# December 2017, Volume 26, Number 4 [DOI: 10.13164/re.2017-4]

**M. Palandoken**
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[DOI: 10.13164/re.2017.0917]
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Compact Bioimplantable MICS and ISM Band Antenna Design for Wireless Biotelemetry Applications

A compact dual-band bioimplantable antenna with novel resonator geometry is designed for dual-band wireless biotelemetry applications in MICS and ISM bands. The radiating element geometry is based on an L-shaped transmission line fed anti-spiral resonator structure, which is loaded with the spiral resonator at the end to increase the effective electrical length. The effect of resonator geometric parameters on the return loss is discussed with the inclusion of three layered lossy human model in the numerical calculations. The footprint size of the optimized bioimplantable antenna is 15 x 15 x 1.92 mm^3, having the total surface area of λ0/20 x λ0/20, where λ0 is the free space wavelength at 403 MHz in MICS band. The compact dual-band antenna has the impedance bandwidth of 24.81% at 403 MHz and 14.7% at 2.45 GHz with the gain values -12.25dBi and -12.4 dBi in MICS and ISM bands, respectively. The average SAR values at the resonance frequencies are numerically computed to find out the input power delivered to the antenna for the reliable operation. The radiation parameters and 3D radiation patterns indicate the potential use of the proposed implantable antenna with the permissible gain in dual-band wireless biotelemetry applications.

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Keywords: Dual-band bioimplantable antennas, MICS and ISM bands, human body model, electrically small resonator

**A. Lamecki, A. Dziekonski, L. Balewski, G. Fotyga, M. Mrozowski**
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[DOI: 10.13164/re.2017.0924]
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GPU-Accelerated 3D Mesh Deformation for Optimization Based on the Finite Element Method

This paper discusses a strategy for speeding up the mesh deformation process in the design-by-optimization of high-frequency components involving electromagnetic field simulations using the 3D finite element method (FEM). The mesh deformation is assumed to be described by a linear elasticity model of a rigid body; therefore, each time the shape of the device is changed, an auxiliary elasticity finite-element problem must be solved. In order to accomplish this in a very short time numerical integration and the solution of the resulting system of equations are performed using a graphics processing unit (GPU). The performance of the proposed algorithm is illustrated are verified using a complex example involving 3D FEM analysis of a dielectric-resonator filter.

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Keywords: Finite element method, mesh deformation, mesh morphing, GPU computing

**A. Bjelopera, E. Dumic, S. Grgic**
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[DOI: 10.13164/re.2017.0930]
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Evaluation of Blur and Gaussian Noise Degradation in Images Using Statistical Model of Natural Scene and Perceptual Image Quality Measure

In this paper we present new method for classification of image degradation type based on Riesz transform coefficients and Blind/Referenceless Image Spatial Quality Evaluator (BRISQUE) that employs spatial coefficients. In our method we use additional statistical parameters that gives us statistically better results for blur and all tested degradations together in comparison with previous method. A new method to determine level of blur and Gaussian noise degradation in images using statistical model of natural scene is presented. We defined parameters for evaluation of level of Gaussian noise and blur degradation in images. In real world applications reference image is usually not available therefore proposed method enables classification of image degradation by type and estimation of Gaussian noise and blur levels for any degraded image.

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Keywords: Image degradation, Riesz transform, BRISQUE, Gaussian noise, blur, level

**Y. Yang, Y. Zhang, L. Yu**
[references] [full-text]
[DOI: 10.13164/re.2017.0938]
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Outage Probability and BER of the Ground to Train Communication Link of a Curved Track in Raining Turbulence with Pointing Errors

We model the outage probability and bit-error rate (BER) for an intensity-modulation/direct detection optical wireless communication (OWC) systems for the ground-to-train of the curved track in rainy weather. By adopting the inverse Gaussian models of the raining turbulence, we derive the outage probability and average BER expression for the channel with pointing errors. The numerical analysis reveals that the rainfall can disrupt the stability and accuracy of the system, especially the rainstorm weather. The improving of the shockproof performance of the tracks and using long wavelength of the signal source will improve the communication performance of OWC links. The atmospheric turbulence has greater impact on the OWC link than the cover track length. The pointing errors caused by beam wander or train vibration are the dominant factors decreasing the performance of OWC link for the train along the curved track. We can choose the size of communication transmitting and receiving apertures to optimize the performance of the OWC link.

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Keywords: Ground-to-train, curved track, inverse Gaussian model, optical wireless communications, raining turbulence

**S. Vitek, J. Libich, P. Luo, S. Zvanovec, Z. Ghassemlooy, N. B. Hassan**
[references] [full-text]
[DOI: 10.13164/re.2017.0946]
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Influence of Camera Setting on Vehicle-to-Vehicle VLC Employing Undersampled Phase Shift On-Off Keying

This paper focuses on the performance analysis of a camera based vehicle-to-vehicle visible light communication system employing undersampled phase shift on-off keying modulation under interference scenario. Two Nissan Qashqai front lights with daylight running light emitting diodes based lamps are used for communications. The bit error rate (BER) performance of the proposed system is experimentally measured for a transmission span up to 24m focusing mostly on the side interference due to reflections. Based on experimental data we demonstrate reduction of the system performance due to the side reflection and illumination of the detector by other light sources which has to taken into account during further data processing. We provide with further statistics for particular shuter speed and transmitter power setting and discus BER improvement especially to meet FEC via the method of adaptive region of interest.

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Keywords: Visible Light Communication, Vehicle-to-Vehicle communication, undersampled phase shift on-off keying, low bitrate, camera

**Z. Bosternak, R. Roka**
[references] [full-text]
[DOI: 10.13164/re.2017.0954]
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Approach of the T-CONT Allocation to Increase the Bandwidth in Passive Optical Networks

This paper works with the simulation of T-CONT allocation and delay analysis in passive optical networks PON. Building our networks with the PON technology we can achieve increased data rates, however we need to ensure that the idle gaps between the particular transmissions are minimal. The primary method for the upstream time slot allocation in passive optical networks is via Multi Point Control Protocol. The baseline standard of this protocol clearly defines the use of the REPORT and GATE control messages. The two optical network elements used here, the optical network unit ONT and the optical line termination OLT, located at the central office CO, can be scheduled to allocate the time slots. Using the control messages, a more accurate scheduling algorithm can be developed, hence we can directly improve the utilization of the bandwidth as well. In this work, we introduce the basic topology of the passive optical networks, how PON works and what basic principles of bandwidth allocation have been applied. Subsequently, we suggest a selection of methods for time slot allocation and we make an analysis on the achieved results. Our main focus is on the system load, transfer delay and the analysis of the effectivity.

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Keywords: Passive optical networks, transmission delay, bandwidth allocation

**H. N. Parajuli, E. Udvary**
[references] [full-text]
[DOI: 10.13164/re.2017.0961]
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Novel Vestigial Sideband Modulation Scheme to Enhance the SNR in Radio Over Fiber Systems

The optical single sideband (OSSB) scheme is a common choice in radio over fiber system for compensating chromatic dispersion (CD) but it suffers from low signal to noise ratio (SNR).We present the novel technique for SNR improvement using unequal sideband intensity based modulation scheme, we name it optical vestigial sideband modulation scheme (OVSB). To analyze such scheme we use the series Mach-Zehnder modulator (MZM) and phase modulator (PM) configuration. In this configuration by operating MZM at quadrature point and properly tuning the PM index the individual intensity of the first order sidebands and higher order harmonics can be controlled independent to each other.The optimum operating point of PM for maximizing the SNR can be identified by reducing the harmonic distortion and increasing the first order sidebands power. We experimentally validated the proposed OVSB scheme generation method and provide its theoretical proof. We evaluate the symbol error rate (SER) performance using 4QAM signal for OSSB and OVSB and show the improved performance of OVSB scheme compared to OSSB scheme. We also discuss the harmonic distortion behavior of the series MZM and PM configuration.

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Keywords: Optical-wireless, optical single sideband, optical vestigial sideband, radio over fiber, signal to noise ratio

**M. Cerveny, P. Hazdra**
[references] [full-text]
[DOI: 10.13164/re.2017.0968]
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Evaluation of the Input Impedance and Impedance Quality Factor of a Dipole in Spatial and Spectral Domains

In classic antenna analysis, there exist several methods of calculating input impedance when the source distribution of an antenna is known. The well-known induced EMF method, based on spatially distributed currents, is typically applied for this purpose and, thereby, serves as a reference for this research. Conversely, the spectral domain method takes the opposite approach for the input impedance and is evaluated using a far-field pattern. This paper compares the induced EMF method and the spectral domain method. Furthermore, the quality factor of the dipole antenna, based on the impedance variation with frequency, is calculated for both methods. This study shows that the induced EMF method and the spectral domain method are in close agreement.

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Keywords: Dipole, input impedance, quality factor, spatial domain, spectral domain, EMF method

**V. Schejbal, V. Zavodny**
[references] [full-text]
[DOI: 10.13164/re.2017.0972]
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Tropospheric Propagation above Uneven Ground

This work analyzes the electromagnetic wave propagation above uneven ground, including the troposphere, using physical optics calculation. The new results of numerical simulations using physical optics are presented for the antenna far-field measurement ranges, studies of air refraction index, and examinations of radar coverage diagrams. These calculations are validated by the experimental results (which are changing during seasons, terrain and troposphere conditions including vegetation, moisture, snow, air temperature and pressure, and cultivation) and numerical simulations, such as parabolic equation methods.

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Keywords: Electromagnetic propagation, radio-wave refraction, electromagnetic scattering, physical optics, measurements

**W. W. Wu, K. B. Cui, H. S. Lu, T. Z. Meng, N. C. Yuan**
[references] [full-text]
[DOI: 10.13164/re.2017.0979]
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A Measured Rasorber with Two Absorptive Bands

In this paper, a novel rasorber with both Frequency Selective Surface and absorptive periodical structure is developed. This rasorber works as a radome and an absorber. Firstly, the design procedure of the unit cell of this rasorber is explained. Then, the characteristics of the manufactured rasorber are measured. The characteristics include the transmission/reflection coefficients of the rasorber, the radiation properties of the horn antenna covered by the novel rasorber and the scattering features of this rasorber. In the passband, the gain of the antenna with our rasorber radome is only 1~2 dB lower than the one of the horn antenna without any radome. Furthermore, the radome has little effect on the radiation patterns of the horn antenna. In the absorptive bands of the rasorber, the electric level of the scattered electromagnetic wave from the rasorber can be 16.5 dB lower than the one from a metallic plane with the same size as the rasorber. The feature proves that this rasorber can be a good candidate in the stealth radar radome area.

- CALOZ, C., ITOB, T. Electromagnetic Metamaterials Transmission Line Theory and Microwave Applications. New Jersey (USA): J. Wiley & Sons, 2005. ISBN: 978-0-471-66985-2
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Keywords: Rasorber, radome, absorber, FSS, antenna, RCS reduction

**S. R. Lee, E. H. Lim, F. L. Lo, K. H. Tan**
[references] [full-text]
[DOI: 10.13164/re.2017.0984]
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Broadrange Reflectarray Element with Combined Slot and Dielectric Resonator Resonances

This paper presents a dielectric resonator antenna (DRA) reflectarray unit element with multiple loading circular slots underneath in concentric form. The radii of the three slots are varied simultaneously to function as phase-shifting elements. For the case of three under-loading slots, it is very interesting to find out that the slot and DRA resonances can be pulled together to provide a very broad phase range of 916°. Study shows that the gradient and phase range of the S curve can be easily tuned by manipulating the dimensions of the under-loading slots. Waveguide method has been used to establish the simulation and measurement models. The reflection properties of the DRA unit elements loaded with different ring-shaped slots are compared, along with a complete parametric analysis. The proposed reflectarray unit element is very compact as its phase shifter can be entirely hidden beneath the DRA.

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Keywords: Dielectric resonator antenna (DRA), reflectarray element, broad phase range

**Y. Y. Gong, L. Wang, K. Wei, Z. L. Zhang**
[references] [full-text]
[DOI: 10.13164/re.2017.0992]
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Novel Fractal DGSs for Band-gap Filter with Improved Q-factor

This paper presents a novel fractal defected ground structure (FDGS) for designing high Q-factor band-gap filter. Key parameters of the proposed FDGS are studied. The decreased slot distance causes rapid increase in the filter Q-factor. The designed second iterative FDGS provides the band-gap property at 1.662 GHz with 3-dB bandwidth of 10.8 MHz and Q-factor 69.25. The rejection level of the second iterative FDGS is greater than 40 dB. The third iterative FDGS has smaller dimension than that of the second iterative FDGS. Moreover, the third iterative FDGS has two resonant frequencies with suppression levels of 33 dB and 26 dB. The Q-factors of the resonant frequencies are 24.22 and 27.36 respectively.

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Keywords: High Q-factor, band-gap filter, defected ground structure, fractal structure

**A. Abdipour , A. Abdipour , E. Zare**
[references] [full-text]
[DOI: 10.13164/re.2017.0999]
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A Design of Branch-Line Coupler with Harmonic Suppression and Size Reduction Using Closed-Loop and Open-Loop Resonators

In this paper, a branch-line coupler using closed-loop and open-loop resonators with the operating frequency of 2.69 GHz is proposed. The designed microstrip circuit not only is able to suppress the second and the third unwanted harmonics but also reduces the occupied area to 59% of the traditional branch-line coupler. To explain how the employed resonators can suppress spurious frequencies, transmission zeros of both resonators based on their equivalent LC has been calculated, separately. To prove the abilities of the proposed branch-line coupler, the designed circuit has been fabricated and tested resulting in a good agreement between the measurement and simulation results. According to the S11 when it is less than -15 dB the bandwidth of the designed branch-line coupler is about 500 MHz, from 2.42 to 2.92 GHz .The comparison between the results of simulation and measurement are in good agreement.

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Keywords: Harmonic suppression, microstrip circuit, miniaturized branch-line coupler

**T. Han, X. Y. Cao, J. Gao, Y. J. Zheng**
[references] [full-text]
[DOI: 10.13164/re.2017.1006]
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Design of a Novel Wideband Low-Scattering Shared Aperture Metasurface

A novel shared aperture metasurface (SA-MS) for ultra-wideband radar cross section (RCS) reduction is designed and fabricated in this paper. The SA-MS is composed of a kind of perfect metamaterial absorber (PMA) and two kinds of artificial magnetic conductors (AMCs), where they share the same physical aperture in horizontal dimensionality with an aperiodic arrangement. Based on this design, the RCS reduction bandwidth of the SA -MS can be remarkably broadened due to the cascade connection of different working modes, which include absorption for the incident wave of PMA and phase cancellation between three kinds of MS lattices. Simulation and measurement results indicate that a 3-dB RCS reduction is achieved from 4.98 GHz to 14.14 GHz (95.8% relative bandwidth) for both x- and y- polarized incident waves and the 6-dB RCS reduction bands for the x- and y-polarizations are 5.04 GHz-13.02 GHz, 5.06 GHz-8.66 GHz and 9.22 GHz-12.12 GHz, respectively.

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Keywords: Shared aperture metasurface, wideband, low-scattering

**W. Chen, J. Gao, X. Y. Cao, H. H. Yang, Z. Zhang, S. J. Li, J. F. Han, C. Zhang**
[references] [full-text]
[DOI: 10.13164/re.2017.1013]
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A Broadband Transmission Metasurface with Polarization-Transforming Functionality

A transmission metasurface with polarization-transforming functionalities is presented. The unit cell is characterized by broadband, low profile and low loss. Due to the asymmetric structure, the proposed metasurface shows different responses to different linear-polarized incidences. For a particular linear-polarized incidence, the polarization direction of transmitted waves will be rotated by 90° in 3.72-8.28 GHz with high polarization conversion ratio (PCR). However, for the orthogonal-polarized ones, the incidence will be reflected totally and the polarization remains. The operating mechanism of proposed metasurface is analyzed both by theoretical investigations and numerical simulations. Measured results of the fabricated samples are in good agreement with the simulated ones.

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Keywords: Metasurface, broadband, polarization-dependent, high polarization conversion ratio

**M. Veysi, A. Ahmadi, G. Karimi, A. Lalbakhsh**
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[DOI: 10.13164/re.2017.1019]
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RFID Tag Design Using Spiral Resonators and Defected Ground Structure

This paper presents a simple generalized approach to design a compact chipless radio frequency identification tag. The proposed chipless tag encodes data into the spectral signature using a set of spiral resonators on both sides of substrate. Transmission amplitude component of the tag is used for data encoding. For miniaturization purpose, defected ground structure is used to reduce the circuit size by half compared to the conventional cascading technique. The proposed chipless tag operates between 4-6 GHz and produces 256 different binary strings through eight encoded bits. Measurement and simulation results verify the authenticity of this design.

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- PRERADOVIC, S., KARMAKAR, N. Multiresonator based chipless RFID tag and dedicated RFID reader. IEEE MTT-S Int. Microwave Symposium Digest (MTT). Anaheim (CA, USA), 2010, p. 1520–1523. DOI: 10.1109/MWSYM.2010.5515168
- KARIMI, G., LALBAKHSH, A., SIAHKAMARI, H. Design of sharp roll-off lowpass filter with ultra-wide stopband. IEEE Microwave and Wireless Component Letters, 2013, vol. 23, no. 6, p. 303–305. DOI: 10.1109/LMWC.2013.2261057
- PRERADOVIC, S., KARMAKAR, N. C. Design of fully printable planar chipless RFID transponder with 35-bit data capacity. In Proceedings of the 39th European Microwave Conference (EuMC). Rome (Italy), 2009, p. 13–16. DOI: 10.23919/EUMC.2009.5296182
- PRERADOVIC, S., KARMAKAR, N. 4th generation multiresonator-based chipless RFID tag utilizing spiral EBGs. In Proceedings of the European Microwave Conference (EuMC). 2010, p. 1746–1749. DOI: 10.23919/EUMC.2010.5616613
- PRERADOVIC, S., BALBIN, I., KARMAKAR, N. C., SWIEGERS, G. Chipless frequency signature based RFID transponders. In Proceedings of the European Conference on Wireless Technology. Amsterdam (The Netherlands), 2008, p. 302–305. DOI: 10.1109/EUMC.2008.4751808
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- KHAN, M. M., TAHIR, F. A., FAROOQUI, M. F., SHAMIM, A., et al. 3.56-bits/cm 2 compact inkjet printed and application specific chipless RFID tag. IEEE Antennas and Wireless Propagation Letters, 2016, vol. 15, p. 1109–1112. DOI: 10.1109/LAWP.2015.2494864
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Keywords: Defected Ground Structure (DGS), microstrip line, multi-resonator, radio-frequency identification (RFID), spiral resonator

**S. Kumar, R. K. Vishwakarma, R. Kumar, J. Anguera, A. Andujar**
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[DOI: 10.13164/re.2017.1025]
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Slotted Circularly Polarized Microstrip Antenna for RFID Application

A single layer coaxial fed rectangular microstrip slotted antenna for circular polarization (CP) is proposed for radio frequency identification (RFID) application. Two triangular shaped slots and one rectangular slot along the diagonal axis of a square patch have been embedded. Due to slotted structure along the diagonal axis and less surface area, good quality of circular polarization has been obtained with the reduction in the size of microstrip antenna by 4.04 %. Circular polarization radiation performance has been studied by size and angle variation of diagonally slotted structures. The experimental result found for 10-dB return loss is 44 MHz with 10MHz of 3dB Axial Ratio (AR) bandwidth respectively at the resonant frequency 910 MHz. The overall proposed antenna size including the ground plane is 80 mm x 80 mm x 4.572 mm.

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Keywords: Circularly polarized, microstrip antenna, radio frequency identification

**K. S. Cheng, E. H. Lim, Y. N. Phua**
[references] [full-text]
[DOI: 10.13164/re.2017.1033]
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Circularly Polarized Suspended Patch Antenna Fed by Modified L-Probe for UHF RFID Reader

Two reader antennas, which are designed using the L-probe-fed suspended patch, are designed for the UHF band. To generate circular polarization, the L-shaped probe is modified by including an extra bend to provide one more degree of tuning freedom to the reflection coefficient without affecting the axial-ratio performance much. The proposed single-element reader antenna is able to achieve a CP bandwidth of 5.5 % (890 MHz - 940 MHz) and a maximum antenna gain of 9.7 dBi. When designed into a 2x2 array, the proposed reader antenna is able to produce CP bandwidth of 5.3 % (910 MHz - 960 MHz) with an antenna gain of 14.7 dBi. The read ranges of the proposed antenna and its array are 6.3 m and 10.9 m, respectively.

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- WANG, Z., FANG, S., FU, S., MUJIE, F. Single-fed single-patch broadband circularly polarized antenna for UHF RFID reader applications. In 2010 2nd International Conference on Industrial and Information Systems. Dalian (China), 2010. DOI: 10.1109/INDUSIS.2010.5565908
- WANG, Z., FANG, S., FU, S., FU, S., JIA, S. Single-fed broadband circularly polarized stacked patch antenna with horizontally meandered strip for universal UHF RFID applications. IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques, 2011, vol. 59, no. 4, p. 1066–1073. DOI: 10.1109/TMTT.2011.2114010
- SIM, C., HSU, Y., YANG, G. Slits loaded circularly polarized universal UHF RFID reader antenna. Antennas and Wireless Propagation Letters, 2015, vol. 14, p. 827–830. DOI: 10.1109/LAWP.2014.2382557
- ANJU MARIA, VISHNUPRIYA, V., AJU JOHN, K. K., et al. Dual band circularly polarized truncated patch antenna for RFID reader and WiMAX applications. In The 2nd International Conference on Electronics and Communication Systems (ICECS). Coimbatore (India), 2015. DOI: 10.1109/ECS.2015.7124996
- WANG, B., HE, Z., LIU, H., OKUNO, Y., HE, S. A wideband circularly polarized antenna with Wilkinson feed network for worldwide UHF band RFID reader. In Progress In Electromagnetics Research Proceedings. Prague (Czech Republic), 2015. 4 p.
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- BOO, Y., NASIMUDDIN, CHEN, Z., ALPHONES, A. Broadband circularly polarized microstrip antenna for RFID reader applications. In Asia Pacific Microwave Conference. Singapore, 2009, p. 625–628. DOI: 10.1109/APMC.2009.5384142
- KRUEKAEW, A., PHONGCHAROENPANICH, C. Linear/circular polarization switchable antenna for UHF RFID reader. In International Symposium on Intelligent Signal Processing and Communications Systems (ISPACS). Chiang Mai (Thailand), 2011, 4 p. DOI: 10.1109/ISPACS.2011.6146207
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- SIM, C. Y. D., HSU, Y. W. Circularly polarized equilateral triangle patch antenna for UHF RFID reader applications. In Loughborough Antennas & Propagation Conference (LAPC). Loughborough (UK), 2013, p. 397–399. DOI: 10.1109/LAPC.2013.6711928
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Keywords: UHF reader antenna, L-probe-fed patch, circularly polarized reader antenna

**L. L. Cong, X. Y. Cao, T. Song**
[references] [full-text]
[DOI: 10.13164/re.2017.1041]
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Ultra-Wideband RCS Reduction and Gain Enhancement of Aperture-Coupled Antenna Based on Hybrid-FSS

A novel design of aperture-coupled microstrip antenna with ultra-wideband low radar cross section (RCS) is proposed. Hybrid frequency selective surface (FSS) structures consisting of two kinds of polarization-dependent folded split ring resonators (PDFSRRs) and square patches are utilized to replace the conventional metallic ground. By orthogonally arranging the PDFSRRs in a chessboard-like configuration, the band-stop characteristic contributes to the gain enhancement, while the zero degree points of reflection phase and wave-transmission characteristic are utilized to achieve RCS reduction both in-band and out-of-band. Furthermore, with square patches periodically etched on the bottom of FSS structure, a new zero degree reflection phase is introduced to enhance the effect of RCS reduction. Full wave simulations and measurements demonstrate that the proposed antenna achieves RCS reduction from 1 GHz to 18 GHz and gain enhancement compared with traditional microstrip antenna.

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Keywords: Ultra-wideband, frequency selective surface, polarization dependent, radar cross section, split ring resonator

**C. Han, L. Wang, Z. Zhang, J. Xie, Z. Xing**
[references] [full-text]
[DOI: 10.13164/re.2017.1048]
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Linear Array Pattern Synthesis Using An Improved Multiobjective Genetic Algorithm

In this paper, we propose an improved nondominated sorting genetic algorithm-II with scope constrained (INSGA-II/SC) with three modifications, which are dynamic nondomination strategy, scope-constrained strategy, and front uniformly distributed strategy. Here, the metric for multiobjective optimization mainly focuses on the computation complexity, convergence, and diversity of the final solutions. For a large search space in the initial process and a fast convergence in the last process, dynamic nondomination factor is considered in the rank operator. We can find a manageable number of Pareto solutions that are in the constrained scope instead of the entire Pareto front (PF) to reduce the computation complexity by scope-constrained strategy. In order to obtain a high performance for good representatives of the entire PF, the solutions closer to the uniformly distributed points on the current front will be chosen. In this paper, the proposed methods and two efficient multiobjective optimization methods are used for the optimization of mathematical problems and array pattern synthesis with lower side lobe level (SLL) and null. Numerical examples show that INSGA-II/SC has a high performance of diversity and convergence for the final solutions when compared with the other techniques published in the literature.

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Keywords: Multiobjective optimization, convergence, diversity, array pattern synthesis, genetic algorithm

**P. Lopato, M. Herbko**
[references] [full-text]
[DOI: 10.13164/re.2017.1060]
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Microwave Structural Health Monitoring Sensor for Deformation Measurement of Bended Steel Structures: Influence of Curvature Effect

In this paper the utilization of microstrip antenna sensor for deformation monitoring in bended steel structures is presented. This kind of sensing element can be used in structural health monitoring systems. Deformation measurement by patch sensor is based on the reflection coefficient S11 investigation. So far, relationship between resonant frequency and change of patch dimensions was considered in literature only for planar microstrip sensors. In case of samples subjected to bending process the sensor geometry became non-planar. This fact affects measured resonant frequency, thus it should be studied. In order to analyse influence of patch sensor curvature on resonant frequency during bending process Finite Element Method (FEM) simulations were carried out. Results of analysis were experimentally verified.

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Keywords: Microstrip antenna sensor, nondestructive testing, deformation measurement, structural health monitoring, microwave technique

**R. K. Barik, S. S. Karthikeyan**
[references] [full-text]
[DOI: 10.13164/re.2017.1067]
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Dual-Frequency Impedance Transformer Using Coupled-Line For Ultra-High Transforming Ratio

In this paper, a new type of dual-frequency impedance transformer is presented for ultra-high transforming ratio. The proposed configuration consists of parallel coupled-line, series transmission lines and short-ended stubs. The even and odd-mode analysis is applied to obtain the design equations and hence to provide an accurate solution. Three examples of the dual-frequency transformer with load impedance of 500, 1000 and 1500 Ω are designed to study the matching capability and bandwidth property. To prove the frequency agility of the proposed network, three prototypes of dual-frequency impedance transformer with transforming ratio of 10, 20 and 30 are fabricated and tested. The measured return loss is greater than 15 dB at two operating frequencies for all the prototypes. Also, the bandwidth is more than 60 MHz at each frequency band for all the prototypes. The measured return loss is found in good agreement with the circuit and full-wave simulations.

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Keywords: Impedance transformer, dual-frequency, ultra-high transforming ratio, coupled-line, transmission line

**N. Noori**
[references] [full-text]
[DOI: 10.13164/re.2017.1075]
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Green Femtocell Networks through Joint Power Control and 3-Dimensional Pattern-Dependent Beamforming

Femtocell technologies are used to extend radio coverage into buildings and provide wireless broadband access in residential, office or indoor hotspot environments. However, due to the radio spectrum scarcity, the femtocells reuse the same licensed spectrum bands of the macrocells. Thus interference management is one of the main challenges under such co-channel deployment of the femtocells. In this paper, we propose a new joint power control and 3-dimensional (3D) pattern-dependent beamforming algorithm to minimize total power consumption of the femtocells deployed in a macrocellular environment. This algorithm can help us achieve the goal of green communication and significantly reduce power consumption of the overall radio access networks. The algorithm is based on an iterative scheme for a downlink case where all femtocell access points (FAPs) and macro base stations (BSs) are equipped with multiple antennas. By considering radiation pattern of all antennas, the scheme tries to find the optimal 3D beamforming weights and transmission power of all FAPs and BSs while satisfying minimum signal-to-interference-plus-noise ratio (SINR) requirements of both macrocell and femtocell networks. Simulations are conducted in various scenarios to evaluate performance of the proposed algorithm.

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- MURAKAMI, T., KUDO, R., ISHIHARA, K., HONMA, N., MIZOGUCHI, M. Cooperative interference management by beam tilt and power controls in an indoor multi-cell environment. In Proceedings of the 7th European Conference on Antennas and Propagation (EuCAP). Gothenburg (Sweden), Apr. 2013, p. 643 to 647. ISBN: 978-88-907018-3-2
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Keywords: Femtocells, power control, 3D beamforming, green communication

**S. Ciccia, G. Giordanengo, G. Vecchi**
[references] [full-text]
[DOI: 10.13164/re.2017.1083]
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Open-source implementation of an ad-hoc IEEE802.11a/g/p software-defined radio on low-power and low-cost general purpose processors

This work proposes a low-cost and low-power software-defined radio open-source platform with IEEE 802.11 a/g/p wireless communication capability. A state-of-the-art version of the IEEE 802.11 a/g/p software for GNU Radio (a free and open-source software development framework) is available online, but we show here that its computational complexity prevents operations in low-power general purpose processors, even at throughputs below the standard. We therefore propose an evolution of this software that achieves a faster and lighter IEEE 802.11 a/g/p transmitter and receiver, suitable for low-power general purpose processors, for which GNU Radio provides very limited support; we discuss and describe the software radio processing structuring that is necessary to achieve the goal, providing a review of signal processing techniques. In particular, we emphasize the advanced reduced-instruction set (RISC) machine (ARM) study case, for which we also optimize some of the processing libraries. The presented software will remain open-source.

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Keywords: Software-defined radio (SDR), General Purpose Processor (GPP), Low-power wireless communications, Advanced RISC machine (ARM), Open-source software

**S. Kumar, S. K. Soni, P. Jain**
[references] [full-text]
[DOI: 10.13164/re.2017.1096]
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Micro-Diversity Analysis of Error Probability and Channel Capacity over Hoyt-Gamma Fading

In wireless communication system, various parameters such as average symbol/bit error probability (ASEP/ABEP), outage probability and average channel capacity, etc. are studied for its performance analysis. In this paper, the performance of L-Hoyt/Gamma (HG) composite fading channel with Maximum Ratio Combining (MRC) employing micro-diversity is analyzed. Closed-form expressions for distribution function, moments, outage probability and channel capacity are derived in terms of hypergeometric functions. Further, the expressions of ASEP/ABEP for all formats of coherent and non-coherent modulation techniques involving Q-functions and Marcum Q-function are derived over the composite fading channel. Monte-Carlo simulations are performed to validate our analytical results. The analytical results produced here can be useful in several wireless applications where multipath and shadowing are characterized by Hoyt/Gamma distribution.

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Keywords: Wireless communication system, shadowing, composite fading, diversity combining, MRC, channel capacity

**R. Bozovic, M. Simic, P. Pejovic, M. L. Dukic**
[references] [full-text]
[DOI: 10.13164/re.2017.1104]
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The Analysis of Closed-form Solution for Energy Detector Dynamic Threshold Adaptation in Cognitive Radio

Spectrum sensing is the most important process in cognitive radio in order to ensure interference avoidance to primary users. For optimal performance of cognitive radio, it is substantial to monitor and promptly react to dynamic changes in its operating environment. In this paper, energy detector based spectrum sensing is considered. Under the assumption that detected signal can be modelled according to an autoregressive model, noise variance is estimated from that noisy signal, as well as primary user signal power. A closed-form solution for optimal decision threshold in dynamic electromagnetic environment is proposed and analyzed.

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Keywords: Cognitive radio, energy detector, noise variance estimation, spectrum sensing, threshold adaptation

**S. Chalermwisutkul, V. Jantarachote, B. Shivanna, R. Phudpong, P. Akkaraekthalin**
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[DOI: 10.13164/re.2017.1110]
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Tuning Range and Power Handling Analysis of DTC-based Matching Networks for Reconfigurable High Power RF Circuits

This paper presents the analysis of tuning range and power handling of digitally tunable capacitors (DTCs) in reconfigurable high power RF circuits. The proposed scheme can be applied to reconfigurable RF system design e.g. smart antenna, Software Defined Radio (SDR) and Cognitive Radio (CR) systems. The power handling of the DTC can be enhanced by connecting the DTC in series with a fixed capacitor. The combination of a DTC and a fixed capacitors leads to modified tuning range of the total capacitance. Both the power handling and the tuning range are described in this paper by empirical equations in such a way, that a proper combination of DTCs and fixed capacitors can be determined for the design of any reconfigurable RF system. As an example of applications, a frequency band reconfigurable power amplifier was designed and fabricated. The reconfigurable input– and output matching networks utilize DTCs and fixed capacitors as tuning elements.

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Keywords: DTC, power handling, reconfigurable RF circuits, matching network, Software Defined Radio

**S. B. S. Hanbali, R. Kastantin**
[references] [full-text]
[DOI: 10.13164/re.2017.1118]
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Automatic Modulation Classification of LFM and Polyphase-coded Radar Signals

There are several techniques for detecting and classifying low probability of intercept radar signals such as Wigner distribution, Choi-Williams distribution and time-frequency rate distribution, but these distributions require high SNR. To overcome this problem, we propose a new technique for detecting and classifying linear frequency modulation signal and polyphase coded signals using optimum fractional Fourier transform at low SNR. The theoretical analysis and simulation experiments demonstrate the validity and efficiency of the proposed method.

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Keywords: LFM, polyphase coded signals, detection, automatic classification

**K. B. Cui, X. Chen, J. J. Huang, N. C. Yuan**
[references] [full-text]
[DOI: 10.13164/re.2017.1126]
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DOA Estimation of Multiple LFM Sources Using a STFT-based and FBSS-based MUSIC Algorithm

Direction of arrival (DOA) estimation is an important problem in array signal processing. An effective multiple signal classification (MUSIC) method based on the short-time Fourier transform (STFT) and forward/ backward spatial smoothing (FBSS) techniques for the DOA estimation problem of multiple time-frequency (t-f) joint LFM sources is addressed. Previous work in the area e. g. STFT-MUSIC algorithm cannot resolve the t-f completely or largely joint sources because they can only select the single-source t-f points. The proposed method con¬structs the spatial t-f distributions (STFDs) by selecting the multiple-source t-f points and uses the FBSS techniques to solve the problem of rank loss. In this way, the STFT-FBSS-MUSIC algorithm can resolve the t-f largely joint or completely joint LFM sources. In addition, the proposed algorithm also owns pretty low computational complexity when resolving multiple LFM sources because it can reduce the times of the feature decomposition and spectrum search. The performance of the proposed method is compared with that of the existing t-f based MUSIC algorithms through computer simulations and the results show its good performance.

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Keywords: DOA estimation, STFT, FBSS, LFM signals, t-f joint, MUSIC, multiple-sources t-f points

**A. Eslahi, A. Mahmoudi, H. Kaabi**
[references] [full-text]
[DOI: 10.13164/re.2017.1138]
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Carrier Frequency Offset Estimation in OFDM systems as a Quadratic Eigenvalue Problem

Carrier frequency offset (CFO) in orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) systems is a major problem in achieving orthogonality between subcarriers. In this paper, we propose an estimator for CFO in OFDM systems using the subspace method. We used the linear prediction property of a complex sinusoidal signal. The estimator was obtained by solving a quadratic eigenvalue problem. Its performance was examined and compared with a Maximum-Likelihood (ML), Cyclic-Prefix based and Pilot-based estimators by the measures of mean square error (MSE), and Cramer-Rao Lower Bound (CRLB). Numerical results are presented to show the visible advantages obtained by using this estimator.

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Keywords: OFDM, Carrier Frequency Offset estimation, Quadratic Eigenvalue problem, subspace method, Yule-Walker

**M. Janjic, N. Vukmirovic, M. Eric**
[references] [full-text]
[DOI: 10.13164/re.2017.1143]
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TDOA, Frequency and Phase Offsets Estimation Taking Into Account Carrier Phase of Arrival

This paper deals with estimation of time difference of arrival (TDOA) and phase and frequency offsets between the channels in a receiving system with two distributed time synchronized, but phase and frequency unlocked channels. The system receives a radio signal with a known waveform. We analyze the impacts of using the carrier phase of arrival (CPOA) on parameter estimation accuracy. Depending on which of the parameters are unknown, three cases are considered. For the case when phase, frequency, and time shifts are all unknown, we derive the Fisher Information Matrix (FIM) in closed form, and Cramer-Rao bound (CRB) closed form expressions for the unknown phase and frequency offsets case, and the unknown TDOA case. Two maximum likelihood type (ML) statistically efficient estimation algorithms are proposed. The CRBs and simulation results show that in the unknown TDOA case the accuracy of TDOA estimation can be significantly increased by using CPOA.

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Keywords: Time Difference of Arrival (TDOA), Carrier Phase of Arrival (CPOA), frequency offset, phase offset, dual unlocked sensors, Distributed Beamforming (DB)

**J. Pribil, A. Pribilova, J. Matousek**
[references] [full-text]
[DOI: 10.13164/re.2017.1151]
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Automatic Text-Independent Artifact Detection, Localization, and Classification in the Synthetic Speech

The paper describes experiments with statistical approaches to automatic detection, localization, and classification of the basic types of artifacts in the synthetic speech produced by the Czech text-to-speech system using the unit selection method. The first experiment is aimed at artifact detection by the analysis of variances (ANOVA) and hypothesis testing. The second experiment is focused on localization of the detected artifacts by the Gaussian mixture models (GMM). Finally, the developed open-set artifact classifier is described. The influence of the feature vector length and structure on the resulting artifact detection accuracy is analyzed together with other factors affecting the stability of the artifact detection process. Further investigations have shown a relatively great influence of the number of mixtures and the type of a covariance matrix on the artifact classification error rate as well as on the computational complexity. The obtained experimental results confirm the functionality of the artifact detector based on the ANOVA and hypothesis tests, and the GMM-based artifact localizer and classifier. The described statistical approaches represent the alternatives to the standard listening tests and the manual labeling of the artifacts.

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Keywords: Quality of synthetic speech, analysis of variances (ANOVA), Gaussian mixture models (GMM) classification, text-to-speech (TTS) system

**S. Surendran, T. K. Kumar**
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[DOI: 10.13164/re.2017.1161]
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Signal Subspace Speech Enhancement with Oblique Projection and Normalization

In this paper, a subspace speech enhancement method handling colored noise using oblique projection is proposed. Perceptual features and variance normalization are used to reduce residual noise and improve speech intelligibility of the output. Initially, additive noise is removed from the noisy speech by removing the orthogonal noise subspace from the noisy speech subspace to obtain the speech subspace. Then, the oblique projection of the noise subspace on the speech subspace along the additive noise subspace is used to determine the colored noise that remains. The enhanced clean speech signal is estimated using Spectral Domain Constrained Estimator, incorporating the masking property of the auditory system and the variance of the colored noise. To avoid the occurrence of any abrupt spikes in the output, variance normalization is performed by adaptively changing the control parameter of the gain matrix. The spectrogram, objective measures and subjective intelligibility test show superior performance of the proposed method over other existing speech enhancement methods.

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Keywords: Speech enhancement, signal subspace approach, masking property, oblique projection, variance normalization

**A. G. Pakfiliz**
[references] [full-text]
[DOI: 10.13164/re.2017.1169]
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Automatic Detection of Aerial Vehicle in Cloudy Environment by Using Wavelet Enhancement Technique

Automatic target detection of surface to air surveillance and tracking systems in video applications is an important issue, because it is the first step for track initiation and continuity. Target detection can be readily overcome for clear sky conditions, but it may be a complicated problem for cloudy sky conditions. In order to fulfill automatic target detection by using conventional image processing techniques may be a hard problem in cloudy sky conditions and improper light affects. The difficulty comes from the clutter rates stem from clouds, and the target may get lost in the clutters that occupies in the whole frame area. In order to increase the detection possibility background clutters should be eliminated by using image processing techniques frame by frame. In this work a novel approach is proposed to detect air vehicles in every kind of cloudy sky conditions. For this purpose a wavelet based image enhancement algorithm is implemented to the video frames, then conventional techniques are used. These conventional techniques are the reciprocal pixel intensity measurement data usage, Sobel operator and thresholding processes for edge detection. The proposed algorithm gives outstanding results for flying object detection in different sky conditions.

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Keywords: Air object detection, wavelet enhancement, edge detection, reciprocal pixel intensity

**K. N. Sukhia , M. M. Riaz, A. Ghafoor, N. Iltaf**
[references] [full-text]
[DOI: 10.13164/re.2017.1177]
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Overlapping White Blood Cells Detection Based on Watershed Transform and Circle Fitting

White blood cell (WBC) count and segmentation is considered to be important step to diagnose diseases like leukemia, malaria etc. Automatic analysis of blood smear images will help hematologists to detect WBCs efficiently and effectively as compared to manual analysis which is quite time consuming. Therefore, an automatic white blood cells detection technique for complex blood smear images is proposed. The proposed scheme uses segmentation and edge map extraction for the separation of overlapped WBCs and further parametric circle approximation is used which is capable of detecting both separated and overlapped white blood cells. Simulation results compared with the existing techniques verify the accuracy and robustness of the proposed scheme.

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Keywords: Microscopic imaging, cell detection, circle fitting, segmentation

**V. Ya. Noskov, K. A. Ignatkov, A. P. Chupahin, A. S. Vasilyev, G. P. Ermak, S. M. Smolskiy**
[references] [full-text]
[DOI: 10.13164/re.2017.1182]
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Signals of Autodyne Sensors with Sinusoidal Frequency Modulation

Research results of signal formation features of the autodyne sensor (AS) with sinusoidal frequency modulation (FM) are presented. Expressions for low frequency information signals are given and their numerical analysis is performed for cases when signal period is substantially longer than reflected radiation delay time as well as for the case when this inequality is not fulfilled. It is proved that at a small distance to the reflected object when feedback parameter value is commensurable with 1, the distortions of FM AS signals are typically caused by reflected radiation phase incursion irregularities. When distance grows the distortion level becomes significantly smaller due to delay phenomenon of reflected radiation. Experimental research results are obtained on the example of the autodyne oscillator based on the 8-mm wavelength range Gunn diode with varicap-based FM.

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Keywords: Autodyne, autodyne signals, autodyne sensor, frequency modulation, Gunn-diode oscillator