# April 2023, Volume 32, Number 1 [DOI: 10.13164/re.2023-1]

**N.-L. Nguyen, L.-T. Tu, T. N. Nguyen, P.-L. T. Nguyen, Q.-S. Nguyen**
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[DOI: 10.13164/re.2023.0001]
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Performance on Cognitive Broadcasting Networks Employing Fountain Codes and Maximal Ratio Transmission

The comprehensive performance of cognitive broadcasting networks employing Fountain codes (FC) and maximal ratio transmission (MRT) is investigated in the present paper. More precisely, the secondary transmitter (ST) employs Fountain code to effectively broadcast a common message such as a safety warning, security news, etc., to all secondary receivers (SRs) via underlay protocol of cognitive radio networks (CRNs). Different from works in the literature that are interested in studying the outage probability (OP), and the ergodic capacity of the CRNs. The present paper, on the other hand, focuses on the characteristics of the number of needed time slots to successfully deliver such a message. Particularly, we derive in closed-form expressions the cumulative distribution function (CDF), the probability mass function (PMF), and the average number of the required time slot to broadcast the message to all SRs. Additionally, we also provide the throughput of secondary networks (SNs). We point out the impact of some key parameters, i.e., the number of SRs and the number of transmit antennae at the secondary transmitter, on the performance of these considered metrics. Numerical results via the Monte-Carlo method are given to verify the accuracy of the derived framework as well as to highlight the influences of some essential parameters. Furthermore, we also compare the performance of the proposed networks with state-of-the-art and simulation results unveiling that the considered system consistently outperforms works in the literature.

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Keywords: Broadcasting networks, cognitive radio, fountain codes, maximal ratio transmission, performance analysis

**R. Ondica, M. Kovac, A.Hudec, R.Ravasz, D. Maljar, V. Stopjakova, D. Arbet**
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[DOI: 10.13164/re.2023.0011]
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An Overview of Fully On-Chip Inductors

This paper focuses on full integration of passive devices, especially inductors with emphasis on multi-layer stacked (MLS) structures of fully integrated inductors using patterned ground shield (PGS) and fully integrated capacitor. Comparison of diﬀerent structures is focused on the main electrical parameters of integrated inductors (e.g. inductance L, inductance density LA, quality factor Q, frequency of maximum quality factor F Qmax, self-resonant frequency FSR, and series resistance R DC ) and other non-electrical parameters (e.g. required area, manufacturing process, purpose, etc.) that are equally important during comparison of the structures. Categorization of inductor structures with most signiﬁcant results that was reported in the last years is proposed according to manufacturing process. Final geometrical and electrical properties of the structure in great manner accounts to the fabrication process of integrated passive device. This work oﬀers an overview and state-of-the-art of the integrated inductors as well as manufacturing processes used for their fabrication. Second purpose of this paper is insertion of the proposed structure from our previous work among the other results reported in the last 7 years. With the proposed solution, one can obtain the highest inductance density L A = 23.59 nH/mm 2 and second highest quality factor Q = 10.09 amongst similar solutions reported in standard technologies that is also suitable competition for integrated inductors manufactured in advanced technology nodes.

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Keywords: Fully Integrated Inductor, Fully Integrated Capacitor, Integrated Passive Device, Silicon Embedded Inductor, Air Core Inductor, Magnetic Core Inductor

**F. A. Feng, F. F. Yang，C. Chen, C. L. Zhao**
[references] [full-text]
[DOI: 10.13164/re.2023.0023]
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Jointly Optimized Design of Distributed Goppa Codes and Decoding

In order to improve the adverse influence of fading channel in communication system, a distributed Goppa coding scheme is proposed in this paper. Two Goppa codes are set at the source node and the relay node in this scheme respectively. An optimal design criterion at the relay is proposed to obtain the optimal joint resultant code at the destination. Furthermore, two novel joint decoding algorithms are proposed to enhance the overall BER performance of the proposed scheme. Monte Carlo simulations show that the proposed distributed Goppa coding scheme outperforms the non-cooperative scheme. Moreover, the proper information selection approach at the relay performs better than random selection in the proposed distributed Goppa coding scheme.

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Keywords: Goppa codes, distributed coding schemes, joint decoding algorithms

**Y. Liu, X. Rao, X. Zhu, H. Yi, J. Hu**
[references] [full-text]
[DOI: 10.13164/re.2023.0033]
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A Weak Target Detection Algorithm IAR-STFT Based on Correlated K-distribution Sea Clutter Model

The detection performance of weak target on sea is affected by the special effects of sea clutter amplitude. Aiming at the time and space correlated of sea clutter, the correlated K-distribution sea clutter model is established by the sphere invariant random process algorithm. To solve the problems of range migration (RM) and Doppler frequency migration (DFM) of moving target in the case of long-time coherent accumulation, a novel integration detection algorithm, improved axis rotation short-time Fourier transform (IAR-STFT) is proposed in this paper, which is based on a generalization of traditional Fourier transform (FT) algorithm and combined with improved axis rotation. IAR-STFT not only can eliminate the RM effect by searching for the target motion parameters, but also can divide the non-stationary echo signal without range migration into several blocks. Each block of signal can be regarded as a stationary signal without DFM and FFT is performed on each signal separately. The signals of each block are accumulated to detect the target in the background of the above sea clutter. Finally, the effectiveness of the algorithm is verified by simulation. The results show that the detection ability of this algorithm is better than that of Radon-fractional Fourier transform, generalized Radon Fourier transform and Radon-Lv's distribution in low SNR environment, e.g., when the SNR is -45dB, the detection ability of this algorithm is about 55%, which is higher than that of Radon-fractional Fourier transform, generalized Radon Fourier transform and Radon-Lv's distribution.

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Keywords: Correlated K-distribution, range migration, Doppler frequency migration, long time coherent accumulation; improved axis rotation short-time Fourier transform

**K. Jurik, J. Stary, P. Drexler**
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[DOI: 10.13164/re.2023.0044]
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Design and Fabrication of Birdcage Resonators for Low-pressure Plasma Excitation

This paper presents a design, analysis and optimization of birdcage resonators employed in a novel radiofrequency plasma source. Three resonators were simulated and fabricated. The resonators differ in their design and in the different materials of used dielectric – polyimide and polytetrafluorethylene (PTFE). The resonance frequency of fabricated samples possesses a maximal error of 2.2 % compared to the simulated values. The performance in plasma excitation is related to the electrical parameters, while the best performing resonator (PTFE-based) exhibits the maximum real impedance of 644.3 Ω at the resonance frequency and the 799.5 V/m electric field strength. This resonator shows the best power efficiency in a plasma ignition experiment. The resonator ignited the discharge at ca. 1 Pa of ambient air atmosphere with only 0.34 W of input radiofrequency power.

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Keywords: Birdcage resonator, resonance network, plasma source, impedance matching, distributed capacity

**F. E. Chinda, S. Cheab, S. Soeung**
[references] [full-text]
[DOI: 10.13164/re.2023.0051]
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Design and Synthesis of Parallel-Connected Dielectric Filter Using Chain-Function Polynomial

Design and synthesis of parallel connected die-lectric filters using chained function polynomials are pre-sented in this paper. This filter will offer reduced sensitivity to fabrication tolerance while preserving its return loss response within the desired bandwidth in comparison to traditional Chebyshev filters. A novel transfer function FN according to chained is derived for fourth and sixth-order filters and the synthesis technique is presented. To demon-strate the feasibility of this approach, the circuit simulation based on parallel connected topology is carried out in ADS while the design and simulation of the fourth-order filter in dielectric technology in HFSS. Considerable sensitivity analysis is conducted to prove a better fabrication toler-ance of the filter. In terms of implementation, this design technique will serve as a very useful mathematical tool for any filter design engineer.

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Keywords: Coupling matrix, chained function, dielectric resonator, parallel-connected, sensitivity, topology

**M. Turcanik, J. Perdoch**
[references] [full-text]
[DOI: 10.13164/re.2023.0063]
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SAMPLE Dataset Objects Classification Using Deep Learning Algorithms

The main topic of the article is automatic target classification of the synthetic aperture radar images based on the dataset composed of measured and synthetic data. The original contribution of the authors is their own topology of the convolutional neural network (CNN) with 1, 2, 3, and 4 tiers. The original convolutional neural network is used to classify radar images from the Synthetic And Measured Paired and Labeled Experiment (SAMPLE) dataset which consists of SAR imagery from publicly available datasets and well-matched synthetic data. The presented topologies of the CNN with 1, 2, 3, and 4 tiers were analyzed in 3 different scenarios: trained on the basis of real measured data and tested by synthetic data, trained on the basis of synthetic data, and tested by real measured data, and in the last case training and testing sets were formed by combining real measured and synthetic data. Based on the results of testing we could not use the proposed convolutional neural network trained with real measured data to classify synthetic radar images and vice versa (the 1st and the 2nd scenarios). The only last scenario with a combination of real measured and synthetic data in the training, validation, and testing data sets generates excellent results. The authors also present some confusion matrices, which can explain the reasons for the misclassification of radar images of military equipment. Comparing achieved results with another SAMPLE dataset classification results we can prove the usability of proposed and tested CNN structures for automatic target classification of the synthetic aperture radar images. The classification accuracy of the original convolutional network is 96.1%, which is better than the results of the other research so far.

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Keywords: Synthetic aperture radar, synthetic data, SAMPLE dataset, convolutional neural networks

**S. I. Hugar, J. S. Baligar, V. Dakulagi, K. M. Vanitha**
[references] [full-text]
[DOI: 10.13164/re.2023.0074]
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Quasistatic Resonators Based Triple-Mode Notched Microstrip Bandpass Filter

This article discusses new approach for design and development of triple-mode notched microstrip bandpass filter based on quasistatic resonators(QR). The proposed approach is composed of two Quasistatic resonant elements; Horizontal plane Split ring resonator (HP-SRR), Vertical plane split ring resonator (VP-SRR) and a single asymmetric step impedance resonator (A-SIR) with parallel coupled feed structure. An additional attenuation pole realized by VP-SRR in desired passband, tunes the dual-mode response to triple mode and enhances the 3dB bandwidth without changing the dimensions of basic the filter cell. The HP-SRR realizes a notch at WiMAX band (IEEE 802.11a lower band) in the desired passband. Further by changing the impedance of VP-SRR and HP-SRR both the location of additional attenuation pole frequency and notch band can be controlled. The proposed approach results in compact, notched wideband, filter design.

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Keywords: Dual-mode, quasistatic resonators, asymmetric step impedance resonator, split ring resonators.

**D. Vinko, K. Grgic, D. Bilandzija**
[references] [full-text]
[DOI: 10.13164/re.2023.0082]
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180 nm CMOS Cold-Start Energy-Aware Switching Circuit for Energy Management in WPT Receiver

Modern electronic devices offer high level performance at low power consumption. This opens a possibility to have battery-less electronic devices. Energy harvesting and wireless power transfer are popular methods to power such devices. Both methods require energy management. The focus of this paper is on energy management for receiver circuit in a wireless power transfer system. More specifically, the paper focuses on a cold-start energy-aware switching circuit which is a key building block of energy management in WPT receiver. Proposed integrated circuit is designed to operate in discontinuous mode and can supply power to load circuits which require higher voltage and current levels than available from the WPT receiver. Unlike most similar solutions who are fully integrated, the proposed integrated circuit uses two external trimmer resistors to adjust required voltage levels and the power consumption. External trimmer resistors also allow to compensate for the process variations of IC fabrication. Developed circuit is fabricated in 180 nm TSMC CMOS technology and evaluated through laboratory measurement. Cold-start functionality and energy-aware switching are verified through standalone measurements and measurements with WSN node powered through developed circuit. The power consumption of cold-start switching circuit is measured less than 1 µW.

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Keywords: Electronic circuit design, energy management, wireless power transfer

**D. W. Lu, J. Z. Ma, B. Pang, Y. F. Guan, D. J. Feng**
[references] [full-text]
[DOI: 10.13164/re.2023.0091]
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Scattering Characteristic Extraction Method for Manmade Target Based on Target Null Theory

Scattering characteristic extraction is an essential part of manmade target recognition. However, if two scattering points are in adjacent pixels, scattering characteristic extraction may fail to acquire accurate polarimetric scattering matrices (PSMs) of the weak scattering points due to the contamination caused by the strong scattering points. Target null theory provides a way to solve this problem. By selecting the transmitting and receiving polarization states of radar antennas simultaneously, the echo power of a strong scattering point becomes zero and the contamination effect is avoided. In this paper, a method based on target null theory for scattering characteristic extraction is proposed. First, we optimize the transmitting and receiving polarization states of the radar antenna to suppress the intensities of the strong scattering points to highlight the positions of the weak scattering points in certain polarimetric channels. Second, to suppress the contamination effects of strong scattering points in other polarimetric channels, we establish perturbation correction equations to erase the error generated by the point spread function (PSF) among adjacent scattering points in the radar image. Finally, the solved polarimetric scattering matrices of corresponding positions are implemented for target retrieval. The electromagnetic simulation results demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method.

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Keywords: Polarimetric radar, manmade target, target null theory, polarimetric scattering matrix, adjacent scattering points, point spread function

**D. Wu, Y. Zhang, P. Qian, Y. Chen**
[references] [full-text]
[DOI: 10.13164/re.2023.0103]
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Joint Optimization Method of User Association and Spectrum Allocation for Multi-UAV-Assisted Communication

In this paper, we mainly study the scenario where multiple UAVs act as aerial base stations (BSs) to provide communication services for ground users (GUs). We propose a method to optimize the max-min average rate of GUs in order to ensure the fairness of user communication, where spectrum reuse and co-channel interference management are considered. The mathematical model is a mixed integer non-linear programming (MINLP) problem which we solve by using the alternating optimization approach where we iteratively optimize the user association, sub-channel allocation and power allocation until convergence. We propose a heuristic algorithm to solve the user association sub-problem and use genetic algorithm (GA) to solve the sub-channel allocation sub-problem. Moreover, the geometric programming algorithm is used to convexify the non-convex power allocation sub-problem and CVX is used to solve it. Simulation results show that the proposed method can effectively improve the transmission rate and ensure the fairness of user communication.

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Keywords: UAV, spectrum reuse, mixed integer non-linear programming, user association, sub-channel allocation, power allocation

**Y. Hu, B. Yu, Z. Deng, W. Yu**
[references] [full-text]
[DOI: 10.13164/re.2023.0113]
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Generation of Slot Index Tables for Time-Hopping Pseudolites with the Constructed Congruence Codes

The time-hopping (TH) pulsed pseudolite (PL) can be used to enhance the performance of global navigation satellite systems (GNSS), and the slot index table (SIT) is an important part to form this PL signal. In this paper, a new method to generate SITs for multiple PLs is proposed. The general process of the proposed method is that first different time-hopping slot index (THSI) base matrices are generated based on the constructed congruence codes, and then by combining several different THSI base matrices to constitute a new matrix, the SIT for a PL is formed. Further by changing the combined matrices, different SITs for different PLs can be generated. During this process, two critical factors that affect the performance of the given method, i.e., the collision or hit property of the generated THSI base matrix and the correlation property of the formed SIT, are analyzed in detail. The simulations given at the end of this paper show that compared with many other similar schemes, the SITs given by the proposed method can obtain better correlation performance and detection performance in the receiver, and these results also imply that the proposed method offers a more effective way to design this kind of PL signal.

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Keywords: Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS), time-hopping pseudolite, slot index table (SIT), congruence codes

**W. Wang, J. N. Wang, F. L. Hu, F. Ni**
[references] [full-text]
[DOI: 10.13164/re.2023.0124]
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SCA-CGAN:A New Side-Channel Attack Method for Imbalanced Small Samples

In recent years, many deep learning and machine learning based side channel analysis (SCA) techniques have been proposed, most of which are based on the optimization of existing network models to improve the performance of SCA. However, in practice, the attacker often captures unbalanced and small samples of data due to various environmental factors that limit and interfere with the successful implementation of SCA. To address this problem, in this paper, we firstly introduced the Conditional Generation Adversarial Network (CGAN). We proposed a new model SCA-CGAN that combines SCA and CGAN. We used it to generate a specified number and class of simulated energy traces to expand and augment the original energy traces. Finally, we used the augmented data to implement SCA and achieved a good result. Through experiments on the unprotected ChipWhisperer (CW) data and the ASCAD jittered dataset, the results shown that the SCA using the augmented data is the most efficient, and the correct key is successfully recovered on both datasets. For the CW dataset, the model accuracy is improved by 20.75% and the traces number required to recover the correct key is reduced by about 79.5%. For the ASCAD jittered dataset, when the jitter is 0 and 50, the traces number required to recover the correct key is reduced by about 76.8% and 75.7% respectively.

- NGO, K., DUBROVA, E., GUO, Q., et al. A side-channel attack on a masked IND-CCA secure saber KEM implementation. IACR Transactions on Cryptographic Hardware and Embedded Systems, 2021, no. 4, p. 676–707. DOI: 10.46586/tches.v2021.i4.676-707
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- BRUMLEY, D., BONEH, D. Remote timing attacks are practical. Computer Networks, 2005, vol. 48, no. 5, p. 701–716. DOI: 10.1016/j.comnet.2005.01.010
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Keywords: Deep learning side channel analysis, SCA-CGAN, unbalanced small samples, data augmentation

**D. M. Luong, Q. K Trinh, T. A. Nguyen**
[references] [full-text]
[DOI: 10.13164/re.2023.0136]
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A Low-Cost Dual-Band RF Power Amplifier for Wireless Communication Systems

This paper presents a design of a low-cost concurrent dual-band power amplifier operating at 1.8 GHz and 2.6 GHz. The design combines the signal splitting and second harmonic suppression techniques. The power amplifier aims at achieving the high-efficiency while rejecting unwanted output mixing products when operating in the dual-band mode. These advantages are obtained by using a harmonic termination technique combining with a signal splitting method. The designed amplifier is tested at both small- and large-signal performance through simulations and measurements. The designed amplifier delivers 10.2 dB Gain, 41.2 dBm Pout, and PAE of 40.2 % at 1.8 GHz and 10.1 dB Gain, 41.1 dBm Pout, and PAE of 38.7 % at 2.6 GHz. The second harmonic suppression for 1.8 GHz band is 49 dBc while the second harmonic for the 2.6 GHz is nearly total suppression. In addition, by using the proposed circuit, the unwanted mixing products can be significantly reduced improving linearity performance.

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Keywords: Dual-band power amplifier, GaN HEMT, diplexer, harmonic suppression, cross-modulation

**S. Chatterjee, S. Rana, R. Sanyal**
[references] [full-text]
[DOI: 10.13164/re.2023.0142]
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A Compact Band-Notched UWB MIMO Antenna with Enhanced Isolation Using Comb Shaped Decoupling Element

A compact 37mm × 26 mm two element multiple-input-multiple-output (MIMO) antenna is presented for ultra wide band (UWB) system application with band notched characteristics. The proposed antenna comprises two semi trapezoidal shaped monopole radiating elements. The band rejection feature around 3.5 GHz has been achieved by incorporating the open ended quarter wavelength spiral shaped slot resonator on the patched surface. In order to realize the enhanced isolation, comb shaped symmetrical stub arrangement are embedded at the U shaped etched periphery to the stepped ground plane between the monopole radiators. This novel design approach leads towards isolation enhancement better than 20 dB throughout the UWB spectral range (3.1 -10.6 GHz) with peak isolation near about 46 dB. The Envelope Correlation Coefficient is significantly lower than 0.005 in entire operating range except the WiMAX rejection band.

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Keywords: Ultra wide band (UWB), MIMO, isolation, Envelope Correlation Coefficient (ECC)

**Z. Luo, X. Wang, L. Wang, G. Xu, Y. Gao**
[references] [full-text]
[DOI: 10.13164/re.2023.0151]
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Hydrometeor Classification for Dual Polarization Radar Based on Multi-Sample Fusion SVM

In order to enhance the accuracy of dual polarization radar in hydrometeor classification, a hydrometeor classification algorithm based on multi-sample fusion Support Vector Machine (SVM) is proposed in this paper after considering that traditional fuzzy logic algorithm has the defect of over relying on expert experience to set parameters. The data of four polarization parameters (horizontal reflectivity factor, differential reflectivity, correlation coefficient and differential propagation phase constant) detected by the KOHX radar were taken as the feature information of hydrometeors. The dataset was collected, and the model was trained. According to the classification results of SVM model and combined with the distribution characteristics of target particles in the rainfall area, a classification system that can effectively identify four types of particles (dry snow, moderate rain, big drops and hail possibly with rain) was established This model greatly reduced the misidentification of dry snow (DS) and moderate rain (RA)) in the precipitation area, and significantly improved the overall classification effect of hydrometeors in the area. The 0.5-degree elevation scanning data of the radar at a certain time were tested, and the classification accuracy of system model was up to 97.21%. The average accuracy of other elevation scanning data was approximately 97%, which showed strong robustness.

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Keywords: Dual polarization radar, fuzzy logic, feature dimension, hydrometeors classification, Support Vector Machine (SVM)

**Z. Lei, X. Rao, P. Jin, H. Yi, J. Hu**
[references] [full-text]
[DOI: 10.13164/re.2023.0160]
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Two-Dimensional Frequency Domain Second-Order Keystone Transform for Weak Target Integration Detection Based on Bistatic Radar Configuration

In this paper, a novel coherent integration algorithm, i.e., two-dimensional frequency domain second-order keystone transform (FDSOKT), is proposed to detect a weak maneuvering target based on bistatic radar configuration. To eliminate range migration and Doppler frequency migration, the radar echoes are transformed into two-dimensional frequency domain firstly, and then a series of rescaling transforms, matched filter functions and compensation functions are performed respectively. With the elimination of the couplings between range frequency and azimuth frequency caused by radial velocity and acceleration, the energy of the echoes is focused in two-dimensional time domain, which improves the detection performance of weak target. In addition, to deal with Doppler ambiguity, different Doppler ambiguity cases are discussed and could be solved well. At last, some simulation experiments are provided and the effectiveness of FDSOKT is proved by the results.

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Keywords: Bistatic radar, range migration, Doppler frequency migration, second-order keystone transform, Doppler ambiguity, two-dimensional frequency domain

**J. Hao, X. Wang, X. Sun, H.n Gao, L. Zou**
[references] [full-text]
[DOI: 10.13164/re.2023.0168]
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Moving Target Simulation of Multi-Band Radar Based on Doppler Frequency Signal Generation Technology

This paper proposes a corner reflector and Luneburg ball reflector group. The omnidirectional radar cross-sectional (RCS) distribution characteristics of a fighter are simulated using the sharp and smooth RCS distribution features of the corner and the Luneburg ball reflectors, respectively. A new type of Doppler signal generation principle is proposed to design a Doppler frequency simulator to transmit frequency signals by connecting in parallel with the metal layer of the corner reflector and the Luneburg sphere ball, and then transmit through their other end. The existing radar target aircraft cannot simulate the RCS and speed of the targets that are less than 0.005 m2 by enhancing the echo intensity of the target location, which makes it impossible for the military to conduct practice drills and evaluate the effectiveness of the air defense systems. The experimental results show that the Doppler frequency simulator successfully simulates the target speed of 0-80 km/h and when the speed is greater than 20 km/h, the error of the simulation frequency is less than 1.5%. The proposed method can provide guidance and a theoretical basis for simulating the speed of various types of aircraft in future work.

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Keywords: Moving target simulation, Doppler frequency, RCS distribution characteristics, corner reflector, Luneburg ball

**V. Bednarsky, Z. Raida, J. Drinovsky**
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[DOI: 10.13164/re.2023.0177]
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Design and Implementation of Closed TEM Cells: Simulation-Based Approach

In the paper, a simulation-based design procedure for the implementation of a TEM cell (the Crawford cell) is presented. The empirical approach uses computer simulations carried out in the CST Microwave Studio to design the cell that operates in the frequency range from 100 kHz to 400 MHz. Following the developed procedure, the TEM cell was implemented, and the cell was tested experimentally. The TEM cell can be used for electromagnetic susceptibility (EMS) measurements, where the DUT is irradiated by the field in a wide frequency band. The DUT is tested to operate without the performance degradation under the influence of electromagnetic disturbances. In addition, the cell can be used for electromagnetic interference (EMI) measurements focused on interference emissions generated by the DUT.

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Keywords: Transversally electromagnetic (TEM) cell, TEM waveguide mode, electromagnetic compatibility (EMC), Crawford cell, CST Microwave Studio, electromagnetic susceptibility (EMS), electromagnetic interference (EMI)

**Z. Ding, J. Zhang, Y. Liu, J. Wang, G. Chen, L. Cao**
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Erratum: Spectrum Map Construction Based on Optimized Sensor Selection and Adaptive Kriging Model

In the published version of the paper, there is an error in Fig. 7. Figure 7 should be the results of different construction methods when "the standard deviation of shadow fading is 3 dB", but in the published version it is the result of different construction methods when "the standard deviation of shadow fading is 0 dB". The original version of Fig. 7 in the paper should be replaced with the corrected version of Fig. 7 as follows. Link to original paper: https://www.radioeng.cz/fulltexts/2022/22_03_0422_0430.pdf

Keywords: Spectrum map, sensor layout optimization, adaptive Kriging model, spatial autocorrelation, artificial bee colony