microwave passive components using sensitivity-analysisbased adjoint neural-network technique. IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques, 2013, vol. 61, no. 1, p. 1733–1747. DOI: 10.1109/TMTT.2013.2253793
  9. SHARMA, K., PANDEY, G. Efficient modelling of compact microstrip antenna using machine learning. AEU - International Journal of Electronics and Communications, 2021, vol. 135, p. 1–13. DOI: 10.1016/j.aeue.2021.153739
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Keywords: Parametric modeling, customization response, RBF neural network, pole-residue-based transfer functions

A. Bordbar, F. Mohajeri, Z. Ghorbani [references] [full-text] [DOI: 10.13164/re.2022.0193] [Download Citations]
Gain and Bandwidth Enhancement of a Metamaterial Loaded Antipodal Vivaldi Antenna Fed by Substrate Integrated Waveguide

This paper proposes a novel wideband, high-gain, compact Vivaldi antenna operating in the 14.7-20.5 GHz frequency range, where the antenna is fed by the substrate integrated waveguide (SIW). A Negative Index Metamaterial (NIM) has been designed, with its parameters extracted using MATLAB software. The NIM was developed to address the deficiencies of conventional Antipodal Vivaldi antennas. With a measured gain of over 5.3 dBi, the fabricated antenna performs satisfactorily across the entire bandwidth. Due to its low profile and short transversal dimension, the proposed antenna is suitable for antenna arrays; consequently, the proposed antenna design could be a viable option for modern communication and radar systems.

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  17. WANG, Y. W., WANG, G. M., ZONG, B. F. Directivity improvement of Vivaldi antenna using double-slot structure. IEEE Antennas and Wireless Propagation Letters, 2013. vol. 12, p. 1380–1383. DOI: 10.1109/LAWP.2013.2285182
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  22. NAWAZ, M. I., HUILING, Z., KASHIF, M. Substrate integrated waveguide (SIW) to microstrip transition at X-band. In Proceedings of the 2014 International Conference on Circuits, Systems and Control. Interlaken (Switzerland), 2014, p. 61–63. ISBN: 978-1-61804-216-3
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Keywords: Antipodal Vivaldi, bandwidth, gain, negative index metamaterial, substrate integrated waveguide (SIW)

Y. M. Wang, L. Y. Ma, Y. Z. Chen [references] [full-text] [DOI: 10.13164/re.2022.0201] [Download Citations]
Electromagnetic Energy Coupling Path and Protection Method of UAV Datalink against Broad-Spectrum High-Power Microwave Radiation

To verify the adaptability of unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) datalinks to the electromagnetic environment comprising broad-spectrum high-power microwave radiation, strong electromagnetic pulse (EMP) tests were conducted using ultra wideband (UWB) radiation source at different radiation field strengths and repetition frequencies. For UAV datalinks, interference, disturbance, degradation and other effects were found in the tests. The electromagnetic energy coupling path of the broad-spectrum high-power microwave radiation was determined by adjusting the test status of UAV datalink as well as by protecting its key parts. The radio frequency front end, power cable and terminal interfaces on the housing surface were found to be weak electromagnetic links. The methods of the protection of radio frequency front end and power cable against strong EMPs were proposed. In addition, protection effects obtained by using different protection modules of radio frequency front end as well as by applying power spike pulse suppressors were compared and validated.

  1. ZHANG, D. X., CHEN, Y. Z., CHENG, E. W., et al. Effects of electromagnetic interference (EMI) on information link of UAV. Transactions of Beijing Institute of Technology, 2019, vol. 39, no. 7, p. 756–762. (In Chinese) DOI: 10.15918/j.tbit1001- 0645.2019.07.016
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Keywords: UAV datalink, EMP, UWB, electromagnetic environment effects, electromagnetic protection

S. Bhattacharjee, M. Midya, S. R. Bhadra Chaudhuri, M. Mitra [references] [full-text] [DOI: 10.13164/re.2022.0210] [Download Citations]
A Wideband Wearable Antenna with AMC Ground Plane for WBAN Applications

A flexible wearable antenna with wideband characteristics and having a conical radiation pattern which is suitable for ON body application is presented. To realize a compact antenna size, characteristic modal (CM) analysis is performed initially, and the ground plane of the antenna is utilized to generate one of the resonant modes. The quasi-current loop in the feed layer patch is used to generate another resonant mode. Combination of these two modes has resulted in the wideband performance of the antenna from 4.72 to 6.08 GHz. A planar wideband artificial magnetic conductor (AMC) is used beneath the antenna. This AMC surface compensates the undesired coupling taking place due to the ground radiator thereby reducing the specific absorption rate (SAR) to 76.4% and enhancing the gain of the antenna. The performance of the antenna in terms of return loss, gain, efficiency, SAR and bending sensitivity is studied.

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Keywords: Wearable, AMC, SAR, wideband

T. Ettaghzouti, D. Khlaifia, N. Zitouni, N. Hassen [references] [full-text] [DOI: 10.13164/re.2022.0216] [Download Citations]
Low Voltage High Performance CMOS Current Mode Four-Quadrant Analog Multiplier Circuit

This paper describes a new CMOS current mode four-quadrant analog multiplier circuit. The proposed design is based on a high performance squarer cell, whose main core is realized by the up–down topology trans-linear loop using flipped voltage followers (FVF). The simulation results are verified by TSPICE simulator based on the BSIM3v3 transistor model for TSMC 0.18 µm CMOS process available from level 49 MOSIS at 25◦C with ± 0.75 V supply voltage. The proposed multiplier offers improved characteristics compared to the multipliers previously exposed in the literature. It has a wide dynamic range. The total harmonic distortion is about 0.42% at 1 kHz with peak-to-peak input current of 40 µA. The −3 dB bandwidth is more than 850 MHz and a maximum power consumption is of approximately 105 µW.

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Keywords: Multiplier, four-quadrant, CMOS, current mode, translinear loop, low voltage

N. M. Giang, L. D. Manh [references] [full-text] [DOI: 10.13164/re.2022.0224] [Download Citations]
A Simple Approach for Improving Bandwidth and Isolation of Wilkinson Power Divider

A simple approach to improve both the bandwidth and isolation of the Wilkinson power divider for using in L-band satellite communications is presented in this paper. To enhance the bandwidth, a multi-section method based on the Chebychev impedance transformation is employed. In order to improve the isolation performance between output ports, the values of isolation resistors are carefully determined by using the iterative approximation method combined with an investigation procedure. In order to validate the proposed design, a two-way and eight-way power divider prototypes were fabricated and tested on a Rogers RO4003C material. Good agreements between simulations and measurements are obtained in a frequency range from 0.8 GHz to 2.2 GHz. The two-way power divider had a fractional bandwidth of 106% with an isolation of better than 30 dB. The eight-way power divider achieved the bandwidth and isolation of 109% and better than 24 dB, respectively. Both the power dividers exhibit the phase imbalance of less than 3 degrees, and amplitude imbalance of less than 0.02 dB. Compared with the other works, the proposed power dividers deliver broader bandwidth and improved isolation while still retaining good insertion loss, low phase and amplitude imbalance in the operation frequency range.

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Keywords: Wilkinson oower divider, high isolation, wideband PD, Chebyshev impedance transformation, satellite communication

K. S. Sanagavarapu, M. Pullakandam [references] [full-text] [DOI: 10.13164/re.2022.0231] [Download Citations]
Object Tracking Based Surgical Incision Region Encoding using Scalable High Efficiency Video Coding for Surgical Telementoring Applications

Surgical telementoring is an advanced tele-medicine concept where the expert surgeon guides the onsite novice present at the remote location. The efficient telementoring system requires the wireless transmission of high-quality surgical video with less bitrate in less time. The bit rate of the surgical video can be decreased by segmenting the surgical incision region and removing the background region. The High Efficiency Video Coding (HEVC) standard has provided promising results for surgical telementoring applications. But the Rate-Distortion Optimization (RDO) search process in HEVC increases the complexity that in turn increases the encoding time. We propose the method which involves the segmentation of the surgical incision region using the Kernelized Correlation Filter (KCF) object tracking technique. The segmented region is encoded by the complexity-efficient Scalable HEVC (SHVC) to meet the resolution of an end-user device. The complexity of SHVC is decreased by using the Convolutional Neural Network (CNN) and Long- and Short- Term Memory (LSTM) to predict the Coding Tree Unit (CTU) structure. The results show that the proposed method decreases the bitrate significantly for segmented surgical video sequences without degradation in Peak Signal-to-Noise Ratio (PSNR). These results are obtained for the surgical video sequences with slow-moving objects. Furthermore, the CNN+LSTM approach reduces the encoding time of standard SHVC by 51% with negligible Rate-Distortion (RD) performance loss.

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Keywords: Surgical telementoring, object tracking, KCF tracker, region of interest, High Efficiency Video Coding

M. Ye, J. Tang, Y. Zhao, R. Su [references] [full-text] [DOI: 10.13164/re.2022.0243] [Download Citations]
Design of h¯-CPM-LFM Radar-Communication Integration Signal

In light of the increasing requirement for the electromagnetic spectrum, the integration of radar and communication is widely concerned because of its equipment miniaturizing and high efficiency of spectrum. To address the issue that the communication information in integrated signals for radar and communication affects detection performance, A novel integrated signal is proposed in this paper. Inspired by the high communication efficiency of shaped octal phase-shift keying (S8PSK) and high spectral efficiency of the three-section integrated waveform k-LFM-CPM, we generate a new type of modulation ℎ¯-CPM by the introduction of a precoding method with low complexity and a time-varying modulation index h, h-CPM is used to encode communication data into LFM radar waveform to form a novel radar and communication integration waveform ℎ¯-CPM-LFM. Numerical results show that the designed waveform is at least 10 dB less spectrum extension than other integration waveforms when carrying large amounts of communication information and has excellent BER performance under the condition of strong out-of-band interference. Ambiguity function analysis shows that the waveform has excellent detection performance comparable to LFM.

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Keywords: LFM, joint communication-radar, adaptive waveform design, ambiguity function, bit error rate (BER)