# April 2023, Volume 32, Number 1 [DOI: 10.13164/re.2023-1]

**N.-L. Nguyen, L.-T. Tu, T. N. Nguyen, P.-L. T. Nguyen, Q.-S. Nguyen**
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[DOI: 10.13164/re.2023.0001]
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Performance on Cognitive Broadcasting Networks Employing Fountain Codes and Maximal Ratio Transmission

The comprehensive performance of cognitive broadcasting networks employing Fountain codes (FC) and maximal ratio transmission (MRT) is investigated in the present paper. More precisely, the secondary transmitter (ST) employs Fountain code to effectively broadcast a common message such as a safety warning, security news, etc., to all secondary receivers (SRs) via underlay protocol of cognitive radio networks (CRNs). Different from works in the literature that are interested in studying the outage probability (OP), and the ergodic capacity of the CRNs. The present paper, on the other hand, focuses on the characteristics of the number of needed time slots to successfully deliver such a message. Particularly, we derive in closed-form expressions the cumulative distribution function (CDF), the probability mass function (PMF), and the average number of the required time slot to broadcast the message to all SRs. Additionally, we also provide the throughput of secondary networks (SNs). We point out the impact of some key parameters, i.e., the number of SRs and the number of transmit antennae at the secondary transmitter, on the performance of these considered metrics. Numerical results via the Monte-Carlo method are given to verify the accuracy of the derived framework as well as to highlight the influences of some essential parameters. Furthermore, we also compare the performance of the proposed networks with state-of-the-art and simulation results unveiling that the considered system consistently outperforms works in the literature.

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Keywords: Broadcasting networks, cognitive radio, fountain codes, maximal ratio transmission, performance analysis

**R. Ondica, M. Kovac, A.Hudec, R.Ravasz, D. Maljar, V. Stopjakova, D. Arbet**
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[DOI: 10.13164/re.2023.0011]
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An Overview of Fully On-Chip Inductors

This paper focuses on full integration of passive devices, especially inductors with emphasis on multi-layer stacked (MLS) structures of fully integrated inductors using patterned ground shield (PGS) and fully integrated capacitor. Comparison of diﬀerent structures is focused on the main electrical parameters of integrated inductors (e.g. inductance L, inductance density LA, quality factor Q, frequency of maximum quality factor F Qmax, self-resonant frequency FSR, and series resistance R DC ) and other non-electrical parameters (e.g. required area, manufacturing process, purpose, etc.) that are equally important during comparison of the structures. Categorization of inductor structures with most signiﬁcant results that was reported in the last years is proposed according to manufacturing process. Final geometrical and electrical properties of the structure in great manner accounts to the fabrication process of integrated passive device. This work oﬀers an overview and state-of-the-art of the integrated inductors as well as manufacturing processes used for their fabrication. Second purpose of this paper is insertion of the proposed structure from our previous work among the other results reported in the last 7 years. With the proposed solution, one can obtain the highest inductance density L A = 23.59 nH/mm 2 and second highest quality factor Q = 10.09 amongst similar solutions reported in standard technologies that is also suitable competition for integrated inductors manufactured in advanced technology nodes.

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Keywords: Fully Integrated Inductor, Fully Integrated Capacitor, Integrated Passive Device, Silicon Embedded Inductor, Air Core Inductor, Magnetic Core Inductor

**F. A. Feng, F. F. Yang，C. Chen, C. L. Zhao**
[references] [full-text]
[DOI: 10.13164/re.2023.0023]
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Jointly Optimized Design of Distributed Goppa Codes and Decoding

In order to improve the adverse influence of fading channel in communication system, a distributed Goppa coding scheme is proposed in this paper. Two Goppa codes are set at the source node and the relay node in this scheme respectively. An optimal design criterion at the relay is proposed to obtain the optimal joint resultant code at the destination. Furthermore, two novel joint decoding algorithms are proposed to enhance the overall BER performance of the proposed scheme. Monte Carlo simulations show that the proposed distributed Goppa coding scheme outperforms the non-cooperative scheme. Moreover, the proper information selection approach at the relay performs better than random selection in the proposed distributed Goppa coding scheme.

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Keywords: Goppa codes, distributed coding schemes, joint decoding algorithms

**Y. Liu, X. Rao, X. Zhu, H. Yi, J. Hu**
[references] [full-text]
[DOI: 10.13164/re.2023.0033]
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A Weak Target Detection Algorithm IAR-STFT Based on Correlated K-distribution Sea Clutter Model

The detection performance of weak target on sea is affected by the special effects of sea clutter amplitude. Aiming at the time and space correlated of sea clutter, the correlated K-distribution sea clutter model is established by the sphere invariant random process algorithm. To solve the problems of range migration (RM) and Doppler frequency migration (DFM) of moving target in the case of long-time coherent accumulation, a novel integration detection algorithm, improved axis rotation short-time Fourier transform (IAR-STFT) is proposed in this paper, which is based on a generalization of traditional Fourier transform (FT) algorithm and combined with improved axis rotation. IAR-STFT not only can eliminate the RM effect by searching for the target motion parameters, but also can divide the non-stationary echo signal without range migration into several blocks. Each block of signal can be regarded as a stationary signal without DFM and FFT is performed on each signal separately. The signals of each block are accumulated to detect the target in the background of the above sea clutter. Finally, the effectiveness of the algorithm is verified by simulation. The results show that the detection ability of this algorithm is better than that of Radon-fractional Fourier transform, generalized Radon Fourier transform and Radon-Lv's distribution in low SNR environment, e.g., when the SNR is -45dB, the detection ability of this algorithm is about 55%, which is higher than that of Radon-fractional Fourier transform, generalized Radon Fourier transform and Radon-Lv's distribution.

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Keywords: Correlated K-distribution, range migration, Doppler frequency migration, long time coherent accumulation; improved axis rotation short-time Fourier transform

**K. Jurik, J. Stary, P. Drexler**
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[DOI: 10.13164/re.2023.0044]
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Design and Fabrication of Birdcage Resonators for Low-pressure Plasma Excitation

This paper presents a design, analysis and optimization of birdcage resonators employed in a novel radiofrequency plasma source. Three resonators were simulated and fabricated. The resonators differ in their design and in the different materials of used dielectric – polyimide and polytetrafluorethylene (PTFE). The resonance frequency of fabricated samples possesses a maximal error of 2.2 % compared to the simulated values. The performance in plasma excitation is related to the electrical parameters, while the best performing resonator (PTFE-based) exhibits the maximum real impedance of 644.3 Ω at the resonance frequency and the 799.5 V/m electric field strength. This resonator shows the best power efficiency in a plasma ignition experiment. The resonator ignited the discharge at ca. 1 Pa of ambient air atmosphere with only 0.34 W of input radiofrequency power.

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Keywords: Birdcage resonator, resonance network, plasma source, impedance matching, distributed capacity

**F. E. Chinda, S. Cheab, S. Soeung**
[references] [full-text]
[DOI: 10.13164/re.2023.0051]
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Design and Synthesis of Parallel-Connected Dielectric Filter Using Chain-Function Polynomial

Design and synthesis of parallel connected die-lectric filters using chained function polynomials are pre-sented in this paper. This filter will offer reduced sensitivity to fabrication tolerance while preserving its return loss response within the desired bandwidth in comparison to traditional Chebyshev filters. A novel transfer function FN according to chained is derived for fourth and sixth-order filters and the synthesis technique is presented. To demon-strate the feasibility of this approach, the circuit simulation based on parallel connected topology is carried out in ADS while the design and simulation of the fourth-order filter in dielectric technology in HFSS. Considerable sensitivity analysis is conducted to prove a better fabrication toler-ance of the filter. In terms of implementation, this design technique will serve as a very useful mathematical tool for any filter design engineer.

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Keywords: Coupling matrix, chained function, dielectric resonator, parallel-connected, sensitivity, topology

**M. Turcanik, J. Perdoch**
[references] [full-text]
[DOI: 10.13164/re.2023.0063]
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SAMPLE Dataset Objects Classification Using Deep Learning Algorithms

The main topic of the article is automatic target classification of the synthetic aperture radar images based on the dataset composed of measured and synthetic data. The original contribution of the authors is their own topol¬ogy of the convolutional neural network (CNN) with 1, 2, 3, and 4 tiers. The original convolutional neural network is used to classify radar images from the Synthetic And Measured Paired and Labeled Experiment (SAMPLE) dataset which consists of SAR imagery from publicly avail¬able datasets and well-matched synthetic data. The pre¬sented topologies of the CNN with 1, 2, 3, and 4 tiers were analyzed in 3 different scenarios: trained on the basis of real measured data and tested by synthetic data, trained on the basis of synthetic data, and tested by real measured data, and in the last case training and testing sets were formed by combining real measured and synthetic data. Based on the results of testing we could not use the pro¬posed convolutional neural network trained with real measured data to classify synthetic radar images and vice versa (the 1st and the 2nd scenarios). The only last scenario with a combination of real measured and synthetic data in the training, validation, and testing data sets generates excellent results. The authors also present some confusion matrices, which can explain the reasons for the misclassification of radar images of military equipment. Comparing achieved results with another SAMPLE dataset classification results we can prove the usability of proposed and tested CNN structures for automatic target classification of the synthetic aperture radar images. The classification accuracy of the original convolutional network is 96.1%, which is better than the results of the other research so far.

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Keywords: Synthetic aperture radar, synthetic data, SAMPLE dataset, convolutional neural networks

**S. I. Hugar, J. S. Baligar, V. Dakulagi, K. M. Vanita**
[references] [full-text]
[DOI: 10.13164/re.2023.0074]
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Quasistatic Resonators Based Triple-Mode Notched Microstrip Bandpass Filter

This article discusses new approach for design and development of triple-mode notched microstrip bandpass filter based on quasistatic resonators(QR). The proposed approach is composed of two Quasistatic resonant elements; Horizontal plane Split ring resonator (HP-SRR), Vertical plane split ring resonator (VP-SRR) and a single asymmetric step impedance resonator (A-SIR) with parallel coupled feed structure. An additional attenuation pole realized by VP-SRR in desired passband, tunes the dual-mode response to triple mode and enhances the 3dB bandwidth without changing the dimensions of basic the filter cell. The HP-SRR realizes a notch at WiMAX band (IEEE 802.11a lower band) in the desired passband. Further by changing the impedance of VP-SRR and HP-SRR both the location of additional attenuation pole frequency and notch band can be controlled. The proposed approach results in compact, notched wideband, filter design.

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Keywords: Dual-mode, quasistatic resonators, asymmetric step impedance resonator, split ring resonators.