# September 2018, Volume 27, Number 3 [DOI: 10.13164/re.2018-3]

**R. Noumi, J. Machac, A. Gharsallah**
[references] [full-text]
[DOI: 10.13164/re.2018.0633]
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Space Leaky Waves Propagating along a Pair of CRLH SIW Lines

A space leaky wave excited on composite right-left handed substrate integrated waveguide radiates in a wide frequency band is presented in this paper. The proposed two line array is a good candidate for smart systems of monitoring and tracking applications. The system is composed of two different lines that are placed in parallel on the same substrate. Simulation results show that the first line leaks energy in the band from 6.9 to 11 GHz with a 7.8 GHz broadside radiation frequency and the second line leaks in the band from 8.9 to 13.8 GHz; the related broadside radiation frequency is 10.2 GHz. Complex single/dual scanned beams are obtained in a wide range of angles from -72° to +73°. The simulations were carried out in the CST Microwave Studio and the obtained measurement results match well with the theoretical analysis described in this paper.

- LIU, J., JACKSON, D., LONG, Y. Substrate integrated waveguide (SIW) leaky-wave antenna with transverse slots. IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation, 2012, vol. 60, no. 1, p. 20–29. DOI: 10.1109/TAP.2011.2167910
- CASSIVI, Y. PERREGRINI, L., ARCIONI, P., et al. Dispersion characteristics of substrate integrated rectangular waveguide. IEEE Microwave and Wireless Components Letters, 2002, vol. 12, no. 9, p. 333–335. DOI: 10.1109/LMWC.2002.803188
- XU, F., WU, K. Numerical multimode calibration technique for extraction of complex propagation constants of substrate integrated waveguide. In IEEE MTT-S International Microwave Symposium Digest, 2004, vol. 2, p. 1229–1232. DOI: 10.1109/MWSYM.2004.1339210
- RABAANI, K., BOULEJFEN, N. Characteristic impedance and propagation constant assessment of substrate integrated waveguide transmission line. In 2016 11th International Design & Test Symposium (IDT). Hammamet (Tunisia), 2016. DOI: 10.1109/IDT.2016.7843054
- LI, Y., XUE, Q., YUNG, E. K.-N., et al. Dual-beam steering microstrip leaky wave antenna with fixed operating frequency. IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation, 2008, vol. 56, no. 1, p. 248–252. DOI: 10.1109/TAP.2007.913168
- KARMAKAR, D. K., ESSELLE, K. P., BIRD, T. S. Wideband microstrip leaky-wave antennas with two symmetrical side beams for simultaneous dual-beam scanning. IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation, 2016, vol. 64, no. 4, p. 1262–1269. DOI: 10.1109/TAP.2016.2529646
- WANG, C. J., JOU, C. F., WU, J. J. A novel two-beam scanning active leaky-wave antenna. IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation, 1999, vol. 47, no. 8, p. 1314–1317. DOI: 10.1109/8.791949
- MA, Z. L., JIANG, L. J. One-dimensional triple periodic dualbeam microstrip leaky-wave antenna. IEEE Antennas and Wireless Propagation Letters, 2015, vol. 14, p. 390–393. DOI: 10.1109/LAWP.2014.2365394
- MACHAC, J., POLIVKA, M., ZEMLYAKOV, K. A dual band leaky wave antenna on a CRLH substrate integrated waveguide. IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation, 2013, vol. 61, no. 7, p. 3876–3879. DOI: 10.1109/TAP.2013.2256097
- DONG, Y., ITOH, T. Substrate integrated composite right/lefthanded leaky-wave structure for polarization flexible antenna application. IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation, 2012, vol. 60, no. 2, p. 760–771. DOI: 10.1109/TAP.2011.2173124
- JACKSON, D. R., OLINER, A. A., BALANIS, C. (eds.) Modern Antenna Handbook. Hoboken, NJ, USA: Wiley, 2008. ISBN-13: 978-0470036341
- MACHAC, J., LORENZ, P., SAGLAM, M., et al. Substrate integrated waveguide leaky wave antenna radiating from a slot in the broad wall. In 2010 IEEE MTT-S International Microwave Symposium. Anaheim (CA, USA), May 2010, p. 5–8. DOI: 10.1109/MWSYM.2010.5517997
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- www.rfspin.cz

Keywords: Space leaky wave, substrate integrated waveguide, composite right-left handed line

**T. Korinek, M. Valek, J. Spacil, M. Mazanek**
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[DOI: 10.13164/re.2018.0640]
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Pre-Assessment of Radiated Fields from Small Electronic Submodules

A novel approach to the evaluation of electromagnetic fields radiated from electronic devices by using a small shielded box is presented. Several EMC problems can be identified by employing the computations of a Radiated Model device, such as the model of the Submodule-on-Motherboard structure described here. The combination of a numerical approach, through a validation model and measurements, must be done during the design phase in multiple iterative loops to minimize the risk of non-compliance of the final qualification process. This novel combined approach requires little investment and is highly efficient for industrial applications.

- CISPR 22: 2003-04. Information Technology, Equipment – Radio Disturbance Characteristics – Limits and Methods of Measurement.
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- LEONE, M., NAVRATIL, V. On the electromagnetic radiation of printed-circuit-board interconnections. IEEE Transactions on Electromagnetic Compatibility, 2005, vol. 47, no. 2, p. 219–226. DOI: 10.1109/TEMC.2005.847400
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- CSN EN 55016-4-2. Specification for Radio Disturbance and Immunity Measuring Apparatus and Methods. Uncertainties, Statistics and Limit Modelling. Measurement Instrumentation Uncertainty

Keywords: Electromagnetic compatibility (EMC), electromagnetic interference (EMI), radiated model, measurement, radiated emissions

**N. Anveshkumar, A. S. Gandhi**
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[DOI: 10.13164/re.2018.0646]
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Lumped Equivalent Models of Narrowband Antennas and Isolation Enhancement in a Three Antennas System

This paper initially discusses lumped equivalent models of narrowband (NB) antennas and then presents a technique to enhance isolation between UWB and NB antennas of the three antennas system. The proposed models are able to yield similar S-parameter performance as that of NB antennas at their resonant frequencies. Also, a good match is observed at other frequencies between the HFSS and AWR results. This paper reports an isolation enhancement technique using microstrip lines. The proposed approach enhances a minimum isolation of 11dB at respective resonant frequencies. This paper also reports lumped equivalent models of dual band reject filters (DBRFs). Proposed geometry is fabricated and tested. Experimental result shows an agreement between the simulated and measured results.

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- SHARMA, S., TRIPATHI, C. C. An integrated frequency reconfigurable antenna for cognitive radio application. Radioengineering, 2017, vol. 26, no. 3, p. 746–754. DOI: 10.13164/re.2017.0746.
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- ERFANI, E., NOURINIA, J., GHOBADI, C., et al. Design and implementation of an integrated UWB/reconfigurable-slot antenna for cognitive radio applications. IEEE Antennas and Wireless Propagation Letters, 2012, vol. 11, p. 77–80. DOI: 10.1109/LAWP.2011.2182631
- NELLA, A., GANDHI, A. S. A survey on planar antenna designs for cognitive radio applications. Wireless Personal Communications, 2018, vol. 98, no. 1, p. 541–569. DOI: 10.1007/s11277-017-4883-y
- RASLAN, A. R. Metamaterial Antennas for Cognitive Radio Applications. A Thesis Submitted to the Electronics Engineering Department, American University in Cairo School of Sciences and Engineering in 2013.
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- KUMAR, N. A., GANDHI, A. S. A compact novel three-port integrated wide and narrow band antennas system for cognitive radio applications. International Journal of Antennas and Propagation, 2016, article ID 2829357, p. 1–14. DOI: 10.1155/2016/2829357
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- ZHU, J., FENG, B., DENG, L., LI, S. Ultrawideband MIMO/diversity antenna using CSRR structure for isolation enhancement. In Proceedings of the IEEE 4th Asia-Pacific Conference on Antennas and Propagation (APCAP). Bali Island (Indonesia), 2015, p. 27–29. DOI: 10.1109/APCAP.2015.7374258
- ALSATH, M. G. N., KANAGASABAI, M., BALASUBRAMANIAN, B. Implementation of slotted meander-line resonators for isolation enhancement in microstrip patch antenna arrays. IEEE Antennas and Wireless Propagation Letters, 2013, vol. 12, p. 15–18. DOI: 10.1109/LAWP.2012.2237156
- HABASHI, A., NOURINIA, J., GHOBADI, C. A rectangular defected ground structure for reduction of mutual coupling between closely spaced microstrip antennas. In Proceedings of the IEEE 20th Iranian Conference on Electrical Engineering (ICEE). Tehran (Iran), 2012, p. 1347–1350. DOI: 10.1109/IranianCEE.2012.6292566
- BAIT-SUWAILAM, M. M., SIDDIQUI, O. F., RAMAHI, O. M. Mutual coupling reduction between microstrip patch antennas using slotted-complementary split-ring resonators. IEEE Antennas and Wireless Propagation Letters, 2010, vol. 9, p. 876–878. DOI: 10.1109/LAWP.2010.2074175
- YANG, X. M., LIU, X. G., ZHOU, X. Y., et al. Reduction of mutual coupling between closely packed patch antennas using wave guided metamaterials. IEEE Antennas and Wireless Propagation Letters, 2012, vol. 11, p. 389–391. DOI: 10.1109/LAWP.2012.2193111

Keywords: Band reject filter, dual bands, isolation, lumped equivalent model, microstrip lines.

**P. D. Peshwe , A. G. Kothari**
[references] [full-text]
[DOI: 10.13164/re.2018.0654]
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Performance Enhancement of Millimeter Wave Antenna with Integrated Inter-digital Capacitor Structure

In this paper, we present an approach for performance enhancement of an antenna for millimeter wave (mmWave) applications. From mmWave band, a 30 GHz frequency is selected for designing a patch antenna as it is suitable for the number of applications. Then the designed antenna is modified by inserting a capacitive structure i.e., an inter-digital capacitor (IDC) for better impedance matching. Insertion of IDC structure results in antenna size reduction along with the increased directivity and enhancement in gain. Similarly, this technique is capable of providing extra resonance with an advantage of fine tuning, as it offers control over both resonating frequencies independently. Further, a linear antenna array is designed with the same approach for mutual coupling analysis. From the results, it has been found that this technique is also capable of providing mutual coupling mitigation. Thus insertion of IDC structure provides overall performance enhancement in a mmWave antenna.

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- PELLEGRINI, A., BRIZZI, A., ZHANG, L., et al. Antennas and propagation for body-centric wireless communications at millimeter-wave frequencies: A review [Wireless corner]. IEEE Antennas and Propagation Magazine, 2013, vol. 55, no. 4, p. 262–287. DOI: 10.1109/MAP.2013.6645205
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- GHASR, M. T, KHARKOVSKY, S., BOHNERT, R., et al. 30 GHz linear high-resolution and rapid millimeter wave imaging system for NDE. IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation, 2013 vol. 61, no. 9, p. 4733–4740. DOI: 10.1109/TAP.2013.2270174
- BALANIS, C. Antenna Theory Analysis and Design. John Wiley & Sons, 2005. ISBN-13: 978-0471667827
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- SAM, S., KANG, H., LIM, S. Frequency reconfigurable and miniaturized substrate integrated waveguide interdigital capacitor (SIW-IDC) antenna. IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation, 2014, vol. 62, no. 3, p. 1039–1045. DOI: 10.1109/TAP.2013.2281662
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- NECIBI, O., HAMZAOUI, D., VUONG, T. P., et al. A novel RFID‐HIS‐PRS reader antenna for the millimeter wave band 30 GHz. Microwave and Optical Technology Letters, 2015, vol. 57, no. 8, p. 1835–1842. DOI: 10.1002/mop.29201

Keywords: Millimetre wave antenna, dual-band characteristics, performance enhancement, capacitive loading

**Z. Ahmed, M. M. Ahmed, M. B. Ihsan**
[references] [full-text]
[DOI: 10.13164/re.2018.0662]
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A Novel Differential Fed High Gain Patch Antenna Using Resonant Slot Loading

Inspired by slotted waveguide antennas, a pair of resonant slots is placed in the center out of phase region of TM30 mode rectangular patch antenna which acts as a new radiating edge. Superposition of radiated fields of TM30 mode patch and fundamental mode of slots results in high directivity radiator with reduced side lobe levels (SLL). It is shown that by making the resonant frequencies of patch and slots equal, good impedance matching and gain flatness can be achieved. The placement of resonant slots also has a slight adverse affect on the in phase current distribution resulting in asymmetric radiation pattern. It is demonstrated that a differential feeding scheme can be employed to achieve gain enhancement and symmetric radiation pattern by keeping the desired in phase current distribution intact. The proposed differential fed slot loaded patch antenna has symmetric radiation pattern with reduced cross polarization levels. It shows a measured gain of 12.8dBi, SLL of -12dB and S11≤ -10 dB impedance bandwidth of 21 MHz. The proposed antenna can be used as a substitute for 2x2 array of patch antenna operating in fundamental mode and is suitable for integration with differential circuits.

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Keywords: Higher order mode, differential fed, slot loading, high gain, low side lobe level, microstrip antenna

**F. Akhtar, S. I. Naqvi, F. Arshad, Y. Amin, H. Tenhunen**
[references] [full-text]
[DOI: 10.13164/re.2018.0671]
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A Flexible and Compact Semicircular Antenna for Multiple Wireless Communication Applications

This work presents a compact, quad-band planar antenna intended for assimilation into flexible and conformal devices. The CPW-fed semicircular shaped prototype with rake-shaped slots is designed, realized and characterized experimentally. The frequency bands covered by the proposed radiator are centered at 2.5, 3.7, 5.5 and 8 GHz with measured impedance bandwidths of 16%, 13.5%, 11.8% and 14.63% respectively. The proposed antenna is thus enabled to support WLAN, ISM, Bluetooth, WiMAX, LTE and X-band applications. The antenna exhibits a significant gain. The radiation characteristics of the proposed radiator are measured in concave and convex bent shapes at various radii to analyze its flexibility. Performance of the antenna remains almost unaffected in the bent situation. Measurements demonstrate good coherence with simulations. The compactness and good performance of the design both in bent and unbent conditions proves it to be the better contender for future multiband conformal wireless applications.

- LI, D., MAO, J.-F. Coplanar waveguide-fed-Koch-like sided Sierpinski hexagonal carpet multifractal monopole antenna. IET Microwaves, Antennas & Propagation, 2014, vol. 8, no. 5, p. 358 to 366. DOI: 10.1049/iet-map.2013.0041
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Keywords: Quad-band, CPW-feedline, Flexible Substrate, WLAN, WiMAX

**S. Ballav, S. K. Parui**
[references] [full-text]
[DOI: 10.13164/re.2018.0679]
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Aperture Coupled Dielectric Resonator Antenna Embedded in a Secondary Substrate for Mechanical Firmness

An aperture coupled rectangular dielectric resonator antenna (RDRA) is proposed where high permittivity radiating element is embedded on a comparatively low permittivity secondary substrate material (here FR4 is used). Proposed dielectric resonator antenna (DRA) is accurately excited in fundamental mode TE111 for efficient broadside radiation. All the existing DRAs are placed on ground plane using adhesive which is not suitable for practical application. The proposed design can be considered as a promising solution of mounting of DRA on the ground plane with good mechanical firmness. Since the RDRA is embedded on FR4 substrate, it can be withstand very high pressure and vibrating condition which is the main practical limitation of existing DRA technology. The effect of embedding the radiating DRA on secondary substrate is studied here in details. A prototype of single antenna element is designed, fabricated and measured to validate the simulation results. Further, a 2×2 antenna array with such antenna element is designed at the centre frequency of 6.684 GHz for obtaining higher directive gain. The array offers an impedance bandwidth of 4.94% and a maximum gain of 13.4 dBi at the operating frequency. A good agreement has been obtained between the measured and simulated results.

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Keywords: Aperture coupled, antenna gain, dielectric resonator antenna (DRA), embedded

**N. Pouyanfar, Ch. Ghobadi, J. Nourinia, K. Pedram, M. Majidzadeh**
[references] [full-text]
[DOI: 10.13164/re.2018.0686]
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A Compact Multi-Band MIMO Antenna with High Isolation for C and X Bands Using Defected Ground Structure

A compact multi-band multi-input multi-output (MIMO) antenna with high isolation is proposed for C and X bands applications. The antenna consists of two trapezoidal-shaped patches printed on FR-4 substrate with a thickness of 1.6 mm and compact size of 17 mm×42 mm. Defected ground structure (DGS) is wisely embedded in antenna body to reduce the mutual coupling between the antenna elements. This modification suitably enhances the isolation by 30dB in C-band extended from 6.6 GHz to 7.6 GHz and by 17 dB in X-band between 8.3 GHz to 10 GHz. Moreover, five meander line rectangular patches are properly included to further improve the mutual coupling and eliminate the antenna size increment, simultaneously. The aforementioned meander lines also improve impedance bandwidth of the antenna as well as impedance matching over the entire frequency band. Close agreement of simulated and measured results confirm the antenna outperformance. Design, simulation, and performance analysis of the proposed antenna is discussed in detail.

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Keywords: Multi-Input Multi-Output, Defected Ground Structure (DGS), mutual coupling, C band, X band

**I. Elfergani, J. Rodriguez, I. Otung, W. Mshwat, R. Abd-Alhameed**
[references] [full-text]
[DOI: 10.13164/re.2018.0694]
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Slotted Printed Monopole UWB Antennas with Tunable Rejection Bands for WLAN/WiMAX and X-Band Coexistence

Four versions of the compact hexagonal-shaped monopole printed antennas for UWB applications are presented. The first proposed antenna has an impedance bandwidth of 127.48 % (3.1 GHz to 14 GHz), which satisfies the bandwidth for ultra-wideband communication systems. To reduce the foreseen co-channel interference with WLAN (5.2GHz) and X-Band systems (10GHz), the second and third antennas type were generated by embedding hexagonal slot on the top of the radiating patch. The integration of the half and full hexagonal slots created notched bands that potentially filtered out the sources of interference, but were static in nature. Therefore, a fourth antenna type with tuneable-notched bands was designed by adding a varactor diode at an appropriate location within the slot. The fourth antenna type is a dual-notch that was electronically and simultaneously tuned from 3.2GHz to 5.1GHz and from 7.25GHz up to 9.9GHz by varying the bias voltages across the varactor. The prototypes of the four antenna versions were successfully fabricated and tested. The measured results have good agreement with the simulated results.

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Keywords: Monopole printed antenna, UWB, notched bands, varactor

**T. Okan, N. Akcam**
[references] [full-text]
[DOI: 10.13164/re.2018.0703]
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Analysis of Antennas around NURBS Surfaces by Using a Hybrid Method

To fast and accurately calculate the EM scattering problems like radiation of antenna around complex objects, many different techniques have been performed. However, these techniques (exact solution methods) either have a long calculation time or they (hybrid methods) tend to fail when the antenna is near or adjacent to structures. In this study, to make the scattering analysis of antennas fast and accurately, proposed stationary phase method (SPM) based hybrid MoM-PO method is implemented. For the geometrical modelling part, the antenna and its close vicinity is modelled with triangular facets, and the rest of the structure is modelled with non-uniform rational b-spline (NURBS) surfaces which provides efficient and accurate modeling. Maximum 1.7 dB of difference in the radiation pattern is observed for an antenna positioned around a curvy plate, when the results are obtained by using MoM and the proposed method. Despite that little difference, the calculation time for MoM is around 41 minutes; whereas for the proposed hybrid method it is 9 seconds. Overall, this hybrid formulation and NURBS modeling allow a substantial reduction of computation time and memory requirement to analyze radiation of antennas that are even close or connected to structure surfaces.

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Keywords: B-spline surfaces, method of moments (MoM), physical optics (PO), scattering problems, stationary phase method (SPM)

**M. Palandoken, C. Gocen, A. Kaya, F. Gunes, C. Baytore, F.C Can**
[references] [full-text]
[DOI: 10.13164/re.2018.0711]
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A Novel Split-Ring Resonator and Voltage Multiplier based Rectenna Design for 900 MHz Energy Harvesting Applications

This paper proposes a novel rectenna design for the compact RF energy harvesting system operating at 900 MHz. The rectenna design is based on a probe fed split-ring resonator on an elliptical slotted ground plane and an RF-DC rectifying circuit in the form of Villard voltage doubler circuit. The energy harvesting antenna is numerically modeled and fabricated on a 1.524 mm thick Rogers RO4003C substrate with a compact overall size of 81.25 mm x 87.5 mm (λ0/4.1 x λ0/3.8). The measured reflection coefficient indicates the proposed energy harvesting antenna to operate at 890 MHz with 51.3 MHz bandwidth covering GSM 900 band. As an RF-DC rectifying electronic circuit, a one stage voltage doubler circuit based on zero bias Schottky barrier diode in conjunction with the inductive impedance matching and λ/4 impedance transformer circuits has been designed. The DC voltage of nonlinear RF rectifier circuit is obtained as 1.7 V at the output load for -11 dBm input power level. The measured and simulated results confirm the proposed rectenna system to have a technical potential for the operation of low power and low voltage electronic devices.

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- AGRAWAL, S., PANDEY, S., SINGH, J., et al. An efficient RF energy harvester with tuned matching circuit. In VLSI Design and Test, 17th International Symposium, VDAT. Jaipur (India), 2013, vol. 382, p. 138–145. DOI: 10.1007/978-3-642-42024-5_17
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Keywords: RF energy harvesting, rectenna, microstrip antenna, RF-DC conversion, voltage multiplier

**A. Pattanayak, G. Rana, S. P. Duttagupta, P. S. Gandhi, A. A. Deshmukh**
[references] [full-text]
[DOI: 10.13164/re.2018.0718]
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Design of a 5 GHz Reflectarray with Reduced Size Unit Cell and Extremely Low Phase Sensitivity

This article presents a novel, compact reflectarray antenna operating at 5 GHz. The array consists of two types of phasing element - square ring and complementary square ring. The complementary square ring is used for the phase values that are not covered by the single ring element. The grid size of the array is 0.28λ × 0.28λ at operating frequency 5 GHz that is much smaller than the conventional periodicity 0.5λ × 0.5λ. The aim of unit cell design is to have a slower slope of the reflection phase graph without sacrificing the phase range of 360° where in general there is a trade-off between these two goals. The maximum slope in reflection phase graph is obtained here is 34°/mm. The proposed array is fabricated on a low loss PTFE substrate of thickness 3.175 mm (0.053λ at 5 GHz) and illuminated by a horn antenna. Radiation pattern results show a very precised far-field beam with 3-dB beamwidth of 7° and 7.3° for two principle planes respectively. The gain of the antenna is 26 dBi at 5 GHz.

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Keywords: Reflectarray, phase sensitivity, single ring, complementary single ring

**M. Moradian , S. S. Hashemi**
[references] [full-text]
[DOI: 10.13164/re.2018.0724]
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Linear Array of Center Line Longitudinal Slots Excited by Double Ridge Waveguides

Slot antennas fed by the wiggly ridge wave¬guides are difficult to construct using a typical milling machine. Therefore, a special type of the double ridge waveguides is introduced here to feed the center line longi¬tudinal slot antennas. Furthermore, in the proposed slot antennas, all the slots are placed along the waveguide center line. So, employing the proposed slot antennas leads to the elimination of the butterfly lobes that are attributed to the alternating offsets of the successive slots with respect to the centerline. In the proposed slot antennas, the ridges are placed on the lower broad walls of the waveguides while the slots are cut into the upper broad walls of the waveguides. The height of the ridges is changed gradually at the slot positions in several steps, i.e., the height of one of the ridges is increased upward while the height of the other ridges is decreased downward. It is shown that in-creasing the step heights leads to stronger radiation of the electromagnetic energy by the slots. To verify the effective¬ness of the proposed slot antenna, a linear array antenna consisting of five slots with side-lobe level of –20 dB is designed and constructed. The simulation and the measurement results show that the designing goals are achieved which verifies the effectiveness of the proposed slot antennas.

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Keywords: Slotted array antenna, double ridge waveguide, second-order beams, longitudinal slots, linear arrays

**Gh. Karimi, A. Salehi, F. Javidan**
[references] [full-text]
[DOI: 10.13164/re.2018.0732]
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A Miniaturized (UWB) Bandpass Filter Using Elliptical-Ring Multi-Mode Stub-loaded Resonator (MM-SLR)

In this paper, a novel miniaturized ultra-wide¬band (UWB) band pass filter (BPF) with sharp slopes tran-sition band is reported. The UWB BPF (7.45 GHz to 19.85 GHz) consists of modified elliptical-ring and multi-mode stub-loaded resonator (MM-SLR) and symmetry tight coupled resonator (STCR) via input/output (I/O) lines, achieving UWB band pass response. With adding a T-shaped to the middle resonator, two transmission ze¬roes are created at 6.84/23.05 GHz. The proposed filter has the ability of creating a notch band in pass band by reducing the length of two coupled lines that can be con¬trolled based on analytical method. Moreover, the equiva¬lent circuit and the analytical theories of each circuit ele¬ment are proposed. Measured results of fabricated filter have the advantages such as ultra-wide pass band of the defined UWB pass band are 7.45 GHz and 19.85 GHz, satisfying the requirements of FCC-specified UWB limits, compact size, low insertion loss < 0.6 dB and the stop band of the proposed filter is from 19.85 to 33 GHz with attenu-ation of –17 to –29 dB respectively. The proposed UWB filter is realized using the substrate with dielectric constant of 2.2 and substrate height of 0.787 mm Experimental veri¬fication is provided and good agreement has been found between simulation and measurement.

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Keywords: Band pass filter (BPF), Ultra-wide band (UWB), Multi-Mode Resonator (MMR), Elliptical-Ring, Stub-Loaded Resonator (SLR), Symmetric tight coupled resonator (STCR)

**L. V. Abdulhakim, C.K. Aanandan**
[references] [full-text]
[DOI: 10.13164/re.2018.0738]
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A Novel Polarization Independent Wideband Circuit Analog Absorber Using Crossed Loops

In this paper, a polarization independent wideband circuit analog absorber is proposed. The structure consists of two dimensional periodic array of crossed loops embedded with lumped resistors printed on dielectric substrates backed by a metal plate. It offers a -10 dB reflectivity (90%absorptivity) fractional bandwidth of 126.5% (4.6 GHz to 20.45 GHz). The total thickness of the absorber (dielectric+ air gap) is about 0.084λL at the lowest frequency. The effect of different structural parameters on absorption characteristics are studied and presented. The prototype of the proposed absorber is fabricated and the measured responses are in good agreement with simulated results.

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Keywords: Polarization independent, circuit analog absorber, wideband, crossed loop

**J. X. Lan, X. Y. Cao, J. Gao, L. L. Cong, S. M. Wang, H. H. Yang**
[references] [full-text]
[DOI: 10.13164/re.2018.0746]
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Design of Miniaturized Wideband Microwave Absorber Loaded with Lumped Resistance

In this paper, a polarization and angular insensitive microwave absorber with miniaturized structure is proposed. This structure integrates lumped resistances into a metallic bow-tie structure, thus achieving wideband absorbing performance. It can be found that the metallic bow-tie structure increases the equivalent capacitance and equivalent inductance, which enables the absorber with an electrically small structure. The presence of substrate and air layer contributes a lot to the broadband absorption in relative low frequency band. The size of the unit is about 0.092λ_L, and the total thickness is only 0.080λ_L in correspondence to the lowest frequency. Simulated results show that the absorptivity exhibits good stability with respect to different polarized incidence and different incident angles. The absorber exhibits wideband absorptivity above 90% from 2.3 GHz to 9.6 GHz with a relative absorption bandwidth of about 123%. The measured results are in good agreement with the simulated one, which demonstrates the absorber capable of good potentiality in electromagnetic (EM) stealth applications.

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Keywords: Microwave absorber, wideband, miniaturization, lumped resistance

**X.-T. Zhao, K.-Y. Guo, X.-Q. Sheng**
[references] [full-text]
[DOI: 10.13164/re.2018.0753]
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High Accuracy Scattering Center Modeling Based on PO and PTD

Based on the solutions of physical optics (PO) and physical optics of diffraction (PTD), we propose a modified parametric scattering center model for high precise signal simulations of extended targets. Different from geometrical theory of diffraction (GTD), which is commonly used in the existing models, the solution of PTD represents the individual scattering contribution of edge diffraction, and can precisely describe the scattering field under full observation angles and polarizations. This model has higher precision than the existing ones, especially for the targets with dominant scattering centers induced by diffraction. And this model is physical where the parameters are related with geometry of the targets. To validate this model, four conducting targets with dominant contributions of diffraction are simulated in this study. The radar cross-sections (RCS) and the time-frequency representations (TFR) of backscattered waves simulated by this model are compared with those computed by a full-wave numerical method, as well as those simulated by a commonly used scattering model. The comparisons show that the results of this model have better agreement with those of the full-wave numerical method than the existing model.

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Keywords: scattering center model, physical optics (PO), physical optics of diffraction (PTD), edge diffraction, radar cross-sections (RCS)

**M. Svanda, M. Kvicera, M. Polivka**
[references] [full-text]
[DOI: 10.13164/re.2018.0762]
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Reliability Improvement of RF Identification of Shadowed People in Building Corridors Using Space Diversity

This paper deals with the investigation of space diversity techniques for elimination of signal fading and consequently extension of coverage area in applications of RF identification of shadowed people in a building corridor. Several measurement scenarios were evaluated. They comprised up to four wearable tags placed at different positions on a human body with one or two reader antennas, including shadowing by a small crowd of people. It was shown that the achieved corresponding SIMO mode diversity gain accounted for ca. 1 dB at the overall improvement in the trace coverage amounted to ca. 5%. On the other hand, the MIMO mode diversity configuration brought an improvement of up to 10% and enabled to cover more than 50% of the identification area, including the scenario where shadowing by a small crowd of people was present.

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Keywords: Patch antenna, radiofrequency identification, space diversity

**N. Tayem, K. Majeed, A. A. Hussain**
[references] [full-text]
[DOI: 10.13164/re.2018.0770]
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Propagator Method using PARAFAC Model for Two Dimensional Source Localization

In this paper, we addressed the problem of estimating the two-dimensional (2D) Direction of Arrival (DOA) elevation and azimuth angles for multiple sources. The proposed method employs Propagator Method (PM) in conjunction with parallel factor (PARAFAC) model using a new antenna array configuration. The proposed method overcomes two main drawbacks in the existing 2D DOA schemes: use of high computation eigenvalue decomposition (EVD) or singular value decomposition (SVD), and complex pair-matching methods for elevation and azimuth angles in case of multiple sources. Therefore, significant reduction in computational load and complexity are achieved. Computer simulations demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method.

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Keywords: Uniform linear arrays, two-dimensional (2D), Direction-of-Arrival (DOA), non-coherent sources, PARAFAC model.

**M. A. Riaz, Y. Abdullah, H. Shahid, Y. Amin, A. Akram, H. Tenhunen**
[references] [full-text]
[DOI: 10.13164/re.2018.0776]
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Novel Butterfly Slot Based Chipless RFID Tag

A compact chipless RFID tag with robust readable features is presented in this paper. The tag is made up of novel concentric butterfly slot resonators. Bit data is encoded in the frequency signature of the tag. Each slot corresponds to a resonance peak representing a bit ‘1’, whereas an absence of the peak signifies a bit ‘0’. Proposed resonator design demonstrates insensitivity to different polarization and incident angles of the linearly polarized impinging electromagnetic wave. The tag operates in the frequency band of 4.7-9.7 GHz, limited within the license-free ultra wide-band. Rogers RT/duroid (R) 5880 substrate is used to realize a 10-bit capacity design that spans 14 times 14 sq. mm resulting in a bit density of 5.1 bits/sq. cm.

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- RAUF, S., RIAZ, M. A., SHAHID, H., et al. Triangular loop resonator based compact chipless RFID tag. IEICE Electronics Express, 2017, vol. 14, no. 4, p. 20161262–20161262. DOI: 10.1587/elex.14.20161262
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- KHAN, M. M., TAHIR, F. A., CHEEMA, H. M. Frequency band utilization enhancement for chipless RFID tag through place value encoding. In Proceedings of the IEEE International Symposium on Antennas and Propagation (APSURSI). Fajardo (Puerto Rico), 2016, p. 1477–1478. DOI: 10.1109/APS.2016.7696445
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Keywords: radio frequency identification (RFID), chipless tag, electromagnetic signature, Radar Cross-Section (RCS)

**T. Napravnik, J. Jakovenko**
[references] [full-text]
[DOI: 10.13164/re.2018.0784]
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An Automated ESD Model Characterization Method

Novel automated simulator-independent ESD model characterization method based on Differential evolution and Nelder-Mead Simplex algorithms is presented in this paper. It offers an alternative for time and human-resources demanding manual characterization that is still widely used. The paper also presents stable models of the four most often used snapback-based protection devices in CMOS technologies, i.e., NMOST and three variants of silicon-controlled rectifier structure. These models were used for evaluation of the proposed method and the results are included and discussed.

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Keywords: ESD, automated model calibration, differential evolution, Nelder-Mead simplex, I-V characteristic

**V. Kote, P. Vacula, V. Molata, O. Vesely, O. Tlaskal, D. Barri, J. Jakovenko, M. Husak**
[references] [full-text]
[DOI: 10.13164/re.2018.0796]
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A True Random Number Generator with Time Multiplexed Sources of Randomness

A true random number generator (TRNG) with time multiplexed metastability-based sources of randomness, presented in this paper, is capable of generating random bit sequences formed from noise present in the electronic circuit. An incorporated time multiplexer interleaves digitized random signals coming from sources of randomness and increases output data rate. The proposed TRNGwas fabricated in a STMicroelectronics 130 nm bulk CMOS technology on an area of 0.029mm2. The quality of all random bit sequences has been verified by the FIPS and NIST statistical test suites. The fabricated TRNG generates random bit sequences up to the data rate of 20 Mb/s without any corrective mechanisms at power consumption of 72.48 uW. The changing environmental conditions do not influence the quality of random bit sequences.

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Keywords: True random number generator (TRNG), source of randomness, time multiplexer, integrated circuit (IC), statistical test

**V. Piorecka, V. Krajca, F. Tyls, T. Palenicek**
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[DOI: 10.13164/re.2018.0806]
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Methods for Animal Brain Mapping

Measurements of brain electrical activity in animals are essential for the validation of the pharmaco-effect of drugs. The way to evaluate these recordings should be comparable to that of EEG in humans. Methods that visualize the results of the measured EEG recording include brain mapping in two-dimensional or three-dimensional space. The most commonly used methods of interpolation techniques in humans are spherical splines and 3D splines. We measured nine brains of Wistar rats and compared them with a brain model from the atlas (Brain Atlas Reconstructor, BAR). We validated the brain model of Wistar rat for future use. We implemented a module in MATLAB 2015a for brain mapping, specifically, we implemented algorithms for spherical and 3D spline mapping. The root mean square error of the spherical spline method is 0.5943 in the case of testing signal and 0.6291/0.6388 in the case of real data estimation. The root mean square error of the 3D spline method is 0.4334 in the case of testing signal and 0.0849/0.0768 in the case of real data estimation. Our results show that the 3D spline method with the projection on sphere gives significantly better 3D potential map than spherical splines.

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Keywords: Animal EEG, brain mapping, 3D spline, spherical spline

**X. Xia, Z. Tang, J. Wei, Z. Zhou**
[references] [full-text]
[DOI: 10.13164/re.2018.0813]
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Spectrally Efficient Constant Envelope Modulation for GNSS Signals

As the L-band spectral resources for GNSS services are almost exhausted, new bands such as S-band and C-band has been considered for new GNSS signals. In addition to the traditional signal features, out-of-band radiation is an important factor to be considered for signal designing in these new bands. In this paper, a mathematical model for the optimization of GNSS signal waveforms was constructed by integrating ranging accuracy, anti-jamming performance and out-of-band radiation suppression requirements. In combination with numerical optimization methods, a spectrally efficient constant envelope modulation scheme based on phase trajectory optimization was proposed. The modulated signal has a full-response continuous phase waveform, which facilitates signal processing and implementation at both ends of the transmission and reception. In addition, in the signal design, the balance between signal accuracy, anti-interference performance and out-of-band radiation suppression can be achieved through the adjustment of the weight coefficient. The simulation results show that the out-of-band radiation can be reduced by about 7.2-42.7 dB compared with the existing scheme when the signal performance difference is lower than 2 dB.

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Keywords: Spectrally efficient, constant envelope, GNSS, low out-of-band radiation

**O. Zach, M. Slanina**
[references] [full-text]
[DOI: 10.13164/re.2018.0819]
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Content Aware Segment Length Optimization for Adaptive Streaming over HTTP

HTTP adaptive streaming is a widely used method for delivering the video content to its final recipi ents. The visual quality of the streamed video content is being adaptively changed according to network conditions to offer the user a smooth playback, which is even more impor tant for mobile connection like LTE. In this paper, we focus on the encoding the video content and on the segmentation of the video to be used in DASH based service. We used long sequences with duration up to 2.5 hours to simulate a real life situation. We investigate the influence of the GOP length on the final DASH segment size and evaluate the per formance of AVC and HEVC when used in DASH. We used several fixed values of GOP length and one special case of scene change based GOP creation. Our results showed, that such an adaptive segmentation mode brings up to 11% bi- trate savings with preserving comparable quality and lower fluctuations in absolute size of the DASH segments.

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Keywords: Adaptive segmentation, GOP, group of pictures, H.264/AVC, H.265/HEVC, HTTP adaptive streaming, PSNR, video encoding

**T. Malach, J. Pomenkova**
[references] [full-text]
[DOI: 10.13164/re.2018.0000]
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Comparing Classifier's Performance Based on Confidence Interval of the ROC

This paper proposes a new methodology for comparing} two performance methods based on confidence interval for the ROC curve. The methods performed and compared are two algorithms for face recognition. The novelty of the paper is three-fold: i) designing a methodology for the comparison of decision making algorithms via confidence intervals of ROC curves; ii) investigating how sample sizes influence the properties of the particular methods; iii) recommendations for a general comparison of decision making algorithms via confidence intervals of ROC curves. To support our conclusions we investigate and demonstrate several approaches for constructing parametric confidence intervals on real data. Thus, we present a non-traditional and reliable way of reporting pattern recognition results using ROC curves with confidence intervals.

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Keywords: Confidence interval, ROC curves, face recognition, pattern recognition

**Peibei Cao, Weijie Xia, Yi Li**
[references] [full-text]
[DOI: 10.13164/re.2018.0835]
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Classification of Ground Targets Based on Radar Micro-Doppler Signatures Using Deep Learning and Conventional Supervised Learning Methods

Radar has great potential in military and civilian areas, including automobile anti-collision, battlefield surveillance, etc., due to its high penetration and all-weather capability. On the basis of traditional targets detection, targets classification can be realized. In this paper, a comparison of targets classification between deep learning (Deep Convolutional Neural Networks (DCNNs)) and conventional supervised learning methods (Support Vector Machine (SVM), Naive Bayes (NB) and SVM-Bayes fusion algorithm) has been made. Furthermore, several factors affecting the accuracy of classifying targets including SNR, decrease of samples, have been researched and discussed. We employ a K-band Doppler radar to acquire the raw signal due to its stationary clutter-rejection, movement detection ability and short wavelength. Then Short-time Fourier Transform (STFT) is applied to the raw signal to characterize micro-Doppler signatures which is the fundament of the classification process. We adopt the DCNNs to deal with the spectrograms directly, while features have been designed and extracted for classification with conventional supervised learning methods. It is shown that the DCNN can achieve average accuracy approximately 99.4% followed by SVM-Bayes fusion algorithm reaching around 95.8%, while the accuracy for SVM and NB is about 94.4% and 91% respectively.

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Keywords: Targets classification, micro-Doppler, DCNNs, CW Doppler radar, SVM, Naive Bayes, SVM-Bayes fusion

**N. Q. Chen, H. B. Ji, Y. C. Gao, D. Yang**
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[DOI: 10.13164/re.2018.0846]
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New Box Particle Filter with Improved Resampling Method and Extended Inclusion Volume Criteria for Multi-target Tracking

In the resampling procedure of traditional box particle filtering, selected box particles are divided in a randomly chosen dimension. This resampling procedure may fail when some elements in the target state vector are unmeasured. To deal with this problem, an improved resampling method for box particle filtering is proposed, where a limit on the sizes of box particles is imposed to restrain the box particles from growing too large. In addition, we extend the inclusion and volume criteria from single-target tracking to multi-target tracking. Instead of indicating whether the true target state is included in the support of the posterior track probability in single target tracking, the inclusion value in multi-target tracking indicates how many true targets are included in the supports of the posterior probability densities. And the volume value in multi-target tracking is redefined as the mean volume of the supports of the posterior probability densities. Simulation results are provided to illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed approach.

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Keywords: Box particle filter, multi-target tracking, resampling, inclusion and volume, labeled multi-Bernoulli filter

**J. Pidanic, K. Juryca, A. M. Kumar**
[references] [full-text]
[DOI: 10.13164/re.2018.0856]
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Analysis of Bistatic Ground Clutter and Applications to Target Plotting

This article presents analysis and parametrization of the bistatic ground clutter which is important from the point of view of the modelling/generating of bistatic clutter, and subsequent developing of the new suppression techniques. The analysis of the bistatic radar has been an active area of research for almost a decade now. The paper includes analysis of bistatic land clutter trials, run in the Czech Republic, specifically in Pardubice city. First, the theoretical part of bistatic radars and models of bistatic clutter is described. The bistatic clutter is measured by a passive radar system developed by the ERA a.s. company. The analysis of bistatic clutter starts with pre-processing techniques such as antenna virtual rotation and suppression of direct signal. The residuals of the signal are used for bistatic clutter analysis and consequently used for determination of bistatic clutter parameters. These parameters are replicas of individual channels, power of replicas, etc. The output is the development of universal analysis software for bistatic clutter that is used for bistatic clutter generation, mandatory for developing suppression techniques.

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Keywords: Bistatic radar, ground clutter, simulation, measurement, signal processing

**D. Anandhi, S. Valli**
[references] [full-text]
[DOI: 10.13164/re.2018.0864]
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An Enhanced Approach to Despeckle SAR Images

Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) image processing plays a vital role in observing the earth and in understanding its varied features. A SAR image contains edges and shapes hidden by speckle noise. Therefore, despeckling is essential for subsequent feature extraction and classification. This paper presents a new despeckling method based on Non-subsampled Contourlet Transform (NSCT) and Bayesian Maximum A Posterior (BMAP) estimation. NSCT effectively captures the SAR image features as multi-scale and multidirectional information. BMAP is a point estimation based on statistical prior distribution. So, BMAP estimation represents the aggregate behavior in each direction of the NSCT neighborhood coefficients using the statistical prior models. The dependency relationship of NSCT neighborhood coefficients by the statistical priors and BMAP of point estimation shrinks the speckle noise coefficients. In this work, the NSCT higher frequency coefficients are de-speckled, since higher frequency coefficients contains more detail and more noise. This despeckling method is compared with the state-of-the-art methods using a set of reference and non-referenced quality metrics. Experimental results show that this developed method is superior to the other methods used for preserving information and for eliminating speckle noise.

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Keywords: Bayesian MAP estimation, despeckling, Non-Subsampled Contourlet Transform (NSCT), non-reference quality metrics, statistical models, Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR)

**Y. F. Guan, W. G. Chang**
[references] [full-text]
[DOI: 10.13164/re.2018.0876]
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A Non-Uniform-Angular-Rate Beam-Scan Method for Airborne TOPS Mode

TOPS (Terrain Observation by Progressive Scans) mode can achieve large scene coverage through the beam-scan in a uniform-angular-rate form, when the scanning angle is large, the variation of azimuth theoretical resolution with the scanning angle cannot be ignored. Aiming at airborne SAR (Synthetic Aperture Radar) system, the Doppler characteristic of azimuthal echo of the TOPS mode with large scanning angle is analyzed, and a non-uniform-angular-rate beam-scan method is proposed. By adjusting the angular rate of the beam-scan in a real-time form, we can achieve a consistent azimuth theoretical resolution for the targets at different azimuth location. The simulation results show that the proposed method can alleviate the azimuth resolution inconsistency of about 0.4 m when the azimuth theoretical resolution is 5 m.

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Keywords: TOPS, non-uniform, beam-scan, airborne, SAR

**A. E. A. Elbanna, T. H. M. Soliman, A. N. Ouda, E. M. Hamed**
[references] [full-text]
[DOI: 10.13164/re.2018.0000]
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Improved Design and Implementation of Automatic Flight Control System (AFCS) for a Fixed Wing Small UAV

This paper presents an implementation of automatic flight control system (AFCS); analyzes and assures its performance during model in loop (MIL), software in loop (SIL), and processor in loop (PIL) stages. Based on both linear and analytic linear models with trimmed values of straight and leveling scenario, the proposed autopilot is applied to an Ultrastick-25e fixed wing unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV). The implementation of Ultrastick-25e AFCS is accomplished according to the resulted design parameters, and performing various flight scenarios. The choice of avionics and sensors of small UAV (SUAV) required for stability based on commercial off the Shelf (COTS) components. The proposed design uses low cost and light weight micro electro mechanical systems (MEMS) as new sensor technology. Since MEMS suffers from various types of noise, state estimation technique is introduced using both Kalman filter (KF) and complementary filter. Moreover, both results of KF and complementary filter are compared. Finally, PIL simulation is implemented to evaluate the autopilot as hardware components and software algorithms for management and PID control structure with its parameters proposed for implementing AFCS. The results show a good performance in disturbance rejection and robustness against sensors noise.

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Keywords: Longitudinal autopilot, lateral autopilot, state estimation, AHRS, processor in loop

**B. Tuysuz**
[references] [full-text]
[DOI: 10.13164/re.2018.0891]
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A New Target Radar Cross Section Based Passive Radar Surveillance Receiver Positioning Algorithm on Real Terrain Maps

Placing surveillance receivers on passive radar systems is a complex task because of the dependence on third party vendors. This paper presents an efficient and robust algorithm for positioning passive radar surveillance receivers for the intended coverage based on the available transmitters of opportunity in the area. First, by using the topology maps of the area of interest, depending on the expected targets and available transmitters, visibility maps of the terrain is generated with a line of sight algorithm. Then, in terms of the position and the orientation of the targets, the bistatic radar cross sections are determined. Finally, based on the bistatic radar cross sections of the targets, antenna characteristics, visibility analysis and received power levels, the optimum location for the surveillance receiver and the best transmitter of opportunity to be employed is decided. A practical scenario by using frequency modulation radio is realized in the manuscript for the rapid deployment of a mobile passive radar system. It is shown that on a terrain with multiple transmitters, depending on the characteristics of the transmitters and intended coverage, an optimum location for the surveillance receiver can be found for rapid deployment.

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Keywords: Radar theory, passive radar, surveillance, radar receivers, radar cross section

**S. Wasif, A. Ishtiaq, N. Waseem**
[references] [full-text]
[DOI: 10.13164/re.2018.0899]
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RE-HARP: RF Energy Harvesting MAC Protocol to Prolong Life Time of CRSNs

Energy drainage is a critical issue in sensor networks which is aggravated further by the incorporation of Cognitive Radio (CR). Radio Frequency Energy Harvesting (RF-EH) is a prominent method for mitigating energy constraints while providing potentially perpetual lifetime. However, its inclusion in Cognitive Radio Sensor Networks (CRSNs) instigates various Medium Access Control (MAC) layer challenges. Effective communication in a way to avoid collisions in the presence of multiple Primary Users (PUs) and CR nodes willing to access electromagnetic spectrum and EH are the significant challenges. In this paper, a MAC protocol for CRSNs which overcome challenges above is proposed. In our protocol, the CR nodes use Dedicated Common Control Channel (DCCC) for control information exchange among CR nodes and Carrier Sense Multiple Access with Collision Avoidance (CSMA/CA) protocol to access channel and avoid collisions. RF-EH technique is also incorporated to prolong the network lifetime. The proposed work is a state of the art MAC protocol in which CR nodes can communicate and harvest energy as well. Performance of the proposed protocol is evaluated in terms of throughput, harvested energy and lifetime of CRSNs by considering different parameters which include PU activities, number of CR nodes, number of flows and packet size. Simulations are performed on Network Simulator (NS-2).

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Keywords: Energy harvesting, MAC protocol, cognitive radio, life time, transmission capability

**H. Rezgui, F. Rouissi, A. Ghazel**
[references] [full-text]
[DOI: 10.13164/re.2018.0909]
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Digital Predistorter Design Using a Reduced Volterra Model to Linearize GaN RF Power Amplifiers

In this paper, a novel method for reducing a Simplified Volterra Series (SVS) model size is proposed for GaN RF Power Amplifier (PA) Digital Predistorter (DPD) design. Using the SVS-modified model, the number of coefficients needed for the PA behavioral modeling and predistortion can be reduced by 60 % while maintaining acceptable performances. Simulation and implementation tests are performed for a Class AB GaN PA and Doherty GaN PA using a 20-MHz Long Term Evolution-Advanced (LTE-A) signal. The Adjacent Channel Power Ratio (ACPR) attains -40 dB and -41 dB for the Doherty and Class AB GaN PAs, respectively. The implementation complexity is also studied and the obtained results prove the capability of the proposed model to linearize PA using 3% of the Slice LUTs and 87% of the DSP48E1 available in the Xilinx Zynq-7000 FPGA.

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Keywords: RF power amplifier, digital predistortion (DPD), simplified Volterra series, estimation algorithms, look up table (LUT), least squares algorithms