April 2016, Volume 25, Number 1 [DOI: 10.13164/re.2016-1]
New generation of Earth observation sensors are creating an increasing amount of data which has to be delivered from space-to-ground. Additionally, many applications require timely availability of this sensor data. As new link technologies have been made available in the last years and data rate requirements are still increasing a revise of the conventional direct-downlink technology at X-band frequencies is essential. This work aims in a trade-off of the available direct-downlink technologies for satellites in low, polar orbits. Generally, there are two approaches to fulfill the requirement of timely delivery of a huge amount of data from space-to-ground. This is either increasing space-to-ground contact time resulting in a more complex ground station network or increasing carrier frequency whereas link reliability is limited by atmospheric effects. In this work different approaches like using K$_a$-band or utilizing ground station network with additional locations are compared against each other.
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Keywords: Earth observation, downlink technologies, space mission design, space-to-ground link
Antenna parameters particularly relevant to electrically small antenna design are reviewed in this paper. Source current definitions are accentuated leading to the introduction of the source concept which advantageously utilize only spatially bounded quantities. The framework of the source concept incorporates powerful techniques such as structural and modal decomposition, operator’s inversion and current optimization, thus opening new, challenging possibilities for antenna design, analysis and synthesis.
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Keywords: Poynting theorem, antenna theory, stored energy, quality factor Q, source concept
Rapid industrialization and increasing demand of business tools for high-speed communications supports the request for optical communications in free space. Copper cables and related technologies such as cable modems and Digital Subscriber Line (DSL) are common in existing networks, but do not meet the bandwidth requirement in the future, which opens the door to optical wireless communication technologies. Research in links for optical wireless communication (Infra Red Line of Sight, IR LOS) working in the atmosphere is due to the wide support of its development on the world market. Optical wireless communications research is currently focused on increasing the transmission quality of data links. A promising new trend in data connection through IR LOS includes the transfer of accurate time synchronization pulses (time transmission). The article presents problems of modeling and design of a transmitter and receiver with a fully photonic concept. The analysis of the power levels at the link and drawn a model for determining the connection losses at the receiver caused by optical coupling between a Schmidt-Cassegrain telescope and the receiving optical fiber is shown.
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Keywords: Optical wireless communications, fully photonic link, atmospheric phenomena, angle of arrival
In-line and reflective semiconductor optical amplifiers (SOA and RSOA) can be effectively utilized as external optical intensity modulators. However the limited modulation bandwidth affects the application possibilities, because next generation access networks desire high transmission speed. Bandwidth enhancement can be achieved by means of optical equalization thanks to the chirping characteristics of semiconductor optical amplifier. The limited modulation transfer function can be combined with the converted phase modulation transfer function. Investigation of optical filter with optimal slope is a crucial challenge in this approach. The presented simulations describe the slope dependence of the modulation band. The model can take into account the different type of realizable optical filters. However there is a trade-off between modulation efficiency and modulation bandwidth due to the extra insertion loss of the set-off optical filter. In the paper theoretical and simulation investigations are presented with the result of improved modulation bandwidth.
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Keywords: Semiconductor Optical Amplifier, modulation bandwidth, frequency discriminator, optical filter, chirp parameter
In this paper, we provide some insight into the usage of fast, iterative, method-of-moments (MoM) solution of integral equations (IE) describing antennas and other metallic structures immersed in a planar multilayered environment. Based on the form of multilayered media Green's functions, we extract free-space terms, associated with direct rays within the analyzed structure, reducing the number of significant interactions required to describe the rest of MoM matrix. Next, we show that it is possible to construct a hybrid algorithm, where the fast multipole method (FMM) is used to the free-space matrix part, while the reduced rank incomplete QR (iQR) decomposition is applied to the remaining portion of the MoM matrix. This HM-iQR (hybrid multipole - incomplete QR) method is applied to a relatively large (in terms o f the number of unknowns) problem of plane wave scattering by a finite array of rectangular microstrip patches printed on a grounded dielectric slab. Computation results from the new algorithm are compared to literature data and to the results of the pure low rank IE-QR method.
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Keywords: Method-of-moments, fast multipole method, low rank IE-QR algorithm, integral equations
M. Borhani Kakhki, P. Rezaei, V. Sharbati, M M. Fakharian
Small Square Reconfigurable Antenna with Switchable Single/Tri-Band Functions
A novel frequency reconfigurable slot antenna for suitable switchable radiations at WLAN and a tri-band at Bluetooth, WiMAX and upper WLAN applications is designed and fabricated. Switchable frequency responses are achieved by implementation of a PIN diode within the antenna ground plane. The antenna structure is consist of a square radiation patch with an E-shaped slot, a modified ground plane with an inverted T-shaped strip that act as a parasitic stub and two parallel slots and a protruded strip which is connected to the parasitic stub with a PIN diode. The presented antenna has a compact size of 20×20 mm2 while providing switchable radiations at 2.36-2.5 GHz Bluetooth, 3.51-3.79 GHz WiMAX, and 5.47-5.98 GHz WLAN when diode is ON and 5.04-6.13 GHz WLAN when diode is OFF.
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Keywords: E-shaped slot, frequency reconfigurable, inverted T-shaped strip, parasitic stub, rectangular-shaped notches
X. Liu, J. Gao, X.Y. Cao, Y. Zhao, W.Q. Li, S.J. Li, N. Li
A High-gain and Low-scattering Waveguide Slot Antenna of Artificial Magnetic Conductor Octagonal Ring Arrangement
A novel design of high-gain and low-scattering waveguide slot antenna is proposed in this paper. Firstly the scattering pattern of artificial magnetic conductor (AMC) composite surface is estimated by array factor analysis method. The comparison between octagonal ring arrangement and chessboard arrangement proves that the former arrangement has the characteristic of diffuseness-like and expands the bandwidth of radar cross section (RCS) reduction. Secondly, the metal surface of waveguide slot antenna (WSA) is replaced by the octagonal ring arrangement composite surface (ORACS). The gain is improved because of spurious radiation units which are around the slot. At the same time using the phase cancellation principle, a backscatter null achieves RCS reduction in the vertical direction. Experimental results show that the novel antenna after loading with the ORACS, the gain is improved by 5dB; the bandwidth of RCS reduction (reduction greater than 10dB) is 5.24-5.92 GHz.
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Keywords: Waveguide slot antenna, artificial magnetic conductor, octagonal ring arrangement.
M. Fartookzadeh, S. H. Mohseni Armaki, S. M. J. Razavi, J. Rashed-Mohassel
Optimum Functions for Radial Wires of Monopole Antennas with Arbitrary Elevation Angles
Monopole antennas on the earth usually use ground screen with simple radial wires to improve their radiation performance. The number of radials,N, is usually considered a constant in the screen. This paper studies the effect of changing N and considering it as a function of distance, ρ, from the monopole using a simple and yet a fast method. The function N(ρ) is optimized for different beam angles of an HF monopoleantenna. The theoretical functions are converted to practical functions to be formed using meandered lines. Practicable calculated results are validated bymethod of moments. Furthermore it is shown that for low angle radiation aconstant N(ρ) with optimized radius of the ground screen is the best choice. The results can be used for higher frequencies, i.e. VHF and UHF frequency bands as well.
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Keywords: Compensation theorem, antenna ground plane, antenna impedance, HF propagation, monopole antenna, radial wires
This paper presents a compact multiband bandstop filter (BSF) that utilizes an I-stub embedded within a meandered defected microstrip structure (MDMS). The proposed design for obtaining a single stopband is analyzed by using a transmission line network model. On the basis of the single stopband structure, we designed and fabricated a dual- and tri-band bandstop filters operating at 2.5/6.78 GHz and 1.98/5.60/7.78 GHz, respectively, thereby exploring the concept of generating as many stopbands by simply adding the same number of I-stubs. The proposed filter also features the possibility of tuning the resonant frequencies by varying the width of the I-stubs.
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Keywords: Multiband, bandstop filter (BSF), defected microstrip structure (DMS), I-stub
A dual-layer, bandstop frequency selective surface (FSS) is presented in this paper for wideband applications. Each layer uses patch type FSS with slots for miniaturization and are cascaded with an air gap in between. The low-profile FSS with unit cell dimension on the order of 0.2λ0×0.2λ0 provides transmission coefficient below -10dB in the frequency range of 4-7 GHz with 56% bandwidth. The FSS exhibits a nearly linear phase variation with frequency in the operating band and can be used as a substrate below planar wide band antennas with bi-directional radiation for enhancing its gain, directivity in the broadside direction as well as shielding it against nearby conductive surfaces such as metal cases, other printed antennas. Detailed design method, equivalent circuit analysis and measurement results of the FSS are presented in this paper.
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Keywords: Frequency Selective Surface, reflection phase, bandstop, wideband, reflector
This paper presents a novel full-wave technique which allows for a fast 3D finite element analysis of waveguide structures containing rotatable tuning elements of arbitrary shapes. Rotation of these elements changes the resonant frequencies of the structure, which can be used in the tuning process to obtain the S-characteristics desired for the device. For fast commutations of the response as the tuning elements are rotated, the 3D finite element method is supported by multilevel model-order reduction, orthogonal projection at the boundaries of macromodels and the operation called macromodels cloning. All the time-consuming steps are performed only once in the preparatory stage. In the tuning stage, only small parts of the domain are updated, by means of a special meshing technique. In effect, the tuning process is performed extremely rapidly. The results of the numerical experiments confirm the efficiency and validity of the proposed method.
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B. F. Zong, G. M. Wang, H. Y. Zeng, Y. W. Wang, D. Wang
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In this paper, a broadband circularly polarized (CP) microstrip antenna array using composite right/left-handed transmission line (SCRLH-TL) based sequential rotation (SR) feed network is presented. The characteristics of a SCRLH-TL are initially investigated. Then, a broadband and low insertion loss 45º phase shifter is designed using the SCRLH-TL and the phase shifter is employed in constructing a SR feed network for CP antenna array. To validate the design method of the SR feed network, a 2×2 antenna array comprising sequentially rotated coupled stacked CP antenna elements is designed, fabricated and measured. Both the simulated and measured results indicate that the performances of the antenna element are further enhanced when the SR network is used. The antenna array exhibits the VSWR less than 1.8 dB from 4 GHz to 7 GHz and the 3 dB axial ratio (AR) from 4.4 GHz to 6.8 GHz. Also, high peak gain of 13.7 dBic is obtained. Besides, the normalized radiation patterns at the operating frequencies are symmetrical and the side lobe levels are low at φ=0º and φ=90º.
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Keywords: Simplified composite right/left-handed transmission line (SCRLH-TL), circularly polarized (CP), broadband, sequential rotation (SR) feed network
V. R. Gonzalez-Diaz, J. M. Munoz-Pacheco, G. Espinosa-Flores-Verdad, L. A. Sanchez-Gaspariano
A Verilog-A Based Fractional Frequency Synthesizer Model for Fast and Accurate Noise Assessment
This paper presents a new strategy to simulate fractional frequency synthesizer behavioral models with better performance and reduced simulation time. The models are described in Verilog-A with accurate phase noise predictions and they are based on a time jitter to power spectral density transformation of the principal noise sources in a synthesizer. The results of a fractional frequency synthesizer simulation is compared with state of the art Verilog-A descriptions showing a reduction of nearly 20 times. In addition, experimental results of a fractional frequency synthesizer are compared to the simulation results to validate the proposed model.
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Keywords: Frequency Synthesizers, Fractional, Modeling, Sigma-Delta, Phase Noise, Verilog-A
J. Zhang, T. Jin, Y. He, Z. M. Zhou
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A complete centralized processing framework is proposed for human tracking using multistatic radar in the foliage-penetration environment. The configuration of the multistatic radar system is described. Primary attention is devoted to time of arrival (TOA) estimation and target localization. An improved approach that takes the geometrical center as the TOA estimation of the human target is given. The minimum mean square error paring (MMSEP) approach is introduced for multi-target localization in the multistatic radar system. An improved MMSEP algorithm is proposed using the maximum velocity limitation and the global nearest neighbor criterion, efficiently decreasing the computational cost of MMSEP. The experimental results verify the effectiveness of the centralized processing framework.
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Keywords: Multistatic radar, foliage penetration, human tracking, TOA estimation, target localization
This article investigates the error performance of wireless communication systems that employ binary modulations and Amplify-and-Forward (AF) relaying over flat Nakagami-m faded links with maximum ratio combining (MRC) at destination. Specifically, we derive a simple yet accurate closed-form approximation for the average bit error probability (ABEP) and closed-form expressions for its tight upper and lower bounds. The effect of power imbalance between the relayed links is also studied. Numerical investigations show good agreement between proposed theoretical results and simulations whereas our performance bounds are shown to be tighter than previously proposed bounds for the case of unbalanced relayed links.
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Keywords: Amplify-and-forward (AF) relaying, maximal-ratio combining (MRC), Nakagami fading, error analysis.
M. Hatamian, M. Almasi Bardmily, M. Asadboland, M. Hatamian, H. Barati
Congestion-Aware Routing and Fuzzy-based Rate Controller for Wireless Sensor Networks
In this paper, congestion-aware routing and fuzzy-based rate controller for wireless sensor networks (WSNs) is proposed. The proposed method tries to make a distinction between locally generated data and transit data by using a priority-based mechanism which provides a novel queueing model. Furthermore, a novel congestion-aware routing using greedy approach is proposed. The proposed congestion-aware routing tries to find more affordable routes. Moreover, a fuzzy rate controller is utilized for rate controlling which uses two criteria as its inputs, including congestion score and buffer occupancy. These two parameters are based on total packet input rate, packet forwarding rate at MAC layer, number of packets in the queue buffer, and total buffer size at each node. As soon as the congestion is detected, the notification signal is sent to offspring nodes. As a result, they are able to adjust their data transmission rate. Simulation results clearly show that the implementation of the proposed method using a greedy approach and fuzzy logic has done significant reduction in terms of packet loss rate, end-to-end delay and average energy consumption.
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Keywords: Wireless sensor networks, congestion control, fuzzy logic, greedy routing, buffer occupancy
The channel matched filter (CMF) is the optimum receiver providing the maximum signal to noise ratio (SNR) for the frequency selective channels. The output intersymbol interference (ISI) profile of the CMF convolved by the channel can be blindly obtained by using the autocorrelation of the received signal. Therefore, the inverse of the autocorrelation function can be used to equalize the channel passed through its own CMF. The only missing part to complete the proposed blind operation is the CMF coefficients. Therefore, in this work, the best training algorithm investigation is subjected for blind estimation of the CMF coefficients. The proposed method allows using more effective training algorithms for blind equalizations. However, the expected high performance training is obtained when the swarm intelligence is used. Unlike the stochastic gradient algorithms, the particle swarm optimization (PSO) is known to have fast convergence because its performance is independent of the characteristics of the systems used. The obtained mean square error (MSE) and bit error rate (BER) performances are promising for high performance real-time systems as an alternative to non-blind equalization techniques.
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Keywords: Blind channel estimation, blind channel equalization, particle swarm optimization, channel matched filter
We present a method of contactless smart card protocol modeling suitable for ﬁnding vulnerabilities using model checking. Smart cards are used in applications that require high level of security, such as payment applications, therefore it should be ensured that the implementation does not contain any vulnerabilities. High level application speciﬁcations may lead to different implementations. Protocol that is proved to be secure on high level and that uses secure smart card can be implemented in more than one way, some of these implementations are secure, some of them introduce vulnerabilities to the application. The goal of this paper is to provide a method that can be used to create a model of arbitrary smart card, with focus on contactless smart cards, to create a model of the protocol, and to use model checking to find attacks in this model. AVANTSSAR Platform was used for the formal verification, the models are written in the ASLan++ language. Examples demonstrate the usability of the proposed method.
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Keywords: Security, Smart Card, Model Checking, ASLan++, Formal Veriﬁcation, Protocol
Attenuation caused by tree shadowing is an important factor for describing the propagation channel of satellite services. Thus, vegetation effects should be determined by experimental studies or empirical formulations. In this study, tree types in the Black Sea Region of Turkey are classified based on their geometrical shapes into four groups such as conic, ellipsoid, spherical and hemispherical. The variations of the vegetation depth according to different tree shapes are calculated with ray tracing method. It is showed that different geometrical shapes have different vegetation depths even if they have same foliage volume for different elevation angles. The proposed method is validated with the related literature in terms of average single tree attenuation. On the other hand, due to decrease system requirements (speed, memory usage etc.) of ray tracing method, an artificial neural network is proposed as an alternative. A graphical user interface is created for the above processes in MATLAB environment named vegetation depth estimation tool (VdET).
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Keywords: MATLAB™ estimation tool, ray tracing, satellite services, tree attenuation, tree shape, vegetation depth.
The paper presents a novel distributed classifier of the convergence, which allows to detect the convergence/the divergence of a distributed converging algorithm. Since this classifier is supposed to be primarily applied in wireless sensor networks, its proposal makes provision for the character of these networks. The classifier is based on the mechanism of comparison of the forward finite differences from two consequent iterations. The convergence/the divergence is classifiable only in terms of the changes of the inner states of a particular node and therefore, no message redundancy is required for its proper functionality.
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Keywords: Distributed computing, wireless sensor networks, average consensus, distributed classifier
A systematic and self controlled prototype filter design approach for multichannel Cosine Modulated Near Perfect Reconstruction (NPR) filter bank is proposed in this paper. The primary goal is to design a prototype filter with enhanced performance i.e., minimum amplitude distortion and aliasing error. This algorithm approximates 3dB cutoff frequency very close to π/2M. This is achieved by selecting suitable step size which is a function of transition width. If the selection of step size is too fine, the objective function oscillates. Whereas, if step size is coarse, 3dB cutoff frequency will not be close to π/2M. This will degrade the overall performance of the prototype filter. Thus by choosing the step size as a function of transition width and varying the step size from coarser to finer level, the minimum amplitude distortion and aliasing error can be definitely achieved. The proposed filter is designed using two input parameters: number of subbands M and attenuation A and all other system parameters are derived from it to avoid heuristic inputs. Simulation results indicate better performance with reference to algorithms existing in literature. In addition, the design approach is systematic and self controlled.
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Keywords: Filter bank, low pass prototype, subband, cosine modulation, NPR
S. Matuska, R. Hudec, P. Kamencay, M. Benco, M. Radilova
A Novel System for Non-Invasive Method of Animal Tracking and Classification in Designated Area Using Intelligent Camera System
This paper proposed a novel system for non-invasive method of animal tracking and classification in designated area. The system is based on intelligent devices with cameras, which are situated in a designated area and a main computing unit (MCU) acting as a system master. Intelligent devices track animals and then send data to MCU to evaluation. The main purpose of this system is detection and classification of moving animals in a designated area and then creation of migration corridors of wild animals. In the intelligent devices, background subtraction method and CAMShift algorithm are used to detect and track animals in the scene. Then, visual descriptors are used to create representation of unknown objects. In order to achieve the best accuracy in classification, key frame extraction method is used to filtrate an object from detection module. Afterwards, Support Vector Machine is used to classify unknown moving animals.
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Keywords: Animal recognition, object tracking, migration corridors, ASFAR system.
This article deals with modeling of astronomical objects, which is one of the most fundamental topics in astronomical science. Introduction part is focused on problem description and used methods. Point Spread Function Modeling part deals with description of basic models used in astronomical photometry and further on introduction of more sophisticated models such as combinations of interference, turbulence, focusing, etc. This paper also contains a~way of objective function definition based on the knowledge of Poisson distributed noise, which is included in astronomical data. The proposed methods are further applied to real astronomical data.
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Keywords: Astronomical Image, Point Spread Function, Poisson Noise, Objetive Function
This paper develops a box-particle implementation of cardinalized probability hypothesis density filter to track multiple targets and estimate the unknown number of targets. A box particle is a random sample that occupies a small and controllable rectangular region of nonzero volume in the target state space. In box-particle filter the huge number of traditional point observations is instead by a remarkably reduced number of interval measurements. It decreases the number of particles significantly and reduces the runtime considerably. The proposed algorithm based on box-particle is able to reach a similar accuracy to a Sequential Monte Carlo cardinalized probability hypothesis density (SMC-CPHD) filter with much less computational costs. Not only does it propagates the PHD, but also propagates the cardinality distribution of target number. Therefore, it generates more accurate and stable instantaneous estimates of target number as well as target state than the box-particle probability hypothesis density (BP-PHD) filter does especially in dense clutter environment. Comparison and analysis based on the simulations in different probability of detection and different clutter rate have been done. The effectiveness and reliability of the proposed algorithm are verified by the simulation results.
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Keywords: Multi-target tracking, CPHD filter, PHD filter, box-particle filter, interval measurements
S. Tadic, M.B. Vukajlovic
Experimental Verification of Inertial Navigation with MEMS for Forensic Investigation of Vehicle Collision
This paper studies whether low-grade inertial sensors can be adequate source of data for the accident characterization and the estimation of vehicle trajectory near crash. Paper presents outcomes of an experiment carried out in accredited safety performance assessment facility in which full-size passenger car was crashed and the recordings of different types of motion sensors were compared to investigate practical level of accuracy of consumer grade sensors versus reference equipment and cameras. Inertial navigation system was developed by combining motion sensors of different dynamic ranges to acquire and process vehicle crash data. Vehicle position was reconstructed in three-dimensional space using strap-down inertial mechanization. Difference between the computed trajectory and the ground-truth position acquired by cameras was on decimeter level within short time window of 750 ms. Experiment findings suggest that inertial sensors of this grade, despite significant stochastic variations and imperfections, can be valuable for estimation of velocity vector change, crash severity, direction of impact force, and for estimation of vehicle trajectory in crash proximity.
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Keywords: Accelerometer, gyroscopes, vehicle crash testing, navigation, positioning
Whenever more than one target exist, the most important problem is associating the received signals to the correct targets. This problem appears for all multiple target applications such as multiple target tracking and it is known as "Data Association". For frequency-based systems, Multiple-Input Multiple-Output (MIMO) configuration together with the frequency diversity of the system enable us to determine the number of moving targets by using the Doppler frequencies. These frequencies include all relevant information about the location, velocity and direction of the targets and hence, they can be used efficiently to estimate the other unknown target parameters.
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Keywords: Data association, MIMO radar, frequency-only, Doppler frequency
The L1-norm based tensor analysis (TPCA-L1) is recently proposed for dimensionality reduction and feature extraction. However, a greedy strategy was utilized for solving the L1-norm maximization problem, which makes it prone to being stuck in local solutions. In this paper, we propose a robust TPCA with non-greedy L1-norm maximization (TPCA-L1 non-greedy), in which all projection directions are optimized simultaneously. Experiments on several face databases demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method.
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Keywords: Principal component analysis (PCA), TPCA, L1-norm, outliers, non-greedy strategy
E. Fatemi-Behbahani, E. Farshidi, K. Ansari-Asl
Analysis of Residue Probability Density Function and Comparator Offset Error in Pipelined ADCs
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Keywords: Comparator offset error, half-bit redundancy, pipelined ADC, power spectral density (PSD), probability density function (pdf), quantization noise.