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April 2013, Volume 22, Number 1

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H. A. Yildiz, A. Toker, S. Ozoguz [references] [full-text] [Download Citations]
Biquadratic Filter Applications Using a Fully-Differential Active-Only Integrator

A new class of active filters, real active-only filters is described and possible implementation issues of these filters are discussed. To remedy these issues, a fully-differential active-only integrator block built around current controlled current conveyors is presented. The integration frequency of the proposed circuit is adjustable over a wide frequency range. As an application, a real active-only filter based on the classical two-integrator loop topology is presented and designed. The feasibility of this filter in a 0.35µm CMOS process is verified through SPECTRE simulation program in the CADENCE design tool.

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  5. TSUKUTANI, T., HIGASHIMURA, M., KINUGASA, Y. N., SUMI, Y., FUKUI, Y. Novel voltage-mode active-only biquad with two integrator loops. In Proceedings of International Technical Conference on Circuits / Systems, Computers and Communications (ITC-CSCC). Pusan (Korea), 2000.
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  17. METIN, B., ARSLAN, E., HERENCSAR, N., CICEKOGLU, O. Voltage-mode MOS-only all-pass filter. In 34th International Conference on Telecommunications and Signal Processing (TSP). Budapest (Hungary), 2011, p. 317 - 318.
  18. YILDIZ, H. A., OZOGUZ, S., TOKER, A., CICEKOGLU, O., On the realization of MOS-only allpass filters. Circuits, Systems, and Signal Processing, 2012, DOI: 10.1007/s00034-012-9500-4.
  19. SINGH, A. K., SENAI, R, BHASKAR, D. R., SHARMA, R. K., A new electronically-tunable active-only universal biquad. Journal of Circuits, Systems, and Computers, 2011, vol. 20, p. 549 - 555.

Keywords: Active-only filters, current controlled current conveyors, analog filter design

P. Prommee, N. Wongprommoon [references] [full-text] [Download Citations]
Log-domain All-pass Filter-based Multiphase Sinusoidal Oscillators

Log-domain current-mode multiphase sinusoidal oscillators based on all-pass filters are presented in this paper. The first-order differential equation is used for obtaining inverting and non-inverting all-pass filters. The proposed oscillators are realized by all-pass filters which can be electronically tuned their natural frequency and stage gain by adjusting the bias currents. Each all pass filter contains 10 NPN transistors and a grounded capacitor. The validated BJT model which used in SPICE simulation operated by a single power supply as low as 2.5 V. The frequency of oscillation can be controlled over four decades. The total harmonic distortions of these MSO at frequency 56.67 MHz and 54.44 MHz, obtained around 0.52% and 0.75%, respectively. The proposed circuits enable fully integrated in telecommunication systems and also suit to high-frequency applications. Nonideality studies and PSpice simulation results are included to confirm the theory.

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  21. JAIKLA, W., PROMMEE, P. Electronically tunable current-mode multiphase sinusoidal oscillator employing CCCDTA-based allpass filters with only grounded passive elements. Radioengineering, 2011, vol. 20, no. 3, p. 594-599.
  22. PSYCHALINOS, C., SOULIOTIS, G. A log-domain multiphase sinusoidal oscillator. AEU - International Journal of Electronics and Communications, 2008, vol. 62, no. 8, p. 622-626.
  23. SERDIJN, W. A., MULDER, J., KOUWENHOVEN, M. H. L., VAN ROERMUND, A. H. M. A low-voltage translinear secondorder quadrature oscillator. In Proc. IEEE Int. Symp. Circuits Syst (ISCAS’99). Orlando (Florida, USA), 1999, vol.2, p. 701-704.
  24. PROMMEE, P., SRA-IUM, N., DEJHAN, K. High-frequency logdomain current-mode multiphase sinusoidal oscillator. IET Circuits Devices Syst., Sep. 2010, vol. 4, no. 5, p. 440–448.
  25. PROMMEE, P., PRAPAKORN, N., SWAMY, M. N. S. Log-domain current-mode quadrature sinusoidal oscillator. Radioengineering, 2011, vol. 20, no. 3, p. 600-607.
  26. PROMMEE, P., SOMDUNYAKANOK, M. Log-domain all-pass based multiphase sinusoidal oscillator. In Proc. of IEEE TSP2012. Prague (Czech Republic), July 3-4, 2012, p. 355 - 358.
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Keywords: All-pass filter, log-domain filtering, high-frequency, low-voltage, electronically-controlled, Multiphase Sinusoidal oscillator

M. Sagbas, U. E. Ayten, N. Herencsar, S. Minaei [references] [full-text] [Download Citations]
Current and Voltage Mode Multiphase Sinusoidal Oscillators Using CBTAs

Current-mode (CM) and voltage-mode (VM) multiphase sinusoidal oscillator (MSO) structures using current backward transconductance amplifier (CBTA) are proposed. The proposed oscillators can generate n current or voltage signals (n being even or odd) equally spaced in phase. n+1 CBTAs, n grounded capacitors and a grounded resistor are used for nth-state oscillator. The oscillation frequency can be independently controlled through transconductance (gm) of the CBTAs which are adjustable via their bias currents. The effects caused by the non-ideality of the CBTA on the oscillation frequency and condition have been analyzed. The performance of the proposed circuits is demonstrated on third-stage and fifth-stage MSOs by using PSPICE simulations based on the 0.25 µm TSMC level-7 CMOS technology parameters.

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  9. TANGSRIRAT, W., TANJAROEN, W., PUKKALANUN, T. Current-mode multiphase sinusoidal oscillator using CDTA-based allpass sections. AEU - International Journal of Electronics and Communications, 2009, vol. 63, no. 7, p. 616 - 622.
  10. JAIKLA, W., SIRIPRUCHYANUN, M., BIOLEK, D., BIOLKOVA, V. High-output-impedance current-mode multiphase sinusoidal oscillator employing current differencing transconductance amplifier-based allpass filters. International Journal of Electronics, 2010, vol. 97, no. 7, p. 811 - 826.
  11. LI, Y. A novel current-mode multiphase sinusoidal oscillator using MO-CDTAs. International Journal of Electronics, 2012, vol. 99, no. 4, p. 477 - 489.
  12. JAIKLA, W., PROMMEE, P. Electronically tunable current-mode multiphase sinusoidal oscillator employing CCCDTA-based allpass filters with only grounded passive elements. Radioengineering, 2011, vol. 20, no. 3, p. 594 - 599.
  13. PISITCHALERMPONG, S., TANGSRIRAT, W., SURAKAMPONTORN, W. CDBA-based multiphase sinusoidal oscillator using grounded capacitors. In Proceeding of the SICE-ICASE International Joint Conference. Bexco, Busan (Korea), 2006, p. 5762 - 5765.
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  21. KOKSAL, M. Realization of a general all-pole current transfer function by using CBTA. International Journal of Circuit Theory and Applications, Published online on 10 Oct. 2011. DOI: 10.1002/cta.806
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  24. HERENCSAR, N., LAHIRI, A., KOTON, J., SAGBAS, M., AYTEN, U. E., VRBA, K. New MOS-C realization of transadmittance type all-pass filter using modified CBTA. In Proceeding of International Conference on Applied Electronics (AE 2011). Pilsen (Czech Republic), 2011, p. 153 - 156.
  25. HERENCSAR, N., KOTON, J., VRBA, K., LAHIRI, A., AYTEN, U. E., SAGBAS, M. A new compact CMOS realization of sinusoidal oscillator using a single modified CBTA. In Proceeding of 21st International Conference Radioelektronika. Brno (Czech Republic), 2011, p. 41 - 44.
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Keywords: Multiphase sinusoidal oscillator, current backward transconductance amplifier (CBTA), current-mode circuits, voltage-mode circuits, active networks.

A. Ambede, K. G. Smitha, A. P. Vinod [references] [full-text] [Download Citations]
A New Low Complexity Uniform Filter Bank Based on the Improved Coefficient Decimation Method

In this paper, we propose a new uniform filter bank (FB) based on the improved coefficient decimation method (ICDM). In the proposed FB’s design, the ICDM is used to obtain different multi-band frequency responses using a single lowpass prototype filter. The desired subbands are individually obtained from these multi-band frequency responses by using low order frequency response masking filters and their corresponding ICDM output frequency responses. We show that the proposed FB is a very low complexity alternative to the other FBs in literature, especially the widely used discrete Fourier transform based FB (DFTFB) and the CDM based FB (CDFB). The proposed FB can have a higher number of subbands with twice the center frequency resolution when compared with the CDFB and DFTFB. Design example and implementation results show that our FB achieves 86.59% and 58.84% reductions in resource utilizations and 76.95% and 47.09% reductions in power consumptions when compared with the DFTFB and CDFB respectively.

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Keywords: FIR filter bank, flexibility, improved coefficient decimation method, low complexity

E. Tuğcu, F. Çakır, A. Ozen [references] [full-text] [Download Citations]
A New Step Size Control Technique for Blind and Non-Blind Equalization Algorithms

A new variable step size (VSS) control technique employing cross correlation between channel output and error signal has been proposed as a solution to the problem of slow convergence of blind and non-blind equalization algorithms. The new method resolves the conflict between the convergence rate and low steady state error of the fixed step-size conventional blind and non-blind equalization algorithms, such as Constant Modulus Algorithm (CMA) and Least Mean Squares (LMS) algorithm. Computer simulations have been performed to verify the performance of the proposed method in frequency selective Rayleigh fading channels. The proposed technique has been compared with the popular non-blind equalizers, LMS and Recursive Least Squares (RLS) algorithms, and blind equalizers, the conventional CMA, Zhao’s VSS-CMA and Demir’s VSS-CMA as benchmarks. The obtained simulation results have demonstrated that the proposed VSS-CMA and VSS-LMS algorithms have considerably better performance than the conventional CMA, Zhao’s VSS-CMA and Demir’s VSS-CMA blind equalization algorithms, and the conventional LMS non-blind equalization algorithm.

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Keywords: Cross correlation, VSS-CMA, VSS-LMS, blind equalization, adaptive blind and non-blind training.

J. Pribil, A. Pribilova [references] [full-text] [Download Citations]
Determination of Formant Features in Czech and Slovak for GMM Emotional Speech Classifier

The paper is aimed at determination of formant features (FF) which describe vocal tract characteristics. It comprises analysis of the first three formant positions together with their bandwidths and the formant tilts. Subsequently, the statistical evaluation and comparison of the FF was performed. This experiment was realized with the speech material in the form of sentences of male and female speakers expressing four emotional states (joy, sadness, anger, and a neutral state) in Czech and Slovak languages. The statistical distribution of the analyzed formant frequencies and formant tilts shows good differentiation between neutral and emotional styles for both voices. Contrary to it, the values of the formant 3-dB bandwidths have no correlation with the type of the speaking style or the type of the voice. These spectral parameters together with the values of the other speech characteristics were used in the feature vector for Gaussian mixture models (GMM) emotional speech style classifier that is currently developed. The overall mean classification error rate achieves about 18 %, and the best obtained error rate is 5 % for the sadness style of the female voice. These values are acceptable in this first stage of development of the GMM classifier that should be used for evaluation of the synthetic speech quality after applied voice conversion and emotional speech style transformation.

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Keywords: Formant features of speech, emotional speech, statistical analysis

R.Rui, C.C.Bao [references] [full-text] [Download Citations]
Musical Instrument Classification Based on Nonlinear Recurrence Analysis and Supervised Learning

In this paper, the phase space reconstruction of time series produced by different instruments is discussed based on the nonlinear dynamic theory. The dense ratio, a novel quantitative recurrence parameter, is proposed to describe the difference of wind instruments, stringed instruments and keyboard instruments in the phase space by analyzing the recursive property of every instrument. Furthermore, a novel supervised learning algorithm for automatic classification of individual musical instrument signals is addressed deriving from the idea of supervised non-negative matrix factorization (NMF) algorithm. In our approach, the orthogonal basis matrix could be obtained without updating the matrix iteratively, which NMF is unable to do. The experimental results indicate that the accuracy of the proposed method is improved by 3% comparing with the conventional features in the individual instrument classification.

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Keywords: Phase space reconstruction, recurrence analysis, dense ratio, supervised learning, musical instrument classification

M. Zukal, J. Mekyska, P. Cika, Z. Smekal [references] [full-text] [Download Citations]
Interest Points as a Focus Measure in Multi-Spectral Imaging

A novel multi-spectral focus measure that is based on algorithms for interest point detection, particularly on the FAST (Features from Accelerated Segment Test), Fast Hessian and Harris-Laplace detector, is described in this paper. The proposed measure methods are compared with commonly used focus measure techniques like energy of image gradient, sum-modified Laplacian, Tenenbaum's algorithm or spatial frequency when testing their reliability and performance. The measures have been tested on a newly created database containing 420 images acquired in visible, near-infrared and thermal spectrum (7 objects in each spectrum). Algorithms based on the interest point detectors proved to be good focus measures satisfying all the requirements described in the paper, especially in thermal spectrum. It is shown that these algorithms outperformed all commonly used methods in thermal spectrum and therefore can serve as a new and more accurate focus measure.

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Keywords: Focus measure, interest points detector, multi-spectral imaging, gradient, Fast Hessian, Harris-Laplace detector

L. Bolecek, V. Ricny, M. Slanina [references] [full-text] [Download Citations]
3D Reconstruction: Novel Method for Finding of Corresponding Points using Pseudo Colors

This paper deals with the reconstruction of spatial coordinates of an arbitrary point in a scene using two images scanned by a 3D camera or two displaced cameras. Calculations are based on the perspective geom-etry. Accurate determination of corresponding points is a fundamental step in this process. The usually used methods can have a problem with points, which lie in areas without sufficient contrast. This paper describes our proposed method based on the use of the relationship between the selected points and area feature points. The proposed method finds correspondence using a set of feature points found by SURF. An algorithm is proposed and described for quick removal of false correspondences, which could ruin the correct reconstruction. The new method, which makes use of pseudo color image representation (pseudo coloring) has been proposed subsequently. By means of this method it is possible to significantly increase the color contrast of the surveyed image, and therefore add more information to find the correct correspondence. Reliability of the found correspondence can be verified by reconstruction of 3D position of selected points. Executed experiments confirm our assumptions

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Keywords: 3D reconstruction, features points, image correspondence, pseudo color.

P. Kamencay, M. Zachariasova, R. Hudec, R. Jarina, M. Benco, J. Hlubik [references] [full-text] [Download Citations]
A Novel Approach to Face Recognition using Image Segmentation based on SPCA-KNN Method

In this paper we propose a novel method for face recognition using hybrid SPCA-KNN (SIFT-PCA-KNN) approach. The proposed method consists of three parts. The first part is based on preprocessing face images using Graph Based algorithm and SIFT (Scale Invariant Feature Transform) descriptor. Graph Based topology is used for matching two face images. In the second part eigen values and eigen vectors are extracted from each input face images. The goal is to extract the important information from the face data, to represent it as a set of new orthogonal variables called principal components. In the final part a nearest neighbor classifier is designed for classifying the face images based on the SPCA-KNN algorithm. The algorithm has been tested on 100 different subjects (15 images for each class). The experimental result shows that the proposed method has a positive effect on overall face recognition performance and outperforms other examined methods.

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Keywords: Image segmentation, face recognition, PCA, KNN, SPCA-KNN, ESSEX face database.

M. Danciu, M. Gordan, C. Florea, R. Orghidan, E. Sorantin, A. Vlaicu [references] [full-text] [Download Citations]
A Hybrid 3D Learning-and-Interaction-based Segmentation Approach Applied on CT Liver Volumes

Medical volume segmentation in various imaging modalities using real 3D approaches (in contrast to slice-by-slice segmentation) represents an actual trend. The increase in the acquisition resolution leads to large amount of data, requiring solutions to reduce the dimensionality of the segmentation problem. In this context, the real-time interaction with the large medical data volume represents another milestone. This paper addresses the twofold problem of the 3D segmentation applied to large data sets and also describes an intuitive neuro-fuzzy trained interaction method. We present a new hybrid semi-supervised 3D segmentation, for liver volumes obtained from computer tomography scans. This is a challenging medical volume segmentation task, due to the acquisition and inter-patient variability of the liver parenchyma. The proposed solution combines a learning-based segmentation stage (employing 3D discrete cosine transform and a probabilistic support vector machine classifier) with a post-processing stage (automatic and manual segmentation refinement). Optionally, an optimization of the segmentation can be achieved by level sets, using as initialization the segmentation provided by the learning-based solution. The supervised segmentation is applied on elementary cubes in which the CT volume is decomposed by tilling, thus ensuring a significant reduction of the data to be classified by the support vector machine into liver/not liver. On real volumes, the proposed approach provides good segmentation accuracy, with a significant reduction in the computational complexity.

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Keywords: 3D liver segmentation, 3D DCT, blocks level volume segmentation, SVM, 3D human-computer interaction, segmentation refinement, 3D level set segmentation, neuro-fuzzy interaction

J. Mikulka, E. Gescheidtova, M. Kabrda, V. Perina [references] [full-text] [Download Citations]
Classification of Jaw Bone Cysts and Necrosis via the Processing of Orthopantomograms

The authors analyze the design of a method for automatized evaluation of parameters in orthopantomographic images capturing pathological tissues developed in human jaw bones. The main problem affecting the applied medical diagnostic procedures consists in low repeatability of the performed evaluation. This condition is caused by two aspects, namely subjective approach of the involved medical specialists and the related exclusion of image processing instruments from the evaluation scheme. The paper contains a description of the utilized database containing images of cystic jaw bones; this description is further complemented with appropriate schematic repre¬sentation. Moreover, the authors present the results of fast automatized segmentation realized via the live-wire method and compare the obtained data with the results provided by other segmentation techniques. The shape parameters and the basic statistical quantities related to the distribution of intensities in the segmented areas are selected. The evaluation results are provided in the final section of the study; the authors correlate these values with the subjective assessment carried out by radiologists. Interestingly, the paper also comprises a discussion presenting the possibility of using selected parameters or their combinations to execute automatic classification of cysts and osteonecrosis. In this context, a comparison of various classifiers is performed, including the Decision Tree, Naive Bayes, Neural Network, k-NN, SVM, and LDA classifica¬tion tools. Within this comparison, the highest degree of accuracy (85% on the average) can be attributed to the Decision Tree, Naive Bayes, and Neural Network classifiers

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Keywords: Image processing, image classification, follicular cyst, radicular cyst, live-wire, level set, OPG, RTG

C. Aydin, O. Oktay, A. U. Gunebakan, A. Ademoglu, R. K. Ciftci [references] [full-text] [Download Citations]
Role of Alpha Oscillations During Short Time Memory Task Investigated by Graph Based Partitioning

In this study, we investigate the clustering pattern of alpha band (8 Hz - 12 Hz) electroencephalogram (EEG) oscillations obtained from healthy individuals during a short time memory task with 3 different memory loads. The retention period during which subjects were asked to memorize a pattern in a square matrix is analyzed with a graph theoretical approach. The functional coupling among EEG electrodes are quantified via mutual information in the time-frequency plane. A spectral clustering algorithm followed by bootstrapping is used to parcellate memory related circuits and for identifying significant clusters in the brain. The main outcome of the study is that the size of the significant clusters formed by alpha oscillations decreases as the memory load increases. This finding corroborates the active inhibition hypothesis about alpha oscillations.

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Keywords: EEG, Brain, Graph Theory, Memory, Spectral Clustering, Information Theory

Z. Biolek, D. Biolek, V. Biolkova [references] [full-text] [Download Citations]
Analytical Computation of the Area of Pinched Hysteresis Loops of Ideal Mem-Elements

The memory elements, memristor being the best known of them, driven by a periodical waveform exhibit the well-known pinched hysteresis loops. The hysteresis is caused by a memory effect which results in a nonzero area closed within the loop. This paper presents an analytical formula for the loop area. This formula is then applied to memory elements whose parameter-vs.-state maps are modeled in the polynomial form. The TiO2 memristor, a special subset of the above elements, is analyzed as a demonstration example.

  1. Di VENTRA, M., PERSHIN, Y.V., CHUA, L. O. Circuit elements with memory: memristors, memcapacitors, and meminductors. Proceedings of the IEEE, 2009, vol. 97, no. 10, p. 1717 – 1724.
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  3. BIOLEK, Z., BIOLEK, D., BIOLKOVA, V. Computation of the area of memristor pinched hysteresis loop. IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems II: Express Briefs, 2012, no. 9, p. 607 – 611.
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  12. BIOLEK, D., BIOLEK, Z., BIOLKOVA, V., KOLKA, Z. Computing areas of pinched hysteresis loops of mem-systems in OrCAD PSPICE. Applied Mechanics and Materials, 2013, vols. 278-280, p. 1081-1090.
  13. BIOLEK, D., BIOLEK, Z., BIOLKOVA, V. Pinched hysteretic loops of ideal memristors, memcapacitors and meminductors must be 'self-crossing'”. Electronics Letters, 2011, vol. 47, no. 25, p. 1385 – 1387.
  14. STRUKOV, D. B., SNIDER, G. S., STEWART, D. R., WILLIAMS, R. S. The missing memristor found. Nature, 2008, vol. 453, p. 80 – 83.
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Keywords: Memory element, memristor, pinched hysteresis loop.

J. Dobes, J. Michal, V. Biolkova [references] [full-text] [Download Citations]
Multiobjective Optimization for Electronic Circuit Design in Time and Frequency Domains

The multiobjective optimization provides an extraordinary opportunity for the finest design of electronic circuits because it allows to mathematically balance contradictory requirements together with possible constraints. In this paper, an original and substantial improvement of an existing method for the multiobjective optimization known as GAM (Goal Attainment Method) is suggested. In our proposal, the GAM algorithm itself is combined with a procedure that automatically provides a set of parameters -- weights, coordinates of the reference point -- for which the method generates noninferior solutions uniformly spread over an appropriately selected part of the Pareto front. Moreover, the resulting set of obtained solutions is then presented in a suitable graphic form so that the solution representing the most satisfactory tradeoff can be easily chosen by the designer. Our system generates various types of plots that conveniently characterize results of up to four-dimensional problems. Technically, the procedures of the multiobjective optimization were created as a software add-on to the CIA (Circuit Interactive Analyzer) program. This way enabled us to utilize many powerful features of this program, including the sensitivity analyses in time and frequency domains. As a result, the system is also able to perform the multiobjective optimization in the time domain and even highly nonlinear circuits can be significantly improved by our program. As a demonstration of this feature, a multiobjective optimization of a C-class power amplifier in the time domain is thoroughly described in the paper. Further, a four-dimensional optimization of a video amplifier is demonstrated with an original graphic representation of the Pareto front, and also some comparison with the weighting method is done. As an example of improving noise properties, a multiobjective optimization of a low-noise amplifier is performed, and the results in the frequency domain are shown. Finally, a necessity of a use of metaheuristic methods at least with a combination with the classical ones is demonstrated.

  1. MIETTINEN, K. K. Nonlinear Multiobjective Optimization. Boston (MA, USA): Kluwer Academic Publishers, 1998.
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  14. TLELO-CUAUTLE, E., GUERRA-GOMEZ, I., DE LA FRAGA, L. G., FLORES-BECERRA, G., POLANCO-MARTAGON, S., ´ FAKHFAKH, M., REYES-GARCIA, C. A., RODRIGUESGOMEZ, G., REYES-SALGADO, G. Evolutionary algorithms in ´ the optimal sizing of analog circuits. Intelligent Computational Optimization in Engineering, Studies in Computational Intelligence. Berlin (Germany): Springer, 2011, vol. 366, p. 109 - 138.
  15. FAKHFAKH, M., SALLEM, A., BOUGHARIOU, M., BENNOUR, S., BRADAI, E., GADDOUR, E., LOULOU, M. Analogue circuit optimization through a hybrid approach. Intelligent Computational Optimization in Engineering, Studies in Computational Intelligence. Berlin (Germany): Springer, 2011, vol. 366, p. 297 - 327.
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  17. MIYAZAKI, R., HAMADA, N., NAGATA, Y., ONO, I. A new Pareto frontier covering strategy in FS-MOGA for multi-objective function optimization. In Proceedings of the 6th International Conference on Soft Computing and Intelligent Systems=13th International Symposium on Advanced Intelligent Systems. Kobe (Japan), 2012, p. 1888 - 1893.
  18. HIRANO, H., YOSHIKAWA, T. A study on two-step search using global-best in PSO for multi-objective optimization problems. In Proceedings of the 6th International Conference on Soft Computing and Intelligent Systems=13th International Symposium on Advanced Intelligent Systems. Kobe (Japan), 2012, p. 1894 - 1897.
  19. CHIBA, K. Performance comparison of evolutionary algorithms applied to hybrid rocket problem. In Proceedings of the 6th International Conference on Soft Computing and Intelligent Systems=13th International Symposium on Advanced Intelligent Systems. Kobe (Japan), 2012, p. 1673 - 1678.
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Keywords: Multiobjective optimization, Pareto front, Pareto optimal set, noninferior solutions, goal attainment method, metaheuristics, simulated annealing, hybrid methods.

De-zhi Wang, Ke-feng Zhang, Xue-cheng Zou [references] [full-text] [Download Citations]
High Current Matching over Full-Swing and Low-Glitch Charge Pump Circuit for PLLs

A high current matching over full-swing and low-glitch charge pump (CP) circuit is proposed. The current of the CP is split into two identical branches having one-half the original current. The two branches are connected in source-coupled structure, and a two-stage amplifier is used to regulate the common-source voltage for the minimum current mismatch. The proposed CP is designed in TSMC 0.18µm CMOS technology with a power supply of 1.8 V. SpectreRF based simulation results show the mismatch between the current source and the current sink is less than 0.1% while the current is 40 µA and output swing is 1.32 V ranging from 0.2 V to 1.52 V. Moreover, the transient output current presents nearly no glitches. The simulation results verify the usage of the CP in PLLs with the maximum tuning range from the voltage-controlled oscillator, as well as the low power supply applications.

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  5. CHENG, S. F., TONG, H. T., et al. Design and analysis of an ultra high-speed glitch-free fully differential charge pump with minimum output current variation and accurate matching. IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems, 2007, vol. 53, no. 9, p. 843 to 847.
  6. TSITOURAS, A., PLESSAS, F., BIRBAS, B., et al. A 1V CMOS programmable accurate charge pump with wide output voltage range. Microelectronics Journal, 2011, vol. 42, no. 9, p. 1082 to 1089.
  7. CHARLES, C. T., ALLSTOT, D. J. A buffered charge pump with zero charge sharing. In IEEE International Symposium on Circuits and Systems. Seattle (USA, WA), 2008, p. 2633-2636.
  8. BAHREYNI, B., FILANOVSKY, I. M., SHAFAI, C. A novel design for deadzone-less fast charge pump with low harmonic content at the output. In IEEE Midwest Symposium on Circuits and Systems. Oklahoma, 2002, p. 397-400.
  9. HWANG, I. C., BAE, S. G. Low-glitch, high-speed charge-pump circuit for spur minimization. Electronics Letters, 2009, vol. 45, no. 28, p. 1273-1274.
  10. LEE, H. I., AHN, T. W., JUNG, D. Y., et al. Scheme for no dead zone, fast PFD design. Korean Physical Society, 2002, vol. 40, no. 4, p. 543-545.
  11. BANERJEE, D. PLL Performance, Simulation and Design. National Semiconductor, 2006.
  12. FENG, K. D., LEE, J. C. Spark current in charge pump of phase lock loop. In IEEE Custom Integrated Circuits Conference. Santa Clara, 2005, p. 199-202.
  13. YOUNG, I. A PLL clock generator with 5 to 110 MHz of lock range for microprocessors. IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits. 1992, vol. 27, no. 2, p. 1599-1607.
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Keywords: Charge pump, two current branches, source-coupled, voltage regulate, low-glitch, full swing

M. Bothra, R. Pandey , N. Pandey , S. K. Paul [references] [full-text] [Download Citations]
Operational Trans-Resistance Amplifier Based Tunable Wave Active Filter

In this paper, Operational Trans-Resistance Amplifier (OTRA) based wave active filter structures are presented. They are flexible and modular, making them suitable to implement higher order filters. The circuits implement the resistors using matched transistors, operating in linear region, making them well suited for IC fabrication. They are insensitive to parasitic input capacitances and input resistances due to the internally grounded input terminals of OTRA. As an application, a doubly terminated third order Butterworth low pass filter has been implemented, by substituting OTRA based wave equivalents of passive elements. PSPICE simulations are given to verify the theoretical analysis.

  1. SHAUMANN, R., VAN VALKENBURG, M. E. Design of Analog Filters. Oxford (UK): Oxford University Press, 2001.
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  15. JIRASEREE-AMORNKUN, A., FUJII, N., SURAKAMPONTORN, W. Realization of electronically tunable ladder filters using multi output current controlled conveyors. In Proceedings of the 2003 International Symposium on Circuits and Systems (ISCAS). Bangkok (Thailand), 2003, vol. I, p. I-541 - I-544.
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Keywords: Wave active filter, OTRA, scattering parameters, ladder, tunable filter

J. Nahlik, J. Hospodka, P. Sovka, B. Psenicka [references] [full-text] [Download Citations]
Implementation of a Two-Channel Maximally Decimated Filter Bank using Switched Capacitor Circuits

The aim of this paper is to describe the implementation of a two-channel filter bank (FB) using the switched capacitor (SC) technique considering real properties of operational amplifiers (OpAmps). The design procedure is presented and key recommendations for the implementation are given. The implementation procedure describes the design of two-channel filter bank using an IIR Cauer filter, conversion of IIR into the SC filters and the final implementation of the SC filters. The whole design and an SC circuit implementation is performed by a PraCAn package in Maple. To verify the whole filter bank, resulting real property circuit structures are completely simulated by WinSpice and ELDO simulators. The results confirm that perfect reconstruction conditions can be almost accepted for the filter bank implemented by the SC circuits. The phase response of the SC filter bank is not strictly linear due to the IIR filters. However, the final ripple of a magnitude frequency response in the passband is almost constant, app. 0.5 dB for a real circuit analysis.

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Keywords: Filer Bank Realization, SC Circuit, Filter Synthesis

R. Arya, G. Souliotis, S. Vlassis, C. Psychalinos [references] [full-text] [Download Citations]
0.5V 3rd-order Tunable gm-C Filter

This paper proposes a 3rd-order gm-C filter that operates with the extremely low voltage supply of 0.5V. The employed transconductor is capable for operating in an extremely low voltage power supply environment. A benefit offered by the employed transconductor is that the filter’s cut-off frequency can be tuned, through a dc control current, for relatively large ranges. The filter structure was designed using normal threshold transistors of a triple-well 0.13μm CMOS process and is operated under a 0.5V supply voltage; its behavior has been evaluated through simulation results by utilizing the Analog Design Environment of the Cadence software.

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  5. LEE, T., PAN, H. A low-voltage CMOS transconductor for VHF continuous-time filters. In Proceedings of the IEEE International Symposium on Circuits and Systems (ISCAS). Hong Kong, 1997, p. 213 - 216.
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  7. SUADET, A., KASEMSUWAN, V. A CMOS inverter-based class-AB pseudo differential amplifier for HF applications. In Proc. of the IEEE International Conf. of Electron Devices and Solid- State Circuits (EDSSC). Hong Kong (China), 2010, p. 1 - 4.
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  10. VITTOZ, E. Weak inversion in analog and digital circuits. In System Level Implications on Circuit Design Workshop (CCCD), 2003, Lund (Sweden).
  11. SANTHANALAKSHMI, M., VANATHI, P. T. An improved OTA for a 2nd order gm-C low pass filter. European Journal of Scientific Research, 2011, vol. 66, no.1, p. 75 - 84.
  12. CARILLO, J. M., DOMINGUEZ, M. A., DUQUE-CARRILLO, J. F. 1.2V fully differential OTA-C lowpass filter based on bulkdriven MOS transistors. In Proc. of the 20th European Conf. on Circuit Theory and Design (ECCTD). Linkoping (Sweden), 2011.
  13. HORI, S., MAEDA, T., MATSUNO, N., HIDA, H. Low-power widely tunable gm-C filter with an adaptive DC-blocking, triodebiased MOSFET transconductor. In Proceeding of the 30th European Solid-State Circuits Conference (ESSCIRC). Leuven, (Belgium), 2004, p. 99 - 102.
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  15. STEHR, U., HENKEL, F., DALLIGE, L., WALDOW, P. A fully differential CMOS integrated 4th order reconfigurable GM-C low pass filter for mobile communication. In Proceeding of the 11th

Keywords: Gm-C filters, analog filters, low voltage circuits

S. Surav Yilmaz, A.T. Tola, R. Arslanalp [references] [full-text] [Download Citations]
A Novel Second-Order All-Pass Filter Using Square-Root Domain Blocks

In this study, a new second order all-pass filter is synthesized in the square-root domain by using the state-space method. The proposed second order all-pass filter is constituted by current mirrors, current sources, current-mode square-root circuits and capacitors. The pole frequency of the filter can be tuned electronically by varying the values of the current sources of this circuit. The filter is simulated in PSpice using 0.35um CMOS technology parameters. Quality factor of the circuit is selected as 5 and supply voltage is set to 2.7V. The simulation results show that the proposed circuit has the merits of electronic tunability. We also performed noise, THD and Monte-Carlo analyses. Various simulation results are presented to show the effectiveness of the proposed circuit.

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Keywords: Square-root domain filter, second order all-pass filter, translinear circuits.

P. Zahradnik, M. Vlcek [references] [full-text] [Download Citations]
Notch Filtering Suitable for Real Time Removal of Power Line Interference

This paper presents a high performance notch filtering for real time suppression of power line interference in a general signal. The disturbing signal is suppressed using an optimal notch FIR filter with tunable notch frequency. The tuning of the filter preserves its selectivity, most importantly the specified attenuation at the notch frequency. One example and two Matlab functions demonstrate the performance, robustness and usefulness of the proposed procedure for the design and tuning of optimal notch FIR filters suitable in the real time notch filtering.

  1. MARTENS, S. M. M., MISCHI, M., OEI, S. G., BERGMANS, J. W. M. An improved adaptive power line interference canceller for electrocardiography. IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Engineering, 2006, vol. 53, no. 11, p. 2220 - 2231.
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  9. VLCEK, M., UNBEHAUEN, R. Zolotarev polynomi- ˇ als and optimal FIR filters. IEEE Transactions on Signal Processing, 1999, vol. 47, no. 3, p. 717 - 730.
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Keywords: Power line, interference suppression, FIR filter, notch filter

J. Nikolic, Z. Peric, L. Velimirovic [references] [full-text] [Download Citations]
Simple Solution for Designing the Piecewise Linear Scalar Companding Quantizer for Gaussian Source

To overcome the difficulties in determining an inverse compressor function for a Gaussian source, which appear in designing the nonlinear optimal companding quantizers and also in the nonlinear optimal companding quantization procedure, in this paper a piecewise linear compressor function based on the first derivate approximation of the optimal compressor function is proposed. We show that the approximations used in determining the piecewise linear compressor function contribute to the simple solution for designing the novel piecewise linear scalar companding quantizer (PLSCQ) for a Gaussian source of unit variance. For the given number of segments, we perform optimization procedure in order to obtain optimal value of the support region threshold which maximizes the signal to quantization noise ratio (SQNR) of the proposed PLSCQ. We study how the SQNR of the considered PLSCQ depends on the number of segments and we show that for the given number of quantization levels, SQNR of the PLSCQ approaches the one of the nonlinear optimal companding quantizer with the increase of the number of segments. The presented features of the proposed PLSCQ indicate that the obtained model should be of high practical significance for quantization of signals having Gaussian probability density function.

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Keywords: Piecewise linear scalar companding quantizer, support region threshold optimization, compressor function

V. K. Gupta, M. Chandra, S. N. Sharan [references] [full-text] [Download Citations]
Acoustic Echo and Noise Cancellation System for Hand-Free Telecommunication using Variable Step Size Algorithms

In this paper, acoustic echo cancellation with doubletalk detection system is implemented for a hand-free telecommunication system using Matlab. Here adaptive noise canceller with blind source separation (ANC-BSS) system is proposed to remove both background noise and far-end speaker echo signal in presence of double-talk. During the absence of double-talk, far-end speaker echo signal is cancelled by adaptive echo canceller. Both adaptive noise canceller and adaptive echo canceller are implemented using LMS, NLMS, VSLMS and VSNLMS algorithms. The normalized cross-correlation method is used for double-talk detection. VSNLMS has shown its superiority over all other algorithms both for double-talk and in absence of double-talk. During the absence of double-talk it shows its superiority in terms of increment in ERLE and decrement in misalignment. In presence of double-talk, it shows improvement in SNR of near-end speaker signal.

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  8. HAYKIN, S. Adaptive Filter Theory, 4th ed. Upper Saddle River (NJ, USA): Prentice Hall, 2002.
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  12. WADA, T. S., JUANG, B.-H. H. F. Enhancement of residual echo for robust acoustic echo cancellation. IEEE Transactions on Audio, Speech, and Language Processing, 2012, vol. 20, no.1, p. 175 - 189.
  13. MIRARAB, M. R., SOBHANI, M. A, NASIRI, A. A. A new wavelet based blind audio source separation using kurtosis. In 3 rd International Conference on Advanced Computer Theory and Engineering. Chengdu (China), 2010, p. 550 - 553.
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  15. HIRAI, N., MATSUMOTO, H., FURUKAWA, T., FURUYA, K. A consideration of blind source separation using wavelet transform. In International Symposium on Intelligent Signal Processing and Communication Systems. 2004, p. 141 - 146.
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Keywords: Adaptive filters, double-talk detection, ANC-BSS, ERLE, misalignment, SNR

Min Long, Fei Peng [references] [full-text] [Download Citations]
A Box-Counting Method with Adaptable Box Height for Measuring the Fractal Feature of Images

Most of the existing box-counting methods for measuring fractal features are only applicable to square images or images with each dimension equal to the power of 2 and require that the box at the top of the box stack of each image block is of the same height as that of other boxes in the same stack, which gives rise to inaccurate estimation of fractal dimension. In this paper, we propose a more accurate box-counting method for images of arbitrary size, which allows the height of the box at the top of each grid block to be adaptable to the maximum and minimum gray-scales of that block so as to circumvent the common limitations of existing box-counting methods.

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  10. LI, J., SUN, C., DU, Q. A new box-counting method for estimation of image fractal dimension. In Proceedings of IEEE International Conference on Image Processing. 2006, p. 3029-3022.
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Keywords: Fractal dimension, image feature, fractal features, box-counting method

A. Dziedzic, D. Nowak [references] [full-text] [Download Citations]
Thick-Film and LTCC Passive Components for High-Temperature Electronics

At this very moment an increasing interest in the field of high-temperature electronics is observed. This is a result of development in the area of wide-band semiconductors’ engineering but this also generates needs for passives with appropriate characteristics. This paper presents fabrication as well as electrical and stability properties of passive components (resistors, capacitors, inductors) made in thick-film or Low-Temperature Co-fired Ceramics (LTCC) technologies fulfilling demands of high-temperature electronics. Passives with standard dimensions usually are prepared by screen-printing whereas combination of standard screen-printing with photolithography or laser shaping are recommenced for fabrication of micropassives. Attainment of proper characteristics versus temperature as well as satisfactory long-term high-temperature stability of micropassives is more difficult than for structures with typical dimensions for thick-film and LTCC technologies because of increase of interfacial processes’ importance. However it is shown that proper selection of thick-film inks together with proper deposition method permit to prepare thick-film micropassives (microresistors, air-cored microinductors and interdigital microcapacitors) suitable for the temperature range between 150°C and 400°C.

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  8. PERRONE, R., THUST, H., DRUE, K.-H. Progress in the integration of planar and 3D coils on LTCC by using photoimageable inks. J. of Microelectronics and Electronic Packaging, 2005, vol. 2, p. 155-161.
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  34. DZIEDZIC, A. et al. Some remarks about relations between processing conditions and microstructural, electrical as well as stability properties of LTCC resistors. In Proc. 3rd Eur. Microelectronics and Packaging Symp. Prague (Czech Republic), 2004, p. 345-354.
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  40. NOWAK, D. et al. Influence of ferrite layer on electrical and stability properties of laser-shaped thick-film and LTCC inductors. In Proc. 32nd Int. Conf. of IMAPS-CPMT Poland 2008. Pułtusk (Poland), Sept. 2008, 5 p.
  41. NOWAK, D., DZIEDZIC, A. Some aspects of planar inductors integration. In Proc. 33rd Int. Conf. of IMAPS-CPMT Poland. Pszczyna (Poland), Sept. 2009, p. 277-280.
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Keywords: High-temperature electronics, thick-film technology, LTCC technology, passive component, long-term stability

M. S. Zarnik, D. Belavic, V. Sedlakova, J. Sikula, M. Kopecky, P. Sedlak, J. Majzner [references] [full-text] [Download Citations]
Comparison of the Intrinsic Characteristics of LTCC and Silicon Pressure Sensors by Means of 1/f Noise Measurements

A pressure sensor with high resolution is of key importance for precise measurements in the low-pressure range. The intrinsic resolution of piezoresistive ceramic pressure sensors (CPSs) mainly depends on their func¬tional sensitivity and the electronic noise in the thick-film resistors. Both the sensitivity and the noise level depend on the material and the structural properties, and the dimen¬sions of the sensing structure. In general, the sensitivity can be increased and the noise can be reduced by using additional electronics for the signal processing, but this makes the sensor bigger, more complex and more expen¬sive. In this study we discuss the technological limits for downscaling the sensor’s pressure range without any processing of the sensor’s signal. The intrinsic resolution of the piezoresistive pressure sensors designed for the pressure range 0 to ±100 mbar and realized in LTCC (Low Temperature Cofired Ceramic) technology was evaluated and compared to the resolution of a commercial 100-mbar silicon pressure sensor. Considering their different typical sensitivities, the resolutions of about 0.02 mbar and 0.08 mbar were obtained for the CPS and the silicon sen¬sors, respectively. The low-frequency noise measurements showed that the noise characteristics of both sensors were not influenced by the pressure loads.

  1. BELAVIC, D., ZARNIK, M. S., HROVAT, M., MACEK, S., PAVLIN, M., JERLAH, M., HOLC, J., DRNOVSEK, S., CILENSEK, J., KOSEC. M. Benchmarking different types of thick-film pressure sensors. In Proceedings of the IMAPS/ACerS 2007, Int. Conf. CICMT, 2007, p. 278-285.
  2. MEADER, T., FAHRNY, V., STAUSS, S., CORRADINI, G., RYSER, P. Design and characterisation of low-cost thick-film piezoresistive force sensors for the 100 mN to 100 N range. In Proc. Int. Conference of IMAPS Poland Chapter. KoszalinDarlowko (Poland), 2005, p.429.
  3. ZARNIK, M. S., BELAVIC, D., MACEK, S. The warm-up and offset stability of a low-pressure piezoresistive ceramic pressure sensor. Sensors and Actuators A, 2010, vol. 158, no. 2, p. 198-206.
  4. SEDLAKOVA, V., MAJZNER, J., SEDLAK, P., KOPECKY, M., SIKULA, J., ZARNIK, M. S., BELAVIC, D., HROVAT, M. Evaluation of piezoresistive ceramic pressure sensors using noise measurements. Informacije MIDEM, 2012, vol. 42, no.2, p. 109- 114.
  5. ROCAK, D., BELAVIC, D., HROVAT, M., SIKULA, J., KOKTAVY, P., PAVELKA, J., SEDLAKOVA, V. Low frequency noise of thick film resistors as quality and reliability indicator. Microelectronics Reliability, 2002, vol. 41, no. 4, p. 531-542.
  6. VIDYBIDA, A. K. Adsorption–desorption noise can be used for improving selectivity. Sensor Actuator A, 2003, vol. 107, p. 233- 237.
  7. SMULKO, J. Electrochemical noise analysis methods for the investigation of corrosion processes. In Proc. SPIE, Noise and Information in Nanoelectronics, Sensors and Standards. Santa Fe (USA), 2-4 June 2003, vol. 5115, p. 86–91.
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  9. HASSE, L., KOTARSKI, M., SMULKO, J., MAJZNER, J., SEDLAKOVA, V., SEDLAK, P., SIKULA, J. Comparison of effectiveness of gas sensing by low frequency fluctuations in resistance and microbalance quartz gas sensors. In Proc. of 21st International Conference on Noise and Fluctuations (ICNF 2011). Toronto (Canada), June 12-16, 2011, p. 266-269.
  10. SEDLAK, P., SIKULA, J., MAJZNER, J., VRNATA, M., FITL, P., KOPECKY, D., VYSLOUZIL, F., HANDEL, P. H. Adsorption–desorption noise in QCM gas sensors. Sensors and Actuators B-Chemical, 2012, vol. 166, p. 264-268.
  11. SIKULA, J., SEDLAKOVA, V., TACANO, M., ZEDNICEK, T. Reliability of electronic devices: Failure mechanisms and testing. Reliability, Risk and Safety: Theory and Applications, 2011, vol. 1-3, p. 1925-1936.
  12. ZARNIK, M. S., BELAVIC, D. Stability of a piezoresistive ceramic pressure sensor made with LTCC technology. In Proc. IMAPS/ACerS Conf, CICMT 2012.
  13. HROVAT, M., BELAVIC, D., SAMARDZIJA, Z., HOLC, J. A characterisation of thick film resistors for strain gauge applications. Journal of Materials Science, 2001, vol. 36, no. 11, p. 2679-2689.
  14. BAE, B., FLACHSBART, B. R., PARK, K., SHANNON, M. A. Design optimization of a piezoresistive pressure sensor considering the output signal-to noise ratio. J. Micromech Microeng, 2004, vol. 14, p. 1597-1607.

Keywords: LTCC pressure sensor, intrinsic resolution, noise spectral density

V. Prajzler, H. Tuma, J. Spirkova, V. Jerabek [references] [full-text] [Download Citations]
Design and Modeling of Symmetric Three Branch Polymer Planar Optical Power Dividers

Two types of polymer-based three-branch symmetric planar optical power dividers (splitters) were designed, multimode interference (MMI) splitter and triangular shape-spacing splitter. By means of modeling the real structures were simulated as made of Epoxy Novolak Resin on silicon substrate, with silica buffer layer and polymethylmethacrylate as protection cover layer. The design of polymer waveguide structure was done by Beam Propagation Method. After comparing properties of both types of the splitters we have demonstrated that our new polymer based triangular shaped splitter can work simultaneously in broader spectrum, the only condition would be that the waveguides are single-mode guiding. It practically means that, what concerns communication wavelengths, it can on principle simultaneously operate at two mainly used wavelengths, 1310 and 1550 nm.

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Keywords: Optical waveguides, optical dividers, three-branch, design, polymer

J. Racko, J. Pechacek, M. Mikolasek, P. Benko, A. Grmanova, L. Harmatha, J. Breza [references] [full-text] [Download Citations]
Trap-Assisted Tunneling in the Schottky Barrier

The paper presents a new way how to calculate the currents in a Schottky barrier. The novel phenomeno-logical model extends the Shockley-Read-Hall recombi-nation-generation theory of trap-assisted tunneling. The proposed approach explains the occurrence of large leakage currents in Schottky structures on wide band semi-conductors with a high Schottky barrier (above 1 eV) and with a high density of traps. Under certain conditions, trap-assisted tunneling (TAT) plays a more important role than direct tunneling.

  1. MIMOUNI, A., FERNANDEZ, T., RODRIGUEZ-TELLEZ, J., TAZON, A., BAUDRAND, H., BOUSSUIS, M. Gate leakage current in GaN HEMT’s: A degradation modeling approach. Electrical and Electronic Engineering, 2012, vol. 2, no. 6, p. 397 - 402.
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  5. RACKO, J., MIKOLASEK, M., HARMATHA, L., BREZA, J., HUDEC, B., FROHLICH, K., AARIK, J., TARRE, A., GRANZNER, R., SCHWIERZ, F. Analysis of leakage current mechanisms in RuO2-TiO2-RuO2 MIM structures. Journal of Vacuum Science and Technology B, 2011, vol. 29, no. 1, p. 01AC08-1 - 01AC08-8.
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  7. RACKO, J., MIKOLASEK, M., GRMANOVA, A., BREZA, J., BENKO, P., GALLO, O., HARMATHA, L. A new model of multiphonon excitation trap-assisted band-to-band tunneling. Radioengineering, 2012, vol. 21, no. 1, p. 213 - 218.
  8. RACKO, J., MIKOLASEK, M., GRANZNER, R., AL MUSTAFA, N., SCHWIERZ, F., BREZA, J. The impact of changed barrier layer parameters upon tunnelling in GaN/AlGaN/GaN Schottky structures. In Proceedings of the 9th International Conference on Advanced Electron Devices and Microsystems ASDAM 2012. Smolenice (Slovakia), 2012, p. 207 - 210.

Keywords: Trap-assisted, direct tunneling, Schottky barrier

J. Formanek, J. Jakovenko [references] [full-text] [Download Citations]
Thermal Characterization and Lifetime Prediction of LED Boards for SSL Lamp

This work presents a detailed 3-D thermo-mechanical modelling of two LED board technologies to compare their performance. LED board are considered to be used in high power 800 lumen retrofit SSL (Solid State Lighting) lamp. Thermal, mechanical and life time properties are evaluated by numerical modelling. Experimental results measured on fabricated LED board samples are compared to calculated data. Main role of LED board in SSL lamp is to transport heat from LED die to a heat sink and keep the thermal stresses in all layers as low as possible. The work focuses on improving of new LED board thermal management. Moreover, reliability and lifetime of LED board has been inspected by numerical calculation and validated by experiment. Thermally induced stress has been studied for wide temperature range that can affect the LED boards (-40 to +125°C). Numerical modelling of thermal performance, thermal stress distribution and lifetime has been carried out with ANSYS structural analysis where temperature dependent stress-strain material properties have been taken into account. The objective of this study is to improve not only the thermal performance of new LED board, but also identification of potential problems from mechanical fatigue point of view. Accelerated lifetime testing (e.g., mechanical) is carried out in order to study the failure behaviour of current and newly developed LED board.

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Keywords: Solid state lightning, thermo-mechanical modelling, lifetime, reliability, LED board

V. Janicek, M. Husak [references] [full-text] [Download Citations]
3D Energy Harvester Evaluation

This paper discusses the characterization and evaluation of an MEMS based electrostatic generator, a part of the power supply unit of the self-powered microsystem[1,2,3]. The designed generator is based on electrostatic converter and uses the principle of conversion of non-electric energy into electrical energy by periodical modification of gap between electrodes of a capacitor [4]. The structure is designed and modeled as three-dimensional silicon based MEMS. Innovative approach involving the achievement of very low resonant frequency of the structure (about 100Hz) by usage of modified long cantilever spring design, minimum area of the chip, 3D work mode, the ability to be tuned to reach desired parameters, proves promising directions of possible further development.

  1. JANICEK, V., HUSAK, M. Self-powered microsystems with PVDF based microgenerator. In IMAPS 2007 Proceedings. Washington (USA), 2007. p. 953 - 957.
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  4. BEEBY, S. P., TUDOR, M. J., WHITE, N. M. Energy harvesting vibration sources for microsystems applications. Journal of Measurement Science and Technology, 2006, vol. 17, no. 12, p. 175 - 195.
  5. MARZENCKI, M., BASROUR, S., CHARLOT, B., GRASSO, A., COLIN, M., VALBIN, L. Design and fabrication of piezoelectric micro power generators for autonomous microsystems. In Proceedings of Symposium on Design, Test, Integration and Packaging of MEMS/MOEMS DTIP05. Montreux (Switzerland), 2005, p. 299 - 302.
  6. STERKEN, T., FIORINI, P., BAERT, K., BORGHS, G., PUERS, R. Novel design and fabrication of a MEMS electrostatic vibration scavenger. In Power MEMS Conference. Kyoto (Japan), 2004, p. 18 - 21.
  7. ROUNDY, S., WRIGHT, P., PISTER, K. Microelectrostatic vibration-to-electricity converters. In Proceedings of ASME International Mechanical Engineering Congress & Exposition (IMECE). New Orleans (USA), 2002, p. 1 - 10.
  8. ROUNDY, S. Energy Scavenging for Wireless Sensor Nodes with a Focus on Vibration to Electricity Conversion. Ph.D. Dissertation. Berkeley (USA): University of California, 2003.
  9. SODANO, H., INMAN, D., PARK, G. A review of power harvesting from vibration using piezoelectric materials. The Shock and Vibration Digest, 2004, vol. 36. p. 197 - 205.

Keywords: MEMS, generator, characterization, energy, evaluation

K. Gupta, N. Pandey, M. Gupta [references] [full-text] [Download Citations]
Low-Voltage MOS Current Mode Logic Multiplexer

In this paper, a new low-voltage MOS current mode logic (MCML) multiplexer based on the triple-tail cell concept is proposed. An analytical model for static parameters is formulated and is applied to develop a design approach for the proposed low-voltage MCML multiplexer. The delay of the proposed low-voltage MCML multiplexer is expressed in terms of the bias current and the voltage swing so that it can be traded off with the power consumption. The proposed low-voltage MCML multiplexer is analyzed for the three design cases namely high-speed, power-efficient, and low-power. Finally, a comparison in performance of the proposed low-voltage MCML multiplexer with the traditional MCML multiplexer is carried out for all the cases.

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  17. SHIN, J. K.; YOO, T. W., LEE M. Design of half-rate linear phase detector using MOS current mode logic gates for 10-Gb/s clock and data recovery circuit. In Proceedings of IEEE International Conference on Advanced Communication Technology. Phoenix Park (Korea), 2005, p. 205 - 210.
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  21. YAUN, F. CMOS Current-mode Circuits for Data Communication. New York (USA): Springer, 2007.
  22. ALIOTO, M., PALUMBO, G. Model and Design of Bipolar and MOS Current-Mode logic: CML, ECL and SCL Digital Circuits. Dordrecht (The Netherlands): Springer, 2005.
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  25. ALIOTO, M., MITA, R., PALUMBO, G. Performance evaluation of the low-voltage CML D-latch topology. Integration, the VLSI Journal, 2003, vol. 36, no. 4, p. 191 - 209.
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  28. ALIOTO, M., PALUMBO, G. Power-delay optimization of Dlatch/MUX source coupled logic gates. International Journal of Circuit Theory and Applications, 2005, vol. 33, n. 1, p. 65 - 85.
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Keywords: MOS current mode logic, low-voltage, triple-tail cell

Kang-Chun Peng, Chiu-Chin Lin, Ching-Hui Chao [references] [full-text] [Download Citations]
A Novel Three-Point Modulation Technique for Fractional-N Frequency Synthesizer Applications

This paper presents a novel three-point modulation technique for fractional-N frequency synthesizer applications. Convention modulated fractional-N frequency synthesizers suffer from quantization noise, which degrades not only the phase noise performance but also the modulation quality. To solve this problem, this work proposes a three-point modulation technique, which not only cancels the quantization noise, but also markedly boosts the channel switching speed. Measurements reveal that the implemented 2.4 GHz fractional-N frequency synthesizer using three-point modulation can achieve a 2.5 Mbps GFSK data rate with an FSK error rate of only 1.4 %. The phase noise is approximately -98 dBc/Hz at a frequency offset of 100 kHz. The channel switching time is only 1.1 μs with a frequency step of 80 MHz. Comparing with conventional two-point modulation, the proposed three-point modulation greatly improves the FSK error rate, phase noise and channel switching time by about 10 %, 30 dB and 126 μs, respectively.

  1. WU, J. M., YEH, C. H., CHUANG, C. J. High dynamic range RF front end with noise cancellation and linearization for WiMAX receivers. Radioengineering, 2012, vol. 21, no. 2, p. 704 – 711.
  2. BAUDOIN, G., VILLEGAS, M., SUAREZ, M., DIET, A., ROBERT, F. Performance analysis of multiradio transmitter with polar or cartesian architectures associated with high efficiency switched-mode power amplifiers. Radioengineering, 2010, vol. 19, no. 4, p. 470-478.
  3. SU, P. U., HSU, C. M. A 0.25 um CMOS OPLL transmitter IC for GSM and DCS. In Digest of the 2004 IEEE Radio Frequency Integrated Circuits Symposium. 2004, p. 435-438.
  4. Silicon Laboratories Inc. Austin. TX. SI4210 Aero II GSM/GPRS Transceiver (datasheet). 2 pages. [Online] Cited 2012-010-29. Available at:
  5. CAMINO, L., RAMET, S., BEGUERET, J. B., DEVAL, Y., FOUILLAT, P. Phase error determination in GMSK modulated fractional-N PLL. In Digest of the 8th IEEE International Conference on Electronics, Circuits and Systems, 2001, p. 47-50.
  6. WILKINS, B. Polaris total RadioTM, a highly integrated RF solution for GSM /GPRS and EDGE. In Digest of the 2003 IEEE Radio Frequency Integrated Circuits Symposium. 2003, p. 383-386.
  7. PENG, K. C., HUANG, C. H., PAN, C. N., HORNG, T. S. High performance frequency hopping transmitters using two-point deltasigma modulation. In Digest of the 2004 IEEE MTT-S International Microwave Symposium, 2004, p. 2011-2014.
  8. PENG, K. C., HUANG, C. H., LI, C. J., HORNG, T. S. High performance frequency hopping transmitters using two-point deltasigma modulation. IEEE Transaction on Microwave Theory and Techniques, 2004, vol. 52, no. 11, p. 2529-2535.
  9. PENG, K. C., HUANG, C. H., LI, C. J., HORNG, T. S., LEE, S. F. Design of a CMOS VCO with two tuning inputs applied for a wideband GFSK-modulated frequency synthesizer. In Digest of the 2006 IEEE Radio and Wireless Symposium, 2006, p. 443-446.
  10. LI, C. J., HUANG, C. H., HO, W. H., HORNG, T. S., PENG, K. C. Incorporating the single-loop delta-sigma modulator in fractional-N frequency synthesizer for phase-noise improvement. In Proceedings of the 1st European Microwave Integrated Circuits Conference, 2006, p. 183-186.
  11. PENG, K. C., WU, P. S. High performance fractional–N frequency synthesizer using a two-point channel selection technique. In Digest of the 2009 IEEE Asia-Pacific Microwave Conference, 2009, p. 1275-1278.
  12. CHRISTOFFERS, N., KOKOZINSKI, R., KOLNSBERG, S., HOSTICKA, B. J. High loop-filter-order sigma-delta fractional-N frequency synthesizers for use in frequency-hopping-spread-spectrum communication-systems. In Proceeding of the 2003 IEEE International Symposium on Circuits and Systems, 2003, p. 216 to 219.
  13. SHU, K., SANCHEZ-SINENCIO, E., MALOBERTI, F., EDURI, U. A comparative study of digital ΣΔ modulators for fractional-N synthesis. In Digest of the 8th IEEE International Conference on Electronics, Circuits and Systems, 2001, p. 1391-1394.
  14. VAGNER, P., KUTIN, P. X-band PLL synthesizer. Radioengineering, 2006, vol. 15, no. 1, p. 13 – 16.
  15. DENT, P. W. Frequency synthesizer systems and methods for three-point modulation with a DC response. United States Patent No. 5834987, 1998.

Keywords: Fractional-N frequency synthesizer, delta-sigma, three-point modulation, phase-locked loop, GFSK

F. G. Zhu, S. Gao [references] [full-text] [Download Citations]
Compact Elliptically Tapered Slot Antenna with Non-uniform Corrugations for Ultra-wideband Applications

A small size elliptically tapered slot antenna (ETSA) fed by coplanar waveguide (CPW) for ultra-wideband (UWB) applications is proposed. It is printed on an FR4 substrate and occupies a size of 37×34×0.8 mm³. A pair of quarter circular shapes is etched on the radiator to reduce the size. To overcome the limitation of uniform corrugation, non-uniform corrugation is utilized to reduce the cross-polarization level. A parametric study is carried out to investigate the effects of circular cut and corrugations. In order to validate the design, a prototype is fabricated and measured. Both simulated and measured results confirm that the proposed antenna achieves a good performance of a reflection coefficient below -10 dB from 3.1 GHz to 10.6 GHz, including a maximum antenna gain of 8.1dBi, directional patterns in the end-fire direction, low cross-polarization level below -20 dB and linear phase response. The antenna is promising for applications in UWB impulse radar imaging.

  1. ALLEN, B., DOHLER, M., OKON, E. E., MALIK, W. Q., BROWN, A. K., EDWARDS, D. J. Ultra-wideband Antennas and Propagation for Communications, Radar and Imaging. New York: Wiley, 2007, ch. 1, p. 1-5.
  2. ABBOSH, A. M. Directive antenna for ultra-wideband medical imaging systems. International Journal of Antennas and Propagation, 2008.
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  4. ZHANG, F., ZHANG, F. S., ZHAO, G., LIN, C., JIAO, Y. C. A loaded wideband linearly tapered slot antenna with broad bandwidth. IEEE Antennas and Wireless Propagation Letters, 2011, vol. 10, p. 79-127.
  5. JANASWAMY, R., SCHAUBERT, D. H. Analysis of the tapered slot antenna. IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation, 1987, vol. 35, no. 9, p. 1058-1065.
  6. YNGVESSON, K. S., KORZENIOWSKI, T. L., KIM, Y. S., KOLLBERG, E. L., JOHANSSON, J. F. The tapered slot antenna ─ a new integrated element for millimeter-wave applications. IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation, 1989, vol. 37, no. 2, p. 365-374.
  7. LANGLEY, J. D. S., HALL, P. S., NEWHAM, P. Balanced antipodal Vivaldi antenna for wide bandwidth phased arrays. IEE proc.-Microwave Antennas and Propagation, 1996, vol. 143, no. 2, p. 97-102.
  8. HOOD, A. Z., KARACOLAK, T., TOPSAKAL, E. A small antipodal Vivaldi antenna for ultra-wideband applications. IEEE Antennas and Wireless Propagation Letters, 2008, vol. 7, p. 656 to 660.
  9. SUGAWARA, S., MAITA, Y., ADACHI, K., MORI, K., MIZUNO, K. Characteristics of a mm-wave tapered slot antenna with corrugated edges. IEEE MTT-S digest, 1998, p. 533-536.
  10. XU, H. Y., ZHANG, H., WANG, J., MA, L. X. A new tapered slot antenna with symmetrical and stable radiation pattern. Progress in Electromagnetics Research Letters, 2008, vol. 5, p. 35-43.
  11. ABBOSH, A. M. Miniaturized microstrip-fed tapered slot antenna with ultra-wideband performance. IEEE Antennas and Wireless Propagation Letters, 2009, vol. 8, p. 690-692.
  12. KIM, H., JUNG, C. W. Ultra-wideband endfire directional tapered slot antenna using CPW to wide-slot transition. Electronics Letters, 2010, vol. 46, no. 17, p. 1183-1185.
  13. ZHU, F. G., GAO, S., HO, A.T.S., BROWN, T.W.C., LI, J. Z., XU, J. D. Low profile directional ultra-wideband antenna for seethrough-wall imaging applications. Progress in Electromagnetics Research, 2011, vol. 121, p. 121-139.

Keywords: UWB impulse radar, UWB imaging, tapered slot antenna, UWB antenna, cross-polarization

M.Khalily, M.K.A.Rahim, A.A.Kishk, S.Danesh [references] [full-text] [Download Citations]
Wideband P-Shaped Dielectric Resonator Antenna

A novel P-shaped dielectric resonator antenna (DRA) is presented and investigated for wideband wireless application. By using P-shaped resonator, a wideband impedance bandwidth of 80% from 3.5 to 8.2 GHz is achieved. The antenna covers all of wireless systems like C-band, 5.2, 5.5 & 5.8 GHz-WLAN & WiMax. The proposed antenna has a low profile and the thickness of the resonator is only 5.12 mm, which is 0.06-0.14 free space wavelength. A parametric study is presented. The proposed DRA is built and the characteristics of the antenna are measured. Very good agreement between numerical and measured results is obtained.

  1. CHAIR, R., KISHK, A. A., LEE, K. F., KAJFEZ, D. Performance comparisons between dielectric resonator antennas and printed microstrip patch antennas in the x-band. Microwave Journal, 2006, vol. 49, no. 1.
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  13. LIANG, X. L., DENIDNI, T. A. H-shaped dielectric resonator antenna for wideband applications. IEEE Antennas Wireless Propag. Lett., 2008, vol. 7, p. 163-166.
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  16. MOHSEN KHALILY, MOHAMAD K. A.RAHIM, M. RAMLEE KAMARUDIN A novel P-shape dielectric resonator antenna for wideband application. In IEEE Asia-Pacific Conference on Applied Electromagnetics (APACE,) 2010.
  17. CST: Microwave Studio based on the finite integration technique, 2011.

Keywords: Dielectric resonator antenna, wideband, P shape, Q factor

L. Geng, G. M. Wang, C. X. Zhang, X. J. Gao, B. F. Zong [references] [full-text] [Download Citations]
Compact Circularly Polarized Patch Antenna Using a Composite Right/Left-Handed Transmission Line Unit-Cell

A compact circularly polarized (CP) patch antenna using a composite right/left-handed (CRLH) transmission line (TL) unit-cell is proposed. The CRLH TL unit-cell includes a complementary split ring resonator (CSRR) for shunt inductance and a gap loaded with a circular-shaped slot for series capacitance. The CSRR can decrease the TM10 mode resonance frequency, thus reducing the electrical size of the proposed antenna. In addition, the asymmetry of the CSRR brings about the TM01 mode, which can be combined with the TM10 mode by changing the slot radius. The combination of these two orthogonal modes with 90° phase shift makes the proposed antenna provide a CP property. The experimental results show that the proposed antenna has a wider axial ratio bandwidth and a smaller electrical size than the reported CP antennas. Moreover, the proposed antenna is designed without impedance transformer, 90° phase shift, dual feed and ground via.

  1. CALOZ, C., ITOH, T. Electromagnetic Metamaterials: Transmission Line Theory and Microwave Applications. HobokenPiscataway: Wiley-IEEE Press, 2005.
  2. XU, H.-X., WANG, G.-M., GONG, J.-Q. Compact dual-band zeroth-order resonance antenna. Chinese Physics Letters, 2012, vol. 29, no. 1, p. 014101-1 - 014101-4.
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  5. LIM, S., CALOZ, C., ITOH, T. Metamaterial-based electronically controlled transmission-line structure as a novel leaky-wave antenna with tunable radiation angle and beamwidth. IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques, 2004, vol. 52, no. 12, p. 2678 - 2690.
  6. IKEDA, T., SAKAKIBARA, K., MATSUI, T., KIKUMA, N., HIRAYAMA, H. Beam-scanning performance of leaky-wave slotarray antenna on variable stub-loaded left-handed waveguide. IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation, 2008, vol. 56, no. 12, p. 3611 - 3618.
  7. LAI, A., LEONG, K. M. K. H., ITOH, T. Infinite wavelength resonant antennas with monopolar radiation pattern based on periodic structures. IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation, 2007, vol. 55, no. 3, p. 868 - 876.
  8. LAI, A., CALOZ, C., ITOH, T. Composite right/left-handed transmission line metamaterials. IEEE Microwave Magazine, 2004, vol. 5, no. 3, p. 34 - 50.
  9. NASIMUDDIN, CHEN, Z. N., QING, X. A compact circularly polarized cross-shaped slotted microstrip antenna. IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation, 2012, vol. 60, no. 3, p. 1584 - 1588.
  10. NASIMUDDIN, QING, X., CHEN, Z. N. Compact asymmetric-slit microstrip antennas for circular polarization. IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation, 2011, vol. 59, no. 1, p. 285 – 288.
  11. WONG, K.-L. Compact and Broadband Microstrip Antennas. New York: Wiley-IEEE Press, 2002.
  12. WONG, K.-L., HSU, W.-H., WU, C.-K. Single-feed circularly polarized microstrip antenna with a slit. Microwave and Optical Technology Letters, 1998, vol. 18, no. 4, p. 306 – 308.
  13. CHEN, W.-S., WU, C.-K., WONG, K.-L. Novel compact circularly polarized square microstrip antenna. IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation, 2001, vol. 49, no. 3, p. 340 – 342.
  14. CHEN, W.-S., WU, C.-K., WONG, K.-L. Single-feed square-ring microstrip antenna with truncated corners for compact circular polarization operation. Electronics Letters, 1998, vol. 34, no. 11, p. 1045 – 1047.
  15. CHEN, W.-S., WU, C.-K., WONG, K.-L. Compact circularly polarized microstrip antenna with bent slots. Electronics Letters, 1998, vol. 34, no. 13, p. 1278 – 1279.
  16. CHEN, W.-S., WONG, K.-L., WU, C.-K. Inset microstripline-fed circularly polarized microstrip antennas. IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation, 2000, vol. 48, no. 8, p. 1253 – 1254.
  17. HA, J., KWON, K., LEE, Y., CHOI, J. Hybrid mode wideband patch antenna loaded with a planar metamaterial unit cell. IEEE Trans. Antennas & Propag., 2012, vol. 60, no. 2, p. 1143 – 1147.

Keywords: Circular polarization, compact patch antenna, composite right/left-handed transmission line, complementary split ring resonator, circular-shaped slot

S. M. Noghabaei, S. K. A. Rahim, P. J. Soh, M. Abedian, G. A. E. Vandenbosch [references] [full-text] [Download Citations]
A Dual-Band Circularly-Polarized Patch Antenna with a Novel Asymmetric Slot for WiMAX Application

A compact design of a circularly-polarized (CP) microstrip antenna to achieve dual-band behavior for WiMAX applications is presented. A single-layered feed is used to excite a single square patch integrated with a novel asymmetrical slot and two different truncated corners to achieve CP polarization in both bands. Besides its structural simplicity, ease of fabrication and low-cost, the proposed antenna features a satisfactory impedance bandwidth of 7.2 % in the lower band (2.53 GHz) and 3.6 % in the upper band (5.73 GHz). The measured radiation pattern of the proposed antenna demonstrates directional patterns in both E- and H-planes with a 3 dB axial ratio of 2 % and 3.2 % in the lower and upper band, respectively.

  1. SOLIMAN, E. A., BREBELS, S., BEYNE, E., VANDENBOSCH, G. A. E. Circularly polarized aperture antenna fed by CPW and built in MCM-D technology. Electronics Letters, 1999, vol. 35, p. 250-251.
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  3. CHEN, W. S., et al. Novel compact circularly polarized square microstrip antenna. IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation, 2001, vol. 49, p. 340-342.
  4. NASIMUDDIN, N., et al. Wideband circularly polarized stacked microstrip antennas. IEEE Antennas and Wireless Propagation Letters, 2007, vol. 6, p. 21-24.
  5. ZHAO, G., et al. Design of a broadband dual circularly polarized square slot antenna. Microwave and Optical Technology Letters, 2008, vol. 50, p. 2639-2642.
  6. NAYERI, P., et al. Dual-band circularly polarized antennas using stacked patches with asymmetric U-slots. Antennas and Wireless Propagation Letters, IEEE, 2011, vol. 10, p. 285-288.
  7. TONG, K. F., WONG, T. P. Circularly polarized U-slot antenna. IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation, 2007, vol. 55, p. 2382-2385.
  8. LAM, K. Y., et al. Small circularly polarized U-slot wideband patch antenna. IEEE Antennas and Wireless Propagation Letters, 2011, vol. 10, p. 87-90.
  9. YANG, S. S., et al. Design and study of wideband single feed circularly polarized microstrip antennas. Progress in Electromagnetics Research, 2008, vol. 80, p. 45-61.
  10. OOI, T.S, RAHIM, S. K. A., KOH, B. P. 2.45 GHz and 5.8 GHz compact dual-band circularly polarized patch antenna. Journal of Electromagnetic Waves and Applications, 2010, vol. 24, p. 1473 to 1482.
  11. ZAKARIA, N., RAHIM, S. K. A., OOI, T. S., TAN, K. G., REZA, A. W., RANI, M. S. A. Design of stacked microstrip dual-band circular polarized antenna. Radioengineering, 2012, vol. 21, p. 875-880.
  12. LIU, J. C., et al. Single-feed circularly polarized aperture-coupled stack antenna with dual-mode square loop radiator. IEEE Antennas and Wireless Propagation Letters, 2010, vol. 9, p. 887-890.
  13. NASIMUDDIN, N., et al. Compact asymmetric-slit microstrip antennas for circular polarization. IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation, 2011, vol. 59, p. 285-288.
  14. KUO, J. S., HSIEH, G. B. Gain enhancement of a circularly polarized equilateral-triangular microstrip antenna with a slotted ground plane. IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation, 2003, vol. 51, p. 1652-1656.

Keywords: Microstrip antenna, circularly polarized (CP), dual-band, asymmetrical slot

P. Kadlec, Z. Raida, J. Drinovsky [references] [full-text] [Download Citations]
Multi-Objective Self-Organizing Migrating Algorithm: Sensitivity on Controlling Parameters

In this paper, we investigate the sensitivity of a novel Multi-Objective Self-Organizing Migrating Algorithm (MOSOMA) on setting its control parameters. Usually, efficiency and accuracy of searching for a solution depends on the settings of a used stochastic algorithm, because multi-objective optimization problems are highly non-linear. In the paper, the sensitivity analysis is performed exploiting a large number of benchmark problems having different properties (the number of optimized parameters, the shape of a Pareto front, etc.). The quality of solutions revealed by MOSOMA is evaluated in terms of a generational distance, a spread and a hyper-volume error. Recommendations for proper settings of the algorithm are derived: These recommendations should help a user to set the algorithm for any multi-objective task without prior knowledge about the solved problem.

  1. DEB, K., PRATAP, A., AGARWAL, S., MEYARIVAN, T. A fast and elitist multi-objective genetic algorithm: NSGA-II. IEEE Transactions on Evolutionary Computation, 2002, vol. 6, no. 2, p. 182 - 197.
  2. COELLO COELLO, C. A., LECHUGA, M. S. MOPSO: A proposal for Multiple Objective Particle Swarm Optimization. In IEEE Congress on Evolutionary Computation. Hawaii (USA), 2002, p. 825 - 830.
  3. KUKKONEN, S., LAMPINEN, J. GDE3: The third evolution step of Generalized Differential Evolution. In IEEE Congress on Evolutionary Computation. Edinburgh (Scotland), 2005, p. 443 - 450.
  4. DEB, K. Multi-Objective Optimization using Evolutionary Algorithms. Chichester (UK): Wiley, 2001.
  5. KUKKONEN, S., LAMPINEN, J. An empirical study of control parameters for the third version of Generalized Differential Evolution (GDE3). In Proceedings of IEEE Congress on Evolutionary Computation, Vancouver (Canada), 2006, p. 2002 – 2009.
  6. ZHENG, B., LI, Z., FENG, X. An exploratory study of sorting particle swarm optimizer for multiobjective optimization. In Fourth International Conference on Bio-Inspired Computing BICTA ´09. Hangzhou (China), 2009, p. 112 – 119.
  7. KHOA, D. T. Elitist non-dominated sorting GA-II (NSGA-II) as a parameter-less multi-objective genetic algorithm. In Proceedings of IEEE SoutheastCon. Fort Lauderdale (Florida, USA), 2005, p. 359 - 367.
  8. KADLEC, P., RAIDA, Z. A novel Multi-Objective Self-Organizing Migrating Algorithm. Radioengineering, 2011, vol. 20, no. 4, p. 804 – 816, 2011.
  9. KADLEC, P., RAIDA, Z. Self-Organizing Migrating Algorithm for optimization with general number of objectives. In Proceedings of 22nd International Conference Radioelektronika 2012. Brno (Czech Republic), 2012, p. 111 - 115.
  10. ZELINKA, I., LAMPINEN, J. SOMA – Self organizing migrating algorithm. In Proceedings of 6th MENDEL International Conference on Soft Computing. Brno (Czech Republic), 2000, p. 76 – 83.
  11. VELDHUIZEN, D. V. Multiobjective evolutionary algorithms: classifications, analyses and new innovations. Ph.D. Thesis, Dayton, OH, Air Force Institute of Technology. Technical report No. AFIT/DS/ENG/99-01, 1999, 270 p.
  12. DEB, K., THIELE, L., LAUMANNS, M., ZITZLER, E. Scalable Test Problems for Evolutionary Multi-Objective Optimization. Kanpur (India): Kanpur Genetic Algorithms Lab. (KanGAL), Indian Institute of Technology, 2001. KanGAL Report 2001001.
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  15. SCHAFFER, J. D. Some experiments in machine learning using vector evaluated genetic algorithms. Ph.D. Thesis, Nashville, Tennessee, Vanderbilt University.
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  17. JIN, Y., OKABE, T., SENDHOFF, B. Solving three-objective optimization problems using evolutionary dynamic weighted aggregation: Results and analysis. In Genetic and Evolutionary Computation – GECCO 2003. Berlin: Springer, p. 203 – 214, 2003.
  18. ZITZLER, E., DEB, K., THIELE, L. Comparison of multiobjective evolutionary algorithms: Empirical results. Evolutionary Computation Journal, 2000, vol. 8, no. 2, p. 125 – 148.
  19. ZITZLER, E., LAUMANNS, M., THIELE, L. SPEA2: Improving the strength Pareto evolutionary algorithm. Technical Report 103, Zurich, Switzerland: Computer Engineering and Networks Laboratory (TIK), Swiss Federal Inst. of Technology (ETH), 2001.
  20. NANBO, J., RAHMAT-SAMII, Y. Advances in Particle Swarm Optimization for antenna designs: Real-number, binary, singleobjective and multi-objective implementations. IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation, vol. 6, no. 2, p. 182 – 197, 2002.
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Keywords: MOSOMA, sensitivity, control parameters, multi-objective optimization.

V. Sedenka, J. Ciganek, P. Kadlec, Z. Raida, M. Wiktor, M. S. Sarto, S. Greco [references] [full-text] [Download Citations]
Time-Domain Finite Elements for Virtual Testing of Electromagnetic Compatibility

The paper presents a time-domain finite-element solver developed for simulations related to solving electromagnetic compatibility issues. The software is applied as a module integrated into a computational framework developed within a FP7 European project High Intensity Radiated Field – Synthetic Environment (HIRF SE) able to simulate a large class of problems. In the paper, the mathematical formulation is briefly presented, and special emphasis is put on the user point of view on the simulation tool-chain. The functionality is demonstrated on the computation of shielding effectiveness of two composite materials. Results are validated through experimental measurements and agreement is confirmed by automatic feature selective algorithms.

  1. HIRF SE High Intensity Radiated Field Synthetic Environment [online]. [cit. 2012-01-23]. Available at WWW: .
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  18. BOZZETTI, M., PISU, L., GRECO, S., SARTO, M. S. Shielding performance of an expanded copper foil over a wide frequency range. In EMC Europe 2011, Int. Symp. on EMC. York (UK), Sept. 2011.
  19. SARTO, M. S., TAMBURRANO, A. An innovative test method for the shielding effectiveness measurement of conductive thin films in a wide frequency range. IEEE Transactions on EMC, 2006, vol. 48, no. 2, p. 331 – 341.
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Keywords: Amelet-HDF, electromagnetic compatibility (EMC), high intensity radiated field synthetic environment (HIRF SE), shielding effectiveness (SE), time domain finite elements (TDFE), composite materials.

P. Kovacs, J. Puskely [references] [full-text] [Download Citations]
Stacked High-Impedance Surface (HIS) for 5 GHz WLAN Applications

In this work we present a stacked high-impedance surface (HIS) for low-profile, high-gain, 5 GHz WLAN antennas. The structure consists of two layers: a lower mushroom layer and an upper planar layer. We demonstrate that the stacked geometry has much better properties than conventional single-layer structures for achieving simultaneously surface-wave suppression and zero reflection phase at a given frequency. We show by measurements that the designed stacked HIS exhibits both a large band gap and in-phase wave reflection over the entire range from 4.6 GHz to 6.4 GHz. The structure is realized on FR4 substrate using standard etching technology to make fabrication easy and cheap.

  1. SIEVENPIPER, D. F., ZHANG, L., BROAS, R. F. J., ALEXOPOULOS, N. G., YABLONOVITCH, E. High-impedance electromagnetic surfaces with a forbidden frequency band. IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech., Nov. 1999, vol. 47, p. 2059 – 2074.
  2. AMINIAN, A., YANG, F., RAHMAT-SAMII, Y. In-phase reflection and EM wave suppression characteristics of electromagnetic bandgap ground planes. In Proc. IEEE AP-S Int. Symp., June 22 – 27, 2003, vol. 4, p. 430 – 433.
  3. CLAVIJO, S., DIAZ, R. E., MCKINZIE, W. E. Design methodology for Sievenpiper high-impedance surfaces: an artificial magnetic conductor for positive gain electrically small antennas. IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag., Oct. 2003, vol. 51, p. 2678 – 2690.
  4. LI, L., CHEN, Q., YUAN, Q., LIANG, C., SAWAYA, K. Surfacewave suppression bandgap and plane-wave reflection phase band of mushroomlike photonic bandgap structures. J. Appl. Phys., Jan. 2008, vol. 103, no. 2, ID 023513.
  5. KOVACS, P., RAIDA, Z., LUKES, Z. Design and optimization of periodic structures for simultaneous EBG and AMC operation. In Proceedings of the 16th Conference on Microwave Techniques. Brno: Czechoslovakia Section IEEE, April 2010, p. 195-198.
  6. ABHARI, R., ELEFTHERIADES, G. V. Metallo-dielectric electromagnetic bandgap structures for suppression and isolation of the parallel-plate noise in high-speed circuits. IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech., June 2003, vol. 51, p. 1629 – 1639.
  7. FERESIDIS, A. P., APOSTOLOPOULOS, G., SERFAS, N., VARDOXOGLOU, J. C. Closely coupled metallodielectric electromagnetic band-gap structures formed by double-layer dipole and tripole arrays. IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag., May 2004, vol. 52, p. 1149 – 1158.
  8. BROAS, R. F. J., SIEVENPIPER, D. F., YABLONOVITCH, E. High-impedance ground plane applied to a cellphone handset geometry. IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech., July 2001, vol. 49, p. 1262 – 1265.

Keywords: Antenna, high-impedance surface (HIS), in-phase wave reflection, surface-wave

R. Keshavarz, M. Movahhedi [references] [full-text] [Download Citations]
A Compact and Wideband Coupled-Line Coupler with High Coupling Level Using Shunt Periodic Stubs

A wideband microstrip forward-wave coupled-line coupler with high coupling value is presented. Compared with the conventional edge-coupled microstrip forward-wave coupler, this symmetrical structure, consisting periodic shunt stubs between the two coupled-lines, achieves wider operating bandwidth and larger coupling level. To characterize this structure, the equivalent circuit model is established and verified by measurement and full-wave results. The designed and fabricated prototype is a 0-dB forward-wave coupler with 0.6 mm stub length. This coupler exhibits a coupled amplitude balance of ±2 dB, good matching (15dB) and at least 15dB isolation between adjacent ports over a wide bandwidth of 66% from 2 GHz to 4 GHz centered at 3 GHz. The coupled-line length and width of the proposed structure are approximately λg/2 and λg/13, respectively, which makes it more compact than the conventional forward coupled-line couplers.

  1. MONGIA, R., BAHL, I., BHARTIA, P., RF and Microwave Coupled-Line Circuits. Norwood, MA: Artech House, 1999.
  2. IKALAINEN, K., MATTHAEI, L. Wide-band, forward-coupling microstrip hybrids with high directivity. IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques, 1987, vol. 35, no. 8, p. 719 to 725.
  3. FUJII, T., OHTA, I. Size-reduction of coupled-microstrip 3-dB forward couplers by loading with periodic shunt capacitive stubs. In IEEE MTT-S International Microwave Symposium Digest, 2005, p. 1235–1238.
  4. HIROTA, N., TAHARA, Y., YONEDA, N. A compact forward coupler using coupled composite right/left-handed transmission lines. IEEE Trans. on Microwave Theory and Techniques, 2009, vol. 57, no. 12, p. 3127–3133.
  5. HSU, S., WU, T. A novel microstrip forward directional coupler based on an artificial substrate. In European Microwave Conference (EuMC). 2010, p. 926-930.
  6. KESHAVARZ, R. MOVAHHEDI, M. HAKIMI, A. A compact 0-dB coupled-line forward coupler by loading with shunt periodic stubs. In Asia-Pacific Microwave Conference Proceedings (APMC), 2011, p. 1248-1251.
  7. CALOZ, C., ITOH, T. Electromagnetic Metamaterials: Transmission Line Theory and Microwave Applications. Hoboken, NJ: Wiley, 2006.
  8. KAWAKAMI, T., INOUE, N., HORIIE, Y., KITAMURA, T. A super-compact 0dB/3dB forward coupler composed of multilayered CRLH transmission lines with double left-handed shuntinductors, European Microwave Conference (EuMC), 2010, p. 1409-1413.
  9. LAURO, S. E., TOSCANO, A., VEGNI, L. Symmetrical coupled microstrip lines with epsilon negative metamaterial loading. IEEE Transactions on Magnetics, 2009, vol. 45, no. 7, p. 1182-1189.
  10. CHANG, Y., QIAN, M., ITOH, T. Enhanced forward coupling phenomena between microstrip lines on periodically patterned ground plane. In IEEE MTT-S International Microwave Symposium Digest, 2001, p. 2039–2042.
  11. BAHL, I. Lumped Elements for RF and Microwave Circuits. Boston: Artech House, 2003.
  12. HSU, S.-K., TSAI, C.-H., WU, T.-L. A novel miniaturized forward-wave directional coupler with periodical mushroom-shaped ground plane. IEEE Transaction on Microwave Theory and Techniques, 2010, vol. 58, no. 7, p. 2277-2283.

Keywords: Coupled-line couplers, periodic structures, forward-wave couplers, shunt stubs, wideband microwave devices.

S. V. Makki, A. Ahmadi, S. Majidifar, H. Sariri, Z. Rahmani [references] [full-text] [Download Citations]
Sharp Response Microstrip LPF using Folded Stepped Impedance Open Stubs

A novel microstrip lowpass filter with high selectivity and wide stopband is proposed that comprises two lateral folded open stubs and a central mirrored semi-circle ended suppressing cell. The proposed filter has cut-off frequency of 2.28 GHz and is very compact. The stopband width with attenuation level more than -20 dB is equal to 5.47 fc and the transition band is only 0.14 GHz. This filter is designed, fabricated and measured and the simulated and measured results are in good agreement

  1. FU, S.-H., TONG, C.-M., LI, X.-M., ZHANG, W., SHEN, K. Compact miniaturized stepped impedance lowpass filter with sharp cutoff characteristic. Microwave and Optical Technology Letters, 2009, vol. 51, no. 10, p. 2257-2258.
  2. LI, L., LI, Z.-F., MAO, J.-F. Compact lowpass filters with sharp and expanded stopband using stepped impedance hairpin units. IEEE Microwave and Wireless Components Letters, 2010, vol. 20, no. 6, p. 310-312.
  3. KARTHIKEYAN, S. S., KSHETRIMAYUM, R. S. Compact, deep, and wide rejection bandwidth low-pass filter using open complementary split ring resonator. Microwave and Optical Technology Letters, 2011, vol. 53, no. 4, p. 845-848.
  4. KE, L., WANG, G.-M., YU, Z. W. Wide stopband and sharprejection low-pass filter using uniplanar double spiral resonators. Microwave and Optical Technology Letters, 2011, vol. 53, no. 10, p. 2345-2348.
  5. CHEN, W.-L., WANG, G.-M., CHEN, G.-D., YAO, G.-F. Enhancement of microstrip stepped-impedance lowpass filters using fractal shapes. Microwave Journal, 2009, vol. 52, no. 7.
  6. CHEN, W.-L., WANG, G. M., QI, Y. N. A compact wide stopband Koch-shaped electromagnetic bandgap microstrip lowpass filter. Microwave Journal, 2007, vol. 50, no. 10.
  7. GE, L., WANG, J. P., GUO, Y.-X. Compact microstrip lowpass filter with ultra-wide stopband. Electronics Letters, 2010, vol. 46, no. 10, p. 689-691.
  8. MA, K., YEO, K. S. New ultra-wide stopband low-pass filter using transformed radial stubs. IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques, 2011, vol. 59, no. 3, p. 604-611.
  9. VELIDI, V. K., SANYAL, S. Sharp roll-off lowpass filter with wide stopband using stub-loaded coupled-line hairpin unit. IEEE Microwave and Wireless Components Letters, 2011, vol. 21, no. 6, p. 301-303.
  10. HONG, J.-S., LANCASTER, M. J. Microstrip Filters for RF/Microwave Applications. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 2001.

Keywords: Low pass filter, microstrip technology, folded open stub, sharp response, wide stopband

C. A. Valagiannopoulos [references] [full-text] [Download Citations]
Electromagnetic Absorption of Gaussian Beams by a Grounded Layered Structure

A layered structure of magnetodielectric slabs, backed with a perfectly conducting plane, is illuminated by a Gaussian beam. The permittivities and permeabilities of each layer are selected so that the incident field penetrates smoothly into the subsequent layers and sustains gradually greater losses when reaching the internal ones. The performance of the device as an absorber is estimated through a newly defined indicator and it has been found that the absorbing capacity of the structure could be very high. This qualitative factor is robust and efficient when identifying which of the considered parameters are critical or insignificant as far as the performance of the layered configuration is concerned.

  1. LUUKKONEN, O., COSTA, F., SIMOVSKI, C. R., MONORCHIO, A., TRETYAKOV, S. A. A thin electromagnetic absorber for wide incidence angles and both polarizations. IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation, 2009, vol. 57, no. 10, p. 3119 - 3125.
  2. CHENG, Q., CUI, T. J., JIANG, W. X., CAI, B. G. An omnidirectional electromagnetic absorber made of metamaterials.New Journal of Physics, 2010, vol. 12, 063006.
  3. BREGAR, V. B. Advantages of ferromagnetic nanoparticle composites in microwave absorbers.IEEE Transactions on Magnetics, 2004, vol. 40, no. 3, p. 1679 - 1684.
  4. ZIOLKOWSKI, R. W. The design of Maxwellian absorbers for numerical boundary conditions and for practical applications using engineered artificial materials. IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation, 1997, vol. 45, no. 4, p. 656 - 671.
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  8. KATSAV, M., HEYMAN, E. Gaussian beam summation representation of a two-dimensional Gaussian beam diffraction by a half plane. IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation, 2007, vol. 55, no. 8, p. 2247 - 2257.
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  11. YANG, J., HUANG, M. YANG, C. SHI, J. Arbitrary shape electromagnetic transparent device based on Laplaces equation. Radioengineering, 2011, vol. 20, no. 1, p. 307 - 311.
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  15. VALAGIANNOPOULOS, C. A. Electromagnetic scattering of the field of a metamaterial slab antenna by an arbitrarily positioned cluster of metallic cylinders. Progress in Electromagnetic Research, 2011, vol. 114, p. 51 - 66.
  16. VALAGIANNOPOULOS, C. A. On adjusting the characteristics of a low-index slab antenna with a finite set of metallic pins. InProceedings of the 5th European Conference on Antennas and Propagation (EUCAP). Rome (Italy), 2011, p. 913 - 917.
  17. VALAGIANNOPOULOS, C. A. Closed-form solution to the scattering of a skew strip field by metallic pin in a slab. Progress in Electromagnetic Research, 2008, vol. 79, p. 1 - 21.
  18. VALAGIANNOPOULOS, C. A., UZUNOGLU, N. K. Rigorous analysis of a metallic circular post in a rectangular waveguide with step discontinuity of sidewalls. IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques, 2007, vol. 55, no. 8, p. 1673 - 1684.
  19. VALAGIANNOPOULOS, C. A. A novel methodology for estimating the permittivity of a specimen rod at low radio frequencies. Journal of Electromagnetic Waves and Applications, 2010, vol. 24, no. 5- 6, p. 631 - 640.
  20. VALAGIANNOPOULOS, C. A., SIHVOLA, A. H. On modeling perfectly conducting sharp corners with magnetically inert dielectrics of extreme complex permittivities. IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation, 2012, vol. 60, no. 10, p. 4777 - 4784.
  21. VALAGIANNOPOULOS, C. A., ALITALO, P. Electromagnetic cloaking of cylindrical objects by multilayer or uniform dielectric claddings. Physical Review B, 2012, vol. 85, 115402.

Keywords: Electromagnetic absorber, Gaussian beam, Linear superposition.

P. Barcik, L. Hudcova [references] [full-text] [Download Citations]
Measurement of Spatial Coherence of Light Propagating in a Turbulent Atmosphere

A lot of issues have to be taken into account when designing a reliable free space optical communication link. Among these are e.g.,beam wander, fluctuation of optical intensity and loss of spatial coherence that are caused by atmospheric turbulence. This paper presents experimental measurements of spatial coherence of a laser beam. The experimental setup is based on Young's double pinhole experiment. Fringe patterns under atmospheric turbulence for four different pinhole separations are presented. From these fringe patterns, visibility is determined and the coherence radius is estimated.

  1. MUHAMMAD, S. S., PLANK, T., LEITGEB, E., FRIEDL, A., ZETTL, K., JAVORNIK, T., SCHMITT, N. Challenges in establishing free space optical communications between flying vehicles. In 6 th International Symposium on Commmunications Systems, Networks and Digital Signal Processing (CNSDSP). Graz (Austria), 2008, p. 82 - 86.
  2. WALTHER, F. G., MOORES, J. D., MURPHY, R. J., MICHAEL, S., NOWAK, G. A. A process for free-space laser communications system design. Free-Space Laser Communications IX; Proceedings of SPIE, 2009, vol. 74640V, doi:10.1117/12.826256.
  3. HAMMEL, S., MCBRYDE, K., REINHARDT, C. Measurement and modeling of beam wander. Atmospheric Optics IV: Turbulence and Propagation; Proceedings of SPIE, 2011, vol. 81610F, doi:10.1117/12.896597.
  4. CHEN JING, AI YOUNG Laser signal intensity and aperture averaging analysis in 16 km free-space optical links. In Symposium on Photonics and Optoelectronic (SOPO). Chengdu (China), 2010, p. 1 - 4, doi: 10.1109/SOPO.2010.5504015.
  5. KHALIGHI, M. A., SCHWARTZ, N., AITAMER, N., BOURENNAME, S. Fading reduction by aperture averaging and spatial diversity in optical wireless systems. Journal of Optical Communications and Networking, 2009, vol. 1, no. 6, p. 580 - 593, doi: 10.1364/JOCN.1.000580.
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  8. REDDING, B., CHOMA, M. A., CAO, H. Spatially incoherent random lasers for full field optical coherence tomography. Conference Lasers and Electro-Optics (CLEO). Baltimore (USA), 2011.
  9. ANDREWS, L. C., PHILLIPS, R. L. Laser Beam Propagation through Random Media. Washington (USA): SPIE Press, 2005.
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  13. POPOOLA, W. O. Subcarrier Intensity Modulated Free-Space Optical Communication Systems. Ph.D. thesis. Newcastle (UK): University of Northumbria, 2009.
  14. ANDREWS, L. C. Field Guide to Atmospheric Optics. Washington (USA): SPIE Press, 2004.
  15. WANG, S., YANG, S. H., WU, X., ZHAO, C. M., ZHU, Q. H. Experimental study on influence of atmospheric turbulence on coherence of dual-frequency laser.Chinese Physics Letters, 2010, vol. 27, no. 8.

Keywords: Atmospheric turbulence, spatial coherence, Young's experiment, fringe pattern, coherence radius.

V. Matejec, I. Kasik, O. Podrazky, J. Aubrecht, M. Frank, M. Jelinek, V. Kubecek [references] [full-text] [Download Citations]
Preparation and Characterization of Bragg Fibers for Delivery of Laser Radiation at 1064 nm

Bragg fibers offer new performance for transmission of high laser energies over long distances. In this paper theoretical modeling, preparation and characterization of Bragg fibers for delivery laser radiation at 1064 nm are presented. Investigated Bragg fibers consist of the fiber core with a refractive index equal to that of silica which is surrounded by three pairs of circular layers. Each pair is composed of one layer with a high and one layer with a low refractive index and characterized by a refractive-index difference around 0.03. Propagation constants and radiation losses of the fundamental mode in such a structure were calculated on the basis of waveguide optics. Preforms of the Bragg fibers were prepared by the MCVD method using germanium dioxide, phosphorous pentoxide and fluorine as silica dopants. The fibers with a diameter of 170 m were drawn from the preforms. Refractive-index profiles, angular distributions of the output power and optical losses of the prepared fibers were measured. Results of testing the fibers for delivery radiation of a pulse Nd:YAG laser at 1064 nm are also shown.

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  3. BLACKMON, R. L., IRBY, P. B., FRIED, N. M. Thulium fiber laser lithotripsy using tapered fibers. Lasers in Surgery and Medicine, 2010, vol. 42, p. 45–50.
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  9. KANDILLI, C., TURKOGLU, A. K., ULGEN, K. Transmission performance of fibre-optic bundle for solar lighting. Int. J. Energy Res,. 2009, vol. 33, p. 194–204.
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Keywords: Bragg fibers, high-index contrast, MCVD method, transmission characteristics.

O. Barkman, V.Jerabek, V.Prajzler [references] [full-text] [Download Citations]
Optical Splitters Based on Self-Imaging Effect in Multi-Mode Waveguide Made by Ion Exchange in Glass

Design and modeling of single mode optical multi-mode interference structures with graded refractive index is reported. Several samples of planar optical channel waveguides were obtained by Ag+<->Na+ and K+<->Na+ one step thermal ion exchange process in molten salt on GIL49 glass substrate and new special optical glass for ion exchange technology. Waveguide properties were measured by optical mode spectroscopy. Obtained data were used for further design and modeling of single mode channel waveguide and subsequently for the design of 1 to 3 multimode interference power splitter in order to improve simulation accuracy. Designs were developed by utilizing finite difference beam propagation method.

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Keywords: Ion exchange, glass substrate, single mode channel waveguide, power splitter, multi-mode interference.

P. Lafata, J. Vodrazka [references] [full-text] [Download Citations]
Application of Fiber Ring for Protection of Passive Optical Infrastructure

Today, passive optical networks (PONs) are mostly used as modern high-speed access networks for various applications. However, there are also several specific applications, such as in business, office, army or science sector, which require a complex protection and backup system against failures and malfunctions. Typically, tree or star topologies are used for passive optical networks PONs. These topologies are vulnerable mainly against the failures of central optical line termination (OLT) unit. This paper presents an innovative method for protecting PONs by using ring topologies, especially the OLT unit. The method is described in the article, and an elementary mathematical model for calculations of asymmetric passive optical splitters together with an example is included as well.

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Keywords: Asymmetric Optical Splitter, Passive Optical Network, Protection, Ring Topology

K. B. Baltzis [references] [full-text] [Download Citations]
Spatial Characterization of the Uplink Inter-Cell Interference in Polygonal-Shaped Wireless Networks

The uplink inter-cell interference is a major impairment in wireless systems. In this paper, we provide a geometrical-based framework for its analysis in networks with convex polygonal coverage area. Algebraic expressions for the Angle-of-Arrival (AoA) statistics of the uplink interfering signals are obtained. Simulation results validate the model. Representative examples show the dependence of the AoA on system geometry and demonstrate the relation between uplink interference and the radiation pattern of the receiver antenna. The proposed model is a generalization of previous studies in simpler geometries. It is a useful tool for the design, simulation and performance evaluation of wireless communication systems. The obtained expressions simplify the analysis of wireless networks and reduce the complexity and computational cost of their modeling and simulation.

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Keywords: Angle-of-Arrival, polygon, interference, radiation pattern, geometric modeling, wireless networks

L. Xiao, Y. Yin, X.N. Wu, J. W. Wang [references] [full-text] [Download Citations]
A large-scale RF-based Indoor Localization System Using Low-complexity Gaussian filter and improved Bayesian inference

The growing convergence among mobile computing device and smart sensors boosts the development of ubiquitous computing and smart spaces, where localization is an essential part to realize the big vision. The general localization methods based on GPS and cellular techniques are not suitable for tracking numerous small size and limited power objects in the indoor case. In this paper, we propose and demonstrate a new localization method, this method is an easy-setup and cost-effective indoor localization system based on off-the-shelf active RFID technology. Our system is not only compatible with the future smart spaces and ubiquitous computing systems, but also suitable for large-scale indoor localization. The use of low-complexity Gaussian Filter (GF), Wheel Graph Model (WGM) and Probabilistic Localization Algorithm (PLA) make the proposed algorithm robust and suitable for large-scale indoor positioning from uncertainty, self-adjective to varying indoor environment. Using MATLAB simulation, we study the system performances, especially the dependence on a number of system and environment parameters, and their statistical properties. The simulation results prove that our proposed system is an accurate and cost-effective candidate for indoor localization.

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Keywords: Indoor localization, Gaussian filter, wheel graph, probabilistic localization algorithm

Y. Wang, A. Liu, D. Guo, X. Liu [references] [full-text] [Download Citations]
Low-complexity Noncoherent Iterative CPM Demodulator for FH Communication

In this paper, we investigate the noncoherent iterative demodulation of coded continuous phase modulation (CPM) in frequency hopped (FH) systems. In this field, one important problem is that the complexity of the optimal demodulator is prohibitive unless the number of symbols per hop duration is very small. To solve this problem, we propose a novel demodulator, which reduces the complexity by applying phase quantization and exploiting the phase rotational invariance property of CPM signals. As shown by computational complexity analysis and numerical results, the proposed demodulator approaches the performance of the optimal demodulator, and provides considerable performance improvement over the existing solutions with the same computational complexity.

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Keywords: Continuous phase modulation, frequency hopping, noncoherent demodulation, iterative demodulation, low-complexity.

I. Vertat, J. Mraz [references] [full-text] [Download Citations]
Hybrid M-FSK/DQPSK Modulations for CubeSat Picosatellites

Conventional CubeSat radio systems typically use one of several basic modulations, such as AFSK, GMSK, BPSK, QPSK and OOK or switch between them on demand if possible. These modulations represent a bal¬anced trade-off between good energy efficiency of high order M-FSK modulation and good spectral efficiency of high order M-QAM modulation. Utilization of modulations with the best energy efficiency is not possible due to strict limits on occupied frequency bandwidth. In this paper the proposed group of hybrid modulations and proposed hybrid modulator and demodulator are presented. Novel solution offer interesting possibilities of increasing spectral efficiency as well as energy efficiency of basic M-FSK modulation by embedding DQPSK symbols between two M-FSK symbols. Such group of hybrid modulations offers suitable properties for picosatellite, e.g. simple realization onboard the picosatellite, better energy and spectral efficiency, low PAPR, wide range of adaptation by changing the order of M-FSK, suitable for easy non-coherent demodulation, good immunity to Doppler effect with DM-FSK coding.

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Keywords: CubeSat, picosatellite communication system, adaptable modulation, hybrid modulation.

J. R. O. Fernandez, D. Draskovic, C. Briso–Rodriguez [references] [full-text] [Download Citations]
High–Speed Data Transmission Subsystem of the SEOSAR/PAZ Satellite

This paper analyzes a digital interface and bus system modeling and optimization of the SEOSAR/PAZ Earth Observation satellite. The important part of the satellite is an X–band Synthetic Aperture Radar instrument that integrates 384 Transmit/Receive Modules located in 12 antenna panels 7.5 m away from the central processor and controlled by a synchronous 10 Mbps bidirectional serial protocol. This type of mid–range point–to–multipoint transmission is affected by bit errors due to crosstalk, transmission line attenuation and impedance mismatches. The high–speed data communication network has been designed to optimize the transmission by using a simulation model of the data distribution system which takes into account the worst–case scenario and by developing a lab–scaled prototype which exhibits BER of 10-11 for an interfering signal of 10 Vpp. The result is a point–to–multipoint bidirectional transmission network optimized in both directions with optimal values of loads and equalization resistors. This high–speed data transmission subsystem provides a compact design through a simple solution.

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Keywords: Crosstalk, data buses, high–speed communications, SAR, satellite, SEOSAR/PAZ

S. Phrompichai [references] [full-text] [Download Citations]
SGD Frequency-Domain Space-Frequency Semiblind Multiuser Receiver with an Adaptive Optimal Mixing Parameter

A novel stochastic gradient descent frequency-domain (FD) space-frequency (SF) semiblind multiuser receiver with an adaptive optimal mixing parameter is proposed to improve performance of FD semiblind multiuser receivers with a fixed mixing parameters and reduces computational complexity of suboptimal FD semiblind multiuser receivers in SFBC downlink MIMO MC-CDMA systems where various numbers of users exist. The receiver exploits an adaptive mixing parameter to mix information ratio between the training-based mode and the blind-based mode. Analytical results prove that the optimal mixing parameter value relies on power and number of active loaded users existing in the system. Computer simulation results show that when the mixing parameter is adapted closely to the optimal mixing parameter value, the performance of the receiver outperforms existing FD SF adaptive step-size (AS) LMS semiblind based with a fixed mixing parameter and conventional FD SF AS-LMS training-based multiuser receivers in the MSE, SER and signal to interference plus noise ratio in both static and dynamic environments.

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Keywords: SGD, semiblind, SFBC, MIMO, MC-CDMA, Adaptive Step-size