# June 2013, Volume 22, Number 2

**F. Khateb, S. Bay Abo Dabbous, S. Vlassis**
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A Survey of Non-conventional Techniques for Low-voltage Low-power Analog Circuit Design

Designing integrated circuits able to work under low-voltage (LV) low-power (LP) condition is currently undergoing a very considerable boom. Reducing voltage supply and power consumption of integrated circuits is crucial factor since in general it ensures the device reliability, prevents overheating of the circuits and in particular prolongs the operation period for battery powered devices. Recently, non-conventional techniques i.e. bulk-driven (BD), floating-gate (FG) and quasi-floating-gate (QFG) techniques have been proposed as powerful ways to reduce the design complexity and push the voltage supply towards threshold voltage of the MOS transistors (MOST). Therefore, this paper presents the operation principle, the advantages and disadvantages of each of these techniques, enabling circuit designers to choose the proper design technique based on application requirements. As an example of application three operational transconductance amplifiers (OTA) base on these non-conventional techniques are presented, the voltage supply is only ±0.4 V and the power consumption is 23.5 µW. PSpice simulation results using the 0.18 µm CMOS technology from TSMC are included to verify the design functionality and correspondence with theory.

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Keywords: Low-voltage Low-power analog circuit design, bulk-driven, floating-gate, quasi-floating-gate, OTA.

**S. A. Tekin, H. Ercan, M. Alçı**
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Novel Low Voltage CMOS Current Controlled Floating Resistor Using Differential Pair

In this paper, a low voltage CMOS current controlled floating resistor which is convenient for integrated circuit implementation is designed by using differential pair. The proposed resistor has a simple circuit structure and low power dissipation. This circuit is required ± 0.75 V as a power supply. The basic advantages of this circuit are wide tuning range of the resistance value, satisfied frequency performance and worthwhile dynamic range. As well as the proposed circuit has floating structure, it is able to be used both positive and negative resistor. The performances of the proposed circuit are simulated with SPICE to justify the presented theory.

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Keywords: CMOS active resistor, differential pair, low voltage circuits.

**V. Stornelli, G. Ferri**
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A 0.18µm CMOS DDCCII for Portable LV-LP Filters

In this paper a current mode very low voltage (LV) (1V) and low power (LP) (21 µW) differential difference second generation current conveyor (CCII) is presented. The circuit is developed by applying the current sensing technique to a fully balanced version of a differential difference amplifier (DDA) so to design a suitable LV LP integrated version of the so-called differential difference CCII (DDCCII). Post-layout results, using a 0.18µm SMIC CMOS technology, have shown good general circuit performances making the proposed circuit suitable for fully integration in battery portable systems as, for examples, fully differential Sallen-Key bandpass filter.

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Keywords: Current mode filters, low voltage, low power, CCII

**S. A. Mahmoud, E. A.Soliman**
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Novel CCII-based Field Programmable Analog Array and its Application to a Sixth-Order Butterworth LPF

In this paper, a field programmable analog array (FPAA) is proposed. The proposed FPAA consists of seven configurable analog blocks (CABs) arranged in a hexagonal lattice such that the CABs are directly connected to each other. This structure improves the overall frequency response of the chip by decreasing the parasitic capacitances in the signal path. The CABS of the FPAA is based on a novel fully differential digitally programmable current conveyor (DPCCII). The programmability of the DPCCII is achieved using digitally controlled three-bit MOS ladder current division network. No extra biasing circuit is required to generate specific analog control voltage signals. The DPCCII has constant standby power consumption, offset voltage, bandwidth and harmonic distortions over all its programming range. A sixth-order Butterworth tunable LPF suitable for WLAN/WiMAX receivers is realized on the proposed FPAA. The filter power consumption is 5.4mW from 1V supply; it’s cutoff frequency is tuned from 5.2 MHz to 16.9 MHz. All the circuits are realized using 90nm CMOS technology from TSMC. All simulations are carried out using Cadence.

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Keywords: Current division network, digitally programmable current conveyor, field programmable analog array, tunable WLAN/WiMAX receivers

**M. Kumngern, F. Khateb, K. Dejhan, P. Phasukkit, S. Tungjitkusolmun**
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Voltage-Mode Multifunction Biquadratic Filters Using New Ultra-Low-Power Differential Difference Current Conveyors

This paper presents two low-power voltage-mode multifunction biquadratic filters using differential difference current conveyors. Each proposed circuit employs three differential difference current conveyors, two grounded capacitors and two grounded resistors. The low-voltage ultra-low-power differential difference current conveyor is used to provide low-power consumption of the proposed filters. By appropriately connecting the input and output terminals, the proposed filters can provide low-pass, band-pass, high-pass, band-stop and all-pass voltage responses at high-input terminals, which is a desirable feature for voltage-mode operations. The natural frequency and the quality factor can be orthogonally set by adjusting the circuit components. For realizing all the filter responses, no inverting-type input signal requirements as well as no component-matching conditional requirements are imposed. The incremental parameter sensitivities are also low. The characteristics of the proposed circuits are simulated by using PSPICE simulators to confirm the presented theory.

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Keywords: Biquadratic filter, voltage-mode circuit, low-power circuit, differential difference current conveyor

**A. Uygur, H. Kuntman**
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DTMOS-Based 0.4V Ultra Low-Voltage Low-Power VDTA Design and Its Application to EEG Data Processing

In this paper, an ultra low-voltage, ultra low-power voltage differencing transconductance amplifier (VDTA) is proposed. DTMOS (Dynamic Threshold Voltage MOS) transistors are employed in the design to effectively use the ultra low supply voltage. The proposed VDTA is composed of two operational transconductance amplifiers operating in the subthreshold region. Using TSMC 0.18µm process technology parameters with symmetric ±0.2V sup¬ply voltage, the total power consumption of the VDTA block is found as just 5.96 nW when the transconductances have 3.3 kHz, 3 dB bandwidth. The proposed VDTA circuit is then used in a fourth-order double-tuned band-pass filter for processing real EEG data measurements. The filter achieves close to 64 dB dynamic range at 2% THD with a total power consumption of 12.7 nW.

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Keywords: Ultra low-power, ultra low-voltage, DTMOS, VDTA, analog building blocks, EEG data processing.

**C. Muñiz-Montero, L. A. Sanchez-Gaspariano, J. M. Rocha-Perez, J. E. Molinar-Solis, C. Sanchez-Lopez**
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1.5V fully programmable CMOS Membership Function Generator Circuit with proportional DC-voltage control

A Membership Function Generator Circuit (MFGC) with bias supply of 1.5 Volts and independent DC-voltage programmable functionalities is presented. The realization is based on a programmable differential current mirror and three compact voltage-to-current converters, allowing continuous and quasi-linear adjustment of the center position, height, width and slopes of the triangular/trapezoidal output waveforms. HSPICE simulation results of the proposed circuit using the parameters of a double-poly, three metal layers, 0.5 μm CMOS technology validate the functionality of the proposed architecture, which exhibits a maximum deviation of the linearity in the programmability of 7 %.

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Keywords: CMOS, membership function generator, programmable current mirrors, nonlinear circuits

**P. Prommee, K. Dejhan**
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Single-input Multiple-output Tunable Log-domain Current-mode Universal Filter

This paper describes the design of a current-mode single-input multiple-output (SIMO) universal filter based on the log-domain filtering concept. The circuit is a direct realization of a first-order differential equation for obtaining the lossy integrator circuit. Lossless integrators are realized by log-domain lossy integrators. The proposed filter comprises only two grounded capacitors and twenty-four transistors. This filter suits to operate in very high frequency (VHF) applications. The pole-frequency of the proposed filter can be controlled over five decade frequency range through bias currents. The pole-Q can be independently controlled with the pole-frequency. Non-ideal effects on the filter are studied in detail. A validated BJT model is used in the simulations operated by a single power supply, as low as 2.5 V. The simulation results using PSpice are included to confirm the good performances and are in agreement with the theory.

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Keywords: Log-domain filtering, very high frequency, low-voltage, electronically-controlled, universal filter

**Y. V. Pershin, M. Di Ventra**
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SPICE model of memristive devices with threshold

Although memristive devices with threshold voltages are the norm rather than the exception in experimentally realizable systems, their SPICE programming is not yet common. Here, we show how to implement such systems in the SPICE environment. Specifically, we present SPICE models of a popular voltage-controlled memristive system specified by five different parameters for PSPICE and NGSPICE circuit simulators. We expect this implementation to find widespread use in circuits design and testing.

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- KVATINSKY, S., FRIEDMAN, E. G., KOLODNY, A., WEISER, U. C. TEAM: Threshold adaptive memristor model. IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems I: Regular Papers, 2013, vol. 60, no. 1, p. 211 - 221.
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Keywords: Memristive devices, memristor, memristor model, threshold dynamics

**R. Sotner, J. Jerabek, N. Herencsar**
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Voltage Differencing Buffered/Inverted Amplifiers and Their Applications for Signal Generation

This paper presents some interesting new applications in the field of analog signal processing focused on signal generation. A novel modifications of recently developed and studied family of active elements, called voltage differencing buffered amplifier (VDBA) and voltage differencing inverted buffered amplifier (VDIBA) are discussed. Our attention is focused on simple application of active elements like dual output VDBAs (DO-VDBAs) and fully balanced VDBAs (FB-VDBAs), where one or two z terminals and always voltage outputs of both polarities are present. The last modification of VDBA allows additional electronic control of voltage gain in frame of active element except standard transconductance control. Discussed active elements were used to build very simple multiphase oscillators with minimal complexity as a simple non-tunable alternative to classical conceptions utilizing lossy integrators in phase-shifted loop. Linearly tunable quadrature differential mode (balanced) oscillator or balanced simple triangle and square wave generator were chosen as other useful examples. Features of proposed circuits are discussed and selected examples verified and evaluated by computer simulations with appropriate low-voltage TSMC 0.18 um CMOS technology models.

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Keywords: Analog signal processing, low-voltage circuit, voltage differencing inverted buffered amplifier, VDIBA, voltage differencing buffered amplifier, VDBA, multiphase oscillators, quadrature oscillator, triangle and square wave generator, differential output responses, electronic control.

**Y. Wang, J. Liu, L. Xie, G. Wen**
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An Ultra-Low-Power Oscillator with Temperature and Process Compensation for UHF RFID Transponder

This paper presents a 1.28MHz ultra-low-power oscillator with temperature and process compensation. It is very suitable for clock generation circuits used in ultra-high-frequency (UHF) radio-frequency identification (RFID) transponders. Detailed analysis of the oscillator design, including process and temperature compensation techniques are discussed. The circuit is designed using TSMC 0.18μm standard CMOS process and simulated with Spectre. Simulation results show that, without post-fabrication calibration or off-chip components, less than ±3% frequency variation is obtained from –40 to 85°C in three different process corners. Monte Carlo simulations have also been performed, and demonstrate a 3σ deviation of about 6%. The power for the proposed circuitry is only 1.18µW at 27°C.

- EPCTM Radio-Frequency Identity Protocols Class-1 Generation-2 UHF RFID Protocol for Communications at 860 MHz - 960 MHz Version 1.2.0., 2008.
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- VITA, G. D., MARRACCINI, F., IANNACCONE, G. Low-voltage low-power CMOS oscillator with low temperature and process sensitivity. In Proc. IEEE International Symposium on Circuits and Systems. New Orleans (USA), May 2007, p. 2152-2155.
- CILEK, F., SEEMANN, K., BRENK, D., ESSEL, J., HEIDRICH, J., WEIGEL, R., HOLWEG, G. Ultra low power oscillator for UHF RFID transponder. In Proc. 2008 IEEE International Frequency Control Symposium, May 2008, p. 418-421.
- BARNETT, R., LIU, J. A 0.8V 1.52MHz MSVC relaxation oscillator with inverted mirror feedback reference for UHF RFID. In Proc. 2006 IEEE Custom Integrated Circuits Conference. Sept. 2006, p. 769-772.
- SUNDARESAN, K., ALLEN, P. E., AYAZI, F. Process and temperature compensation in a 7-MHz CMOS clock oscillator. IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits, Feb. 2006, vol. 41, no. 2, p. 433-441.
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Keywords: Ultra-low-power, oscillator, temperature, process, compensation, RFID.

**Y. S. Hwang, A. Liu, S. F. Wang, S. C. Yang, J. J. Chen**
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A tunable Butterworth low-pass filter with digitally controlled DDCC

This paper presents a 6th-order tunable Butterworth low-pass active filter with Digitally Controlled Differential Difference Current Conveyor (DDCC). This active filter is synthesized using the systematic method of voltage-mode linear transformation (VMLT) which enables the filter use fewer active components, grounded capacitors and grounded resistors to avoid the parasitical effects. The bandwidth of the filter can be tuned by digital switches to adjust the output current of the DDCC. The specifications of the filter are based on 3G standard, and the filter is controlled by 8-bits digital signals. The tunable bandwidth of the filter is from 12 KHz to 2.6 MHz. The filter chip layout is realized by TSMC 0.18 um CMOS 1P6M mixed-mode technology. The supply voltage is 1.8V and the power consumption is 3.6 mW.

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Keywords: Differential difference current conveyor (DDCC), voltage-mode linear transformation(VMLT), current division network (CDN), active filter

**C. Sanchez-Lopez, A. Ruiz-Pastor, R. Ochoa-Montiel, M. A. Carrasco-Aguilar**
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Symbolic Nodal Analysis of Analog Circuits with Modern Multiport Functional Blocks

This paper proposes admittance matrix models to approach the behavior of six modern multiport functional blocks called: differential difference amplifier, differential difference operational floating amplifier, differential difference operational mirror amplifier, differential difference current conveyor, current backward transconductance amplifier and current differencing transconductance amplifier. The novelty is that the behavior of any active device mentioned before can immediately be introduced in the nodal admittance matrix by using the proposed admittance matrix models and without requiring the use of extra variables. Therefore, a standard nodal analysis is applied to compute fully-symbolic small-signal performance parameters of analog circuits containing any active device mentioned above. This means that not only the size of the admittance matrix is smaller than those generated by applying modified nodal analysis method, for instance, but also, the number of nonzero elements and the generations of cancellation-terms are both reduced. An analysis example for each amplifier is provided in order to show the useful of the proposed stamps.

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Keywords: Nodal admittance matrix, symbolic analysis, stamps controlled sources, operational amplifiers

**J. Afshar Jahanashahi, M. Eslami, S. A. Ghorashi**
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Compressed Sensing based Dynamic PSD Map Construction in Cognitive Radio Networks

In the context of spectrum sensing in cognitive radio networks, collaborative spectrum sensing has been proposed as a way to overcome multipath and shadowing, and hence increasing the reliability of the sensing. Due to the high amount of information to be transmitted, a dynamic compressive sensing approach is proposed to map the PSD estimate to a sparse domain which is then transmitted to the fusion center. In this regard, CRs send a compressed version of their estimated PSD to the fusion center, whose job is to reconstruct the PSD estimates of the CRs, fuse them, and make a global decision on the availability of the spectrum in space and frequency domains at a given time. The proposed compressive sensing based method considers the dynamic nature of the PSD map, and uses this dynamicity in order to decrease the amount of data needed to be transmitted between CR sensors’ and the fusion center. By using the proposed method, an acceptable PSD map for cognitive radio purposes can be achieved by only 20 % of full data transmission between sensors and master node. Also, simulation results show the robustness of the proposed method against the channel variations, diverse compression ratios and processing times in comparison with static methods.

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- ZHANG, H., WANG, X., KUO, G., BOHNERT, T. M. Optimum detection location-based cooperative spectrum sensing in cognitive radio. Radioengineering, 2010, vol. 19, no. 4, p. 552 - 560.
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Keywords: Power Spectral Density Map (PSD-Map), Cognitive Radio Sensors (CRS), Dynamic Compressive Sensing

**J. Yao, Q. Wu, S. Feng, J. Wang**
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Online Malicious Behavior Detection in Collaborative Spectrum Sensing: A Change Detection Approach

Intelligent attackers in collaborative spectrum sensing system could act as honest users to conceal themselves and start malicious behavior abruptly since an unpredictable time slot. Affected by honest behavior before attacking time, traditional malicious behavior detection (MBD) algorithms are not agile enough to identify the abrupt change of behavior. To alleviate this challenge, in this paper, we propose the Rao test-based malicious behavior detection (RT-MBD) algorithm, which could detect the malicious behavior with unknown parameter and unknown starting time. The proposed RT-MBD is not affected by honest behavior before attacking time and has a shorter detection delay with constraint of a certain false alarm rate than conventional algorithms. Performance of RT-MBD is validated by both mathematical proof and numerical experiments.

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Keywords: Malicious behavior, change-point detection, Rao test statistic, collaborative spectrum sensing.

**Q. Wu, X.-S. Yang, Y.-T. Zhang**
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Research on 2×2 MIMO Channel with Truncated Laplacian Azimuth Power Spectrum

Multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) Rayleigh fading channel with truncated Laplacian azimuth power spectrum (APS) is studied. By using the power correlation matrix of MIMO channel model and the modified Jakes simulator, into which with random phases are inserted, the effect of the azimuth spread (AS), angle of departure (AOD) and angle of arrival (AOA) on the spatial correlation coefficient and channel capacity are investigated. Numerical results show that larger AS generates smaller spatial correlation coefficient amplitude, while larger average AOD or AOA produces larger spatial correlation coefficient amplitude. The average capacity variation is comprehensively dominated by the average AOD, AOA and AS.

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Keywords: Multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO), Jakes simulator, power correlation matrix, spatial correlation

**M. Kakitani, G. Brante, R. Souza**
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Energy Efficiency Analysis of a Two Dimensional Cooperative Wireless Sensor Network with Relay Selection

The energy efficiency of non-cooperative and cooperative transmissions are investigated in a two-dimensional wireless sensor network, considering a target outage probability and the same end-to-end throughput for all transmission schemes. The impact of the relay selection method in the cooperative schemes is also analyzed. We show that under non line-of-sight conditions the relay selection method has a greater impact in the energy efficiency than the availability of a return channel. By its turn, under line-of-sight conditions a return channel is more valuable to the energy efficiency of cooperative transmission than the specific relay selection method. Finally, we demonstrate that the energy efficiency advantage of the cooperative over the non-cooperative transmission increases with the distance among nodes and with the nodes density.

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- ABDULHADI, S., JASEEMUDDIN, M., ANPALAGAN, A. A survey of distributed relay selection schemes in cooperative wireless ad hoc networks. Wireless Personal Communications, 2012, vol. 63, no. 4, p. 917 - 935.
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- CHEN, Y., YU, G., QIU, P., ZHANG, Z. Power-aware cooperative relay selection strategies in wireless ad hoc networks. In IEEE 17th International Symposium on Personal, Indoor and Mobile Radio Communications (PIMRC). Helsinki (Finland), 2006, p. 1 - 5.
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Keywords: Energy efficiency, wireless sensor networks, cooperative communications, relay selection

**X. Zhang, X. Li, Z. Yun**
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The Impact of Sensing Range on Spatial-Temporal Opportunity

In this paper, we study the impact of secondary user (SU) sensing range on spectrum access opportunity in cognitive radio networks. We first derive a closed-form ex- pression of spectrum access opportunity by taking into ac- count the random variations in number, locations and trans- mitted powers of primary users (PUs). Then, we show how SU sensing range affects spectrum access opportunity, and the tradeoff between SU sensing range and spectrum ac- cess opportunity is formulated as an optimization problem to maximize spectrum access opportunity. Furthermore, we prove that there exists an optimal SU sensing range which yields the maximum spectrum access opportunity, and nu- merical results validate our theoretical analysis.

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- ALJUAID, M., YANIKOMEROGLU, H. Investigating the Gaussian convergence of the distribution of the aggregate interference power in large wireless networks. In IEEE Transactions on Vehicular Technology, 2010 vol. 59, no. 9, p. 4418 - 4426.

Keywords: Cognitive radio, spectrum access opportunity, spatial false alarm, optimal SU sensing range

**F. G. Zhang, W. M. Jia, M. L. Yao, S. H. Zhou**
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SPSA-Based Tracking Method for Single-Channel-Receiver Array

A novel tracking method in the phased antenna array with a single-channel receiver for the moving signal source is presented in this paper. And the problems of the direction-of-arrival track and beamforming in the array system are converted to the power maximization of received signal in the free-interference conditions, which is different from the existing algorithms that maximize the signal to interference and noise ratio. The proposed tracking method reaches the global optimum rather than local by injecting the extra noise terms into the gradient estimation. The antenna beam can be steered to coincide with the direction of the moving source fast and accurately by perturbing the output of the phase shifters during motion, due to the high efficiency and easy implementation of the proposed beamforming algorithm based on the simultaneous perturbation stochastic approximation (SPSA). Computer simulations verify that the proposed tracking scheme is robust and effective.

- MOUSAVI, P., FAKHARZADEH, M., JAMALI, S. H., NARIMANI, K., HOSSU, M., BOLANDHEMMAT, H., RAFI, Z., SAFAVI-NAEINI, S. A low-cost ultra low profile phased array system for mobile satellite reception using zero-knowledge beamforming algorithm. IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation, 2008, vol. 56, no. 12, p. 3667-3679.
- FAKHARZADEH, M., JAMALI, H., MOUSAVI, P., SAFAVINAEINI, S. Fast beamforming for mobile satellite receiver phased arrays: theory and experiment. IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation, 2009, vol. 57, no. 6, p.1645-1654.
- REZK, M., KIM, W., YUN, Z., ISKANDER, F. Performance comparison of a novel hybrid smart antenna system versus the fully adaptive and switched beam antenna arrays. IEEE Antennas and Wireless Propagation Letters, 2005, vol. 4, p. 285-288.
- MIN, S., SEO, D., LEE, K.B., KWON, H.M., LEE, Y.H. Direction- of-arrival tracking scheme for DS/CDMA systems: direction lock loop. IEEE Transactions on Wireless Communications, 2004, vol. 3, no. 1, p. 191-202.
- SCALISE, S., ERNST, H., HARLES, G. Measurement and modeling of the land mobile satellite channel at Ku-band. IEEE Transactions on Vehicular Technology, 2008, vol. 57 no. 2, p. 693-703.
- GIERON, R., SIATCHOUA, P. Application of 2D-direciton locked loop tracking algorithm to mobile satellite communication. In Fourth IEEE Workshop on Sensor Array and Multichannel Processing. Waltham (MA), 2006, p. 546-550.
- GAUDENZI, R., LUISE, M. Decision-directed coherent delaylock tracking loop for DS-spread-spectrum signals. IEEE Transactions on Communication, 1991, vol. 39, no. 5, p. 758–765.
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- CAPON, J. High resolution frequency-wave number spectrum analysis. IEEE Proceedings, 1986, vol. 57, no. 8, p. 1408–1418.
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- YUAN, X. Estimating the DOA and the polarization of a polynomial- phase signal using a single polarized vector-sensor. IEEE Transactions on Signal Processing, 2012, vol. 60, no. 3, p. 1270 to 1282.
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- HAO, L.Y., YAO, M.L. SPSA-based step tracking algorithm for mobile DBS reception. Simulation Modeling Practice and Theory, 2011, vol. 19, no. 2, p. 837-846.
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Keywords: Phased array antenna, tracking, single-channel receiver, simultaneous perturbations stochastic approximation (SPSA)

**R. Zentner, A. Katalinić Mucalo, R. Nađ**
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A Study of Differences in Calculated Capacity when Using Single-, Mixed- or Multiple-Bounce GSCM Schemes

The paper looks for differences in MIMO system capacity when using either single-, mixed-, or multiple-bounce geometry based stochastic channel models (GSCMs). The investigation considers Saleh-Valenzuela temporal indoor model, expanded for angular domain. In the model omnidirectional and idealized sector antennas were used as array elements. The single-bounce assumption, combination of single and multiple bounces, and pure random multiple bounces assumption were compared within “temporally identical” environment regarding the overall MIMO capacity. Assumption of clustered scatterers/reflectors is used in all three cases. The comparison is performed in statistical sense, using a large number of stochastically generated temporal models. The model is two- dimensional, i.e. neither elevation angle nor polarization/ depolarization was considered.

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- FOERSTER, J., LI, Q. UWB channel modeling contribution from Intel. IEEE P802.15 Working Group for Wireless Personal Area Networks (WPANs), IEEE P802.15-02/279r0-SG3a, June 2002, p. 21-22.
- ZENTNER, R., KATALINIĆ A., NAGY, R., Geometry based stochastic analysis of MIMO channel performance when using stacked microstrip antennas. In The Third European Conference on Antennas and Propagation, EuCAP 2009.
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Keywords: Single-bounce, multiple-bounce, geometry stochastic channel model (GSCM), MIMO, indoor propagation

**H. H. Chen, J .W. Ren, W. M. Jia, M. L. Yao**
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Simultaneous Perturbation Stochastic Approximation for Unambiguous Acquisition in Cosine-BOC Signals

The binary offset carrier (BOC) proposed for the global navigation satellite systems (GNSS) will enhance navigation performance and spectrum compatibility. However, the acquisition process is made more complex, due to the ambiguity in the autocorrelation function (ACF) of BOC. This paper proposes an unambiguous acquisition technique for the new cosine phased BOC (cosine-BOC) modulated signals, which will most likely be used in both European Galileo system and Chinese Compass system. The test criterion employed in this technique is based on a synthesized correlation function which completely removes major positive side peaks while keeping the sharp main peak using the concept of simultaneous perturbation stochastic approximation (SPSA). Theoretical analysis and simulation results indicate that the proposed technique completely removes the ambiguity threat in acquisition process with some performance degradation. This technique is also suitable for arbitrary order cosine-BOC signals.

- UNITED NATIONS. Current and planned global and regional navigation satellite systems and satellite-based augmentations systems. In International Committee on Global Navigation Satellite Systems Provider’s Forum. New York, June 2010, p. 35-40.
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- HEIRIES, V., ROVIRAS, D., RIES, L., CALMETTES, V. Analysis of non-ambiguous BOC signal acquisition performance. In Proceedings of ION GNSS, 2004, p. 2611-2622.
- LOHAN, E. S., BURIAN, A., RENFORS, M. Low-complexity unambiguous acquisition methods for BOC-modulated CDMA signals. Int. J. Commun. Syst. Network, 2008, vol. 26, p. 503-522.
- FISHMAN, P., BETZ, J. W. Predicting performance of direct acquisition for the M code signal. In Proceedings of ION NTM, 2000, p. 574-582.
- ZHENG, Y., LU, M. Q., FENG, Z. M. Unambiguous sine-phased binary offset carrier modulated signal acquisition technique. IEEE Trans. Wireless Communications, 2010, vol. 9, no. 2, p. 577-580.
- YAO, Z., LU, M. Q. Side-peaks cancellation analytic design framework with applications in BOC signals unambiguous processing. In Proceedings of ION ITM, 2011, p. 775-785.
- SPALL, J. C. A stochastic approximation technique for generating maximum likelihood parameter estimates. In Proceedings of the 1987 American Control Conference. 1987, p.1161-1167.
- SPALL, J. C. Implementation of the simultaneous perturbation algorithm for stochastic optimization. IEEE Trans. Aerosp. Electron. Syst., 1992, vol. 34, no. 3, p. 817-823.
- SPALL, J. C. Adaptive stochastic approximation by the simultaneous perturbation method. IEEE Transactions on Automatic Control, 2000, vol. 45, p. 1839-1853.
- SPALL, J. C. Feedback and weighting mechanisms for improving jacobian estimates in the adaptive simultaneous perturbation algorithm. IEEE Transactions on Automatic Control, 2009, vol. 54, p. 1216-1229.
- SONG, Q., SPALL, J. C., SOH, Y. C., NI, J. Robust neural network tracking controller using simultaneous perturbation stochastic approximation. IEEE Trans. Neural Netw., 2008, vol. 19, p. 817-835.
- GUO, C. Y., SONG, Q., CAI, W. J. A neural network assisted cascade control system for air handling unit. IEEE Trans. Ind. Electron., 2007, vol. 54, p. 620-628.
- HAO, L. Y., YAO, M. L. SPSA-based step tracking algorithm for mobile DBS reception. Simulation Modelling Practice and Theory, 2011, vol. 19, p. 837-846.
- SIMON, M. K. The Nuttall Q function-its relation to the Marcum Q function and its application in digital communication performance evaluation. IEEE Trans. Commun., 2002, vol. 50, p. 1712 to 1715.

Keywords: Galileo, compass, BOC, unambiguous acquisition, SPSA.

**Z. Martinasek, V. Zeman**
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Innovative Method of the Power Analysis

This paper describes an innovative method of the power analysis which presents the typical example of successful attacks against trusted cryptographic devices such as RFID (Radio-Frequency IDentifications) and contact smart cards. The proposed method analyzes power consumption of the AES (Advanced Encryption Standard) algorithm with neural network, which successively classifies the first byte of the secret key. This way of the power analysis is an entirely new approach and it is designed to combine the advantages of simple and differential power analysis. In the extreme case, this feature allows to determine the whole secret key of a cryptographic module only from one measured power trace. This attribute makes the proposed method very attractive for potential attackers. Besides theoretical design of the method, we also provide the first implementation results. We assume that the method will be certainly optimized to obtain more accurate classification results in the future.

- HIU, A., FIONA, Y. ERG4920CM Thesis II Keyboard Acoustic Triangulation Attack. PhD thesis. Hong Kong (China): University of Hong Kong, 2006.
- ZHUANG, L., ZHOU, F., TYGAR, J. D. Keyboard acoustic emanations revisited. In Proceedings of the 12th ACM Conference on Computer and Communications Security. New York (NY, USA), 2005, p. 373 - 382.
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- MARTINASEK, Z., MACHA, T., ZEMAN, V. Classifier of power side channel. In Proceedings of NIMT. 2010.
- LIU, N., GUO, D. Security analysis of public-key encryption scheme based on neural networks and its implementing. In International Conference on Computational Intelligence and Security. Guangzhou (China), 2006, vol. 2, p. 1327 - 1330.
- KIM, H.-M., KANG, D.-J., KIM, T.-H. Flexible key distribution for scada network using multi-agent system. ECSIS Symposium on Bioinspired, Learning, and Intelligent Systems for Security (BLISS). Edinburgh (UK), 2007, p. 29 - 34.
- LIAN, S., SUN, J.,WANG, Z. One-way hash function based on neural network. CoRR abs/0707.4032 (2007).
- WANG, Y.-H., SHEN, Z.-D., ZHANG, H.-G. Pseudo random number generator based on hopfield neural network. In International Conference on Machine Learning and Cybernetics. Dalian (China), 2006, p. 2810 - 2813.
- MISLOVATY, R., PERCHENOK, Y., KANTER, I., KINZEL, W. Secure key-exchange protocol with an absence of injective functions. Physics Review E, 2002, vol. 66, p. 066102.
- KOCHER, P. C., JAFFE, J., JUN, B. Differential power analysis. In Proceedings of the 19th Annual International Cryptology Conference on Advances in Cryptology (CRYPTO). London (UK), 1999, p. 388 - 397.
- MANGARD, S., OSWALD, E., POPP, T. Power Analysis Attacks: Revealing the Secrets of Smart Cards (Advances in Information Security). Springer, 2007.
- MARTINASEK, Z., PETRIK, T., STANCIK, P. Conditions affecting the measurement of power analysis. In The 13th International Conference on Research in Telecommunication Technologies (RTT). Techov (Czech Republic), 2011, p. 1 - 5.
- JOYE, M., OLIVIER, F. Side channel analysis. Encyclopedia of Cryptography and Security (2nd Ed.). 2011, p. 1198 - 1204.
- MESSERGES, T. S., DABBISH, E. A., SLOAN, R. H., MESSERGES, T. S., DABBISH, E. A., SLOAN, R. H. Investigations of power analysis attacks on smartcards. In USENIX Workshop on Smartcard Technology. 1999, p. 151 - 162.
- BERTONI, G., ZACCARIA, V., BREVEGLIERI, L., MONCHIERO, M., PALERMO, G. AES power attack based on induced cache miss and countermeasure. In Proceedings of the International Conference on Information Technology: Coding and Computing (ITCC’05). Washington, DC (USA), 2005 vol. I, p. 586 - 591.
- MANGARD, S. A simple power-analysis (SPA) attack on implementations of the AES key expansion. In 5th International Conference on Information Security and Cryptology (ICISC). Seoul (Korea), 2002, p. 343 - 358.
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Keywords: Power analysis, Smart cards, Neural network, SPA, DPA

**S. Suresh, M. G. Madhan, M. Sivaraj, S.Parasuraman**
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Analysis of ITU-R Performance and Characterization of Ku Band Satellite Downlink Signals during Rainy Season over Chennai Region of India

In this paper, we present the analysis of Ku band Satellite signal reception during rainy season over Chennai region, India (Latitude: 12° 56' 60 N, Longitude: 80° 7' 60 E). We also examine the effectiveness of International Telecommunication Union – Radio communication (ITU-R) model in predicting the rainfall induced attenuation in Ku band, over this region. An improved Simulink model for Digital Video Broadcast – Satellite (DVB-S2) downlink channel incorporating rain attenuation and Cross Polarization Discrimination (XPD) effects is developed to study the rain attenuation effects, by introducing the experimental data in the ITU-R model pertaining to that region. Based on the improved model, a Monte Carlo simulation of the DVB–S2 signal link is carried out and the performance is analyzed by received constellation and Bit Error Rate (BER) parameters.

- ITU-R Recommendation P. 618-7: Propagation Data and Prediction Methods Required for the Design of Earth-Space Telecommuni-cation Systems. Geneva (Switzerland): International Telecommunication Union, 2005.
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- ITU-R Recommendation S.736-3: Estimation of Polarization Discrimination in Calculations of Interference between Geostationary- Satellite Networks in the Fixed-Satellite Service. Geneva (Switzerland): International Telecommunication Union, 1997.
- ETSI EN 302 307, v. 1.2.1.: Digital Video Broadcasting (DVB); Second Generation Framing Structure, Channel Coding and Modulation Systems for Broadcasting, Interactive Services, News Gathering and Other Broadband Satellite Applications (DVB-S2). European Telecommunications Standards Institute, 2009.

Keywords: ITU-R, Ku band, DVB-S2, DTH, Simulink, Monte Carlo simulation

**H. Chen, Q. Wan, R. Fan**
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Beampattern Synthesis using Reweighted l1-Norm Minimization and Array Orientation Diversity

The pattern synthesis of sparse antenna arrays has many practical applications in situations where the weights, size, and cost of antennas are limited. In this work the antenna array synthesis problem, with minimum number of elements, is studied from the new perspective of sparseness constrained optimization. The number of antenna elements in the array can be efficiently reduced by casting the pattern synthesis problem into the compressive sensing (CS) framework of sparseness constrained optimization and solving with the reweighted l1-norm minimization algorithm. Besides, the proposed method allows exploitation of the array orientation diversity in the CS framework to address left-right radiation pattern ambiguity problem. Numerical examples are presented to show the high efficiency of achieving the desired radiation pattern with the minimum number of antenna elements.

- KUMAR, B., BRANNER, G. Design of unequally spaced arrays for performance improvement. IEEE Transaction on Antennas and Propagation, 1999, vol. 47, no. 3, p. 511 - 523.
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- BALANIS, C. Antenna Theory: Analysis and Design. 3rd ed. New York: Wiley, 2005.
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- CHEN, Y., YANG, S., NIE, Z. The application of a modified differential evolution strategy to some array pattern synthesis problems. IEEE Transaction on Antennas and Propagation, 2008, vol. 56, no. 7, p. 1919 - 1927.
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- ZHANG, W. J., LI, L., LI, F. Reducing the number of elements in linear and planar antenna arrays with sparseness constrained optimization. IEEE Transaction on Antennas and Propagation, 2011, vol. 59, no. 8, p. 3106 - 3111.
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Keywords: Sparse array pattern synthesis, reweighted l1-norm minimization, orientation diversity, convex optimization

**J. Montero-de-Paz, L. E. Garcia-Muñoz, D. Segovia-Vargas**
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A 300 GHz "Always-in-Focus" Focusing System for Target Detection

A focusing system for a 300 GHz radar with 5 m target distance and 10 mm diameter spot size resolution is proposed. The focusing system is based on a Gaussian telescope scheme and its main parameters have been de¬signed using Gaussian beam quasi-optical propagation theory with an in-house developed MATLAB® based analysis tool. Then, this approach has been applied to a real focusing system based on two elliptical mirrors in order to reduce the distortion and cross-polar level and a plane mirror to provide scanning capabilities. The over¬all system has been simulated with a full-wave electromag¬netic simulator and its behavior is presented. With this approach, the focusing system always works "in-focus" since the only mirror that is rotated when scanning is the output plane mirror, so the beam is almost not distorted. The design process, although based in the well-known Gaussian beam quasi-optical propagation theory, provides a fast and accurate method and minimizes the overall size of the mirrors. As a consequence, the size of the focusing system is also reduced.

- SIEGEL, P. H. Terahertz technology. IEEE Trans. on Microwave Theory and Tech., March 2002, vol. 50, no. 3, p. 910 - 928.
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- KAPILEVICH, B., PINHASI, Y., ARUSI, R., ANISIMOV, M., HARDON, D., LITVAK, B., WOOL, Y. 330 GHz FMCW Image sensor for homeland security applications. Journal of Infrared, Millimeter and Terahertz Waves, September 2010, vol. 31, no. 11, p. 1370-1381.
- DEMIRCI, S., CETINKAYA, H., YIGIT, E., OZDEMIR, C., VERTIY, A. A study on millimeter-wave imaging of concealed objects: Application using back-projection algorithm. Progress in Electromagnetics Research, 2012, vol. 128, p. 457-477.
- COOPER, K. B., DENGLER, R. J., LLOMBART, N., BRYLLERT, T., CHATTOPADHYAY, G., SCHLECHT, E., GILL, J., LEE, C., SKALARE, A., MEHDI, I., SIEGEL, P. H., Penetrating 3-D imaging at 4- and 25-m range using a submillimeter- wave radar. IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques, December 2008, vol. 56, no. 12.
- EDERRA, I., GONZALO, R., ALDERMAN, B. E. J., HUGGARD, P. G., DE HON, B. P., VAN BEURDEN, M. C., MURK, A., MARCHAND, L., DE MAAGT, P. Sub-millimeter wave imaging array at 500 GHz based on 3-D electromagnetic band-gap material. IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques, November 2008, vol. 56, no. 11, p. 2256-2265.
- HARMER, S. W., COLE, S. E., BOWRING, N. J., REZGUI, N. D., ANDREWS, D. On body concealed weapon detection using a phased antenna array. Progress in Electromagnetics Research, 2012, vol. 124, p. 187-210.
- ANDRES-GARCIA, B., GARCIA-MUÑOZ, L. E., SEGOVIAVARGAS, D. Ultrawideband antenna excited by a photomixer for terahertz band. Progress in Electromagnetics Research, February 2011, vol. 114, p. 1-15.
- GOLDSMITH, P. F. Quasioptical Systems: Gaussian Beam Quasioptical Propagation and Applications. New York: IEEE Press/Chapman and Hall, 1998.
- GRASP, General Reflector and Antenna arm analysis software, http://www.ticra.com/what-we-do/software-descriptions/grasp/, June 2012.
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- BARYSHEV, A., WILD, W. ALMA band 9 optical layout. ALMA Memo #394, 2001.
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- WYLDE, R. J. Millimeter-wave Gaussian beam-mode optics and corrugated feed horns. IEE Proceedings, August 1984, vol. 131, no. 4.
- MOLINA-ROMERO, M. Implementacion de una herramienta para el estudio rapido de sistemas cuasi-opticos. Master Thesis Dissertation, Universidad Carlos III de Madrid, Leganes, 2010 (in Spanish).
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- KABOUREK, V., CERNY, P., MAZANEK, M. Clutter reduction based on principal component analysis technique for hidden objects detection. Radioengineering, April 2012, vol. 21, no. 1, p. 464 - 470.

Keywords: Quasi-optical Gaussian beam propagation, radar, focusing system, terahertz imaging

**Ke Lu, Guang-Ming Wang, Bo Tian**
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Design of Dual-band Branch-Line Coupler Based on Shunt Open-Circuit DCRLH Cells

In this article, the shunt open-circuit dual composite right/left-handed (DCRLH) cell is initially proposed and one dual-band branch-line coupler based on the proposed cells is designed. It is found that, compared with DCRLH cell, the frequency selectivity, matching condition and adjustment range of the shunt open-circuit DCRLH cell improve greatly. Moreover, the shunt open-circuit DCRLH cell exhibits two adjustable frequency points with -90degrees phase shift within its first two passbands. In order to explore this exotic property effectively, the influence of the primary geometrical parameter is investigated through parametric analysis. Thus, one dual-band branch-line coupler based on the shunt open-circuit DCRLH cells is designed. Both simulated and measured results indicate that comparative performance is achieved. Different from part of previous dual-band branch line couplers, for the proposed coupler, the signs of phase difference of two output ports within the two operating frequency bands are identical with each other. This branch-line coupler is quite suitable for the application which is sensitive to the variation of phase difference and its effective area is compact.

- TAEGYU, K., LEE, B., MYUN-JOO, P. Dual-band branch-line coupler with two center-tapped stubs. Microwave and Optical Technology. Letters, 2008, vol. 50, no. 11, p. 3136 - 3139.
- HUALIANG, Z., CHEN, K. J. A stub tapped branch line coupler for dual-band operations. IEEE Microwave and Wireless Component Letters, 2007, vol. 17, no. 2, p. 106 - 108.
- HYUNCHUL, K., BYUNGJE, L., MYUN-JOO, P., Dual-band branch-line coupler with port extensions. IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques, 2010, vol. 58, no. 3, p. 651 - 655.
- I-HSIANG, L., DEVINCENTIS, M., CALOZ, C., ITOH, T. Arbitrary dual-band components using composite right/left-handed transmission lines. IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques, 2004, vol. 52, no. 4, p. 1142 - 1149.
- BONACHE, J., SISO, G., GIL, M., INIESTA, A., GARCIARINCON, J., MARTIN, F. Application of composite right/left handed (CRLH) transmission lines based on complementary split ring resonators (CSRRs) to the design of dual-band microwave components. IEEE Microwave and Wireless Component Letters, 2008, vol. 18, no. 8, p. 524 - 526.
- CALOZ, C. Dual composite right/left-handed (D-CRLH) transmission line metamaterial. IEEE Microwave and Wireless Component Letters, 2006, vol. 16, no. 11, p. 585 - 687.
- GONZǍLEZ-POSADAS, V., JIMENEZ-MARTIN, J. L., PARRA-CERRADA, A., GARCIA-MUNOZ, L. E., SEGOVIAVARGAS, D. Dual-composite right–left-handed transmission lines for the design of compact diplexers. IET Microwaves, Antennas & Propagation, 2010, vol. 4, no. 8, p. 982 - 990.
- CALOZ, C., NGUYEN, H. V. Novel broadband conventional and dual-composite right/left-handed (C/D-CRLH) metamaterials: properties, implementation and double-band coupler application. Applied Physics A-Materials Science & Processing, 2007, vol. 87, p. 309 - 316.
- TONG, W., HU, Z., ZHANG, H., CALOZ, C., RENNINGS, A. Study and realisation of dual-composite right/left-handed coplanar waveguide metamaterial in MMIC technology. IET Microwaves, Antennas & Propagation, 2008, vol. 2, no. 7, p. 731 - 736.
- YOUNG-HO RYU, JAE-HYUN PARK, JEONG-HAE LEE, JOON-YUB KIM, HEUNG-SIK TAE DGS dual composite right/left handed transmission line. IEEE Microwave and Wireless Component Letters, 2008, vol. 18, no. 7, p. 434 - 436.
- CHANGJUN L., MENZEL, W. A Microstrip diplexer from metamaterial transmission lines. In IEEE MTT-S International Microwave Symposium Digest. Boston (MA, USA), 2009, p. 65 - 68.
- WANG, W., LIU, C., YAN, L., HUANG, K. A Novel power divider based on dual composite right/left handed transmission line. Journal of Electromagnetic Waves and Applications, 2009, vol. 23: no. 8 - 9, p. 1173 - 1180.

Keywords: Dual composite right/left-handed cell, shunt open-circuit DCRLH cell, dual-band, branch-line coupler

**A. Acharyya, K. Datta, R. Ghosh, M. Sarkar, R. Sanyal, S. Banerjee, J. P. Banerjee**
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Diamond Based DDR IMPATTs: Prospects and Potentiality as Millimeter-Wave Source at 94 GHz Atmospheric Window

Large-signal simulation is carried out in this paper to investigate the prospects and potentiality of Double-Drift Region (DDR) Impact Avalanche Transit Time (IMPATT) device based on semiconducting type-IIb diamond as millimeter-wave source operating at 94 GHz atmospheric window frequency. Large-signal simulation method developed by the authors and presented in this paper is based on non-sinusoidal voltage excitation. The simulation is carried out to obtain the large-signal characteristics such as RF power output, DC to RF conversion efficiency etc. of DDR diamond IMPATT device designed to operate at 94 GHz. The results show that the device is capable of delivering a peak RF power output of 7.01 W with 10.18% DC to RF conversion efficiency for a bias current density of 6.0×10^8 A m^{-2} and voltage modulation of 60% at 94 GHz; whereas for the same voltage modulation 94 GHz DDR Si IMPATT can deliver only 693.82 mW RF power with 8.74 efficiency for the bias current density of 3.4×10^8 A m^{-2}.

- TREW, R. J., YAN, J. B., MOCK, P. M. The potentiality of diamond and SiC electronic devices for microwave and millimeterwave power applications. Proc. of IEEE, 1991, vol. 79, no. 5, p. 598-620.
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- LUSCHAS, M., JUDASCHKE, R., LUY, J. F. Measurement results of packaged millimeter-wave silicon IMPATT diodes. In Proc. of 27th International Conference on Infrared and Millimeter Waves, Conference Digest. 2002, p. 135-136.
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Keywords: Diamond, DDR IMPATTs, large-signal simulation, millimeter-wave.

**P. Skoda, J. Radil, J. Vojtech, M. Hula**
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Analyses of 100 Gbps Coherent System Performances

This paper presents the results of laboratory and field testing of coherent 100 Gbps system with DP-QPSK modulation. Several measurements were performed including power budget, nonlinear threshold, spectrum filtration, constellation diagram, interoperability with 10 Gbps lambdas and dispersion compensation type impact. Field tests addressed transmission of 100 Gbps signal as an Alien Wavelength through multivendor network, influence of photonic service parallel to 100 Gbps signal and performance of 100 Gbps system over single fiber bidirectional transmission lines. 100 Gbps system has been found extremely resilient to most classical impairments thanks to advances error coding and compatible with standard 10 Gbps NRZ lambdas and any type of dispersion compensation. The system was also working over single fiber bidirectional lines and in parallel with Photonic Service of time transfer. The paper also shows recent results of single hop test with 100 Gbps system in laboratory environment.

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Keywords: 100 Gbps, DP-QPSK, field tests, dispersion compensation, photonic service

**Y. Leng, G.H. Qi, X.Y. Xu**
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A BIC Based Initial Training Set Selection Algorithm for Active Learning and Its Application in Audio Detection

To construct a classification system or a detection system, large amounts of labeled samples are needed. However, manual labeling is dull and time consuming, so researchers have proposed the active learning technology. The initial training set selection is the first step of an active learning process, but currently there have been few studies on it. Most active learning algorithms adopt random sampling or algorithms like sampling by clustering (SBC) to select the initial training samples. But these two kinds of method would lose their effectiveness in detecting events of small probability. Because sometimes they could not select or select too few samples of the small probability events. To solve this problem, this paper proposes a BIC based initial training set selection algorithm. The BIC based algorithm performs clustering on the whole training set first. Then uses BIC to judge the status of clusters. Finally, it adopts different selection strategies for clusters of different status. Experimental results on two real data sets show that, compared to random sampling and SBC, the proposed BIC based initial training set selection algorithm can efficiently solve the detection problem of small probability events. In the mean time, it has obvious advantages in detecting events of non-small probability.

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Keywords: Initial training set selection, active learning, BIC, subspace sample selection, audio detection

**D, A. Chowdhry, A. M. Siddiqui, I. Touqir**
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Contrast Enhancement in Poor Visibility Conditions Using Guided Filtering

In this paper, extraction of atmospheric veil is proposed to enhance the contrast of the images captured under poor visibility conditions. The method based on guided filtering can accurately recover hidden edges, maintain structural similarity (SSIM) to input image and it is effective for both color and gray level images. The proposed algorithm works without prior information about the scene and its complexity is linear function of the input image size. Experimental comparisons with state of the art algorithms demonstrate that our approach can significantly enhance the contrast and restore the visibility in fine details.

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Keywords: Poor visibility conditions, atmospheric aerosols, contrast enhancement, atmospheric veil, guided filter, haze and fog removal.

**C. Yang**
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A Comparison of the Machine Learning Algorithm for Evaporation Duct Estimation

In this research, a comparison of the relevance vector machine (RVM), least square support vector machine (LSSVM) and the radial basis function neural network (RBFNN) for evaporation duct estimation are presented. The parabolic equation model is adopted as the forward propagation model, and which is used to establish the training database between the radar sea clutter power and the evaporation duct height. The comparison of the RVM, LSSVM and RBFNN for evaporation duct estimation are investigated via the experimental and the simulation studies, and the statistical analysis method is employed to analyze the performance of the three machine learning algorithms in the simulation study. The analysis demonstrate that the M profile of RBFNN estimation has a relatively good match to the measured profile for the experimental study; for the simulation study, the LSSVM is the most precise one among the three machine learning algorithms, besides, the performance of RVM is basically identical to the RBFNN.

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Keywords: Machine learning algorithm, evaporation duct, radar sea clutter, parameter estimation.