# April 2016, Volume 25, Number 1 [DOI: 10.13164/re.2016-1]

**H. Henniger, S. Seyfarth, E. Diedrich**
[references] [full-text]
[DOI: 10.13164/re.2016.0001]
[Download Citations]

Analysis and Comparison of new Downlink Technologies for Earth Observation Satellites

New generation of Earth observation sensors are creating an increasing amount of data which has to be delivered from space-to-ground. Additionally, many applications require timely availability of this sensor data. As new link technologies have been made available in the last years and data rate requirements are still increasing a revise of the conventional direct-downlink technology at X-band frequencies is essential. This work aims in a trade-off of the available direct-downlink technologies for satellites in low, polar orbits. Generally, there are two approaches to fulfill the requirement of timely delivery of a huge amount of data from space-to-ground. This is either increasing space-to-ground contact time resulting in a more complex ground station network or increasing carrier frequency whereas link reliability is limited by atmospheric effects. In this work different approaches like using K$_a$-band or utilizing ground station network with additional locations are compared against each other.

- EILERTSEN, B., HYVONEN, P. Ground station networks vs. GEO relay satellite systems for polar orbiting satellites. In 12th International Conference on Space Operations. Stockholm (Sweden), 2012. DOI: 10.2514/6.2012-1290826
- LEE, D., GRAY, A., KANG, E. et al. A Gigabit-per-second Kaband demonstration using a reconfigurable FPGA modulator. In IEEE Aerospace Conference. Big Sky (MT, USA), 2005, p. 1370–1378. DOI:10.1109/AERO.2005.1559427
- Consultative Committee For Space Data Systems. Recommended Standard CCSDS 131.2-B-1: Flexible Advanced Coding and Modulation Scheme for High Rate Telemetry Applications. March 2012.
- HENNIGER, H., WILFERT, O. An introduction to free-space optical communications. Radioengineering, 2010, vol. 19, no. 2, p. 203–212.
- HENNIGER, H., LUDWIG, A., HORWATH, J. Performance bounds of DPSK and OOK for low elevation optical LEO downlinks. Radioengineering, 2010, vol. 19, no. 4, p. 586–595.
- GREGORY, M., HEINE, F., KAEMPFNER, H., et al. TESAT laser communication terminal performance results on 5.6 Gbit coherent intersatellite and satellite to ground links. In International Conference on Space Optics. Rhodes Island (Greece), 2010.
- GREGORY, M., TROENDLE, D., MUEHLNIKEL, G., et al. Three years coherent space to ground links: Performance results and outlook for the optical ground station equipped with adaptive optics. SPIE Proceedings, 2013, vol. 8610. DOI: 10.1117/12.2022253.
- KLUGEL, T., HOPPNER, K., FALK, R., et al. Earth and space observation at the German Antarctic receiving station O’Higgins. Polar Record, 2015, vol. 51, no. 6, p. 590–610. DOI: 10.1017/S0032247414000540
- IPPOLITO, L. Satellite Communications Systems Engineering: Atmospheric Effects, Satellite Link Design and System Performance, 1st ed. Wiley, 2008. ISBN: 978-0-470-72527-6
- International Telecommunication Union. ITU-R P.878-36: Specific Attenuation Model for Rain for Use in Prediction Methods, 2005
- International Telecommunication Union. ITU-R P.873-6: Characteristics of Precipitation for Propagation Modelling, 2012.
- International Telecommunication Union. ITU-R P.618-11: Propagation Data and Prediction Methods Required for the Design of EarthSpace Telecommunication Systems, 2013.
- BARCLAY, L. W. Propagation of Radiowaves, 2nd ed. IET, 2008. ISBN: 9780852961025
- International Telecommunication Union.ITU-R P.840-6: Attenuation Due to Clouds and Fog, 2013.
- SALBY, M. Fundamentals of Atmospheric Physics, 1st ed. Academic Press, 1996. ISBN: 978-0-12-615160-2
- SAUNDERS, S., ZAVALA, A. Antennas and Propagation for Wireless Communication Systems, 2nd ed. Wiley, 2007. ISBN: 978-0-470- 84879-1
- International Telecommunication Union. ITU-R P.676-10: Attenuation by Atmospheric Gases, 2013.

Keywords: Earth observation, downlink technologies, space mission design, space-to-ground link

**P. Hazdra, M. Capek, M. Masek, T. Lonsky**
[references] [full-text]
[DOI: 10.13164/re.2016.0012]
[Download Citations]

An Introduction to the Source Concept for Antennas

Antenna parameters particularly relevant to electrically small antenna design are reviewed in this paper. Source current definitions are accentuated leading to the introduction of the source concept which advantageously utilize only spatially bounded quantities. The framework of the source concept incorporates powerful techniques such as structural and modal decomposition, operator’s inversion and current optimization, thus opening new, challenging possibilities for antenna design, analysis and synthesis.

- MIKKI, S. M., ANTAR, Y. M. M. On cross correlation in antenna arrays with applications to spatial diversity and MIMO systems. IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation, 2015, vol. 63, no. 14, p. 1798–1810. DOI: 10.1109/TAP.2015.2398113
- CISMASU, M., GUSTAFSSON, M. Antenna bandwidth optimization with single frequency simulation. IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation, 2013, vol. 62, no. 3, p. 1304–1311. DOI: 10.1109/TAP.2013.2295426
- BRILLOUIN, L. Origin of the radiation resistance. Radioelectricite, April 1922, vol. 3, p. 147–152.
- HARRINGTON, R. F. Matrix methods for field problems. Proceedings of the IEEE, 1967, vol. 55, no. 2, p. 136–149. DOI: 10.1109/PROC.1967.5433
- PAPAS, Ch. Theory of Electromagnetic Wave Propagation. Dover, 1965. ISBN: 0486656780
- VOLAKIS, J., CHEN, Ch., FUJIMOTO, K. Small Antennas: Miniaturization Techniques and Applications. McGraw-Hill, 2010. ISBN: 978-0071625531
- GUSTAFSSON, M., SOHL, Ch., KRISTENSSON, G. Physical limitations on antennas of arbitrary shape. Proceedings of the Royal Society A, 2007, vol. 463, no. 2086. DOI: 10.1098/rspa.2007.1893
- THAL, H. Polarization, gain, and Q for small antennas. IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation, 2011, vol. 59, no. 12, p. 4844–4848. DOI: 10.1109/TAP.2011.2165508
- GEYI, W. Handset antenna design: Practice and theory. Progress in Electromagnetics Research PIER80, 2008, p. 123–160. [Online] Cited 2016-02-26. Available at: http://jpier.org/PIER/pier80/07.07111302.pdf
- VANDENBOSCH, G. A. E. Reactive energies, impedance and Q factor of radiating structures. IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation, 2010, vol. 58, no. 4, p. 1112–1127. DOI: 10.1109/TAP.2010.2041166
- GUSTAFSSON, M., JONSSON, B. L.G. Antenna Q and stored energy expressed in the fields, currents and input impedance. IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation, 2015, vol. 63, no. 1, p. 240–249. DOI: 10.1109/TAP.2014.2368111
- RHODES, D. Observable stored energies of electromagnetic systems. Journal of the Franklin Institute, 1976, vol. 302, no. 3, p. 225–237.
- CAPEK, M., JELINEK, L., HAZDRA, P., EICHLER, J. The measurable Q factor and observable energies of radiating structures. IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation, 2013, vol. 62, no. 1, p. 311–318. DOI: 10.1109/TAP.2013.2287519
- CAPEK, M., JELINEK, L., VANDENBOSCH, G. A. E. Stored Electromagnetic Energy and Quality Factor of Radiating Structures. [Online] Cited 2016-02-26. Available at: http://arxiv.org/pdf/1403.0572.pdf
- HAZDRA, P., CAPEK, M., EICHLER, J. Comments to “Reactive Energies, Impedance, and Q Factor of Radiating Structures” by G. Vandenbosch. IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation, 2013, vol. 61, no. 12, p. 6266–6267. DOI: 10.1109/TAP.2013.2281566
- CHEN, Y. FANG, Ch. Characteristic Modes: Theory and Applications in Antenna Engineering. Wiley, 2015. ISBN: 978-1- 119-03842-9
- CAPEK, M., JELINEK, L. Optimal Composition of Modal Currents For Minimal Quality Factor Q. [Online] Cited 2016-02-26. Available at: http://arxiv.org/pdf/1602.04808.pdf
- The Antenna Toolbox in Matlab. [Online] Cited 2016-02-26. Available at: http://antennatoolbox.com/
- CAPEK, M., JELINEK, L. Optimal Currents on Arbitrarily Shaped Surfaces. [Online] Cited 2016-02-26. Available at: http://arxiv.org/pdf/1602.05520.pdf
- JORDAN, E.C., BALMAIN, K. G. Electromagnetic Waves and Radiating Systems. Prentice-Hall, 1968. ISBN: 9780132499958
- YAGHJIAN, A. D., BEST, S. R. Impedance, bandwidth, and Q of antennas. IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation, 2005, vol. 53, no. 4, p. 1298–1324. DOI: 10.1109/TAP.2005.844443
- HARRINGTON, R. F. Field Computation by Moment Methods. Wiley, 1993. ISBN: 9780780310148
- GUSTAFSSON, M., CISMASU, M., JONSSON, B. L. G. Physical bounds and optimal currents on antennas. IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation, 2012, vol. 60, no. 6, p. 2672–2681. DOI: 10.1109/TAP.2012.2194658
- CAPEK, M., JELINEK, J., HAZDRA, P. On the functional relation between quality factor and fractional bandwidth. IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation, 2015, vol. 63, no. 6, p. 2787–2790. DOI: 10.1109/TAP.2015.2414472
- KAJFEZ, D., WHELESS, W. P. Invariant definitions of the unloaded Q factor. IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques, 1986, vol. 34, no. 7, p. 840–841. DOI: 10.1109/TMTT.1986.1133452
- CAPEK, M., HAZDRA, P., EICHLER, J. A Method for the evaluation of radiation Q based on modal approach. IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation, 2012, vol. 60, no. 10, p. 4556–4567. DOI: 10.1109/TAP.2012.2207329
- HARRINGTON, R., MAUTZ, J. Theory of characteristic modes for conducting bodies. IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation, 1971, vol. 19, no. 5, p. 622–628. ISSN: 0018-926X, DOI: 10.1109/TAP.1971.1139999
- CAPEK, M., EICHLER, J., HAZDRA, P. Evaluating radiation efficiency from characteristic currents. IET Microwaves, Antennas and Propagation, 2015, vol. 9, no. 1, p. 10–15. DOI: 10.1049/ietmap.2013.0473

Keywords: Poynting theorem, antenna theory, stored energy, quality factor Q, source concept

**O. Wilfert, P. Barcik, Z. Kolka**
[references] [full-text]
[DOI: 10.13164/re.2016.0018]
[Download Citations]

Fully Photonic Wireless Link for Transmission of Synchronization Signals

Rapid industrialization and increasing demand of business tools for high-speed communications supports the request for optical communications in free space. Copper cables and related technologies such as cable modems and Digital Subscriber Line (DSL) are common in existing networks, but do not meet the bandwidth requirement in the future, which opens the door to optical wireless communication technologies. Research in links for optical wireless communication (Infra Red Line of Sight, IR LOS) working in the atmosphere is due to the wide support of its development on the world market. Optical wireless communications research is currently focused on increasing the transmission quality of data links. A promising new trend in data connection through IR LOS includes the transfer of accurate time synchronization pulses (time transmission). The article presents problems of modeling and design of a transmitter and receiver with a fully photonic concept. The analysis of the power levels at the link and drawn a model for determining the connection losses at the receiver caused by optical coupling between a Schmidt-Cassegrain telescope and the receiving optical fiber is shown.

- GRABNER, M., KVICERA, V. Multiple scattering in rain and fog on free-space optical links. Journal of Lightwave Technology, 2014, vol. 32, no. 3, p. 513–520. DOI: 10.1109/JLT.2013.2294356
- KOLKA, Z., et al. Propagation study of 850 nm/58 GHz hybrid municipal system. In Proc. SPIE 7814, Free-Space Laser Communications X, 2010, p. 781414-1–781414-8. DOI:10.1117/12.860508
- BARCIK, P., WILFERT, O., LEITGEB, E., HUDCOVA, L. Optimal distribution of the optical intensity within a laser beam for optical wireless communications. IET Optoelectronics, 2015, vol. 9, no. 5, p. 263-268. DOI: 10.1049/iet-opt.2014.0153
- WILFERT, O., POLIAK, J. New research areas in the field of terrestrial optical wireless links. In Proceedings of the 16th International Conference on Transparent Optical Networks ICTON 2014. Warsaw (Poland), 2014, p. 1–4. ISBN: 978-1-4799-5600-5
- WILFERT, O., KOLKA, Z., BARCIK, P., DOBESCH, A., PAVLU, M. The use of photonic technology in optical wireless links. In Conference on Microwave Techniques (COMITE 2015). Pardubice (Czech Republic), 2015, p. 1–4, DOI: 10.1109/COMITE.2015.7120323
- POLIAK, J. Diffraction Effects in Transmitted Optical Beam: Doctoral Thesis. Brno: Brno University of Technology, Faculty of Electrical Engineering and Communication, Department of Radio Electronics, 2014, 113 p. Supervised by prof. Otakar Wilfert.
- GERRARD, A., BURCH, J. M. Introduction to Matrix Methods in Optics. Dover Publications. Dover, 1975. ISBN: 9780486680446
- GOMEZ-REINO, C.,PEREZ, M. V., BAO, C., FLORES-ARIAS, M. T. Design of GRIN optical components for coupling and interconnects. Laser Photonics Reviews, 2008, vol. 2, no. 3, p. 203—215. DOI: 10.1002/lpor.200810002
- KATAOKA K. Estimation of coupling efficiency of optical fiber by far-field method. Optical Review, 2010, vol. 17, no. 5, p. 476—480. DOI: 10.1007/s10043-010-0086-4
- ANDREWS, L.C., PHILLIPS, R.L. Laser Beam Propagation through Random Media. Washington: SPIE Press, 2005. ISBN 0-8194- 5948-8
- CHURNSIDE, J. H., LATAITIS, R. J. Angle-of-arrival fluctuations of a reflected beam in atmospheric turbulence. Journal of the Optical Society of America A, 1987, vol. 4, no. 7, p. 1264–1272. DOI: 10.1364/JOSAA.4.001264
- ANDREWS, L.C. Field Guide to Atmospheric Optics. Washington: SPIE Press, 2004. ISBN 0-8194-5318-8

Keywords: Optical wireless communications, fully photonic link, atmospheric phenomena, angle of arrival

**E. Udvary**
[references] [full-text]
[DOI: 10.13164/re.2016.0026]
[Download Citations]

Off-set Filtering Effect in SOA Based Optical Access Network

In-line and reflective semiconductor optical amplifiers (SOA and RSOA) can be effectively utilized as external optical intensity modulators. However the limited modulation bandwidth affects the application possibilities, because next generation access networks desire high transmission speed. Bandwidth enhancement can be achieved by means of optical equalization thanks to the chirping characteristics of semiconductor optical amplifier. The limited modulation transfer function can be combined with the converted phase modulation transfer function. Investigation of optical filter with optimal slope is a crucial challenge in this approach. The presented simulations describe the slope dependence of the modulation band. The model can take into account the different type of realizable optical filters. However there is a trade-off between modulation efficiency and modulation bandwidth due to the extra insertion loss of the set-off optical filter. In the paper theoretical and simulation investigations are presented with the result of improved modulation bandwidth.

- UDVARY, E., BERCELI, T. Optical subcarrier label swapping by semiconductor optical amplifiers. IEEE Journal of Lightwave Technology, 2003, vol. 21, no. 12, p. 3221–3225. DOI: 10.1109/JLT.2003.819784
- UDVARY, E., BERCELI, T. Semiconductor optical amplifier for detection function in radio over fiber systems. IEEE Journal of Lightwave Technology, 2008, vol. 26, no. 8, p. 2563–2570. DOI: 10.1109/JLT.2008.927187
- UDVARY, E., BERCELI, T. Combined optical amplification and dispersion compensation in radio over fibre link. IET Optoelectronics, 2010, vol. 4, no. 6, p. 260–266. DOI: 10.1049/ietopt.2009.0061
- UDVARY, E., BERCELI, T. Improvements in the linearity of semiconductor optical amplifiers as external modulators. IEEE Transaction on Microwave Theory and Techniques, 2010, vol. 58, no. 11, p. 3161–6167. DOI: 10.1109/TMTT.2010.2075550
- SCHRENK, B., VALICOURT, G., OMELLA, M., LAZARO, J. A., BRENOT, R., PRAT, J. Direct 10-Gb/s modulation of a singlesection RSOA in PONs with high optical budget. IEEE Photonics Technology Letters., 2010, vol. 22, no. 6, p. 392–394. DOI: 10.1109/LPT.2009.2039871
- PAPAGIANNAKIS, I., OMELLA, M., KLONIDIS, D., et al. Investigation of 10-Gb/s RSOA-based upstream transmission in WDM-PONs utilizing optical filtering and electronic equalization. IEEE Photonics Technology Letters, 2008, vol. 20, no. 24, p. 2168–2170. DOI: 1109/LPT.2008.2007746
- PRESI, M., CHIUCHIARELLI, A., CORSINI, R., CHOUDURY, P., CIARAMELLA, E. Enhanced 10-Gb/s operation of bandwidth-limited R-SOAs without electronic equalization. In Proceedings of the 38th European Conference and Exhibition on Optical Communications (ECOC2012). Amsterdam (Netherlands), 2012, p. 1–3, INSPEC Accession Number: 14028862
- OCCHI, L., SCHARES, L., GUEKOS, G. Phase modeling based on the α factor in bulk semiconductor optical amplifiers. IEEE Journal of Selected Topics in Quantum Electronics, 2003, vol. 9, no. 3, p. 788–797, DOI: 10.1109/JSTQE .2003.818346
- WATANABE, T., SAKAIDA, N, YASAKA, H. et al. Transmission performance of chirp-controlled signal by using semiconductor optical amplifier. IEEE Journal of Lightwave Technology, 2000, vol. 18, no. 8, p. 1069–1077. DOI: 10.1109/50.857752
- WYRWAS, J. M., WU, M. C. Dynamic range of frequency modulated direct-detection analog fiber optic links. IEEE Journal of Lightwave Technology, 2009, vol. 27, no. 24, p. 5552–5562. DOI: 10.1109/JLT.2009.2031986
- SORIN, W. V., CHANG, K.W. Frequency domain analysis of an optical frequency discriminator. IEEE Journal of Lightwave Technology, 1992, vol. 10, no. 6, p. 787–793. DOI: 10.1109/50.143079

Keywords: Semiconductor Optical Amplifier, modulation bandwidth, frequency discriminator, optical filter, chirp parameter

**P. Gluchowski, A. A. Kucharski**
[references] [full-text]
[DOI: 10.13164/re.2016.0034]
[Download Citations]

On the Application of the Incomplete QR Algorithm to the Analysis of Microstrip Antennas

In this paper, we provide some insight into the usage of fast, iterative, method-of-moments (MoM) solution of integral equations (IE) describing antennas and other metallic structures immersed in a planar multilayered environment. Based on the form of multilayered media Green's functions, we extract free-space terms, associated with direct rays within the analyzed structure, reducing the number of significant interactions required to describe the rest of MoM matrix. Next, we show that it is possible to construct a hybrid algorithm, where the fast multipole method (FMM) is used to the free-space matrix part, while the reduced rank incomplete QR (iQR) decomposition is applied to the remaining portion of the MoM matrix. This HM-iQR (hybrid multipole - incomplete QR) method is applied to a relatively large (in terms o f the number of unknowns) problem of plane wave scattering by a finite array of rectangular microstrip patches printed on a grounded dielectric slab. Computation results from the new algorithm are compared to literature data and to the results of the pure low rank IE-QR method.

- MOSIG, J. R., MICHALSKI, K. A. Multilayered media Green’s functions in integral equation formulations. IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation, 1997, vol. 45, no. 3, p. 508–519. DOI: 10.1109/8.558666
- CHEW, W. C., JIN, J. M., MICHIELSESEN, E, SONG, J. M. Fast and Efficient Algorithms in Computational Electromagnetics. Artech House, 2001. ISBN: 9781580531528
- OZDEMIR, N. A., LEE, J. A low-rank IE-QR algorithm for matrix compression in volume integral equations. IEEE Transactions on Magnetics, 2004, vol. 40, no. 2, p. 1017–1020. DOI: 10.1109/TMAG.2004.824575
- GUEREL, L., AKSUN, M. I. Electromagnetic scattering solution of conducting strips in layered media using the fast multipole method. IEEE Microwave and Guided Wave Letters, 1996, vol. 6, no. 8, p. 277– 279. DOI: 10.1109/75.508552
- KIPP, R. A., CHAN, C. H. Complex image method for sources in bounded regions of multilayer structures. IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques, 1994, vol. 42, no. 5, p. 860–865. DOI: 10.1109/22.293536
- SOMMERFELD, A. Partial Differential Equations in Physics. New York: Academic Press, 1949. ISBN: 9780126546569
- MICHALSKI, K. A. Extrapolation method for Sommerfeld integral tails. IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation, 1998, vol. 46, no. 10, p. 1405–1418. DOI: 10.1109/8.725271
- RAO, S. M., WILTON, D. R., GLISSON, A. Electromagnetic scattering by surfaces of arbitrary shape. IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation, 1982, vol. ap-30, no. 3, p. 409–418. DOI: 10.1109/TAP.1982.1142818
- MICHALSKI, K. A., HSU, C.-I. G. RCS computation of coax-loaded microstrip patch antennas of arbitrary shape. Electromagnetics, 1994, vol. 14, p. 32–36. DOI: 10.1080/02726349408908368
- GREENGARD, L., ROKHLIN, V. A fast algorithm for particle simulations. J. Comput. Phys., 1987, vol. 73, p. 325–348. DOI: 10.1016/0021-9991(87)90140-9
- COIFMAN, R., ROKHLIN, V., WANDZURA, S. The fast multipole method for the wave equation: A pedestrian prescription. IEEE Antennas and Propagation Magazine, 1993, vol. 35, no. 3, p. 7–12. DOI: 10.1109/74.250128
- ZHAO, K., LEE, J. A single level dual rank IE-QR algorithms to model large microstrip antennas arrays. IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation, 2004, vol. 52, no. 10, p. 2580–2585. DOI: 10.1109/TAP.2004.834442
- SEO, S. M., LEE, J. A single-level low rank IE-QR algorithm for PEC scattering problems using EFIE formulation. IEEE Antennas and Propagation Magazine, 2008, vol. 52, no. 8, p. 2141–2146. DOI: 10.1109/TAP.2004.832367
- GLUCHOWSKI, P., KUCHARSKI, A. A. Comparison of the fast multipole method and low rank IE-QR algorithm in the analysis of electromagnetic field in the focal region of a parabolic reflector. In Loughborough Antennas & Propagation Conference (LAPC). 2011, p. 1–4. DOI: 10.1109/LAPC.2011.6114096
- GLUCHOWSKI, P., KUCHARSKI, A. A. Analysis of effectiveness of low rank IE-QR algorithm applied to antenna arrays, In 7th European Conference on Antennas and Propagation (EuCAP). 2013, p. 1074–1076.
- KING, A. S., BOW, W. J. Scattering from a finite array of microstrip patches. IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation, 1992, vol. 40, no. 7, p. 770–774. DOI: 10.1109/8.155741
- CATEDRA, M. F., GAGO, E. Spectral domain analysis of conducting patches of arbitrary geometry in multilayer media using the CG-FFT method. IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation, 1990, vol. 38, no. 10, p. 1530–1536. DOI: 10.1109/8.59764

Keywords: Method-of-moments, fast multipole method, low rank IE-QR algorithm, integral equations

**M. Borhani Kakhki, P. Rezaei, V. Sharbati, M M. Fakharian**
[references] [full-text]
[DOI: 10.13164/re.2016.0040]
[Download Citations]

Small Square Reconfigurable Antenna with Switchable Single/Tri-Band Functions

A novel frequency reconfigurable slot antenna for suitable switchable radiations at WLAN and a tri-band at Bluetooth, WiMAX and upper WLAN applications is designed and fabricated. Switchable frequency responses are achieved by implementation of a PIN diode within the antenna ground plane. The antenna structure is consist of a square radiation patch with an E-shaped slot, a modified ground plane with an inverted T-shaped strip that act as a parasitic stub and two parallel slots and a protruded strip which is connected to the parasitic stub with a PIN diode. The presented antenna has a compact size of 20×20 mm2 while providing switchable radiations at 2.36-2.5 GHz Bluetooth, 3.51-3.79 GHz WiMAX, and 5.47-5.98 GHz WLAN when diode is ON and 5.04-6.13 GHz WLAN when diode is OFF.

- PAZIN, L., LEVIATAN, Y. Reconfigurable slot antenna for switchable multiband operation in a wide frequency range. IEEE Antennas and Wireless Propagation Letters, 2013, vol. 12, p. 329–332. DOI: 10.1109/LAWP.2013.2246855
- FAKHARIAN, M. M., REZAEI, P., OROUJI, A. A. Reconfigurable multiband extended U-slot antenna with switchable polarization for wireless applications. IEEE Antennas and Propagation Magazine, 2015, vol. 57, no. 2, p. 194–202, DOI: 10.1109/MAP.2015.2414665
- VALIZADE, A., OJAROUDI, M., OJAROUDI, N. CPW-fed small slot antenna with reconfigurable circular polarization and impedance bandwidth characteristics for DCS/WIMAX applications. Progress in Electromagnetics Research C, 2015, vol. 56, p. 65–72. DOI: 10.2528/PIERC14122901
- VALIZADE, A., REZAEI, P., OROUJI, A. A. Design of reconfigurable active integrated microstrip antenna with switchable low-noise amplifier/power amplifier performances for wireless local area network and WiMAX applications. IET Microwaves, Antennas and Propagation, 2015, vol. 9, no. 9, p. 872–881. DOI: 10.1049/iet-map.2014.0704
- KEHN, M. N. M., QUEVEDO-TERUEL, O., RAJO-IGLESIAS, E. Reconfigurable loaded planar inverted-F antenna using varactor diodes. IEEE Antennas and Wireless Propagation Letters, 2011, vol. 10, p. 466–468. DOI: 10.1109/LAWP.2011.2153174
- OJAROUDI, M., GHOBADI, Ch., NOURINIA, J. Small square monopole antenna with inverted T-shaped notch in the ground plane for UWB application. IEEE Antennas and Wireless Propagation Letters, 2009, vol. 8, p. 728–731. DOI: 10.1109/LAWP.2009.2025972
- FAKHARIAN, M. M., REZAEI, P., OROUJI, A. A. A novel slot antenna with reconfigurable meander-slot DGS for cognitive radio applications. Applied Computational Electromagnetics Society Journal, 2015, vol. 30, no. 7, p. 748–753.
- SHARBATI, V., REZAEI, P., SHAHZADI, A., et al. A planar UWB antenna based on MB-OFDM applications with switchable dual band-notched for cognitive radio systems. International Journal of Microwave and Wireless Technologies, October 2014 (published online), p. 1–8. DOI: 10.1017/S1759078714001317
- SHARBATI, V., REZAEI, P., FAKHARIAN, M. M., et al. A switchable band-notched UWB antenna for cognitive radio applications. IETE Journal of Research, vol. 61, no. 4, p. 423–428. DOI: 10.1080/03772063.2015.1025108
- BADAMCHI, B., VALIZADE, A., REZAEI, P., et al. A reconfigurable square slot antenna with switchable single band, UWB and UWB with band notch function performances. Applied Computational Electromagnetics Society Journal, 2014, vol. 29, no. 5, p. 383–390. ISSN: 1054-4887
- BADAMCHI, B., NOURINIA, J., GHOBADI, Ch., et al. A design of compact reconfigurable UWB slot antenna with switchable single/dual band notch functions. IET Microwaves, Antennas and Propagation, 2014, vol. 8, no. 8, p. 541–548. DOI: 10.1049/ietmap.2013.0311
- FAKHARIAN, M. M., REZAEI, P., OROUJI, A. A. Microstrip antenna with a reconfigurable Dumbbell-shaped defected ground plane for DCS-1800 and PCS-1900. In IEEE International Symposium of Antennas and Propagation Society (APSURSI). Orlando (FL, USA), 2013, p. 576–577. DOI: 10.1109/APS.2013.6710948
- Ansoft High Frequency Structure Simulator (HFSS), Ver. 13, Ansoft Corporation, 2010.
- YIP, P. High-Frequency Circuit Design and Measurements. 1st ed. 1990. ISBN: 0-412-34160-3
- Infineon Technologies, BAR64 Silicon PIN Diode, (datasheet). 16 pages. [Online] Cited 2006-02-01. Available at: http://www.alldatasheet.com/datasheetpdf/pdf/396636/INFINEON /BAR64-06.html

Keywords: E-shaped slot, frequency reconfigurable, inverted T-shaped strip, parasitic stub, rectangular-shaped notches

**X. Liu, J. Gao, X.Y. Cao, Y. Zhao, W.Q. Li, S.J. Li, N. Li**
[references] [full-text]
[DOI: 10.13164/re.2016.0046]
[Download Citations]

A High-gain and Low-scattering Waveguide Slot Antenna of Artificial Magnetic Conductor Octagonal Ring Arrangement

A novel design of high-gain and low-scattering waveguide slot antenna is proposed in this paper. Firstly the scattering pattern of artificial magnetic conductor (AMC) composite surface is estimated by array factor analysis method. The comparison between octagonal ring arrangement and chessboard arrangement proves that the former arrangement has the characteristic of diffuseness-like and expands the bandwidth of radar cross section (RCS) reduction. Secondly, the metal surface of waveguide slot antenna (WSA) is replaced by the octagonal ring arrangement composite surface (ORACS). The gain is improved because of spurious radiation units which are around the slot. At the same time using the phase cancellation principle, a backscatter null achieves RCS reduction in the vertical direction. Experimental results show that the novel antenna after loading with the ORACS, the gain is improved by 5dB; the bandwidth of RCS reduction (reduction greater than 10dB) is 5.24-5.92 GHz.

- SIEVENPIPER, D., ZHANG, R.F., BROAS, R.F.J., et al. High-impedance electromagnetic surfaces with forbidden bands at radio and microwave frequencies. IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques, 1999, vol. 47, no. 11, p. 2059–2084. DOI: 10.1109/22.798001
- YANG, F., AMINIAN, A., RAHMAT-SAMII, Y. A novel surface-wave antenna design using a thin periodically loaded ground plane. Microwave and Optical Technology Letters, 2005, vol. 47, no. 3. p. 240–245. DOI: 10.1002/mop.21136
- FOROOZESH, A., SHAFAI, L. Effects of artificial magnetic conductors in the design of low-profile high-gain planar antennas with high-permittivity dielectric superstrate. IEEE Antennas and Wireless Propagation Letters, 2009, vol. 7, no. 8 p. 10–13. DOI: 10.1109/LAWP.2008.916684
- TURPIN, J. P., WU, Q., WERNER, D. H., et al. Near-zero-index metamaterial lens combined with AMC metasurface for high-directivity low-profile antennas. IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation. 2014, vol. 62, no. 4, p. 1928–1936. DOI: 10.1109/TAP.2014.2302845
- FERESIDIS, A.P., GOUSSETIS, G., WANG, S. H., et al. Artificial magnetic conductor surfaces and their application to low-profile high-gain planar antennas. IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation, 2005, vol. 53, no. 1, p. 209–215. DOI: 10.1109/TAP.2004.840528
- YANG, W. C., WANG, H., CHE, W. Q., et al. A wideband and high-gain edge-fed patch antenna and array using artificial magnetic conductor structures. IEEE Antennas and Wireless Propagation Letters, 2013, vol. 55, no. 12, p. 769–772. DOI: 10.1109/LAWP.2013.2270943
- PRAKASH, P., ABEGAONKAR, M. P. A., BASU, A., et al. Gain enhancement of a CPW-fed monopole antenna using polarization-insensitive AMC structure. IEEE Antennas and Wireless Propagation Letters, 2013, vol. 55, no. 12, p. 1315–1318. DOI: 10.1109/LAWP.2013.2285121
- FOROOZESH, A., SHAFAI, L. Investigation into the application of artificial magnetic conductors to bandwidth broadening, gain enhancement and beam shaping of low profile and conventional monopole antennas. IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation, 2011, vol. 59, no. 1, p. 4–20. DOI: 10.1109/TAP.2010.2090458
- GAO, Q., YIN, Y., YAN, D. B., et al. Application of metamaterials to ultra-thin radar-absorbing material design. Electronics Letters, 2005, vol. 41, no. 17 p. 936–937. DOI: 10.1049/el:20051239
- LIU TAO, CAO XIANG-YU, GAO JUN, et al. Design of metamaterial absorber and its applications for waveguide slot antenna. Acta Physica Sinica, 2012, vol. 61, no. 18, p. 128–135. (In Chinese) DOI: 10.7498/aps.61.184101
- YANG, H. H., CAO, X. Y., GAO, J., et al. An ultra-thin metamaterial absorber and its application in reducing rcs of slot antenna. Journal of Electronics and Information Technology, 2012, vol. 34, no. 11, p. 2790–2794. DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1146.2012.00676
- PAQUAY, M., IRIARTE, J. C., EDERRA, I., et al. Thin AMC structure for radar cross-section reduction. IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation, 2007, vol. 55, no. 12, p. 3630–3638. DOI: 10.1109/TAP.2007.910306
- TAN, Y., YUAN, N. C., YANG, N., et al. Improved RCS and efficient wave guide slot antenna. Electronics Letters, 2011, vol. 47, no. 10, p. 582–583. DOI: 10.1049/el.2011.0842
- YAO, X., CAO, X. Y., GAO, J., et al. Low scattering waveguide slot antenna design with gain enhancement. Chinese Journal of Radio Science, 2012, vol. 27, no. 6, p. 1141–1145. ISSN: 1005-0388
- ZHAO YI, CAO XIANG-YU, ZHANG DI, et al. Design of high-gain broadband low-RCS waveguide slot antenna. Acta Physica Sinica, 2014, vol. 63, no. 3, p. 108–115. (In Chinese) DOI: 10.7498/aps.63.034101
- LI WEN-QUIANG, GAO JUN, CAO XIANG-YU, et al. A kind of shared aperture radar absorbing material with absorber and phase cancellation characteristics. Acta Physica Sinica, 2014, vol. 63, no. 12, p. 157–164. (In Chinese) DOI: 10.7498/aps.63.124101

Keywords: Waveguide slot antenna, artificial magnetic conductor, octagonal ring arrangement.

**M. Fartookzadeh, S. H. Mohseni Armaki, S. M. J. Razavi, J. Rashed-Mohassel**
[references] [full-text]
[DOI: 10.13164/re.2016.0053]
[Download Citations]

Optimum Functions for Radial Wires of Monopole Antennas with Arbitrary Elevation Angles

Monopole antennas on the earth usually use ground screen with simple radial wires to improve their radiation performance. The number of radials,N, is usually considered a constant in the screen. This paper studies the effect of changing N and considering it as a function of distance, ρ, from the monopole using a simple and yet a fast method. The function N(ρ) is optimized for different beam angles of an HF monopoleantenna. The theoretical functions are converted to practical functions to be formed using meandered lines. Practicable calculated results are validated bymethod of moments. Furthermore it is shown that for low angle radiation aconstant N(ρ) with optimized radius of the ground screen is the best choice. The results can be used for higher frequencies, i.e. VHF and UHF frequency bands as well.

- TRAINOTTI, V., DORADO, L. A. Short low- and mediumfrequency antenna performance. IEEE Antennas and Propagation Magazine, 2005, vol. 47, no. 5, p. 66–90. ISSN: 1045-9243, DOI: 10.1109/map.2005.1599168
- WAIT, J. R. Antenna Performance Influenced by the Finite Extent and Conductivity of Ground Planes: A Collection of Reprints. No. M90-79. MITRE CORP BEDFORD MA, 1990.
- NORTON, K. A. The propagation of radio waves over the surface of the Earth and in the upper atmosphere. Proceedings of the Institute of Radio Engineers, 1937, vol. 25, no. 9, p. 1203–1236. ISSN: 0096-8390, DOI: 10.1109/JRPROC.1937.228544
- JOHNSON, R.C., JASIK, H. Antenna Engineering Handbook. 2nd ed. New York (USA): McGraw Hill, 1984. ISBN: 9780070323810.
- GAILEY, P.C. Modeling and Measurement of Electromagnetic Fields Near LORAN-C and OMEGA Stations. Philadelphia (PA, USA): EC Corp., Oak Ridge, TN. 1987.
- MILLER, E. K., DEADRICK, F. J., HENRY, W. O. Computer evaluation of large low-frequency antennas. IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation, 1973, vol. 21, no. 3, p. 386–389. DOI: 10.1109/tap.1973.1140513
- FARTOOKZADEH, M., MOHSENI ARMAKI, S.H., RAZAVI, S.M.J., RASHED-MOHASSEL, J. Fast method for the calculation of radiation resistance of a catenary element antenna applied to the optimization of a Loran transmitter antenna and a scaled model fabrication. Journal of Electromagnetic Waves Applications, 2014, vol. 28, no. 9, p. 1044–1055. ISSN: 0920-5071, DOI: 10.1080/09205071.2014.904757
- FARTOOKZADEH, M., MOHSENI ARMAKI, S.H., RAZAVI, S.M.J., RASHED-MOHASSEL, J. Modification of square top loaded low frequency antennas with investigations on catenary networks analysis. Journal of Electromagnetic Waves and Applications, 2015, vol. 29, no. 1, p. 92–103. ISSN: 0920-5071, DOI: 10.1080/09205071.2014.981643
- WEINER, M. M. Monopole Antennas. New York-Basel: Marcel Dekker Inc., 2003. ISBN: 0824748441
- TRETYAKOV, S. Analytical Modeling in Applied Electromagnetics. Boston: Artech House, 2003. ISBN: 1580533671
- WAIT, J. R. The ancient and modern history of EM ground-wave propagation. IEEE Antennas and Propagation Magazine, 1998, vol. 40, no. 5, p. 7–24. DOI: 10.1109/74.735961
- DORADO, L. A., TRAINOTTI, V. Simplified calculation of ground losses in low-and medium-frequency antenna systems. IEEE Antennas and Propagation Magazine, 2006, vol. 48, no. 6, p. 70–81. DOI: 10.1109/map.2006.323345
- RAFUSE, R. P., RUZE, J. Low-angle radiation from vertically polarized antennas over radially heterogeneous flat ground. Radio Science, 1975, vol. 10, no. 12, p. 1011–1018. ISSN: 0048-6604, DOI: 10.1029/rs010i012p01011
- COLEMAN, C. J. The effect of an imperfectly conducting plane upon an incident electromagnetic field. IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation, 1997, vol. 45, no. 10, p. 1445–1450. DOI: 10.1109/8.633848
- WEINER, M. M., ZAMOSCIANYK, S., BURKE, G. J. Radiation efficiency and input impedance of monopole elements with radialwire ground planes in proximity to Earth. Electronics Letters, 1992, vol. 28, no. 16, p. 1550–1551. ISSN: 0013-5194, DOI: 10.1049/el:19920984
- BURKE, G. J., POGGIO, A. J. Numerical Electromagnetics Code (NEC)-Method of Moments. Technical Document 116, Naval Ocean Systems Center, San Diego, CA, January 1981. DOI: 10.1109/aps.2004.1331976
- FEKO User Manual. EMSS–EM Software and Systems. Stellenbosch, South Africa, 2000.
- WAIT, J. R., WEINER, M. M. Comment: Radiation efficiency and input impedance of monopole elements with radial-wire ground planes in proximity to Earth (and reply). Electronics Letters, 1992, vol. 28, no. 25, p. 2329–2329. ISSN: 1350-911X, DOI: 10.1049/el:19921499
- TENG, C., KING, R. J. Surface fields and radiation patterns of a vertical electric dipole over a radial-wire ground system. Electromagnetics, 1981, vol. 1, no. 1, p. 101–116. DOI: 10.1080/02726348108915127
- JIN, Y.-S., ADACHI, S., SAWAYA, K. Monopole antenna on radial-wires over flat earth. Journal of Electromagnetic Waves and Applications, 1990, vol. 4, no. 1, p. 49–59. DOI: 10.1163/156939390x00447
- ABBOTT, F. Design of optimum buried-conductor RF ground system. Proceedings of the Institute of Radio Engineers, 1952, vol. 40, no. 7, p. 846–852. DOI: 10.1109/jrproc.1952.273852
- MACFARLANE, G. G. Surface impedance of an infinite parallelwire grid at oblique angles of incidence. Journal of the Institution of Electrical Engineers - Part IIIA: Radiolocation, 1946, vol. 93, no. 10, p. 1523–1527. DOI: 10.1049/ji-3a-1.1946.0256
- GREEN, H. E. Derivation of the Norton surface wave using the compensation theorem. IEEE Antennas and Propagation Magazine, 2007, vol. 49, no. 6, p. 47–57. DOI: 10.1109/map.2007.4455846
- LIPSCHUTZ, S., SPIEGEL, M., LIU, J. Schaum's Mathematical Handbook of Formulas and Tables. McGraw-Hill Osborne Media, 1999. ISBN: 0071795375
- BORN, M., WOLF, E. Principles of Optics. London: Pergamon Press, 2000. ISBN: 0521784492

Keywords: Compensation theorem, antenna ground plane, antenna impedance, HF propagation, monopole antenna, radial wires

**G. R. Koirala, N.Y. Kim**
[references] [full-text]
[DOI: 10.13164/re.2016.0061]
[Download Citations]

Multiband Bandstop Filter using an I-Stub-Loaded Meandered Defected Microstrip Structure

This paper presents a compact multiband bandstop filter (BSF) that utilizes an I-stub embedded within a meandered defected microstrip structure (MDMS). The proposed design for obtaining a single stopband is analyzed by using a transmission line network model. On the basis of the single stopband structure, we designed and fabricated a dual- and tri-band bandstop filters operating at 2.5/6.78 GHz and 1.98/5.60/7.78 GHz, respectively, thereby exploring the concept of generating as many stopbands by simply adding the same number of I-stubs. The proposed filter also features the possibility of tuning the resonant frequencies by varying the width of the I-stubs.

- UCHIDA, H., KAMINO, H., TOTANI, K., et al. Dual-bandrejection filter for distortion reduction in RF transmitters. IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques, 2004, vol. 52, no. 11, p. 2550–2556. DOI: 10.1109/TMTT.2004.837161
- SHRESTHA, B., KIM, N.Y. Slot meander spurline bandstop filter using integrated passive device technology. Microwave and Optical Technology Letters, 2014, vol. 57, no. 1, p. 168–172. DOI: 10.1002/mop.28806
- SHAMAN, H., HONG, J.S. Wideband bandstop filter with crosscoupling. IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques, 2007, vol. 55, no. 8, p. 1780–1785. DOI: 10.1109/TMTT.2007.901600
- DHAKAL, R., KIM, N.Y. A compact symmetric microstrip filter based on a rectangular meandered-line stepped impedance resonator with a tri-band bandstop response. The Scientific World Journal, 2013. DOI: 10.1155/2013/457693
- ADHIKARI, K.K., KIM, N.Y. A miniaturized Quad-band bandstop filter using shunt connected, T-shaped stub-loaded steppedimpedance resonators. Microwave and Optical Technology Letters, 2015, vol. 57, no. 5, p. 1129–1132. DOI: 10.1002/mop.29046
- WOO, D.J., LEE, T.K., LEE, J.W., et al. Novel U-slot and V-slot DGSs for bandstop filter with improved Q factor. IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques, 2006, vol. 54, no. 6, p. 2840–2847. DOI: 10.1109/TMTT.2006.875450
- CHEN, F.C., ZHANG, N.Y., ZHANG, P.S., et al. Design of ultrawideband bandstop filter using defected ground structure. Electronics Letters, 2013, vol. 49, no. 16, p. 1010–1011. DOI: 10.1049/el.2013.1541
- BARAL, R.N., SINGHAL, P.K. Recent techniques in design and implementation of microwave planar filters. Radioengineering, 2008, vol. 17, no. 4, p. 65–73.
- WANG, J., NING, H., XIONG, Q., et al. A novel miniaturized dual-band bandstop filter using dual-plane defected microstrip structures. Progress in Electromagnetics Research., 2013, vol. 134, p. 397–417.
- LA, D.S., HAN, W.H., ZHANG, J.L. Compact band-stop filters using π-shape DGS and π-shape DMS. Microwave and Optical Technology Letters, 2014, vol. 56, no. 11, p. 2504–2507. DOI: 10.1002/mop.28625
- XIAO, J.K., ZHU, Y.F., LI, Y. Controllable miniature tri-band bandpass filter using defected microstrip structure. Electronics Letters, 2013, vol. 50, no. 21, p. 1534–1536. DOI: 10.1049/el.2014.1432
- XIANG, Q.Y., FENG, Q.Y., HUANG, X.G. Bandstop filter based on complementary split ring resonators defected microstrip structure. Journal of Electromagnetic Waves and Applications, 2011, vol. 25, p. 1895–1908. DOI: 10.1163/156939311797453999
- XIAO, J. K., ZHU, Y. F. Multi-band bandstop filter using inner Tshaped defected microstrip structure (DMS). AEU-International Journal of Electronics and Communications, 2014, vol. 68, no. 2, p. 90–96. DOI: 10.1016/j.aeue.2013.07.002
- HONG, J.S., LANCASTER, M.J. Microstrip Filters for RF/Microwave Applications. 1st ed., New York: Wiley, 2001. ISBN: 0-471-22161-9
- ZHANG, H., CHEN, K.J. A tri-section stepped-impedance resonator for cross-coupled bandpass filters. IEEE Microwave and Wireless Components Letters, 2005, vol. 15, no. 6, p. 401–403. DOI: 10.1109/LMWC.2005.850475
- WANG, J., NING, H., XIONG, Q., et al. A compact narrow-band bandstop filter using spiral-shaped defected microstrip structure. Radioengineering, 2014, vol. 23, no. 1, p. 209–213.

Keywords: Multiband, bandstop filter (BSF), defected microstrip structure (DMS), I-stub

**A. Chatterjee, S. K. Parui**
[references] [full-text]
[DOI: 10.13164/re.2016.0067]
[Download Citations]

A Dual Layer Frequency Selective Surface Reflector for Wideband Applications

A dual-layer, bandstop frequency selective surface (FSS) is presented in this paper for wideband applications. Each layer uses patch type FSS with slots for miniaturization and are cascaded with an air gap in between. The low-profile FSS with unit cell dimension on the order of 0.2λ0×0.2λ0 provides transmission coefficient below -10dB in the frequency range of 4-7 GHz with 56% bandwidth. The FSS exhibits a nearly linear phase variation with frequency in the operating band and can be used as a substrate below planar wide band antennas with bi-directional radiation for enhancing its gain, directivity in the broadside direction as well as shielding it against nearby conductive surfaces such as metal cases, other printed antennas. Detailed design method, equivalent circuit analysis and measurement results of the FSS are presented in this paper.

- MUNK, B.A. Frequency Selective Surfaces–Theory and Design. New York: Wiley, 2000. DOI: 10.1002/0471723770
- BAYATPUR, F. Metamaterial Inspired Frequency Selective Surfaces: A dissertation submitted in the partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy, University of Michigan, 2009. DOI: 10.1.1.402.3931
- LAZARO, A., LORENZO, J., VILLARINO, R., GIRBAU, D. Backscatter transponder based on frequency selective surface for FMCW radar applications. Radioengineering, 2014, vol. 23, no. 2, p. 632–641. DOI: 10.13164/re.2014.0632
- PIRHADI, A., BAHRAMI, H., NASRI, J. Wideband high directive aperture coupled microstrip antenna design by using a FSS superstrate layer. IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation, 2012, vol. 60, no. 4, p. 2101–2106. DOI: 10.1109/ TAP.2012.2186230
- CHEN, H-Y., TAO. Y. Performance improvement of a U-slot patch antenna using a dual-band frequency selective surface with modified Jerusalem cross elements. IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation, 2011, vol. 59, no. 9, p. 3482–3486. DOI: 10.1109/TAP.2011.2161440
- CHATTERJEE, A., PARUI, S.K. Gain Enhancement of a wide slot antenna using a second-order bandpass frequency selective surface. Radioengineering, 2015, vol. 24, no. 2, p. 455–461. DOI: 10.13164/re.2015.0455
- LEE, Y.J., YEO, J., MITTRA, R., PARK, W.S. Design of a frequency selective surface (FSS) type superstrate for dual-band directivity enhancement of microstrip patch antennas. In IEEE Antennas and Propagation Society International Symposium, 2005, vol. 3A, p. 2–5. DOI: 10.1109/APS.2005.1552158
- MANDAL, B., CHATTERJEE. A., PARUI, S.K. Acrylic substrate based low profile wearable button antenna with FSS layer for WLAN and Wi-Fi applications. Microwave and Optical Technology Letters, 2015, vol. 57, no. 5, p. 1033–1038. DOI: 10.1002/mop.29012
- YANG, W., WANG, H., CHE, W. A Wideband and high-gain edge-fed patch antenna and array using artificial magnetic conductor structures. IEEE Antennas and Wireless Propagation Letters, 2013, vol. 12, p. 769–772. DOI: 10.1109/ LAWP.2013.2270943
- HERTL, I., RAIDA, Z., NOVACEK, Z. Multireflector antennas – Cascaded structures with frequency selective surfaces. Radioengineering, 2006, vol. 15, no. 4, p. 80–83. ISSN 1210-2512
- BEHDAD, N. A second order band-pass frequency selective surface using non-resonant sub-wavelength periodic structures. Microwave and Optical Technology Letters, 2008, vol. 50, no. 6, p. 1639–1643. DOI: 10.1002/mop.23445
- AL-JOUMAYLY, M., BEHDAD, N. A new technique for design of low-profile, second-order, bandpass frequency selective surfaces. IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation, 2009, vol. 57, no. 2, p. 452–459. DOI: 10.1109/TAP.2008.2011382
- CHATTERJEE, A., PARUI, S.K. A multi-layered band-pass frequency selective surface designed for Ku band applications. In IEEE Applied Electromagnetics Conference (AEMC). Bhubaneswar (India), 2013, p.1–2. DOI: 10.1109/AEMC.2013.7045067
- LUUKKONEN, O., SIMOVSKI, C., GRANET, G., GOUSSETIS, G., LIOUBTCHENKO, D., RAISANEN, A., TRETYAKIV, S. Simple and accurate analytical model of planar grids and highimpedance surfaces comprising metal strips or patches. IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation, 2008, vol. 56, no. 6, p. 1624–1632. DOI: 10.1109/TAP.2008.923327
- LANGLEY, R.J., PARKER, E.A. Equivalent circuit model for arrays of square loops. IET Electronics Letters, 1982, vol. 18, no. 7, p. 294–296. DOI: 10.1049/el:19820201
- YILMAZ, A.E., KUZUOGLU, M. Design of square loop frequency selective surfaces with particle swarm optimization via the equivalent circuit model. Radioengineering, 2009, vol. 18, no. 2, p. 95–102. ISSN 1210-2512
- KENT, E.F., DOKEN, B., KARTAL, M. A new equivalent circuit based FSS design method by using genetic algorithm. In 2nd International Conference on Engineering Optimization. Lisbon (Portugal), 2010, p. 1–4.
- BRAZ, E.C., CAMPOS, A.L.P.S. Dual/wide band multifractal frequency selective surface for applications in S and X band. Microwave and Optical Technology Letters, 2014, vol. 56, no. 10, p. 2217–2222. DOI: 10.1002/mop.28561
- LINS, H.W.C., BARRETO, E.L.F., D’ASSUNCAO, A.G. Enhanced wideband performance of coupled frequency selective surfaces using metaheuristics. Microwave and Optical Technology Letters, 2013, vol. 55, no. 4, p. 711–715. DOI: 10.1002/mop.27451

Keywords: Frequency Selective Surface, reflection phase, bandstop, wideband, reflector

**G. Fotyga, K. Nyka**
[references] [full-text]
[DOI: 10.13164/re.2016.0073]
[Download Citations]

Efficient Analysis of Structures with Rotatable Elements Using Model Order Reduction

This paper presents a novel full-wave technique which allows for a fast 3D finite element analysis of waveguide structures containing rotatable tuning elements of arbitrary shapes. Rotation of these elements changes the resonant frequencies of the structure, which can be used in the tuning process to obtain the S-characteristics desired for the device. For fast commutations of the response as the tuning elements are rotated, the 3D finite element method is supported by multilevel model-order reduction, orthogonal projection at the boundaries of macromodels and the operation called macromodels cloning. All the time-consuming steps are performed only once in the preparatory stage. In the tuning stage, only small parts of the domain are updated, by means of a special meshing technique. In effect, the tuning process is performed extremely rapidly. The results of the numerical experiments confirm the efficiency and validity of the proposed method.

- COCCIOLI, R., MORINI, A., PELOSI, G., et al. Design of tolerance-corrected filters employing half-cylinder posts.IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques, 1998, vol. 46, no. 1, p. 116–118. ISSN: 0018-9480. DOI: 10.1109/22.654930
- ARNDT, F., BEYER, R., REITER, J. M., et al. Automated design of waveguide components using hybrid mode-matching/numerical EM building-blocks in optimization-oriented CAD frameworksstate of the art and recent advances. IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques, 1997, vol. 45, no. 5, p. 747–760. ISSN: 0018-9480. DOI: 10.1109/22.575597
- LECH, R., MAZUR, J. Tunable waveguide filter with bow-tie metallic posts. IEE Proceedings - Microwaves, Antennas and Propagation, 2004, vol. 151, no. 2, p. 156–160. ISSN 1359-706X. DOI: 10.1049/ip-map:20040166
- KUSIEK, A., LECH, R., MAZUR, J. A new hybrid method for analysis of scattering from arbitrary configuration of cylindrical objects. IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation, 2008, vol. 56, no. 6, p. 1725–1733. ISSN: 0018-926X. DOI: 10.1109/TAP.2008.923339
- FOTYGA, G., BIELSKI, P., NYKA, K. A 3D-FEM mesh technique for fast analysis of waveguide problems containing rotatable tuning elements. In 20th International Conference on Microwaves, Radar, and Wireless Communication (MIKON), 2014, June 2014, p. 1–4. ISBN: 978-617-607-553-0. DOI: 10.1109/MIKON.2014.6899875
- KULAS, L., MROZOWSKI, M. Multilevel model order reduction. IEEE Microwave and Wireless Components Letters, 2004, vol. 14, no. 4, p. 165–167. ISSN: 1531-1309. DOI: 10.1109/LMWC.2004.827113
- KULAS, L., KOWALCZYK, P., MROZOWSKI, M. A novel modal technique for time and frequency domain analysis of waveguide components. IEEE Microwave and Wireless Components Letters, 2011, vol. 21, no. 1, p. 7–9. ISSN: 1531-1309. DOI: 10.1109/LMWC.2010.2089439
- FOTYGA, G., NYKA, K., KULAS, L. A new type of macroelements for efficient two-dimensional FEM analysis. IEEE Antennas and Wireless Propagation Letters, 2011, vol. 10, p. 270–273. ISSN: 1536-1225. DOI: 10.1109/LAWP.2011.2134063
- ZHU, Y., CANGELLARIS, A. C. Macro-elements for efficient FEM simulation of small geometric features in waveguide components. IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques, 2000, vol. 48, no. 12, p. 2254–2260. ISSN: 0018-9480. DOI: 10.1109/22.898972
- FOTYGA, G., NYKA, K., MROZOWSKI, M. Multilevel model order reduction with generalized compression of boundaries for 3-D FEM electromagnetic analysis. Progress In Electromagnetics Research, 2013, vol. 139, p. 743–759. ISSN: 1070-4698. DOI: 10.2528/PIER13032708.
- SCHEIBER, C., SCHULTSCHIK, A., BIRO, O., et al. A model order reduction method for efficient band structure calculations of photonic crystals. IEEE Transactions on Magnetics, 2011, vol. 47, no. 5, p. 1534-1537. ISSN: 0018-9464. DOI: 10.1109/TMAG.2010.2081973
- PELOSI, G., COCCIOLI, R., SELLERI, S. Quick Finite Elements for Electromagnetic Waves. 2nd ed. Norwood: Artech House, 2009. ISBN: 978-1-59693-345-3
- INGELSTROM, P. A new set of H (curl)-conforming hierarchical basis functions for tetrahedral meshes. IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques, 2006, vol. 54, no. 1, p. 106–114. ISSN: 0018-9480. DOI: 10.1109/TMTT.2005.860295
- LAMECKI, A. BALEWSKI, L. MROZOWSKI, M. An efficient framework for fast computer aided design of microwave circuits based on the higher-order 3D finite-element method. Radioengineering, 2014, vol. 23, no. 4, p. 970–978. ISSN: 1805-9600
- RUBIO, J., ARROYO, J., ZAPATA, J. Analysis of passive microwave circuits by using a hybrid 2-D and 3-D finite-element modematching method. IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques, 1999, vol. 47, no. 9, p. 1746–1749. ISSN: 0018-9480. DOI: 10.1109/22.788618
- SCHOBERL, J. NETGEN An advancing front 2D/3D-mesh generator based on abstract rules. Computing and Visualization in Science, 1997, vol. 1, no. 1, p. 41–52. ISSN: 1432-9360. DOI: 10.1007/s007910050004
- SHEEHAN, B. N. ENOR: Model order reduction of RLC circuits using nodal equations for efficient factorization. In Proceedings of the 36th Design Automation Conference. New Orleans, June 1999, p. 17–21. ISBN: 1-58113-109-7. DOI: 10.1145/309847.309855
- SHAO, Y., PENG, Z., LEE, J.-F. Full-wave real-life 3-D package signal integrity analysis using nonconformal domain decomposition method. IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques, 2011, vol. 59, no. 2, p. 230–241. ISSN: 0018-9480. DOI: 10.1109/TMTT.2010.2095876

Keywords: Finite element method (FEM), macromodels, model-order reduction (MOR), modal projection

**B. F. Zong, G. M. Wang, H. Y. Zeng, Y. W. Wang, D. Wang**
[references] [full-text]
[DOI: 10.13164/re.2016.0081]
[Download Citations]

SCRLH-TL Based Sequential Rotation Feed Network for Broadband Circularly Polarized Antenna Array

In this paper, a broadband circularly polarized (CP) microstrip antenna array using composite right/left-handed transmission line (SCRLH-TL) based sequential rotation (SR) feed network is presented. The characteristics of a SCRLH-TL are initially investigated. Then, a broadband and low insertion loss 45º phase shifter is designed using the SCRLH-TL and the phase shifter is employed in constructing a SR feed network for CP antenna array. To validate the design method of the SR feed network, a 2×2 antenna array comprising sequentially rotated coupled stacked CP antenna elements is designed, fabricated and measured. Both the simulated and measured results indicate that the performances of the antenna element are further enhanced when the SR network is used. The antenna array exhibits the VSWR less than 1.8 dB from 4 GHz to 7 GHz and the 3 dB axial ratio (AR) from 4.4 GHz to 6.8 GHz. Also, high peak gain of 13.7 dBic is obtained. Besides, the normalized radiation patterns at the operating frequencies are symmetrical and the side lobe levels are low at φ=0º and φ=90º.

- HUANG, J., POZAR, D.-M. Miscrotrip arrays: Analysis, design, and applications. In Advances in Microstrip and Printed Antennas, K. F. Lee and W. Chen, Eds. New York: Wiley-Interscience, 1997, p. 123.
- GUO, Y.-X., BIAN, L., SHI, X.-Q. Broadband circularly polarized annular-ring microstrip antenna. IEEE Transaction on Antennas and Propagation, 2009, vol. 57, no. 8, p. 2474–2477. DOI: 10.1109/TAP.2009.2024584
- HU, Y.-J., DING, W.-P., CAO, W.-Q. Broadband circularly polarized microstrip antenna array using sequentially rotated technique. IEEE Antennas and Wireless Propagation Letters, 2011, vol. 10, p. 1358–1361. DOI: 10.1109/LAWP.2011.2177799
- HALL, P.-S., HUANG, J., RAMMOS, E., ROEDERER, A. Gain of circularly polarized array composed of linearly polarized elements. Electronics Letters, 1989, vol. 25, no. 2, p. 124–125. DOI: 10.1049/el:19890091
- JAZI, M.-N., AZARMANESH, M.-N. Design and implementation of circularly polarized microstrip antenna array using a new serial feed sequentially rotated technique. IEE Proceedings - Microwave Antennas and Propagation, 2006, vol. 153, no. 2, p. 133–140. DOI: 10.1049/ip-map:20050005
- RAFII, V., NOURINIA, J., GHOBADI, C., POURAHMADAZAR, J., VIRDEE, B.-S. Broadband circularly polarized slot antenna array using sequentially rotated technique for C-band applications. IEEE Antennas and Wireless Propagation Letters, 2013, vol. 12, p. 128–131. DOI: 10.1109/LAWP.2013.2237744
- FU, S., FANG, S., WANG, Z., LI, X. Broadband circularly polarized slot antenna array fed by asymmetric CPW for L-band applications. IEEE Antennas and Wireless Propagation Letters, 2009, vol. 8, p. 1014–1016. DOI: 10.1109/LAWP.2009.2031662
- HUANG, J. A technique for an array to generate circular polarization with linearly polarized elements. IEEE Transaction on Antennas and Propagation, 1986, vol. 34, no. 9, p. 1113–1124. DOI: 10.1109/TAP.1986.1143953
- CHEN, A.-X., ZHANG, Y.-J., CHEN, Z.-Z., CAO, S.-F. A Kaband high-gain circularly polarized microstrip antenna array. IEEE Antennas and Wireless Propagation Letters, 2010, vol. 9, p. 1115–1118. DOI: 10.1109/LAWP.2010.2093866
- YANG, S.-S., CHAIR, R., KISHK, A.-A., LEE, K.-F., LUK, K.- M. Study on sequential feeding networks for subarrays of circularly polarized elliptical dielectric resonator antenna. IEEE Transaction on Antennas and Propagation, 2007, vol. 55, no. 2, p. 321–333. DOI: 10.1109/TAP.2006.889819
- LIN, X.-Q., LIU, R.-P., YANG, X.-M., CHEN. J.-X., YIN, X.-X., CHENG, Q., CUI, T.-J. Arbitrarily dual-band components using simplified structures of conventional CRLH TLs. IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques, 2006, vol. 54, no. 7, p. 2902–2909. DOI: 10.1109/TMTT.2006.877434
- GONG, J.-Q., CHU, Q.-X. SCRLH TL based UWB bandpass filter with widened upper stopband. Journal of Electromagnetic Waves and Applications, 2008, vol. 22, no. 14, p. 1985–1992. DOI: 10.1163/156939308787537982
- POZAR, D.-M. Microwave Engineering. New York: Wiley, 2005.
- ROWE, W.-S.-T., WATERHOUSE, R.-B. Investigation into the performance of proximity coupled stacked patches. IEEE Transaction on Antennas and Propagation, 2006, vol. 54, no. 6, p. 1693–1698. DOI: 10.1109/TAP.2006.875462

Keywords: Simplified composite right/left-handed transmission line (SCRLH-TL), circularly polarized (CP), broadband, sequential rotation (SR) feed network

**V. R. Gonzalez-Diaz, J. M. Munoz-Pacheco, G. Espinosa-Flores-Verdad, L. A. Sanchez-Gaspariano**
[references] [full-text]
[DOI: 10.13164/re.2016.0089]
[Download Citations]

A Verilog-A Based Fractional Frequency Synthesizer Model for Fast and Accurate Noise Assessment

This paper presents a new strategy to simulate fractional frequency synthesizer behavioral models with better performance and reduced simulation time. The models are described in Verilog-A with accurate phase noise predictions and they are based on a time jitter to power spectral density transformation of the principal noise sources in a synthesizer. The results of a fractional frequency synthesizer simulation is compared with state of the art Verilog-A descriptions showing a reduction of nearly 20 times. In addition, experimental results of a fractional frequency synthesizer are compared to the simulation results to validate the proposed model.

- PENG, K. C., LIN, C. C., CHAO, C. H. A novel three-point modulation technique for fractional-N frequency synthesizer applications. Radioengineering, 2013, vol. 22, no. 1, p. 269–275. ISSN: 1805-9600
- DE MUER, B., STEYAERT, M. CMOS Fractional-N Synthesizers. Design for High Spectral Purity and Monolithic Integration. 1st ed. Boston: Springer, 2003. ISBN: 978-0-306-48001-0
- ABIRI, E., REZA SALEHI, M., SALEM, S. A low phase noise and low power 3–5 GHz frequency synthesizer in 0.18 µm CMOS technology. Microelectronics Journal, 2014, vol. 45, no. 6, p. 740–750. DOI: 10.1016/j.mejo.2014.04.009
- KUBICEK, M., KOLKA, Z. In-system jitter measurement based on blind oversampling data recovery. Radioengineering, 2012, vol. 21, no. 1, p. 403–407. ISSN: 1805-9600
- HELAL, B.M., HSU, C. M., JOHNSON, et al. A low jitter programmable clock multiplier based on a pulse injectionlocked oscillator with a highly-digital tuning loop. IEEE Journal of Solid-State Circuits, 2009, vol. 44, no. 5, p. 1391–1400. DOI: 10.1109/JSSC.2009.2015816
- BARAN, O., KASAL, M. Modeling of the phase noise in space communications systems. Radioengineering, 2010, vol. 19, no. 1, p. 141–148. ISSN: 1805-9600
- PERROTT, M. H., TROTT, M. D., SODINI, C. G. A modeling approach for Σ∆ fractional-N frequency synthesizer allowing strightforward noise analysis. IEEE Journal of Solid State Circuits, 2002, vol. 37, no. 8, p. 1028–1038. DOI: 10.1109/JSSC.2002.800925
- TAKAHASHI, M., OGAWA, K., KUNDERT, K. S. VCO jitter simulation and its comparison with measurement. In Proceedings of the ASP-DAC ’99. Asia and South Pacific Design Automation Conference. 1999, p. 85–88. DOI: 10.1109/ASPDAC.1999.759717
- GAL, G., FATTAH, O. A., ROBERTS, G. W. A 30-40 GHz fractional-N frequency synthesizer development using a Verilog-A high-level design methodology. In IEEE 55th International Midwest Symposium on Circuits and Systems (MWSCAS). 2012, p. 57–60. DOI: 10.1109/MWSCAS.2012.6291956
- SHU, K., SANCHEZ-SINENCIO, E., SILVA-MARTINEZ, J., et al. A 2.4 GHz monolithic fractional-N frequency synthesizer with robust phase-switching prescaler and loop capacitance multiplier. IEEE Journal of Solid State Circuits, 2003, vol. 38, no. 6, p. 866–873. DOI: 10.1109/JSSC.2003.811875
- GONZALEZ-DIAZ, V. R., GARCIA-ANDRADE, M. A., FLORESVERDAD, G. E., et al. Efficient dithering in MASH sigma-delta modulators for fractional frequency synthesizers. IEEE Journal on Transactions on Circuits and Systems I, 2010, vol. 57, no. 9, p. 2394–2403. DOI: 10.1109/TCSI.2010.2043172
- PHILLIPS, J., KUNDERT, K. S. Noise in mixers, oscillators, samplers, and logic an introduction to cyclostationary noise. In Proceedings of the IEEE 2000 (CICC) Custom Integrated Circuits Conference. 2000, p. 431–438. DOI: 10.1109/CICC.2000.852702
- KENNEDY, M. P., MO, H., HU, G. Comparison of a feed-forward phase domain model and a time domain behavioral model for predicting mismatch-related noise floor and spurs in fractional-N frequency synthesizers. In 26th Irish Signals and Systems Conference (ISSC). 2015, p. 1–6. DOI: 10.1109/ISSC.2015.7163761
- VAUCHER, C. S., NAUTA, B. Architectures for RF Frequency Synthesizers. 1st ed. Boston: Springer, 2002. ISBN: 978-1-4020-7120-1. DOI: 10.1007/b101917

Keywords: Frequency Synthesizers, Fractional, Modeling, Sigma-Delta, Phase Noise, Verilog-A

**J. Zhang, T. Jin, Y. He, Z. M. Zhou**
[references] [full-text]
[DOI: 10.13164/re.2016.0098]
[Download Citations]

A Centralized Processing Framework for Foliage Penetration Human Tracking in Multistatic Radar

A complete centralized processing framework is proposed for human tracking using multistatic radar in the foliage-penetration environment. The configuration of the multistatic radar system is described. Primary attention is devoted to time of arrival (TOA) estimation and target localization. An improved approach that takes the geometrical center as the TOA estimation of the human target is given. The minimum mean square error paring (MMSEP) approach is introduced for multi-target localization in the multistatic radar system. An improved MMSEP algorithm is proposed using the maximum velocity limitation and the global nearest neighbor criterion, efficiently decreasing the computational cost of MMSEP. The experimental results verify the effectiveness of the centralized processing framework.

- CHANG, S.H., MITSUMOTO, N., BURDICK, J. W. An algorithm for UWB radar-based human detection. In IEEE Radar Conference. Pasadena (CA, USA), 2009, p. 1–6. DOI: 10.1109/RADAR.2009.4976999
- TAJ, M., CAVALLARO, A. Multi-view multi-object detection and tracking. Computer Vision, Springer Berlin Heidelberg, 2010, vol. 285, p. 263–280. DOI: 10.1007/978-3-642-12848-6_10
- HASHIMOTO, M., TSUJI, A., NISHIO, A., et al. Laser-based tracking of groups of people with sudden changes in motion. In IEEE International Conference on Industrial Technology. Seville (Spain), 2015, p. 315–320. DOI: 10.1109/ICIT.2015.7125117
- SARKKA, S., VIIKARI, V. V., HUUSKO, M., JAAKKOLA, K. Phase-based UHF RFID tracking with nonlinear Kalman filtering and smoothing. IEEE Sensors Journal, 2012, vol. 12, p. 904–910. DOI: 10.1109/JSEN.2011.2164062
- LEI, P. Z., HUANG, X. T. Robust detection of moving human target in foliage-penetration environment based on Hough transform. Radioengineering, 2014, vol. 23, no. 1, p. 3-10. ISSN: 1210-2512
- ROVNAKOVA, J., KOCUR, D. TOA estimation and data association for through-wall tracking of moving targets. Eurasip Journal on Wireless Communications and Networking, 2010, p. 1–11. DOI: 10.1155/2010/420767
- URDZIK, D., KOCUR, D. CFAR detectors for through wall tracking of moving targets by M-sequence UWB radar. In 20th International Conference Radioelektronika. Brno (Czech Rep.), 2010, p. 1–4. DOI: 10.1109 /RADIOELEK .2010.5478569
- ZETIK, R., JOVANOSKA, S., THOMA, R. Simple method for localization of multiple tag-free targets using UWB sensor network. In IEEE International Conference on Ultra-Wideband. Bologna (Italy), 2011, p. 268–272. DOI: 10.1109/ICUWB.2011.6058843
- HE, Y. Human target tracking in multistatic ultra-wideband radar. Ph.D. Dissertation. Delft University of Technology, 2014. ISBN: 9789462591578. DOI: 10.4233/uuid:3fd16a42-9253-492a-bba3- 56fcf49f4b37
- BOSSE, J., KRASNOV, O., YAROVOY, A. A simple direct target localization and deghosting algorithm in active radar network. In 2014 International Radar Conference. Lille (France), 2014, p. 1–5. DOI: 10.1109 /RADAR.2014.7060332
- DAUN, M. Deghosting in passive air surveillance systems. In IEEE 11th International Radar Symposium. Vilnius (Lithuania), 2010, p. 1–8. ISSN: 2155-5754
- HE, Y., AUBRY, P., LE CHEVALIER, F., YAROVOY, A. G. Decentralized tracking for human targets in multistatic ultrawideband radar. IET Radar, Sonar and Navigation, 2014, vol. 8, no. 9, p. 1215–1223. DOI: 10.1049/iet-rsn.2014.0021
- PATTIPATI, K. R., SOMNATH, D., BAR-SHALOM, Y., WASHBURN, JR. R. B. A new relaxation algorithm and passive sensor data association. IEEE Transactions on Automatic Control, 1992, vol. 37, no. 2, p. 198–213. DOI: 10.1109/9.121621
- PARADIE, M. J., LABITT, B. D. Method and apparatus for identifying complex objects based on range readings from multiple sensors. U.S. Patent 6,664,918, 2003.
- ROVNAKOVA, J. Multiple target tracking system for through wall application. In Proceedings of the Scientific Conference of Young Researchers. Kosice (Slovak Republic), 2010, p. 135–138.
- KHAN, J., NIAR, S., RIVENQ-MENHAJ, A., HILLALI, Y. E. Multiple target tracking system design for driver assistance application. In Proceedings of the Design and Architectures for Signal and Image Processing. Brussels (Belgium), November 2008.
- PICCARDI, M. Background subtraction techniques: A review. In Proc. IEEE International Conference on Systems, Man and Cybernetics. 2004, vol. 4, p. 3099–3104. DOI: 10.1109/ ICSMC.2004.1400815
- ZETIK, R., CRABBE, S., KRAJNAK, J., PEYERL, P., SACHS, J., THOMA, R. Detection and localization of persons behind obstacles using M-sequence through-the-wall radar. Proc. SPIE 6201 Sensors, and Command, Control, Communications, and Intelligence (C3I) Technologies for Homeland Security and Homeland Defense V. Orlando (FL, USA), 2006. DOI: 10.1117/12.667989
- KAY, S. M. Fundamentals of Statistical Signal Processing, Vol. II: Detection Theory. Signal Processing, Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall, 1998. ISBN: 9780135041352
- RICHARDS, M. A., SCHEER, J. A., HOLM, W. A. Principles of Modern Radar: Basic Principles. Raleigh (NC): SciTech Publishing, 2010. ISBN: 9781891121524
- ROHLING, H. Radar CFAR thresholding in clutter and multiple target situations. IEEE Transactions on Aerospace and Electronics Systems, 1983, vol. 19, no. 4, p. 608–621. DOI: 10.1109/TAES.1983.309350
- SVECOVA, M., KOCUR, D., ZETIK, R. Object localization using roundtrip propagation time measurements. In 18th International Radio electronic Conference.Prague (Czech Rep.), 2008, p. 1–4. DOI: 10.1109/ RADIOELEK.2008.4542689
- WILLIS, N. J. Bistatic Radar. Raleigh (NC): SciTech Publishing, 2005. ISBN: 1-891121-45-6

Keywords: Multistatic radar, foliage penetration, human tracking, TOA estimation, target localization

**S. H. Alvi, S. Wyne**
[references] [full-text]
[DOI: 10.13164/re.2016.0106]
[Download Citations]

Error Analysis of Fixed-Gain AF Relaying with MRC Over Nakagami-m Fading Channels

This article investigates the error performance of wireless communication systems that employ binary modulations and Amplify-and-Forward (AF) relaying over flat Nakagami-m faded links with maximum ratio combining (MRC) at destination. Specifically, we derive a simple yet accurate closed-form approximation for the average bit error probability (ABEP) and closed-form expressions for its tight upper and lower bounds. The effect of power imbalance between the relayed links is also studied. Numerical investigations show good agreement between proposed theoretical results and simulations whereas our performance bounds are shown to be tighter than previously proposed bounds for the case of unbalanced relayed links.

- LANEMAN, J. N., TSE, D. N. C., WORNELL, G. W. Cooperative diversity in wireless networks: efficient protocols and outage behaviour. IEEE Transactions on Information Theory, 2004, vol. 50, no. 12, p. 3062–3080. DOI: 10.1109/TIT.2004.838089
- PABST, R., WALKE, B. H. et al. Relay-based deployment concepts for wireless and mobile broadband radio. IEEE Communications Magazine, 2004, vol. 42, no. 9, p. 80–89. DOI: 10.1109/MCOM.2004.1336724
- SURAWEERA, H. A., MICHALOPOULOS, D. S., KARAGIANNIDIS, G. K. Performance of distributed diversity systems with a single amplify-and-forward relay. IEEE Transactions on Vehicular Technology, 2009, vol. 58, no. 5, p. 2603–2608. DOI: 10.1109/TVT.2008.2007798
- HASNA, M. O., ALOUINI, M.-S. A performance study of dualhop transmissions with fixed gain relays. IEEE Transactions on Wireless Communications, 2004, vol. 3, no. 6, p. 1963–1968. DOI: 10.1109/TWC.2004.837470
- SURAWEERA, H., KARAGIANNIDIS, G. K. Closed-form error analysis of the non-identical Nakagami-m relay fading channel. IEEE Communications Letters, 2008, vol. 12, no. 4, p. 259–261. DOI: 10.1109/LCOMM.2008.071922
- XIA, M., XING, C., WU, Y.-C., et al. Exact performance analysis of dual-hop semi-blind AF relaying over arbitrary Nakagami-m fading channels. IEEE Transactions on Wireless Communications, 2011, vol. 10, no. 10, p. 3449–3459. DOI: 10.1109/TWC.2011.080311.102267
- SHIN, H., SONG, J. B. MRC analysis of cooperative diversity with fixed-gain relays in Nakagami-m fading channels. IEEE Transactions on Wireless Communications, 2008, vol. 7, no. 6, p. 2069–2074. DOI: 10.1109/TWC.2008.070812
- VIEN, N. H., NGUYEN, H. H. Performance of fixed-gain amplify-and-forward relaying with MRC. IEEE Transactions on Vehicular Technology, 2010, vol. 59, no. 3, p. 1544–1552. DOI: 10.1109/TVT.2010.2040755
- DATTA, S. N., CHAKRABARTI, S., ROY, R. Comprehensive error performance analysis of distributed selection combining with multi-antenna amplify-and-forward relay over Nakagami-m fading channels. IET Electronics Letters, 2010, vol. 46, no. 22, p. 1–2. DOI: 10.1049/el.2010.2155
- KIM, Y. G., BEAULIEU, N. C. Exact closed-form solutions for the BEP of decode-and-forward cooperative systems in Nakagami-m fading channels. IEEE Transactions on Communications, 2011, vol. 59, no. 9, p. 2355–2361. DOI: 10.1109/TCOMM.2011.062311.100040
- CHANDRA, A., BOSE, C. BER of differentially detected π 4 -DQPSK with selection combining in Nakagami-m fading. International Journal of Wireless Information Networks, 2010, vol. 17, no. 1, p. 54–63. DOI: 10.1007/s10776-010-0115-z
- GOLDSMITH, A. Wireless Communications. 1st ed. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2005. ISBN: 9780521837163
- GRADSHTEYN, I. S., RYZHIK, I. M. Table of Integrals, Series and Products. 7th ed. Burlington: Academic Press, 2007. ISBN: 978-0123736376
- FARHADI, G., BEAULIEU, N. C. A general framework for symbol error probability analysis of wireless system and its application in amplify-and-forward multihop relaying. IEEE Transactions on Vehicular Technology, 2010, vol. 59, no. 3, p. 1505–1511. DOI: 10.1109/TVT.2009.2037642
- DATTA, S. N., BOSE, C., CHANDRA, A. Unified analysis of error performance for binary signalling over Rayleigh fading channels. IET Electronics Letters, 2007, vol. 43, no. 17, p. 934–935. DOI: 10.1049/el.20070732
- ABRAMOWITZ, M., STEGUN, I. A. Handbook of Mathematical Functions with Formulas, Graphs and Mathematical Tables. 10th ed. New York: Dover, 1972.
- MOLISCH, A. F. Wireless Communications. 2nd ed. Chichester: Wiley-IEEE Press, 2010. ISBN: 978-0-470-74186-3
- CHIANI, M., DARDARI, D., SIMON, M. K. New exponential bounds and approximations for the computation of error probability in fading channels. IEEE Transactions on Wireless Communications, 2003, vol. 2, no. 4, p. 840-845. DOI: 10.1109/TWC.2003.814350
- FU, H., WU, M. W., KAM, P. Y. Lower bound on averages of the product of L Gaussian Q-functions over Nakagami-m fading. In Proceedings 77th IEEE Vehicular Technology Conference (VTC Spring). Dresden, 2013, p. 1–5. DOI: 10.1109/VTCSpring.2013.6692623
- OLABIYI, O., ANNAMALAI, A. Invertible exponential-type approximations for gaussian probability integral Q(x) with applications. IEEE Wireless Communications Letters, 2012, vol. 1, no. 5, p. 544–547. DOI: 10.1109/WCL.2012.080112.120232
- BREMAUD, P. An Introduction to Probabilistic Modeling. 3rd ed. New York: Springer-Verlag, 1988. ISBN: 3540964606
- TRIGUI, I., AFFES, S., YACOUB, M. D. Exact error analysis of dual-hop fixed-gain AF relaying over arbitrary Nakagami-m fading. In Proceedings IEEE Vehicular Technology Conference (VTC Fall). Quebec City, 2012, p. 1–5. DOI: 10.1109/VTCFall.2012.6399349
- WEISSTEIN, E. W. Modified Bessel Function of the Second Kind. [Online] Available at: http://functions.wolfram.com/BesselTypeFunctions/BesselK/26/01/02/

Keywords: Amplify-and-forward (AF) relaying, maximal-ratio combining (MRC), Nakagami fading, error analysis.

**M. Hatamian, M. Almasi Bardmily, M. Asadboland, M. Hatamian, H. Barati**
[references] [full-text]
[DOI: 10.13164/re.2016.0114]
[Download Citations]

Congestion-Aware Routing and Fuzzy-based Rate Controller for Wireless Sensor Networks

In this paper, congestion-aware routing and fuzzy-based rate controller for wireless sensor networks (WSNs) is proposed. The proposed method tries to make a distinction between locally generated data and transit data by using a priority-based mechanism which provides a novel queueing model. Furthermore, a novel congestion-aware routing using greedy approach is proposed. The proposed congestion-aware routing tries to find more affordable routes. Moreover, a fuzzy rate controller is utilized for rate controlling which uses two criteria as its inputs, including congestion score and buffer occupancy. These two parameters are based on total packet input rate, packet forwarding rate at MAC layer, number of packets in the queue buffer, and total buffer size at each node. As soon as the congestion is detected, the notification signal is sent to offspring nodes. As a result, they are able to adjust their data transmission rate. Simulation results clearly show that the implementation of the proposed method using a greedy approach and fuzzy logic has done significant reduction in terms of packet loss rate, end-to-end delay and average energy consumption.

- SHEN, X., HUANG, J., LIU, P., PAN, Y., XU, B., RAO, Z. Analysis of collaborative beamforming for wireless sensor networks with phase offset. Radioengineering, 2014, vol. 23, no. 1, p. 421–429.
- SIMEK, M., MORAVEK, P., KOMOSNY, D., DUSIK, M. Distributed recognition of reference nodes for wireless sensor network localization. Radioengineering, 2012, vol. 21, no. 1, p. 89–98.
- KAKITANI, M., BRANTE, G., SOUZA, R. Energy efficiency analysis of a two dimensional cooperative wireless sensor network with relay selection. Radioengineering, 2013, vol. 22, no. 2, p. 549–557.
- HATAMIAN, M., BARATI, H., MOVAGHAR, A., NAGHIZADEH, A. CGC: centralized genetic-based clustering protocol for wireless sensor networks using onion approach. Telecommunication Systems, 2015, p. 1–18. DOI: 10.1007/s11235-015-0102-x
- HATAMIAN, M., BARATI, H., MOVAGHAR, A. A new greedy geographical routing in wireless sensor networks. Journal of Advances in Computer Research, 2015, vol. 6, no. 1, p. 9–18.
- KAFIA, M. A., DJENOURIB, D., OTHMANC, J. B., QUADJAOUTA, A., BADACHEA, N. Congestion detection strategies in wireless sensor networks: A comparative study with testbed experiments. Procedia Computer Science, 2014, vol. 37, p. 168–175. DOI: 10.1016/j.procs.2014.08.026
- HATAMIAN, M., AHMADPOOR, S. S., BERENJIAN, S., RAZEGHI, B., BARATI, H. A centralized evolutionary clustering protocol for wireless sensor networks. In Sixth International Conference on Computing, Communications and Networking Technologies (ICCCNT15). Texas (USA), 2015, p. 1–6. DOI: 10.1109/ICCCNT.2015.7395190
- RAZEGHI, B., OKATI, N., HODTANI, G. A. A novel approach to mathematical multiple criteria decision making methods based on information theoretic measures. In Iran Workshop on Communication and Information Theory (IWCIT). Iran, 2015, p. 1 - 6.
- HATAMIAN, M., BARATI, H., BERENJIAN, S., NAGHIZADEH, A., RAZEGHI, B. Error control coding in optical fiber communication systems: an overview. Advances in Computer Science: An International Journal, 2015, vol. 4, no. 14, p. 70–80.
- WAN, C. Y., EISENMAN, S. B., CAMPBELL, A. T. CODA: Congestion detection and avoidance in sensor networks. In Proceedings of the First International Conference on Embedded Networked Sensor Systems. Los Angeles (CA, USA), 2003, p. 266–279.
- IYER, Y. G., GANDHAM, S., VENKATESAN, S. STCP: A generic transport layer protocol for wireless sensor networks. In Proceedings of 14th International Conference on Computer Communications and Networks (ICCCN). San Diego (CA, USA), 2005, p. 449–454.
- AKAN, O. B., AKYLDIZ, I. F. Event-to-sink reliable transport in wireless sensor networks. IEEE/ACM Transactions on Networking, 2005, vol. 13, no. 5, p. 1003–1016. DOI: 10.1109/TNET.2005.857076
- SAYYADA, J., CHOUDHARI, N. K. Hierarchical tree based congestion control using fuzzy logic for heterogeneous traffic in WSN. International Journal of Current Engineering and Technology, 2014, vol. 4, no. 6, p. 4136–4143.
- GHOLIPOUR, M., HAGHIGHAT, A. T., MEYBODI, M. R. Hop-by-hop traffic-aware routing to congestion control in wireless sensor networks. EURASIP Journal on Wireless Communications and Networking, 2015, vol. 2015, no. 15, p. 1–13. DOI: 10.1186/s13638-015-0241-5
- SWATHIGA, U. U. A. S., CHANDRASEKAR, C. An effi- cient fuzzy based congestion control technique for wireless sensor networks. International Journal of Computer Applications, 2012, vol. 40, no. 14, p. 47–55.
- HEINZELMAN, W. B., CHANDRAKASAN, A. P., BALAKRISHNAN, H. An application-specific protocol architecture for wireless microsensor networks. IEEE Transactions on Wireless Communications, 2002, vol. 1, no. 4, p. 660–670. DOI: 10.1109/TWC.2002.804190
- HATAMIAN, M., BARATI, H. Priority-based congestion control mechanism for wireless sensor networks using fuzzy logic. In Sixth International Conference on Computing, Communications and Networking Technologies (ICCCNT15). Denton (TX, USA), 2015, p. 1-5. DOI: 10.1109/ICCCNT.2015.7395203
- CHEN, G., PHAM, T. T. Introduction to Fuzzy Sets, Fuzzy Logic, and Fuzzy Control Systems. CRC press, 2001.
- ROJAS, R. Neural Networks: A Systematic Introduction. Berlin: Springer-Verlag, 1996.
- RAZEGHI, B., HATAMIAN, M., NAGHIZADEH, A., SABETI, S., HODTANI, G. A. A novel relay selection scheme for multi-user cooperation communications using fuzzy logic. In Proceedings of Networking, Sensing and Control (ICNSC). Taipei (Taiwan), 2015, p. 241–246.

Keywords: Wireless sensor networks, congestion control, fuzzy logic, greedy routing, buffer occupancy

**E. Tugcu, I. Kaya, A. Yazgan**
[references] [full-text]
[DOI: 10.13164/re.2016.0124]
[Download Citations]

CMF-DFE Based Adaptive Blind Equalization Using Particle Swarm Optimization

The channel matched filter (CMF) is the optimum receiver providing the maximum signal to noise ratio (SNR) for the frequency selective channels. The output intersymbol interference (ISI) profile of the CMF convolved by the channel can be blindly obtained by using the autocorrelation of the received signal. Therefore, the inverse of the autocorrelation function can be used to equalize the channel passed through its own CMF. The only missing part to complete the proposed blind operation is the CMF coefficients. Therefore, in this work, the best training algorithm investigation is subjected for blind estimation of the CMF coefficients. The proposed method allows using more effective training algorithms for blind equalizations. However, the expected high performance training is obtained when the swarm intelligence is used. Unlike the stochastic gradient algorithms, the particle swarm optimization (PSO) is known to have fast convergence because its performance is independent of the characteristics of the systems used. The obtained mean square error (MSE) and bit error rate (BER) performances are promising for high performance real-time systems as an alternative to non-blind equalization techniques.

- TURIN, G.L., CLAPP, F.D., JOHNSTON, T.L., FINE, S.B. LAVRY, D. A statistical model of urban multipath propagation. IEEE Transactions on Vehicular Technology, 1972, vol. 21, no. 1, p. 1–9. DOI: 10.1109/T-VT.1972.23492
- LABAT, J., MACCHI, O., LAOT, C. Adaptive decision feedback equalization: Can you skip the training period? IEEE Transactions on Communications, 1998, vol. 46, no. 7, p. 921–930. DOI: 10.1109/26.701319
- WERNER, J. J., YANG, J., HARMAN, D. D., DUMONT, G. A. Blind equalization for broadband access. IEEE Communication Magazine, 1999, vol. 37, no. 4, p. 87–93, DOI: 10.1109/35.755455
- YANG, J., WERNER, J. J., DUMONT, G. A. The multimodulus blind equalization and its generalized algorithms. IEEE Journal on Selected Areas in Communication, 2002, vol. 20, no. 5, p. 997–1015. DOI: 10.1109/JSAC.2002.1007381
- SATO, Y. A method of self-recovering equalization for multilevel amplitude modulation systems. IEEE Transactions on Communications, 1975, vol. 23, no. 6, p. 679–682. DOI: 10.1109/TCOM.1975.1092854
- GODARD, D. Self-recovering equalization and carrier tracking in two dimensional data communications systems. IEEE Transactions on Communications, 1980, vol. 28, no. 11, p. 1867–1875. DOI: 10.1109/TCOM.1980.1094608
- TREICHLER, J.R., AGEE, B. G. A new approach to multipath correction of constant modulus signals. IEEE Transactions on Acoustics, Speech, and Signal Processing, 1983, vol. 31, no. 2, p. 459–472. DOI: 10.1109/TASSP.1983.1164062
- GOUPIL, A., POLICOT, J. An efficient blind decision feedback equalizer. IEEE Communication Letters, 2010, vol. 14, no. 5, p. 462–464. DOI: 10.1109/LCOMM.2010.05.092150
- CHEN, S. Low complexity concurrent constant modulus algorithm and soft decision directed scheme for blind equalization. IEE Proceedings-Visual, Image, Signal Processing, 2003, vol. 150, no. 5, p. 312–320. DOI: 10.1049/ip-vis:20030619
- CHAHED, I., BELZILE, J., KOUKI, A. B. Blind decision feedback equalizer based on high order MCMA. In Canadian Conference on Electrical and Computer Engineering. Ontario (Canada), 2004, vol. 4, p. 2111–2114. DOI: 10.1109/CCECE.2004.1347658
- FILHO, J. M., MIRANDA, M. D., SILVA, M. T. M. An efficient algorithm for decision feedback blind equalization of QAM signals. Revista Telecomunicacoes, 2011, vol. 13, no. 2, p. 79–86. ISSN: 2237-8820
- DE CASTRO, F.C.C., DE CASTRO, M.C.F., ARANTES, D.S. Concurrent blind deconvolution for channel equalization. In IEEE International Conference on Communication. Helsinki (Finland), 2001, vol. 2, p. 366–371. DOI: 10.1109/ICC.2001.936964
- OH, K. N., CHIN, Y. O. modified constant modulus algorithm: Blind equalization and carrier phase recovery algorithm. In IEEE International Conference on Communication. Seattle (WA), 1995, vol. 1, p. 498–502. DOI: 10.1109/ICC.1995.525219
- JONES, D. L. A normalized constant modulus algorithm.In IEEE Conference Record of the Twenty-Ninth Asimolar Conference on Signals, Systems and Computers. Pacific Grove (USA), 1996, vol. 1, p. 694–697. DOI: 10.1109/ACSSC.1995.540639
- NASIR, A. A., DURRANI, S., KENNEDY R. A. Modified Constant Modulus Algorithm for joint blind equalization and synchronization. In Australian Communication Theory Workshop (AusCTW 2010). Canberra (ACT), 2010, p. 56–64. DOI: 10.1109/AUSCTW.2010.5426762
- HATZINAKOS, D., NIKIAS, C. L. Blind equalization using a tricepstrum-based algorithm. IEEE Transactions on Communications, 1991, vol. 39, no. 5, p. 669–682. DOI: 10.1109/26.87158
- TONG, L., XU, G., HASSIBI, B., KAILATH, T. Blind channel identification based on second-order statistics: A frequencydomain approach. IEEE Transactions on Information Theory, 1995, vol. 41, no. 1, p. 329–334. DOI: 10.1109/18.370088
- SESHADRI, N. Joint data and channel estimation using fast blind trellis search techniques. IEEE Transactions on Communications, 1994, vol. 42, no. 234, p. 1000–1011. DOI: 10.1109/TCOMM.1994.580208
- BAYKAL, B. Blind matched filter receiver. IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems-I: Regular Papers, 2004, vol. 51, no. 2, p. 379-390. DOI: 10.1109/TCSI.2003.820238
- BAYKAL, B. Blind channel estimation via combining autocorrelation and blind phase estimation. IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems-I: Regular Papers, 2004 vol. 51, no. 6, p. 1125–1131. DOI: 10.1109/TCSI.2004.829235
- COŞKUN, A., KALE, İ. All-adaptive blind matched filtering for the equalization and identification of multipath channels: A practical approach. IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems I: Regular Papers, 2013, vol. 60, no. 1, p. 232–242. DOI: 10.1109/TCSI.2012.2215711
- KAYA, I., TUGCU, E., OZEN, A., NIX, A. R. Fast convergence algorithm for blind channel estimation and equalization using CMF-DFE. In 81st Vehicular Technology Conference (VTC Spring). Glasgow (UK), 2015, p. 1–7, DOI: 10.1109/VTCSpring.2015.7145839
- KENNEDY, J., EBERHART, R. C. Particle swarm optimization. In Proceedings of the IEEE International Conference on Neural Networks. Perth, (Australia), 1995, vol. 4, p. 1942–1948. DOI: 10.1109/ICNN.1995.488968
- BALTACI, Y., KAYA, I., NIX, A. R. Implementation of a HIPERLAN/1 Compatible CMF-DFE equalizer. In Proceedings of the IEEE 51st Vehicular Technology Conference (VTC 2000 Spring). Tokyo (Japan), 2000, vol. 3, p. 1884–1888. DOI: 10.1109/VETECS.2000.851599
- PROAKIS, J. G. Digital Communications. Fourth ed. Singapore: McGraw-Hill, 2001. ISBN: 978-0071181839
- HAYES, M. H. Statistical Digital Signal Processing and Modeling. New York: John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 1996. ISBN: 978- 0471594314
- CIOFFI, J.M., DUDEVOIR, G.P., VEDAT EYUBOGLU, M., FORNEY, G. D. MMSE decision-feedback equalizers and coding: Part I: Equalization results. IEEE Transactions on Communications, 1995, vol. 43, no. 10, p. 2582–2594. DOI: 10.1109/26.469441
- KAYA, I. A study of high performance equalization and preequalization for high speed wireless data communications. Ph.D. Thesis, University of Bristol, April 1998.
- LING, S. H., LU, H. H. C., CHAN, K. Y., LAM, H. K. Hybrid particle swarm optimization with wavelet mutation and its industrial applications. IEEE Transactions on Systems, Man, and Cybernetics, Part B: Cybernetics, 2008, vol. 38, no. 3, p. 743–763. DOI: 10.1109/TSMCB.2008.921005
- COELHO, L. D., GUERRA F. A. Applying particle swarm optimization to adaptive controller. In Soft Computing in Industrial Applications, 2007, vol. 39, p. 82–91. DOI: 10.1007/978-3-540- 70706-6_8
- AL-AWAMI, A. T., ZERGUINE, A., CHEDED, L., ZIDOURI, A., SAIF, W. A new modified particle swarm optimization for adaptive equalization. Digital Signal Processing, 2011, vol. 21, no. 2, p. 195–207. DOI: 10.1016/j.dsp.2010.05.001
- ZUBAIR, M., CHOUDHRY, M. A. S., NAVEED, A., QURESHI, I. M. Joint channel and data estimation using particle swarm optimization. IEICE Transactions on Communications, 2008, vol. E91.B, no. 9, p. 3033–3036. DOI: 10.1093/ietcom/e91- b.9.3033
- TORRES, G. V. CMA equalization with decision-directed phase correction. In Conference Record of the Thirty-Eight Asilomar Conference on Signals, Systems and Computers. Monterey (USA), 2004, vol. 2, p. 2047–2050. DOI: 10.1109/ACSSC.2004.1399525

Keywords: Blind channel estimation, blind channel equalization, particle swarm optimization, channel matched filter

**M. Henzl, P. Hanacek**
[references] [full-text]
[DOI: 10.13164/re.2016.0132]
[Download Citations]

A Security Formal Verification Method for Protocols Using Cryptographic Contactless Smart Cards

We present a method of contactless smart card protocol modeling suitable for ﬁnding vulnerabilities using model checking. Smart cards are used in applications that require high level of security, such as payment applications, therefore it should be ensured that the implementation does not contain any vulnerabilities. High level application speciﬁcations may lead to different implementations. Protocol that is proved to be secure on high level and that uses secure smart card can be implemented in more than one way, some of these implementations are secure, some of them introduce vulnerabilities to the application. The goal of this paper is to provide a method that can be used to create a model of arbitrary smart card, with focus on contactless smart cards, to create a model of the protocol, and to use model checking to find attacks in this model. AVANTSSAR Platform was used for the formal verification, the models are written in the ASLan++ language. Examples demonstrate the usability of the proposed method.

- NXP SEMICONDUCTORS. Mifare DESFire MF3ICD40 Contactless Multi-Application IC (Short Form Specification). [online] Available at: http://www.nxp.com/documents/short_data_sheet/075 532.pdf
- ORACLE. Java Card Technology. [Online] Cited 2015-08-15. Available at: http://www.oracle.com/technetwork/java/embedded/javacard
- ZEIT CONTROL. Basic Card. [Online] Cited 2015-08-15. Available at: http://www.basiccard.com/
- LOWE, G. Casper: A compiler for the analysis of security protocols. Journal of Computer Security, 1998, vol. 6, p. 53–84. ISSN: 0926-227X
- MEADOWS, C. The NRL protocol analyzer: An overview. The Journal of Logic Programming, 1996, vol. 26, no. 2, p. 113–131. ISSN: 0743-1066. DOI: 10.1016/0743-1066(95)00095-X
- ARMANDO, A., BASIN, D., BOICHUT, Y., et al. The AVISPA tool for the automated validation of internet security protocols and applications. In Proceedings of the 17th international conference on Computer Aided Verification (CAV’05), Springer-Verlag, Berlin, Heidelberg, 2005, p. 281–285. DOI: 10.1007/11513988_27
- AVANTSSAR. Automated Validation of Trust and Security of Service-Oriented Architectures. [online] Cited 2015-08-15. Available at: http://www.avantssar.eu/
- CHEVALIER, Y., COMPAGNA, L., CUELLAR, J., et al. A high level protocol specification language for industrial security-sensitive protocols. In Proceedings of the Workshops on Cooperative Support for Distributed Software Engineering Processes (CSSE’04), Austrian Computer Society, 2004, p. 193–205.
- VON OHEIMB, D., MOEDERSHEIM, S. A. ASLan++ – A formal security specification language for distributed systems. In Formal Methods for Components and Objects: 9th International Symposium, Graz, Austria, Springer, 2010, p. 1–22. DOI: 10.1007/978-3-642-25271-6
- HENZL, M., HANACEK, P. Modeling of contactless smart card protocols and automated vulnerability finding. In International Symposium on Biometrics and Security Technologies (ISBAST) 2013. Chengdu, IEEE Computer Society, 2013, p. 141–148. DOI: 10.1109/ISBAST.2013.26
- DOLEV, D., YAO, A. C. On the security of public key protocols. Technical report, Stanford, CA, USA, 1981.

Keywords: Security, Smart Card, Model Checking, ASLan++, Formal Veriﬁcation, Protocol

**Z. Hasirci, I.H. Cavdar, M. Ozturk**
[references] [full-text]
[DOI: 10.13164/re.2016.0140]
[Download Citations]

Single Tree Vegetation Depth Estimation Tool for Satellite Services Link Design

Attenuation caused by tree shadowing is an important factor for describing the propagation channel of satellite services. Thus, vegetation effects should be determined by experimental studies or empirical formulations. In this study, tree types in the Black Sea Region of Turkey are classified based on their geometrical shapes into four groups such as conic, ellipsoid, spherical and hemispherical. The variations of the vegetation depth according to different tree shapes are calculated with ray tracing method. It is showed that different geometrical shapes have different vegetation depths even if they have same foliage volume for different elevation angles. The proposed method is validated with the related literature in terms of average single tree attenuation. On the other hand, due to decrease system requirements (speed, memory usage etc.) of ray tracing method, an artificial neural network is proposed as an alternative. A graphical user interface is created for the above processes in MATLAB environment named vegetation depth estimation tool (VdET).

- VOGEL, W. J., GOLDHIRSH, J. Tree attenuations at 869 MHz derived from remotely piloted aircraft measurements. IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation, 1986 (current version 2003), vol. 34, no. 12, p. 1460–1464. ISSN: 0018-926X. DOI: 10.1109/TAP.1986.1143781
- GOLDHIRSH, J., VOGEL, W. J. Roadside tree attenuation measurements at UHF for land-mobile satellite systems. IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation, 1987 (current version 2003), vol. 35, no. 5, p. 589–596. ISSN: 0018-926X. DOI: 10.1109/TAP.1987.1144137
- VOGEL, W. J., GOLDHIRSH, J. Earth-satellite tree attenuation at 20 GHz foliage effects. Electronics Letters, 1993 (current version 2002), vol. 29, no. 18, p. 1640–1641. ISSN: 0013-5194. DOI: 10.1049/el:19931092
- BUTTERWORTH, J. S. Propagation Measurements for LandMobile Satellite Services at 1542 MHz. Tech. Note 723, Ottawa, ON (Canada): Commun. Res. Center, 1984.
- BUTTERWORTH, J. S. Propagation Measurements for LandMobile Satellite Services in the 800 MHz. Tech. Note 724, Ottawa, ON (Canada): Commun. Res. Center, 1984.
- ULABY, F. T., WHITT, M.W., DOBSON, M. C. Measuring the propagation properties of a forest canopy using a polarimetric scatterometer. IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation, 1990 (current version 2002), vol. 38, no. 2, p. 251–258. ISSN: 0018-926X. DOI: 10.1109/8.45128
- CAVDAR, I. H. UHF and L-band propagation measurements to obtain log-normal shadowing parameters for mobile satellite link design. IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation, 2003, vol. 51, no. 1, p. 126–130. ISSN: 0018-926X. DOI: 10.1109/TAP.2003.808545
- ITU-R. Propagation Data Required for the Design of Earth-Space Land Mobile Telecommunication Systems. Recommendation ITUR PN.681-1, International Telecommunication Union, ITU-R Recommendations, Propagation in Non-Ionized Media, 1994 PN Series Volume, p. 203–204. ISBN: 92-61-05171-5
- CAVDAR, I. H., DINCER, H., ERDOGDU, K. Propagation measurements at L-band for land mobile satellite link design. In Proc. 7th Mediterranean Electrotechnical Conference (MELCON). Antalya (Turkey), 1994, vol. 3, p. 1162–1165. DOI: 10.1109/MELCON.1994.380862
- Tree Attenuation at 20 GHz: Foliage Effects. Presentations of the Sixth ACTS Propagation Studies Workshop (APSW VI), Clearwater Beach (Florida), 1994, p. 219-223. (Jet Propulsion Laboratory Technical Report, JPL D-12350, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, California.)
- GOLDHIRSH, J., VOGEL, W. J. Mobile satellite system fade statistics for shadowing and multipath from roadside trees at UHF and L-band. IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation, 1989 (current version 2002), vol. 37, no. 4, p. 489–498. ISSN: 0018-926X. DOI: 10.1109/8.24169
- HORAK, P., PECHAC, P. Excess loss for high elevation angle links shadowed by a single tree: Measurements and modeling. IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation, 2012, vol. 60, no. 7, p. 3541–3545. DOI: 10.1109/TAP.2012.2196944
- HORAK, P., KVICERA, M., PECHAC, P. Frequency dependence of attenuation due to vegetation for satellite services. IEEE Antennas Wireless Propagation Letters, 2010, vol. 9, p. 142–145. ISSN: 1536-1225. DOI: 10.1109/LAWP.2010.2045150
- HORAK, P., PECHAC, P. Seasonal additional attenuation in woodlands for satellite services at L-, S- and C- bands. IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation, 2011, vol. 59, no. 12, p. 4865–4867. DOI: 10.1109/TAP.2011.2165507
- KARLSSON, A., SCHUH, R. E. BERGLJUNG, C., et al. The influence of trees on radio channel at frequencies of 3 and 5 GHz. In Proc. IEEE 54th Vehicular Technology Conf. (VTC 2001). Atlantic City (NJ), 2001, vol. 4, p. 2008–2012. ISSN: 1090-3038. DOI: 10.1109/VTC.2001.957096
- ITU-R. Attenuation in Vegetation. Recommendation ITU-R P.833- 6, 2007, International Telecommunication Union, ITU-R Recommendations.
- GOLDHIRSH, J., VOGEL, W. J. Handbook of Propagation Effects for Vehicular and Personal Mobile Satellite Systems – Overview Experimental and Modeling Results. 2nd ed. Houston (TX): NASA, 1999.
- COST 235. Radiowave Propagation Effects on Next Generation Fixed Services Terrestrial Telecommunications Systems. Commission of the Eur. Union, 1996, Final Rep. ISBN: 92-827- 8023-6
- ANSIN, R., OZKAN, Z. C. Tohumlu Bitkiler-Odunsu Taksonlar (Spermatophyta) [Seed Plants-Woody Taxa (Spermatophyta)]. 2nd ed. Trabzon (Turkey): Karadeniz Technical University, 1997. ISBN: 975-6983-00-0

Keywords: MATLAB™ estimation tool, ray tracing, satellite services, tree attenuation, tree shape, vegetation depth.

**M. Kenyeres, J. Kenyeres, V. Skorpil**
[references] [full-text]
[DOI: 10.13164/re.2016.0148]
[Download Citations]

The Distributed Convergence Classifier Using the Finite Difference

The paper presents a novel distributed classifier of the convergence, which allows to detect the convergence/the divergence of a distributed converging algorithm. Since this classifier is supposed to be primarily applied in wireless sensor networks, its proposal makes provision for the character of these networks. The classifier is based on the mechanism of comparison of the forward finite differences from two consequent iterations. The convergence/the divergence is classifiable only in terms of the changes of the inner states of a particular node and therefore, no message redundancy is required for its proper functionality.

- KAR, S., TANDON, R., POOR, H. V., et al. Distributed detection in noisy sensor networks. In Proceedings of the IEEE International Symp. on Information Theory (ISIT 2011). St. Petersburg (Russia), 2011, p. 2856–2860. DOI: 10.1109/ISIT.2011.6034097
- SHEN, X., HUANG, J., LIU, P., et al. Analysis of collaborative beamforming for wireless sensor networks with phase offset. Radioengineering, 2014, vol. 23, no.1, p. 421-429. ISSN: 1210-2512
- LOPEZ ITURRI, P., AZPILICUETA, L., NAZABAL, J. A., et al. Analysis of energy consumption performance towards optimal radioplanning of wireless sensor networks in heterogeneous indoor environments. Radioengineering, 2014, vol. 23, no. 3, p. 852–862.
- MUNIR, A., ANTOON, J., GORDON-ROSS, A. Modeling and analysis of fault detection and fault tolerance in wireless sensor networks. ACM Transactions on Embedded Computing Systems (TECS), 2015, vol. 14, no. 1, 43 p. DOI: 10.1145/2680538
- ZHANG, Y., DRAGONI, N., WANG, J. A framework and classification for fault detection approaches in wireless sensor networks with an energy efficiency perspective. International Journal of Distributed Sensor Networks, 2015, 11 p. DOI: 10.1155/2015/678029
- MANNAN, M., RANA, S. B. Fault tolerance in wireless sensor network. International Journal of Current Engineering and Technology, 2015, vol. 5, no. 3, p. 1785–1788.
- BIGGS, N. Algebraic Graph Theory. 2nd ed., rev. Cambridge (UK): Cambridge University Press, 1993. DOI: 10.1017/cbo9780511608
- BENJAMIN, A., CHARTRAND, G., ZHANG, P. The Fascinating World of Graph Theory. Princeton (NJ, USA): Princeton University Press, 2015. ISBN: 9780691163819
- ANDRASFAI, B. Graph Theory: Flows, Matrices. 1st ed. Boca Raton (FL, USA): CRC Press, 1991. ISBN: 0852742223
- FOULDS, L. R. Graph Theory Applications. 1st ed. New York (USA): Springer Verlag, 1992. DOI: 10.1007/978-1-4612-0933-1
- KENYERES, M., KENYERES, J., SKORPIL, V. Split distributed computing in wireless sensor networks. Radioengineering, 2015, vol. 24, no. 3, p. 749–756. DOI: 10.13164/re.2015.0749
- KENYERES, J., KENYERES, M., RUPP, M., et al. WSN implementation of the average consensus algorithm. In 11th European Wireless Conference 2011-Sustainable Wireless Technologies (European Wireless). Vienna (Austria), 2011, p. 1–8. ISBN: 978-3-8007-3343-9
- OLFATI-SABER, R., FAX, A., MURRAY, R. M. Consensus and cooperation in networked multi-agent systems. Proceedings of the IEEE. 2007, vol. 95, no. 1, p. 215–233. DOI: 10.1109/JPROC. 2006.887293
- XIAO, L., BOYD, S., KIM, S.-J. Distributed average consensus with least-mean-square deviation. Journal of Parallel and Distributed Computing, 2007, vol. 67, no. 1, p. 215–233. DOI: 10.1016/j.jpdc.2006.08.010
- HORN, R., JOHNSON, CH. Matrix Analysis. 2nd ed., rev. New York (NY): Cambridge University Press, 2012. ISBN: 9780521839402
- MIAO, X., LIU, K., HE, Y., et al. Agnostic diagnosis: Discovering silent failures in wireless sensor networks. IEEE Transactions on Wireless Communications, 2013, vol. 12, no. 12, p. 6067–6075. DOI: 10.1109/infcom.2011.5934945
- NANDI, M., DEWANJI, A., ROY, B., et al. Model selection approach for distributed fault detection in wireless sensor networks. International Journal of Distributed Sensor Networks, 2014, 12 p. DOI: 10.1155/2014/148234
- GHAFFARI, A., NOBAHARY, S. FDMG: Fault detection method by using genetic algorithm in clustered wireless sensor networks. Journal of AI and Data Mining, 2015, vol. 3, no. 1, p. 47–57. DOI: 10.5829/idosi.JAIDM.2015.03.01.06
- BHARGAVA, A., RAGHUVANSHI, A. S. Anomaly detection in wireless sensor networks using s-transform in combination with SVM. In 5th International Conference on Computational Intelligence and Communication Networks (CICN). Mathura (India), 2013, p.111–116. DOI: 10.1109/cicn.2013.34
- LIU, K., ZHUANG, Y., WANG, Z., et al. Spatiotemporal correlation based fault-tolerant event detection in wireless sensor networks. International Journal of Distributed Sensor Networks, 2015, 14 p. DOI: 10.1155/2015/643570
- SALEM, O., GUERASSIMOV, A., MEHAOUA, A., et al. Sensor fault and patient anomaly detection and classification in medical wireless sensor networks. In IEEE International Conference on Communications (ICC). Budapest (Hungary), 2013, p. 4373–4378. DOI: 10.1109/ICC.2013.6655254
- PANDA, M., KHILAR, P. M. Energy efficient distributed fault identification algorithm in wireless sensor networks. Journal of Computer Networks and Communications, 2014, 16 p. DOI: 10.1155/2014/323754
- LO, C., LYNCH, J. P., LIU, M. Distributed reference-free fault detection method for autonomous wireless sensor networks. Sensors Journal, IEEE, 2013, vol. 13, no. 3, p. 2009–2019. DOI: 10.1109/JSEN.2013.2244881
- ALI, A., KHELIL, A., SURI, N. FTDE: Distributed fault tolerance for WSN data collection and compression schemes. In IEEE 34th Symposium on Reliable Distributed Systems (SRDS). Montreal, (QC), 2015, p. 140–145. DOI: 10.1109/SRDS.2015.12
- HEZAVEH, M., SHIRMOHAMMDI, Z., ROHBANI, N., et al. A fault-tolerant and energy-aware mechanism for cluster-based routing algorithm of WSNs. In IFIP/IEEE International Symposium on Integrated Network Management (IM). Ottawa, (ON), 2015, p. 659–664. DOI: 10.1109/INM.2015.7140352
- PANDA, M., KHILAR, P. M. Distributed self fault diagnosis algorithm for large scale wireless sensor networks using modified three sigma edit test. Ad Hoc Networks, 2015, vol. 25, part A, p. 170–184. DOI: 10.1016/j.adhoc.2014.10.006
- GEETA, D. D., NALINI, N., BIRADAR, R. C. Fault tolerance in wireless sensor network using hand-off and dynamic power adjustment approach. Journal of Network and Computer Applications, 2013, vol. 36, no. 4, p. 1174–1185. DOI: 10.1016/j.jnca.2013.02.005
- BIANCHIN, G., CENEDESE, A., LUVISOTTO, M., et al. Distributed Fault Detection in Sensor Networks via Clustering and Consensus. In 54th Annual Conference on Decision and Control (CDC15). Osaka (Japan), Dec. 2015, p. 3828–3833. DOI: 10.1109/CDC.2015.7402814
- SILVESTRE, D., ROSA, P., CUNHA, R., et al. Gossip average consensus in a byzantine environment using stochastic set-valued observers. In 52nd Annual Conference on Decision and Control (CDC13). Firenze (Italy), 2013, p. 4373–4378. DOI: 10.1109/CDC.2013.6760562
- RUIZ, L. B., SIQUEIRA, I. G., WONG, H. C., et al. Fault management in event-driven wireless sensor networks. In Proceedings of the 7th ACM International Symposium on Modeling, Analysis and Simulation of Wireless and Mobile Systems. New York (NY), 2004, p. 149–156. DOI: 10.1145/1023663.1023691
- CHEN, J., KHER, S., SOMANI, A. Distributed fault detection of wireless sensor networks. In Proceedings of the 2006 Workshop on Dependability Issues in Wireless Ad hoc Networks and Sensor Networks (DIWANS’06). New York (NY), 2006, p. 65–72. DOI: 10.1145/1160972.1160985
- DING, M., CHEN, D., XING, K., et al Localized fault-tolerant event boundary detection in sensor networks. In Proceedings of the IEEE 24th Annual Joint Conference of the IEEE Computer and Communications Societies (INFOCOM 2005). 2005, vol. 2, p. 902–913. DOI: 10.1109/INFCOM.2005.1498320
- BOOLE, G. A Treatise on the Calculus of Finite Differences. 2nd ed., rev. Cambridge (UK): Cambridge University Press, 1872.
- KENYERES, J., KENYERES, M., RUPP, M., et al. Connectivity based self-localization in WSNs. Radioengineering, 2013, vol. 22, no. 3, p. 818–827. ISSN: 1210-2512

Keywords: Distributed computing, wireless sensor networks, average consensus, distributed classifier

**S. Chris Prema, K. S. Dasgupta**
[references] [full-text]
[DOI: 10.13164/re.2016.0156]
[Download Citations]

An Iterative Design with Variable Step Prototype Filter for Cosine Modulated Filter Bank

A systematic and self controlled prototype filter design approach for multichannel Cosine Modulated Near Perfect Reconstruction (NPR) filter bank is proposed in this paper. The primary goal is to design a prototype filter with enhanced performance i.e., minimum amplitude distortion and aliasing error. This algorithm approximates 3dB cutoff frequency very close to π/2M. This is achieved by selecting suitable step size which is a function of transition width. If the selection of step size is too fine, the objective function oscillates. Whereas, if step size is coarse, 3dB cutoff frequency will not be close to π/2M. This will degrade the overall performance of the prototype filter. Thus by choosing the step size as a function of transition width and varying the step size from coarser to finer level, the minimum amplitude distortion and aliasing error can be definitely achieved. The proposed filter is designed using two input parameters: number of subbands M and attenuation A and all other system parameters are derived from it to avoid heuristic inputs. Simulation results indicate better performance with reference to algorithms existing in literature. In addition, the design approach is systematic and self controlled.

- VAIDYANATHAN, P. P. Multirate Systems and Filter Banks. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall, 1993. ISBN 10/ISBN 13: 0136057187 9780136057185
- KARP, T., FLIEGE, N. J. Modified DFT filter banks with perfect reconstruction. IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems, 1999, vol. 46, no. 11, p. 1404–1414. DOI: 10.1109/82.803480
- KOILPILLAI, R. D., VAIDYANATHAN, P. P. Cosine-modulated FIR filter banks satisfying perfect reconstruction. IEEE Transactions on Signal Processing, 1992, vol. 40, no. 4, p. 770–783. DOI: 10.1109/78.127951
- CREUSERE, C. D., MITRA, S. K. A simple method for designing high-quality prototype filters for M-band pseudo QMF banks. IEEE Transactions on Signal Processing, 1995, vol. 43, no. 4, p. 1005–1007. DOI: 10.1109/78.376856
- LIN, Y. P., VAIDYANATHAN, P. P. A Kaiser window approach for the design of prototype filters of cosine modulated filter banks. IEEE Signal Processing Letters, 1998, vol. 5, no. 6, p. 132–134. DOI: 10.1109/97.681427
- CRUZ ROLDAN, F., AMO-LOPEZ, P., MALDONADO-BASCON, S., LAWSON, S. S. An efficient and simple method for designing prototype filters for cosine modulated pseudo-QMF banks. IEEE Signal Processing Letters, 2002, vol. 9, no. 1, p. 29–31. DOI: 10.1109/97.988722
- KUMAR, A., SINGH, G. K., ANAND, R. S. A simple design method for the cosine modulated filter bank using weighted least square technique. Journal of the Franklin Institute, 2011, vol. 348, p. 606–621. DOI: 10.1016/j.franklin.2011.01.006
- BERGEN, S. W. A., ANTONIOU, A. An efficient closed form design method for cosine modulated filter banks using window functions. Signal Processing, 2007, vol. 87, no. 5, p. 811–823. DOI: 10.1016/j.sigpro.2006.08.003
- BERGEN, S. W. A. A design for cosine modulated filter banks using weighted constrained least squares filters. Digital Signal Processing, 2008, vol. 18, no. 3, p. 282–290. DOI: 10.1016/j.dsp.2007.04.010
- DATAR, A., JAIN, A., SHARMA, P. C. Design of Kaiser window based optimized prototype modulated filter banks. Signal Processing, 2010, vol. 90, no. 5, p. 1742–1749. DOI: 10.1016/j.sigpro.2009.11.011
- CRUZ-ROLDAN, F., SANTAMARIA, I., BRAVO, A. M. Frequency sampling design of prototype filters for nearly perfect reconstruction cosine modulated filter banks. IEEE Signal Processing Letters, 2004, vol. 11, no. 3, p. 397–400. DOI: 10.1109/LSP.2003.821663
- DOBLINGER, G. A fast design method for perfect-reconstruction uniform cosine modulated filter banks. IEEE Transactions on Signal Processing, 2012, vol. 60, no. 12, p. 6693–6697. DOI: 10.1109/TSP.2012.2217139
- LU, W.S., SARAMAKI, T., BREGOVIC, R. Design of practically perfect-reconstruction cosine-modulated filter banks: A secondorder cone programming approach. IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems I, 2004, vol. 51, no. 3, p. 552–563. DOI: 10.1109/TCSI.2003.822555
- ZHANG, Z.J. Efficient design of cosine modulated filter banks based on gradient information. IEEE Signal Processing Letters, 2007, vol. 14, no. 12, p. 940-943. DOI: 10.1109/LSP.2007.906624
- ZHANG, Z.J., SHUI, P.L., SU, T. Efficient design of high complexity cosine modulated filter banks using 2Mth band conditions. IEEE Transactions on Signal Processing, 2008, vol. 56, no. 11, p. 5414–5426. DOI: 10.1109/TSP.2008.929672

Keywords: Filter bank, low pass prototype, subband, cosine modulation, NPR

**S. Matuska, R. Hudec, P. Kamencay, M. Benco, M. Radilova**
[references] [full-text]
[DOI: 10.13164/re.2016.0161]
[Download Citations]

A Novel System for Non-Invasive Method of Animal Tracking and Classification in Designated Area Using Intelligent Camera System

This paper proposed a novel system for non-invasive method of animal tracking and classification in designated area. The system is based on intelligent devices with cameras, which are situated in a designated area and a main computing unit (MCU) acting as a system master. Intelligent devices track animals and then send data to MCU to evaluation. The main purpose of this system is detection and classification of moving animals in a designated area and then creation of migration corridors of wild animals. In the intelligent devices, background subtraction method and CAMShift algorithm are used to detect and track animals in the scene. Then, visual descriptors are used to create representation of unknown objects. In order to achieve the best accuracy in classification, key frame extraction method is used to filtrate an object from detection module. Afterwards, Support Vector Machine is used to classify unknown moving animals.

- ZHI, K., CHEE, F.N., SIAK, W. K. Shape-based recognition and classification for common objects. In Application in Video Scene Analysis Computer Engineering and Technology (ICCET). Chengdu (China), 2010, p. V3-13–V3-16. DOI: 10.1109/ICCEt.2010.5485747
- ISLAM, M. K., JAHAN, F., MIN, J-H., et al. Object classification based on visual and extended features for video surveillance application. In Proceedings of 2011 8th Asian Control Conference (ASCC). Kaohsiung (Taiwan), 2011, p. 1398–1401. Print ISBN: 9781612844879
- BORJI, A., ITTI, L. Human vs. computer in scene and object recognition. In Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition (CVPR). Columbus (OH, USA), 2014, p. 113–120. DOI: 10.1109/CVPR.2014.22
- ZHANG, S., WANG, CH., CHAN, S-CH., et al. New object detection, tracking, and recognition approaches for video surveillance over camera network. IEEE Sensors Journal, 2015, vol. 15, no. 5, p. 2679–2691. DOI: 10.1109/JSEN.2014.2382174
- WILBER, M.J., SCHEIRER, W.J., LEINER, P., et al. Animal recognition in the Mojave Desert: Vision tools for field biologists. In Applications of Computer Vision (WACV). Tampa (FL, USA), 2013, p. 216–213. DOI: 10.1109/WACV.2013.6475020
- GUOBIN, CH., HAN, T.X., ZHIHAI, H., et al. Deep convolutional neural network based species recognition for wild animal monitoring. In Image Processing (ICIP). Paris (France), 2014, p. 858–862. DOI: 10.1109/ICIP.2014.7025172
- WEIWEI, Z., JIAN, S., XIAOOU, T. From tiger to panda: Animal head detection. IEEE Transactions on Image Processing, 2010, vol. 20, no. 6, p. 1696–1708. DOI: 10.1109/TIP.2010.2099126
- NIKOLOV, B., KOSTOV, N. Motion detection using adaptive temporal averaging method. Radioengineering. 2014, vol. 23, no. 2, p. 652–658. ISSN: 1805-9600
- BALLLESTA, S., REYMOND, G., POZZOBON, M., at al. A realtime 3D video tracking system for monitoring primate groups. Journal of Neuroscience Methods, 30 August 2014, vol. 234, p. 147–152. DOI: 10.1016/j.jneumeth.2014.05.022
- MATUSKA S., HUDEC R., KAMENCAY P., at al. A novel system for automatic detection and classification of animal. In ELEKTRO 2014. Rajecke Teplice (Slovakia), 19-20 May 2014, p. 76–80. DOI: 10.1109/ELEKTRO.2014.6847875
- BAY, H., ESS, A., TUYTELAARS, T., et al. SURF: Speeded Up Robust Features. Computer Vision and Image Understanding (CVIU), 2008, vol. 110, no. 3, p. 346–359. ISSN: 1077-3142, DOI: 10.1016/j.cviu.2007.09.014
- LOWE, D.G. Distinctive image features from scale-invariant key points. International Journal of Computer Vision. 2004, vol. 60, no. 2, p. 91–110. DOI: 10.1023/B:VISI.0000029664.99615.94
- VAN DE SANDE, K.E.A., GEVERS, T., SNOEK, C.G.M. Evaluating color descriptors for object and scene recognition. Pattern Analysis and Machine Intelligence. 2009, vol. 32, no. 9, p. 1582–1596. DOI: 10.1109/TPAMI.2009.154
- MATUSKA, S., HUDEC, R., KAMENCAY, P., et al. Classification of wild animals based on SVM and local descriptors. In AASRI Procedia, 2014 AASRI Conference on Circuit and Signal Processing (CSP 2014). ISSN: 2212-6716. DOI: 10.1016/j.aasri.2014.09.006
- CSURKA, G, DANCE, CH. R., FAN, L., et al. Visual categorization with bags of keypoints. In ECCV International Workshop on Statistical Learning in Computer Vision. Prague, 2004.

Keywords: Animal recognition, object tracking, migration corridors, ASFAR system.

**F. Mojzis, J. Kukal, J. Svihlik**
[references] [full-text]
[DOI: 10.13164/re.2016.0169]
[Download Citations]

Point Spread Functions in Identification of Astronomical Objects from Poisson Noised Image

This article deals with modeling of astronomical objects, which is one of the most fundamental topics in astronomical science. Introduction part is focused on problem description and used methods. Point Spread Function Modeling part deals with description of basic models used in astronomical photometry and further on introduction of more sophisticated models such as combinations of interference, turbulence, focusing, etc. This paper also contains a~way of objective function definition based on the knowledge of Poisson distributed noise, which is included in astronomical data. The proposed methods are further applied to real astronomical data.

- BUIL, C. CCD Astronomy: Construction and Use of an Astronomical CCD Camera, 1st ed. Richmond: Willmann-Bell, 1991.
- HOWELL, S. B. Handbook of CCD Astronomy, 2nd ed. New York: Cambridge University Press, 2006.
- STERKEN, C., MANFROID, J. Astronomical Photometry – A Guide, 1 st ed. Dordrecht: Springer, 1992.
- BUDDING, E., DEMIRCAN, O. Introduction to Astronomical Photometry, 2nd ed. New York: Cambridge University Press, 2007.
- MOJZIS, F., KUKAL, J., SVIHLIK, J. Astronomical systems analysis and object detection. In Proceedings of 22nd International Conference Radioelektronika. Brno (Czech Republic), 2012, p. 201–204.
- MARY, D. L. A statistical analysis of the detection limits of fast photometry. Astronomy and Astrophysics, 2006, vol. 452, no. 2, p. 715–726. DOI: 10.1051/0004-6361:20054425
- NUNEZ, J., FORS, O., PRADES, A. Using image deconvolution to increase the ability to detect stars and faint orbital objects in CCD imaging. In Proceedings of 2009 International Conference Digital Image Processing. Bangkok (Thailand), 2009, p. 195–199. DOI: 10.1109/ICDIP.2009.12
- MASCI, F. PSFs and Sampling of Images in Astronomy. 4 pages. [online] Cited 2015-10-27. Available at: http://web.ipac.caltech.edu/staff/fmasci/home/astro_refs/ PSFsAndSampling.pdf
- BENDINELLI, O., PARMEGGIANI, G., ZAVATTI F. CCD star images: On the determination of Moffat’s PSF shape parameters. Journal of Astrophysics and Astronomy, 1988, vol. 9, no. 3, p. 17–24. DOI: 10.1007/BF02715053
- TRUJILLO, I., QGUERRI, J. A. L., CEPA, J., GUTIERREZ, C. M. The effects of seeing on Sersic profiles. II. The Moffat PSF. Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, 2001, vol. 328, no. 3, p. 977–985. DOI: 10.1046/j.1365-8711.2001.04937.x
- GARRET, J. S., EN-HSIN, M., C. et al. Modelling Image Distortions from Atmospheric Turbulence in Wide-Field Astronomical Imaging Systems. 10 pages. [online] Cited 2015-10-27. Available at: https://dev.lsstcorp.org/trac/export/27569/imsims/trunk/docs/ publication/atmosphere/Tex/imsim_atmosphere.pdf
- PROKES, A. Modeling of atmospheric turbulence effect on terrestrial FSO link. Radioengineering, 2009, vol. 18, no. 1, p. 42–47.
- CARBILLET, M., Astronomical Imaging... Atmospheric Turbulence? Adaptive Optics!. EAS Publications Series, 2013, vol. 59, p. 59–76. DOI: 10.1051/eas/1359004
- MOJZIS, F., KUKAL, J., SVIHLIK, J. Diffusion model with Poisson noise and its identification. In Proceedings of 18th International Conference on Soft Computing Mendel 2012. Brno (Czech Republic), 2012, p. 434–439.
- STARCK, J. L., MURTAGH, F. Astronomical Image and Data Analysis, 1st ed. Berlin: Springer, 2006.
- MOFFAT, A. F. J. A theoretical investigation of focal stellar images in the photographic emulsion and appliction to photographic photometry. Astronomy and Astrophysics, 2012, vol. 3, p. 455–461.
- SHARMA, K. K. Optics: Principals and Applications, 1st ed. Academic Press Inc, 2006.
- ANDREWS, L. C., SHIVAMOGGI, B. K. Integral Transforms for Engineers, 2nd ed. Washington: SPIE Press, 1999.
- McMINN, J. D. Extension of a Kolmogorov atmospheric turbulence model for time-based simulation implementation. In Proceedings of AIAA Guidance, Navigation and Control Conference. New Orleans (USA), 1997, p. 322–334. DOI: 10.2514/6.1997-3532
- BIRNEY, D. S., GONZAEZ, G., OESPER, D. Observational Astronomy, 2nd ed. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2006.
- FISCHER, R. E., TAGIC-GALEB, B., YODER, P. R. Optical System Design, 2nd ed. McGraw-Hill, 2008.
- PAWITAN, Y. In All Likelihood: Statistical Modelling and Inference Using Likelihood, 1st ed. New York: Oxford University Press, 2001.
- SEVERINI, T. A. Likelihood Methods in Statistics, 1st ed. New York: Oxford University Press, 2001.
- MOJZIS, F., KUKAL, J., SVIHLIK, J. Application of optimization heuristics for complex astronomical object model identification. Soft Computing, 2014. DOI 10.1007/s00500-014-1527-y
- GEEM, Z. W., KIM, J. H., LOGANATHAN, G. V. A new heuristic optimization algorithm: Harmony search. Simulation, 2011, vol. 76, no. 2, p. 60–68.
- GEEM, Z. W. Music-Inspired Harmony Search Algorithm: Theory and Applications, 1st ed. Berlin: Springer, 2009.

Keywords: Astronomical Image, Point Spread Function, Poisson Noise, Objetive Function

**L. Song, M. Liang, H. Ji**
[references] [full-text]
[DOI: 10.13164/re.2016.0177]
[Download Citations]

Box-Particle Implementation and Comparison of Cardinalized Probability Hypothesis Density Filter

This paper develops a box-particle implementation of cardinalized probability hypothesis density filter to track multiple targets and estimate the unknown number of targets. A box particle is a random sample that occupies a small and controllable rectangular region of nonzero volume in the target state space. In box-particle filter the huge number of traditional point observations is instead by a remarkably reduced number of interval measurements. It decreases the number of particles significantly and reduces the runtime considerably. The proposed algorithm based on box-particle is able to reach a similar accuracy to a Sequential Monte Carlo cardinalized probability hypothesis density (SMC-CPHD) filter with much less computational costs. Not only does it propagates the PHD, but also propagates the cardinality distribution of target number. Therefore, it generates more accurate and stable instantaneous estimates of target number as well as target state than the box-particle probability hypothesis density (BP-PHD) filter does especially in dense clutter environment. Comparison and analysis based on the simulations in different probability of detection and different clutter rate have been done. The effectiveness and reliability of the proposed algorithm are verified by the simulation results.

- MAHLER, R. Statistical Multisource-Multitarget Information Fusion. Artech House, 2007.
- MAHLER, R. Multi-target Bayes filtering via first-order multitarget moments. IEEE Transactions on Aerospace and Electronic Systems, 2003, vol. 39, no. 4, p. 1152–1178. DOI: 10.1109/TAES.2003.1261119
- MAHLER, R. PHD filters of higher order in target number. IEEE Transactions on Aerospace and Electronic Systems, 2007, vol. 43, no. 3, p. 1523–1542. DOI: 10.1109/TAES.2007.4441756
- MAHLER, R. A survey of PHD filter and CPHD filter implementations. In Proceedings of SPIE 6567, Signal Processing, Sensor Fusion, and Target Recognition XVI. Florida (USA), 2007, p. 1–12.
- VO, B.-N., S. SINGH, S., DOUCET, A. Sequential Monte Carlo methods for multi-target filtering with random finite sets. IEEE Transactions on Aerospace and Electronic Systems, 2005, vol. 41, no. 4, p. 1224–1245. DOI: 10.1109/TAES.2005.1561884
- VO, B.-N., MA, W.-K. The Gaussian mixture probability hypothesis density filter. IEEE Transactions on Signal Processing, 2006, vol. 54, no. 11, p. 4091–4104. DOI: 10.1109/TSP.2006.881190
- VO, B.-T., VO, B.-N., CANTONI, A. Analytic implementations of the cardinalized probability hypothesis density filter. IEEE Transactions on Signal Processing. 2007, vol. 55, no. 7, p. 3553–3567. DOI: 10.1109/TSP.2007.894241
- GNING, A. RISTIC, B., MIHAYLOVA, L., FAHED, A. An introduction to box particle filtering. IEEE Signal Processing Magazine, 2013, vol. 30, no. 4, p. 166–171. DOI: 10.1109/MSP.2013.2254601
- ABDALLAH, F., GNING, A., BONNIFAIT, P. Box particle filtering for nonlinear state estimation using interval analysis. Automatica, 2008, vol. 44, p. 807–815. DOI: 10.1016/j.automatica.2007.07.024
- GNING, A., MIHAYLOVA, L., ABDALLAH, F. Mixture of uniform probability density functions for nonlinear state estimation using interval analysis. In Proceedings of the 13th International Conference on Information Fusion. Edinburgh (UK), July 2010.
- GNING, A. RISTIC, B., MIHAYLOVA, L. Bernoulli particle / box-particle filters for detection and tracking in the presence of triple measurement uncertainty. Transactions on Signal Processing, 2012, vol. 60, no. 5, p. 2138–2151. DOI: 10.1109/TSP.2012.2184538
- SCHIKORA, M., GNING, A., MIHAYLOVA, L., CREMERS, D., KOCH, W. Box-particle PHD filter for multi-target tracking. In Proceedings of the IEEE 15th International Conference on Information Fusion (FUSION). Singapore, 2012, p. 106–113.
- LI-PING SONG, XUE-GANG ZHAO. Box-particle cardinality balanced multi-target multi-Bernoulli filter. Radioengineering, 2014, vol. 23, no. 2, p. 609–617.
- MOORE, R. E., CLOUD, M. J., KEARFOTT, R. B. Introduction to Interval Analysis. Siam, 2009. ISBN-10: 0898716691
- VO, B.-N., MA, W.-K. The Gaussian mixture probability hypothesis density filter. IEEE Transactions on Signal Processing, 2006, vol. 54, no. 11, p. 4091–4104. DOI: 10.1109/TSP.2006.881190
- JAULIN, L., KIEFFER, M., DIDRIT, O., WALTER, E. Applied Interval Analysis: With Examples in Parameter and State Estimation, Robust Control and Robotics. London: Springer, 2001. DOI: 10.1007/978-1-4471-0249-6
- GNING, A. RISTIC, B., MIHAYLOVA, L. A box particle filter for stochastic set-theoretic measurements with association uncertainty. In Proceedings of the 14th International Conference on Information Fusion. Chicago (IL, USA), July 2011, 8 p. Print ISBN: 978-1-4577-0267-9
- SCHIKORA, M., GNING, A., MIHAYLOVA, L., CREMERS, D., KOCH, W. Box-particle probability hypothesis density filtering. IEEE Transactions on Aerospace and Electronic Systems, 2014, vol. 50, no. 3, p. 1660–1672. DOI: 10.1109/TAES.2014.120238
- PETROV, N., MIHAYLOVA, L., DE FREITAS, A., GNING, A., Crowd tracking with box particle filtering. In Proceedings of the 17th International Conference on Information Fusion (FUSION). Salamanca (Spain), 2014, 7 p.
- PETROV, N., MIHAYLOVA, L., GNING, A. Rectangular extended object tracking with box particle filter using dynamic constraints. IET Conference Publication 629:IET Conference on Data Fusion and Target Tracking (DF&TT 2014). Liverpool (UK), 2014, 7 p. ISBN: 978-1-63266-664-2.
- MAHLER, R. General Bayes filtering of quantized measurements. In Proceedings of the 14th IEEE International Conference on Information Fusion (FUSION). Chicago (IL, USA), July 2011, 7 p. Print ISBN: 978-1-4577-0267-9
- MENG LIANG, LIPING SONG, HONGBING JI, YUFEI WANG. Box-particle CPHD filter for multi-target tracking, In Proceedings of 2015 International Conference on Control, Automation and Information Sciences (ICCAIS). Changshu (China), 2015, p. 80–84. DOI: 10.1109/ICCAIS.2015.7338730
- PALLAUF, J., WAGNER, J., LEON, F.P. Evaluation of statedependent pedestrian tracking based on finite sets. IEEE Transactions on Instrumentation and Measurement, 2015, vol. 64, no. 5, p. 1276–1284. DOI: 10.1109/TIM.2014.2375712
- SUN, J.G., LIU, J., ZHAO, L.Y. Clustering algorithms research. Journal of Software, 2008, vol. 19, no. 1, p. 48–61. DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1001.2008.00048

Keywords: Multi-target tracking, CPHD filter, PHD filter, box-particle filter, interval measurements

**S. Tadic, M.B. Vukajlovic**
[references] [full-text]
[DOI: 10.13164/re.2016.0187]
[Download Citations]

Experimental Verification of Inertial Navigation with MEMS for Forensic Investigation of Vehicle Collision

This paper studies whether low-grade inertial sensors can be adequate source of data for the accident characterization and the estimation of vehicle trajectory near crash. Paper presents outcomes of an experiment carried out in accredited safety performance assessment facility in which full-size passenger car was crashed and the recordings of different types of motion sensors were compared to investigate practical level of accuracy of consumer grade sensors versus reference equipment and cameras. Inertial navigation system was developed by combining motion sensors of different dynamic ranges to acquire and process vehicle crash data. Vehicle position was reconstructed in three-dimensional space using strap-down inertial mechanization. Difference between the computed trajectory and the ground-truth position acquired by cameras was on decimeter level within short time window of 750 ms. Experiment findings suggest that inertial sensors of this grade, despite significant stochastic variations and imperfections, can be valuable for estimation of velocity vector change, crash severity, direction of impact force, and for estimation of vehicle trajectory in crash proximity.

- GLEAVE, S. D., FRISONI, R., DIONORI, F., et al. Technical development and implementation of event data recording in the road safety policy. Study for European Parliament, September 2014. DOI: 10.2861/67672
- GILLIERON, P.-Y. From GNSS to black box for challenging road applications. In Toulouse Space Show’12. Toulouse (France), June 25-28, 2012.
- SINGH, G. B., SONG, H. Using hidden Markov models in vehicular crash detection. IEEE Transactions on Vehicular Technology, March 2009, vol. 58, no. 3, p. 1119–1128. DOI: 10.1109/TVT.2008.928904
- TITTERTON, D. H., WESTON, J. L. Strapdown Inertial Navigation Technology. AIAA, vol. 207, 2004. DOI: 10.1049/PBRA017E
- CLAUSEN, P., GILLIERON, P.-Y., PERAKIS, H., et al. Positioning accuracy of vehicle trajectories for road applications. In Proceedings of ITS World Congress 2015. Bordeaux (France), October, 5-9, 2015, EPFL-CONF-213568.
- JAKUBOV, O., KOVAR, P., KACMARIK, P., et.al. Distributed extended Kalman filter for position, velocity, time estimation in satellite navigation receivers. Radioengineering, 2013, vol. 22, no. 3, p. 776–790. ISSN: 1210-2512
- DTS, Solution in Motion, Crash Test Technology Int., UKIP Media & Events, UK, Sept. 2013, p. 18–19. ISSN: 2051-6096
- STEBLER, Y., GUERRIER, S., SKALOUD, J. An approach for observing and modeling errors in MEMS-based inertial sensors under vehicle dynamic. IEEE Transactions on Instrumentation and Measurement, 2015, vol. 64, no. 11, p. 2926–2936. DOI: 10.1109/TIM.2015.2444239
- STEBLER, Y., GUERRIER, S., SKALOUD, J., et al. Study of MEMS-based inertial sensors operating in dynamic conditions. In Proceedings of Position, Location and Navigation Symposium IEEE/ION PLANS 2014. Monterey (CA, USA), May 2014, p. 1227–1231. DOI: 10.1109/PLANS.2014.6851497
- BJӦRKHOLM, P., LANDEN, L., STIGWALL, J., et al. Navigation in vehicle crash test using MEMS-based IMU. In Proceedings of Position, Location and Navigation Symposium IEEE/ION PLANS 2010. Indian Wells (CA, USA), May 2010, p. 27–31. DOI: 10.1109/PLANS.2010.5507134
- VERMA, M. K., LANGE, R.C., MCGARRY, D.C. A study of US crash statistics from automated crash notification data. In 20th International Tech. Conference on the Enhanced Safety of Vehicles. Lyon (France), 2007, p. 18–21.
- HUANG, M. Vehicle Crash Mechanics. New York: CRC Press, 2002. DOI: 10.1115/1.1584416
- SALYCHEV, O. Applied Inertial Navigation Problems and Solutions. Moscow (Russia): BMSTU Press, 2004.
- FLENNIKEN IV, W. S., WALL, J. H., BEVLY, D. M. Characterization of various IMU error sources and the effect on navigation performance. In Proceedings of the 18th International Technical Meeting of the Satellite Division of the Institute of Navigation (ION GNSS 2005). Long Beach (CA, USA), September 2005, p. 967–978.
- SKOG, I., HӒNDEL, P. In-car positioning and navigation technologies - A survey. IEEE Transactions on Intelligent Transportation Systems, 2009, vol. 10, no. 1, p. 4–21. DOI: 10.1109/TITS.2008.2011712
- SOCIETY OF AUTOMOTIVE ENGINEERS. Surface Vehicle Recommended Practice: Instrumentation for Impact Tests – Part 1– Electronic Instrumentation – SAE J211/1_201404, Revised March 2014.
- INTERNATIONAL STANDARDS ORGANIZATION. Road Vehicles – Measurement Techniques in Impact Tests – Instrumentation – ISO 6487:2012, Genève, Switzerland. Revised 2012.
- MALLIARIS, A., DIGGES, K., DEBLOIS, J. Relationships between crash casualties and crash attributes. SAE Technical Paper 970393, 1997.
- AUGENSTEIN, J., PERDECK, E., STRATTON, J., et al. Characteristics of crashes that increase the risk of serious injuries. In Annual Proceedings of the Association for the Advancement of Automotive Medicine, 2003, vol. 47, p. 561–576.

Keywords: Accelerometer, gyroscopes, vehicle crash testing, navigation, positioning

**Y. Kalkan**
[references] [full-text]
[DOI: 10.13164/re.2016.0194]
[Download Citations]

A Novel Data Association Method for Frequency Based MIMO Systems

Whenever more than one target exist, the most important problem is associating the received signals to the correct targets. This problem appears for all multiple target applications such as multiple target tracking and it is known as "Data Association". For frequency-based systems, Multiple-Input Multiple-Output (MIMO) configuration together with the frequency diversity of the system enable us to determine the number of moving targets by using the Doppler frequencies. These frequencies include all relevant information about the location, velocity and direction of the targets and hence, they can be used efficiently to estimate the other unknown target parameters.

- BAR-SHALOM, Y., BLAIR, W. D. Multitarget-Multisensor Tracking: Applications and Advances. Boston (USA): Artech House, 2000, vol. 3. ISBN: 9781580530910
- SITTLER, R. W. An optimal data association problem in surveillance theory. IEEE Transactions on Military Electronics, 1964, vol. 8, p. 125–139. DOI: 10.1109/TME.1964.4323129
- BLACKMAN, S. S., POPOLI, R. F. Design and Analysis of Modern Tracking Systems. Norwood (MA, USA): Artech House, 1999.
- BAR-SHALOM, Y., FORTMAN, T. E. Tracking and Data Association. Orlando (FL, USA): Academic Press, 1988.
- BAR-SHALOM, Y. LI, X. R. Multitarget-Multisensor Tracking: Principles and Techniques. Storrs (CT, USA): YBS Publishing, 1995.
- KIRUBARAJAN, T., BAR-SHALOM, Y. Probabilistic data association techniques for target tracking in clutter. Proceedings of IEEE, 2004, vol. 92, p. 536–557. DOI: 10.1109/JPROC.2003.823149
- MUSICKI, D., SUVOROVA, S. Tracking in clutter using IMMIPDA-based algorithms. IEEE Transactions on Aerospace and Electronic Systems, 2008, vol. 44, no. 1, p. 111–126. DOI: 10.1109/TAES.2008.4516993
- MUSICKI, D., LA SCALA, B. Multi-target tracking in clutter without measurement assignment. IEEE Transactions on Aerospace and Electronic Systems, 2008, vol. 44, no. 3, p. 877–896. DOI: 10.1109/TAES.2008.4655350
- XU, L., JIN, S., YIN, G. A track association algorithm based on leader-follower on-line clustering in dense target environments. Radioengineering, 2014, vol. 23, no. 1, p. 259–265.
- BAR-SHALOM, Y. TSE, E. Tracking in a cluttered environment with probabilistic data association. Automatica, 1975, vol. 11, no. 5, p. 451–460. DOI: 10.1016/0005-1098(75)90021-7
- FORTMANN, T., BAR-SHALOM, Y., SCHEFFE, M. Sonar tracking of multiple targets using joint probabilistic data association. IEEE Journal of Oceanic Engineering, 1983, vol. 8, no. 3, p. 173–184. DOI: 10.1109/JOE.1983.1145560
- REID, D. B. An algorithm for tracking multiple targets. IEEE Transactions on Automatic Control, 1979, vol. 24, no. 6, p. 423–432. DOI: 10.1109/TAC.1979.1102177
- KALKAN, Y., BAYKAL, B. Multiple target localization & data association for frequency-only widely separated MIMO radar. Digital Signal Processing, 2014, vol. 25, p. 51–61. DOI: 10.1016/j.dsp.2013.09.015
- KALKAN, Y., BAYKAL, B. Frequency-based target localization methods for widely separated MIMO radar. Radio Science, 2014, vol. 49, no. 1, p. 53–67. DOI: 10.1002/2013RS005245
- KALKAN, Y. Cramer-Rao bound for target localization for widely separated MIMO radar. Radioengineering, 2013, vol. 22, no. 4, p. 1156–1161.
- RICHARDS, M. A. Fundamentals of Radar Signal Processing. NewYork (USA): McGraw-Hill, 2005. ISBN: 9780071798327

Keywords: Data association, MIMO radar, frequency-only, Doppler frequency

**L. Zhao, W. Jia, R. Wang, Q. Yu**
[references] [full-text]
[DOI: 10.13164/re.2016.0200]
[Download Citations]

Robust Tensor Analysis with Non-Greedy L1-Norm Maximization

The L1-norm based tensor analysis (TPCA-L1) is recently proposed for dimensionality reduction and feature extraction. However, a greedy strategy was utilized for solving the L1-norm maximization problem, which makes it prone to being stuck in local solutions. In this paper, we propose a robust TPCA with non-greedy L1-norm maximization (TPCA-L1 non-greedy), in which all projection directions are optimized simultaneously. Experiments on several face databases demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method.

- JOLLIFFE, I. T. Principal Component Analysis. 2nd ed. New York: Springer-Verlag, 2002. ISBN: 978-0-387-95442-4. DOI: 10.1007/b98835
- KIRBY, M., SIROVICH, L. Application of the Karhunen-Loeve procedure for the characterization of human faces. IEEE Transactions on Pattern Analysis and Machine Intelligence, 1990, vol. 12, no. 1, p. 103–108. DOI: 10.1109/34.41390
- WOLD. S., ESBENSEN, K., GELADI, P. Principal component analysis. Chemometrics and Intelligent Laboratory Systems, 1987, vol. 2, no. 1, p. 37–52. DOI: 10.1016/0169-7439(87)80084-9
- YANG, J., ZHANG, D., FRANGI, A. F., et al. Two-dimensional PCA: a new approach to appearance-based face representation and recognition. IEEE Transactions on Pattern Analysis and Machine Intelligence, 2004, vol. 26, no. 1, p. 131–137. DOI: 10.119/TPAMI.2004.1261097
- KOLDA, T. G., BADER, B. W. Tensor decompositions and applications. SIAM review, 2009, vol. 51, no. 3, p. 455–500. DOI: 10.1137/07070111X
- HE, X., CAI, D., NIYOGI, P. Tensor subspace analysis. In Advances in Neural Information Processing Systems 18 (NIPS), Cambridge, 2006, p. 499–506. ISBN: 9780262232531
- VASILESCU, M., TERZOPOULOS, D. Multilinear subspace analysis of image ensembles. In Proceedings IEEE Computer Society Conference on Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition. Madison, 2003, vol. 2, p. 93-99. ISSN: 1063-6919. DOI: 10.1109/CVPR.2003.1211457
- YE, J. Generalized low rank approximations of matrices. Machine Learning, 2005, vol. 61, no. 1-3, p. 167–191. ISSN: 0885-6125. DOI: 10.1007/s10994-005-3561-6
- KE, Q., KANADE, T. Robust `1-norm factorization in the presence of outliers and missing data by alternative convex programming. In Proceedings IEEE Computer Society Conference on Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition (CVPR). San Diego, 2005, p. 739–746. ISSN: 1063-6919. DOI: 10.1109/CVPR.2005.309
- DING, C., ZHOU, D., HE, X., et al. R1-PCA: Rotational invariant `1-norm principal component analysis for robust subspace factorization. In Proceedings of the 23rd International Conference on Machine Learning (ICML). Pittsburgh, 2006, p. 281–288. ISBN: 1-59593-383-2. DOI: 10.1145/1143844.1143880
- KWAK, N. Principal component analysis based on `1-norm maximization. IEEE Transactions on Pattern Analysis and Machine Intelligence, 2008, vol. 30, no. 9, p. 1672–1680. ISSN: 0162-8828. DOI: 10.1109/TPAMI.2008.114
- PANG, Y., LI, X., YUAN, Y. Robust tensor analysis with `1- norm. IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems for Video Technology, 2010, vol. 20, no. 2, p. 172–178. ISSN: 1051-8215. DOI: 10.1109/TCSVT.2009.2020337
- NIE, F., HUANG, H., DING, C., et al. Robust principal component analysis with non-greedy `1-norm maximization. In Proceedings of the 22nd International Joint Conference on Artificial Intelligence, 2011, p. 1433–1438.
- WANG, R., NIE, F., YANG, X., et al. Robust 2DPCA with nongreedy `1-norm maximization for image analysis. IEEE Transactions on Cybernetics, 2015, vol. 45, no. 5, p. 1108–1112. ISSN: 2168-2267. DOI: 101109/TCVB.2014.2341575
- CAI, D., HE, X., HAN, J., et al. Orthogonal laplacianfaces for face recognition. IEEE Transactions on Image Processing, 2006, vol. 15, no. 11, p. 3608–3614. ISSN: 1057-7149. DOI: 10.1109/TIP.2006.881945

Keywords: Principal component analysis (PCA), TPCA, L1-norm, outliers, non-greedy strategy

**E. Fatemi-Behbahani, E. Farshidi, K. Ansari-Asl**
[references] [full-text]
[DOI: 10.13164/re.2016.0208]
[Download Citations]

Analysis of Residue Probability Density Function and Comparator Offset Error in Pipelined ADCs

This paper presents a new approach to analyze the convergence of residue probability density function (pdf) in pipelined ADCs. Compared to the previous approaches, in the proposed approach, in addition to the analysis of residue pdfs for different input densities, the analysis of the sub-ADC comparator offsets impact on output pdf is possible. Using Fourier analysis, it will be shown that the residue density converges to uniformity. In the half-bit redundant structure, residue pdf concentrates in the center half of the stage full-scale range and 6 dB of extra resolution can be gained. Also, the share of each stage in this resolution improvement is investigated. Examining the sub-ADC threshold offsets impact on residue pdfs, it is observed that with respect to the impact on converter additional resolution, the final stages offset errors are more significant than the first stages offsets.

- CHEN, C.-Y., WU, J., HUNG, J.-J., et al. A 12-bit 3 GS/s pipeline ADC with 0.4 mm2 and 500 mW in 40 nm digital CMOS. IEEE Journal of Solid-State Circuits, 2012, vol. 47, no. 4, p. 1013 –1021. DOI: 10.1109/JSSC.2012.2185192
- MEDAWAR, S., HANDEL, P., BJORSELL, N., JANSSON, M. Postcorrection of pipelined analog-digital converters based on input-dependent integral nonlinearity modeling. IEEE Transactions on Instrumentation and Measurement, 2011, vol. 60, no. 10, p. 3342–3350. DOI: 10.1109/TIM.2011.2126870
- SUNDSTROM, T., MURMANN, B., SVENSSON, C. Power dissipation bounds for high-speed Nyquist analog-to-digital converters. IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems I, Regular Papers, 2009, vol. 56, no. 3, p. 509–518. DOI: 10.1109/TCSI.2008.2002548
- LE, B., RONDEAU, T.W., REED, J.H., BOSTIAN, C.W. Analogto-digital converters. IEEE Signal Processing Magazine, 2005, vol. 22, no. 6, p. 69–77. DOI: 10.1109/MSP.2005.1550190
- GUSTAVSSON, M., WIKNER, J. J., TAN, N. N. CMOS Data Converters for Communications. Kluwer, 2002.
- WIDROW, B. A study of rough amplitude quantization by means of Nyquist sampling theory. IRE Transactions on Circuit Theory, 1956, vol. 3, no. 4, p. 266–276. DOI: 10.1109/TCT.1956.1086334
- WIDROW, B., KOLLAR, I. Quantization Noise-roundoff Error in Digital Computation, Signal Processing, Control, and Communication. Cambridge, U. K.: Cambridge University, 2008.
- SPIRAD, A. B., SNYDER, D. L. A necessary and sufficient condition for quantization errors to be uniform and white. IEEE Transactions on Acoustics, Speech, and Signal Processing, 1977, vol. ASSP-25, no. 5, p. 442–448. DOI: 10.1109/TASSP.1977.1162977
- LEVY, B. A propagation analysis of residual distributions in pipeline ADCs. IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems I, Regular Papers, 2011, vol. 58, no. 10, p. 2366–2376. DOI: 10.1109/TCSI.2011.2142850
- GUERBER, J., GANDE, M., MOON, U.-K. The analysis and application of redundant multistage ADC resolution improvements through PDF residue shaping. IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems I, Regular Papers, 2012, vol. 59, p. 1733–1742. DOI: 10.1109/TCSI.2011.2180435
- PAPOULIS, A., PILLAI, S. U. Probability Random Variables and Stochastic Processes. 4th ed. 2002. ISBN-13: 978-0071226615
- FATEMI-BEHBAHANI, E., FARSHIDI, E., ANSARI-ASL, K. A new approach to analysis of residue probability density function in pipelined ADCs. Integration, The VLSI Journal, 2016, vol. 52, no. 1, p. 51–61. DOI: 10.1016/j.vlsi.2015.08.003
- LI, J., MOON, U. K. Background calibration techniques for multistage pipelined ADC’s with digital redundancy. IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems II, Analog and Digital Signal Processing, 2003, vol. 50, no. 9, p. 531–538. DOI: 10.1109/TCSII.2003.816921
- MURMANN, B., BOSER, B. E. Digital domain measurement and cancellation of residue amplifier nonlinearity in pipelined ADCs. IEEE Transactions on Instrumentation and Measurement, 2007, vol. 56, no. 6, p. 2504–2514. DOI: 10.1109/TIM.2007.907950
- KEANE, J. P., HURST, P. J., LEWIS, S. H. Digital background calibration for memory effects in pipelined analog-to-digital converters. IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems I, Regular Papers, 2006, vol. 53, no. 3, p. 511–525. DOI: 10.1109/TCSI.2005.858760
- CHO, T., GRAY, P. R. A 10 b, 20 Msamples, 35 mW pipeline AD converter. IEEE Journal of Solid-State Circuits, 1995, vol. 30, no. 3, p. 166–172. DOI: 10.1109/4.364429
- KARANICOLAS, A., LEE, H.-S., BARCRANIA, K. A 15b 1- Msample/s digitally self-calibrated pipeline ADC. IEEE Journal of Solid-State Circuits, 1993, vol. 28, no. 12, p. 1207–1215. DOI: 10.1109/4.261994
- LEWIS, S., FETTERMAN, H., GROSS, G., et al. A 10-b 20 Msample/s analog-to-digital converter. IEEE Journal of SolidState Circuits, 1992, vol. 27, no. 3, p. 351–358. DOI: 10.1109/4.121557
- YUAN, J., FUNG, S. W., CHAN, K. Y., XU, R. A 12-bit 20 MS/s 56.3 mW pipelined ADC with interpolation-based nonlinear calibration. IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems I, Regular Papers, 2012, vol. 59, no. 3, p. 555–565. DOI: 10.1109/TCSI.2011.2167272
- SUN, N. Exploiting process variation and noise in comparators to calibrate interstage gain nonlinearity in pipelined ADCs. IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems I, Regular Papers, 2012, vol. 59, no. 4, p. 685–695. DOI: 10.1109/TCSI.2011.2169854
- KEANE, J. P., HURST, P. J., LEWIS, S. H. Background interstage gain calibration technique for pipelined ADCs. IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems I, Regular Papers, 2005, vol. 52, p. 32–43. DOI: 10.1109/TCSI.2004.839534
- PARESCHI, F., SETTI, G., ROVATTI, R. Implementation and testing of high-speed CMOS true random number generators based on chaotic systems. IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems I, Regular Papers, 2010, vol. 57, no. 12, p. 3124–3137. DOI: 10.1109/TCSI.2010.2052515

Keywords: Comparator offset error, half-bit redundancy, pipelined ADC, power spectral density (PSD), probability density function (pdf), quantization noise.