# June 2020, Volume 29, Number 2 [DOI: 10.13164/re.2020-2]

**V. Stopjakova, M. Kovac, M. Potocny**
[references] [full-text]
[DOI: 10.13164/re.2020.0269]
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On-chip Energy Harvesting for Implantable Medical Devices

The paper brings an overview of main challenges in implantable medical devices (IMD) research area, where the main objective of discussion covers wireless power transferring (WPT) systems as the hot topic dedicated to energy harvesting that is still gaining in popularity. The paper is focused on electromagnetic-transfer principle, where full integration of the WPT systems on a chip is taken as the primary goal covering passive transducer and rectifier implementations. The presented research reveals many issues raised from the state of the art solutions. These solutions can or should be detailed investigated in the future research. Therefore, this paper discusses about so far hidden potential of fully integrated WPT systems, where both near-field and far-field approaches are included. Additionally, the discussion is also extended to a principle of power transfer efficiency (PTE) maximization through approaches such as matching and finding the optimal source/load together with rectifying and regulating issues.

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Keywords: Wireless power transferring systems, energy harvesting, on-chip WPT implementation, electromagnetic-transfer principle, on-chip antennas

**N. M. Albadri, D. V. Thiel, H. G. Espinosa**
[references] [full-text]
[DOI: 10.13164/re.2020.0285]
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Wearable Slot Antenna for Biomedical Applications: Mutual Coupling and External Interference

A small slot antenna has desirable characteristics for radio communications and location of an internal transceiver in-vivo medical applications. The effect of coupling between two identical antennas on the human torso was measured between 2.1 GHz antennas on the skin surface. The effect of an external field was measured as a function of the angle in the horizontal plane to quantify noise isolation. The perimeter separation loss was approximately 0.25 dB/mm. The external radio source induces currents in the soft conducting tissue resulting in a sinc radiation pattern for the antenna/body combination with a front-to-back ratio of approximately 12 dB. As the UHF band is commonly used in many non-medical applications, there is concern that external radio sources can result in a reduced signal to noise ratio and perturbed field strength measurements on the skin.

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Keywords: Wearable slot antenna, electromagnetic interference, noise, mutual coupling, surface fields

**A. A. Kucharski**
[references] [full-text]
[DOI: 10.13164/re.2020.0291]
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Resonances in Dielectric Bodies of Revolution -- FIT-MoM Analysis

In this paper the Finite Integration Technique (FIT) hybridized with the Method-of-Moments (MoM) is used to find resonance frequencies and quality factors of open cylindrical dielectric resonators (CDRs). The technique is based on the previously developed formulation for scattering problems, with the application of root searching algorithm to find zeros of the final matrix determinant in the complex frequency plane. The method is validated by comparison of obtained results with the results of simulations done using other methods, and with measurement data found in the literature.

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Keywords: dielectric resonators, moment methods, finite difference methods

**A. Kartci, N. Herencsar, J. T. Machado, L. Brancik**
[references] [full-text]
[DOI: 10.13164/re.2020.0296]
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History and Progress of Fractional-Order Element Passive Emulators: A Review

This paper presents a state-of-the-art survey in the area of fractional-order element passive emulators adopted in circuits and systems. An overview of the different approximations used to estimate the passive element values by means of rational functions is also discussed. A short comparison table highlights the significance of recent methodologies and their potential for further research. Moreover, the pros and cons in emulation of FOEs are analyzed.

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Keywords: Circuit synthesis, constant phase element, fractional-order capacitor, fractional-order element, fractional-order emulator, RC network, RL network

**A. Banerjee, K. Patra, S. Chatterjee, B. Gupta, A. K. Bandyopadhyay**
[references] [full-text]
[DOI: 10.13164/re.2020.0305]
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Theoretical Investigations on CPW-Fed Single and Dual-Polarized Slot Radiators Using Schelkunoff’s Biconical Antenna Analysis

This article presents a closed-form analysis of CPW-fed slot dipole structures with the help of Schelkunoff’s biconical antenna analysis technique and Babinet’s principle. Input characteristics of CPW-fed slot dipole antennas are investigated, and closed-form expressions are derived for the purpose. The feed-gap inherently generated in CPW-fed antenna configurations is accounted for in the expressions, and the analysis of Schelkunoff is modified to address the same. Single-polarized structures can be orthogonally placed to generate dual-polarized characteristics – this notion is utilized to extend the proposed structure of a single CPW-fed slot dipole radiator towards a dual-polarized configuration. The proposed theoretical expressions are further validated for the dual-polarized geometry, and good agreement is observed in concerned theoretical and measured results. The simplicity of the proposed expressions is evident as they entirely consist of Sine and Cosine integrals and facilitate faster computation. Schelkunoff’s Biconical Antenna method is rarely used for solving a planar slot radiator problem which justifies the novelty of this article. The present work also, for the first time – modifies the method of Schelkunoff to further account for the inherently generated feed-gap in CPW-fed planar monopole or dipole configurations.

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Keywords: CPW-fed slot radiator, dual-polarized slot radiator, input impedance investigation, Schelkunoff’s Biconical Antenna analysis

**M. M. Fakharian, P. Rezaei, A. A. Orouji**
[references] [full-text]
[DOI: 10.13164/re.2020.0313]
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A Multi-Reconfigurable CLL-Loaded Planar Monopole Antenna

In this paper, multi-reconfiguration capabilities of a planar monopole antenna with two switchable capacitively loaded loops (CLLs), as near field resonant parasitic elements, are introduced. The idea is to apply the CLLs not only to minimize the dimensions of the antenna, but also to present multiple resonances, which can be satisfactorily chosen by applying switches placed across six gaps of the CLLs. By changing the switched states, it is feasible to obtain different reconfigurations such as frequency agility (from 1.5 to 2.9 GHz), polarization diversity (with circular polarization bandwidth from 1.59 to 1.72 GHz), and various shapes of the radiation patterns and beam directions (change in the ±30° y-direction) of the antenna. The transmutation of polarization designs from their linear counterparts to left hand and right hand circular polarizations by introducing an asymmetry in the configuration of the two-CLLs is also represented. The prototypes of the proposed antenna are fabricated and tested. The measured reflection coefficient, radiation pattern, gain and axial ratio results are presented and compared to the corresponding simulated values.

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Keywords: Multi-reconfigurable antenna, resonant parasitic element, monopole

**N. O. Ali, M. R. Hamid, M. K. A. Rahim, N. A. Murad, S. Thomas**
[references] [full-text]
[DOI: 10.13164/re.2020.0321]
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A Compact Second-order Chebyshev Bandpass Filter Using U-shaped Resonator and Defected Ground Structure

A compact bandpass filter using U-shaped resonators and Defected Ground Structures is proposed and designed at 5.8 GHz. The U-shaped resonators are placed around an indirectly coupled feed line while the Defected Ground Structures are positioned beneath them. The U-shaped resonator and U-shaped Defected Ground Structure are responsible for the high and low band rejection respectively. The proposed bandpass filter obeys the second order Chebyshev response which has low insertion loss of – 1.87 dB, high rejection level and a sharp roll-off performance. The design is carried out using CST Microwave studio. The design is verified by fabricating and measuring the prototype in the laboratory. A good agreement is observed between the simulated and measured results.

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- BOUTEJDAR, A., BATMANOV, A., AWIDA, M. H., et al. Design of a new bandpass filter with sharp transition band using multilayer-technique and U-defected ground structure. IET Microwaves, Antennas & Propagation, 2010, vol. 4, no. 9, p. 1415–1420. DOI: 10.1049/iet-map.2009.0357

Keywords: Bandpass filter, Chebyshev response, filter synthesis, high selectivity, U-shaped resonator, Defected Ground Structure (DFS)

**M. Maleki, J. Nourinia, Ch. Ghobadi, R. Naderali**
[references] [full-text]
[DOI: 10.13164/re.2020.0328]
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Implementation of a New and Modified Scheme of Butler Matrix for C-Band Applications with Enhanced Characteristics

In this paper, the structure of a miniaturized broadband 4 × 4 Butler matrix is presented. All components of the proposed feeding network are designed in a way that they have the smallest electrical size and acceptable performance in the C band. Despite conventional Butler matrix consists of phase shifters, the proposed network benefits from dummy crossover, which leads to improving the phase difference bandwidth. Since in beam switching networks, 90° coupler has a vital role, the main focus is concentrated on the aforementioned component as mentioned above. The compactness of the proposed coupler is associated with embedding the S-shaped arms instead of ordinary elements. Due to overcoming the problem of a mismatch phase difference between phase shifter and crossover, the modified dummy crossover is used. In order to improve the overall performance of the depicted feeding network, S-shaped electromagnetic bandgap structures are used between elements. They reduce destructive mutual coupling effect hence leads to enhance total network efficiency. The extracted results determine that the bandwidth of the presented network is from 3.5 ~ 8.2 GHz that covers the C band totally.

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Keywords: Butler matrix, coupler, broadband, electromagnetic band gap

**M. Kumar, G. Sen, Sk N. Islam, S. K. Parui, S. Das**
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[DOI: 10.13164/re.2020.0336]
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Miniaturization and Harmonic Suppression of Power Divider using Coupled Line Section for High Power Applications

This paper presents a compact transmission line based on the coupled line section to reduce the circuit size of Gysel power divider (GPD). The line composed of one direct line and one coupled line section. The coupled line section consists of two series lines and one coupled line. The proposed line not only reduces circuit size but also improve the out-off band performance. To validate the properties of the line, a GPD) is designed at 1 GHz. The physical size of the GPD occupies only 38% (0.32λg×0.16λg, λg¬ is the guided wavelength) circuit area compared to reference GPD. Furthermore, the proposed design includes 2nd order harmonic suppression with attenuation level better than -20 dB. The GPD is designed with a substrate of dielectric constant of 2.2, thickness of 0.787 mm, and loss tangent 0.0009.

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Keywords: Coupled line, transmission zero, Gysel power divider, miniaturization, harmonic suppression.

**S. Yildiz, A. Aksen, S. Kilinc, S. B. Yarman**
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[DOI: 10.13164/re.2020.0343]
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Multiband Filter Design Using Generalized Mapping Functions and Synthesis with Lumped Resonators

In this paper, a new multiband frequency mapping function is proposed to design multiband filter. The presented mapping function is a generalized form of the sequential low pass to band pass (LPtoBP) transformation. The multiband filter design is based on the application of the frequency mapping function on a LP prototype. The synthesis of the resulting multiband filter is obtained by lumped element resonators. Several examples are presented to validate the proposed design approach. A triple band filter implementation and measurement results are presented.

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Keywords: Multiband filter, multiband mapping, frequency transformation, dual band, triple band

**S. R. Bandela, T. K. Kumar**
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[DOI: 10.13164/re.2020.0353]
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Speech Emotion Recognition using Unsupervised Feature Selection Algorithms

The use of the combination of different speech features is a common practice to improve the accuracy of Speech Emotion Recognition (SER). Sometimes, this leads to an abrupt increase in the processing time and some of these features contribute less to emotion recognition often resulting in an incorrect prediction of emotion with which the accuracy of the SER system decreases substantially. Hence, there is a need to select the appropriate feature set that can contribute significantly to emotion recognition. This paper presents the use of Feature Selection with Adaptive Structure Learning (FSASL) and Unsupervised Feature Selection with Ordinal Locality (UFSOL) algorithms for feature dimension reduction. A novel Subset Feature Selection (SuFS) algorithm is proposed to further reduce the feature dimension and achieve a comparable better accuracy when used along with the FSASL and UFSOL algorithms. 1582 INTERSPEECH 2010 Paralinguistic, 20 Gammatone Cepstral Coefficients and Support Vector Machine classifier with 10-Fold Cross-Validation and Hold-Out Validation are considered in this work. The EMO-DB and IEMOCAP databases are used to evaluate the performance of the proposed SER system in terms of Classification accuracy and Computational Time. From the result analysis, it is evident that the proposed SER system outperforms the existing ones.

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Keywords: Speech Emotion Recognition, INTERSPEECH Paralinguistic Feature Set, GTCC, feature selection, feature optimization, FSASL, UFSOL, SuFS

**A. Kraker, B. Csuka, Zs. Kollar**
[references] [full-text]
[DOI: 10.13164/re.2020.0365]
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Sliding Window Evaluation of the Wiener-Hopf Equation

This paper presents an efficient method for solving the Wiener-Hopf equation in a sliding window by calculating the correlation matrices recursively. Furthermore, a novel algorithm is introduced for evaluating the inverse of the auto-correlation matrix - the Recursion with Splitting the Correlation matrix into 4 Blocks for Inversion - which can significantly reduce the computational requirements. The presented procedure is optimized for special cases to achieve an efficient implementation which allows faster rel-time signal processing or to reduce the response time - e.g. the latency -- by distributing the computations over the time. The proposed method is also validated through numerical simulations and hardware implementation.

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Keywords: adaptive filtering, sliding window Wiener filter, Wiener-Hopf equation, recursive matrix inversion, RSC4BI, SWF

**L. Shhab, A. Rizaner, A. H. Ulusoy, H. Amca**
[references] [full-text]
[DOI: 10.13164/re.2020.0376]
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Suppressing the Effect of Impulsive Noise on Millimeter-Wave Communications Systems

The Fifth Generation (5G) wireless communication systems are expected to satisfy higher data rates, network scalability, increasing number of connections and higher traffic densities in a cost-effective manner. The key essence of 5G technology resides in exploring the frequency bands at millimeter-Wave (mmWave) frequencies. As is well known, the presence of Impulsive Noise (IN) corrupts signals and leads to increased Bit Error Rate (BER) and decreased spectral efficiency. In this paper, the performance of mmWave systems in multi-path fading channel and IN is studied and a new thresholding mechanism for the clipping and blanking filters to suppress the impulsive components of noise is suggested. The paper also presents the mathematical expressions to determine the optimum threshold selection for the filters. Simulation results show that use of clipping and blanking filters with the optimal threshold values reduces the adverse effect of IN and improves system performance significantly.

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Keywords: Millimeter-wave, impulsive noise, clipping, blanking

**Y. Yunida, R. Muharar, Y. Away, N. Nasaruddin**
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[DOI: 10.13164/re.2020.0386]
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Efficient Relay Selection Algorithm for Non-Orthogonal Amplify-and-Forward Cooperative Systems over Block-Fading Channels

In this paper, an efficient relay selection (RS) algorithm for non-orthogonal amplify-and-forward (NAF) cooperative systems over block-fading channels, also known as block-fading NAF (BFNAF) protocol, is developed. The best relay is selected from a subset of available relay nodes based on the maximum criterion of their capacity bounds in half-duplex (HD) mode, together with the power allocation, to obtain the energy efficiency (EE) for the proposed RS scheme. We derived an exact closed-form expression of the outage probability and throughput for evaluating the system performance. The energy consumption was also numerically evaluated to determine the optimized EE of the proposed RS scheme for each transmission protocol with two modulation schemes. The numerical results indicated that the proposed RS scheme with the BFNAF protocol outperforms the previous RS scheme with orthogonal AF (OAF) protocol in terms of both the outage probability and the throughput as the number of relays is increased and the average transmit power is optimally allocated for each transmission phase. Moreover, in the case of the optimized EE, it is found that by using quadrature amplitude modulation (QAM), the EE of the proposed RS scheme is 48.9% higher than that of binary phase-shift keying (BPSK) modulation.

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Keywords: Block-fading, capacity bound, efficient relay selection, energy efficiency, non-orthogonal amplify-and-forward, power allocation

**I. M. Salim, M. Barbary, M. H. Abd El-azeem**
[references] [full-text]
[DOI: 10.13164/re.2020.0397]
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Novel Bayesian Track-Before-Detection for Drones Based VB-Multi-Bernoulli Filter and a GIGM Implementation

Joint detection and tracking of drones is a challenging radar technology; especially estimating their states with unknown measurement variances. The Bayesian track-before-detect (TBD) approach is an efficient way to detect low observable targets. In this paper, we proposed a new variational Bayesian (VB)-TBD technique for drones based on Multi-Bernoulli filter, which implemented with unknown measurement variances. Current implementation includes an analytical Gaussian inverse Gamma mixtures solution, which applied to estimate augmented kinematic drones state under the same circumstance. The results demonstrate that the proposed filter is more accurate than other Multi-Bernoulli filters in cardinality estimation. The proposed algorithm estimates the fluctuated parameters for each drone and it has no difficulty in handling the crossing of multiple drones. The Optimal Subpattern Assignment (OSPA) distances of proposed algorithm under different SNR is less than the other filters. It can be seen that at SNR (-5dB), the proposed algorithm and the other filters settle to errors 51m, 125m and 200m, respectively.

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Keywords: Drones tracking, Track-Before-Detect (TBD), Multi-Bernoulli filter, Variational Bayesian (VB) approximation.

**Y. Pan, M. Yao, G. Q. Luo, B. C. Pan, X. Gao**
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[DOI: 10.13164/re.2020.0405]
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Underdetermined Direction-of-Arrival Estimation with Coprime Array via Atomic Norm Minimization

The coprime array provides the possibility of resolving more signals than the sensors for the direction-of-arrival (DOA) estimation application. However, the non-consecution of its virtual array raises challenges for making full use of the degree of freedom (DOF). In this paper, we propose a new underdetermined DOA estimation method with coprime array where the non-consecutive virtual array can be converted into a virtual uniform linear array (ULA) with the same aperture. Firstly, all elements in the vectorized signal covariance matrix corresponding to the same virtual array positions are averaged to construct the output signals of the virtual array. Then, an atomic norm minimization (ANM) based optimization problem is formed for denoising the output signals of the virtual array and for interpolating the missing signals at the virtual array holes. At last, the ANM problem is solved by the semidefinite programming (SDP) and the DOAs are obtained by applying the subspace method on the reconstructed signal covariance matrix of the interpolated virtual ULA. The proposed algorithm is gridless and makes full use of the DOF and the information provided by the coprime array. The simulation results compared with the other representative methods are given to demonstrate the superiority of the proposed method with respect to the resolution and estimation accuracy.

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Keywords: Atomic norm minimization (ANM), coprime array, denoising and interpolating, gridless method, underdetermined direction-of-arrival (DOA) estimation