September 2016, Volume 25, Number 3 [DOI: 10.13164/re.2016-3]
D. Segovia-Vargas, J.L. Jimenez-Martin, A. Parra-Cerrada, E. Ugarte-Muñoz, L.F. Albarracin-Vargas, V. Gonzalez-Posadas
Stability Analysis and Design of Negative Impedance Converters: application to circuit and small antennas
Negative impedance converters (NICs) have been proposed as structures to improve the performance of RF circuits and electrically small antennas. However, NICs suffer from stability problems. This paper presents a compact procedure to analyze the stability of NICs. Then, the required and sufficient conditions to predict the stability of a negative impedance converter are given. These conditions can be evaluated using standard computer-aided-design software. Finally, a NIC prototype is given to validate and illustrate the presented design procedure, it is also integrated with a printed, blade-type, electrically small monopole in the VHF band.
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Keywords: Negative Impedance Converter (NIC), Stability, network Nyquist test. Electrically Small Antennas.
A. Cihangir, F. Sonnerat, F. Gianesello, D. Gloria, C. Luxey
Antenna Solutions for 4G Smartphones in Laser Direct Structuring Technology
Two antenna designs operating in the LTE/4G cellular frequency bands are proposed in this paper. Both designs consist of a driven strip which capacitively excites a parasitic grounded strip for a better matching response around 700 MHz. The antennas are realized using Laser Direct Structuring (LDS) technology on POCAN plastic material with a height of 5 mm above the system Printed Circuit Board. Passive matching circuits are necessary at each antenna’s feed, to match the input impedance to 50 Ohm at the desired operating bands (700-960 MHz and 1.7-2.2 GHz for the first design and 700-960 MHz and 1.7-2.7 GHz for the second). The simulation results are validated through s-parameter and total efficiency measurements. To form a basis for future studies, the effect of the hand and the head of the user are investigated upon the antenna performance.
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Keywords: Mobile antennas, parasitic antennas, LTE, 4G, LDS, matching network.
In this Paper, a reconfigurable antenna with capability to operate in the ultrawideband (UWB) mode from 2.85 to 14.4 GHz with switchable notch bands of 3.25–4.26 GHz, 5.1–5.9 GHz or 7.1-7.8 GHz, is presented. The proposed antenna has a simple configuration and compact size of 17 × 14 mm2. To make the band-notches, three methods (methods of slot antenna, parasitic patches and backplane structure) are used. To achieve the reconfigurability, three PIN diode are placed on the proposed antenna. A PIN diode is inserted over the L-shaped parasitic element and the rectangular patch, another one is placed between the two parasitic elements on the ground plane, and other across the square ring-shaped slot, respectively. Antenna performance can be changed by adjusting the status of the PIN diodes that make the band-notches in applications bands (WLAN, WiMAX/C-band and X-band). Good group delay and monopole-like radiation pattern characteristics are achieved in the frequency band of interest. The antenna performance both by simulation and by experiment indicates that it is suitable and a good candidate for UWB applications.
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Keywords: Reconfigurable antenna; ultrawideband (UWB); band-rejection, single, double
Z. Zhang, X. Cao, J. Gao, S. Li
Broadband Metamaterial Reflectors for Polarization Manipulation Based on Cross/Ring Resonators
We presented the investigation of broadband metamaterial reflector for polarization manipulation based on cross/ring resonators. It is demonstrated that the meta¬material reflector can convert the linearly polarized inci¬dent wave to its cross polarized wave or circularly polar¬ized wave. Due to the multiple resonances at neighboring frequencies, the proposed reflector presents broadband property and high efficiency. The measured fraction band¬width of cross polarization conversion is 55.5% with effi¬ciency higher than 80%. Furthermore, a broadband circu¬lar polarizer is designed by adjusting the dimension para¬meters and the measured fraction bandwidth exceeds 30%.
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Keywords: Metamaterial reflector, polarization manipulation, multiple resonances, broadband
A. Ghosh, T. Mandal, S. Das
Design of Triple Band Slot-Patch Antenna with Improved Gain Using Triple Band Artificial Magnetic Conductor
A CPW-fed triple band slot-patch antenna is designed to resonate at 3.60 GHz, 5.86 GHz and 8.53 GHz. The structure makes use of two types of radiators. A slot structure is made which behaves like a half wave dipole at 3.60 GHz. The other two resonating frequencies are generated by two metallic structures inserted within the slot. All the three resonant frequencies are independent of each other. Moreover, to achieve better gain, a triple band artificial magnetic conductor (AMC) is designed and placed at a certain distance below the antenna structure. The AMC shows zero reflection phase at all the three resonating frequencies of the antenna. A detailed analysis of the AMC is presented. Significant improvement in gain is obtained at all the three resonating frequencies. Radiation patterns of the antenna are stable with considerably low cross polarization in both E and H planes in all the three frequencies. A prototype of the triple band antenna with AMC is fabricated and the measured results are in good agreement with the simulated results.
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Keywords: Triple band, slot-patch, gain, artificial magnetic conductor (AMC)
This research proposes a novel, low-cost RFID tag sensor antenna implemented using commercially available Kodak photo-paper. The aim of this paper is to investigate the possibility of stable, RFID centric communication under varying moisture levels. Variation in the frequency response of the RFID tag in presence of moisture is used to detect different moisture levels. Combination of unique jaw shaped contours and T-matching network is used for impedance matching which results in compact size and minimal ink consumption. Proposed tag is 1.4 × 9.4 cm2 in size and shows optimum results for various moisture levels upto 45% in FCC band with a bore sight read range of 12.1 m.
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Keywords: RFID, moisture sensor, T-matching
Z. Xu, Y. Yong, K. Wang, Y. Wu, W. Lu, J. Hua
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Keywords: Alpha Stable Distribution, Diversity Combining, Fourier Power Transform
J. Liu, H. Quan, P. Cui, H. Sun
Performance Limitations Analysis of Imperfect Attenuators for Adaptive Self-Interference Cancellation System
Radio frequency (RF) adaptive self-interference cancellation system (RFAICS) is extensively used to suppress the self-interference of radios operating in the same platform, such as military command vehicles, airplanes and navy vessels. RFAICS is generally consisted of couplers, attenuators, delay units, amplifiers, and filters and so on. However, RFAICS usually suffers severely from the imperfect attenuators. This paper firstly explores the RFAICS operation process in theory, and then thoroughly investigates and analyzes the negative effects of non-ideal attenuators on performance of RFAICS. The closed-form expressions fully describing the influences of attenuation bias and response-time respectively on the interference cancellation ratio (ICR) and system convergence time (SCT) are developed with this aim. Simulations are provided for the validity of the limitation analysis and obtained expressions. Results of simulations are in agreement with theoretical analysis, which is significant for component configuration in taking RFAICS into practice.
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Keywords: self-interference, adaptive interference cancellation, interference cancellation ratio, system convergence time
In this paper, the outage performance of a cognitive radio network with a pair of secondary transmitter and receiver is investigated in the presence multiple primary users over a number of licensed frequency band and multiple secondary relays (SRs). Two decode and forward (DF) schemes are considered for the relays, namely proactive and reactive DF schemes. An adaptive power allocation scheme for secondary transmitter and secondary relays is formulated under the joint constraints of the primary user outage and peak transmit power of the secondary users. Based on these strategies, analytical expressions for the outage probability of proactive and reactive DF schemes are derived. More precisely, our results demonstrate the impact of number of the active primary users (PUs) over a number of available licensed frequency bands on the outage performance of secondary network. Further, it is observed that the performance of the secondary network can be improved by extending the bandwidth of the primary users.
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Keywords: Cognitive Radio Network, Proactive and Reactive DF, Secondary User (SU), Peak Transmit Power
A new cooperative punctured polar coding (CPPC) scheme with multi joint successive cancellation (MJSC) decoding at the destination is proposed, which may be obtained by applying puncturing algorithm to cooperative polar coding scenario. In this proposed algorithm we generate a cooperative scheme for punctured polar codes with various code lengths by employing the reduction of the general polarizing matrix combined with the cooperative construction to match the multilevel characteristics of polar codes. Punctured polar codes which are a class of polar codes can support a wide range of lengths for a given rate. Hence in our CPPC scheme, the punctured polar codes can be first constructed by eliminating some of the frozen bits such that the values of the punctured bits are known to the decoder. Then the proposed coded cooperative construction is employed to match the Plotkin’s construction between the two relay nodes. This scheme has low encoding and decoding complexity since it can be encoded and decoded in a similar way as a classical polar code. The CPPC scheme offers a cooperative coding which not only improves the data rate of the cooperative system, but also improves the overall bit error rate performance. Numerical results show that cooperative punctured polar codes constructed by our approach perform much better than those by the conventional direct approach.
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Keywords: Channel polarization, half-duplex relay, multilevel, multi joint successive cancellation (MJSC), Plotkin’s construction, punctured polar codes
F. Gunes, M. A. Belen, P. Mahouti, S. Demirel
Signal and Noise Modeling of Microwave Transistors Using Characteristic Support Vector-based Sparse Regression
In this work, an accurate and reliable S- and Noise (N) - parameter black-box models for a microwave transistor are constructed based on the sparse regression using the Support Vector Regression Machine (SVRM) as a nonlinear extrapolator trained by the data measured at the typical bias currents belonging to only a single bias voltage in the middle region of the device operation domain of (VDS/VCE, IDS/IC, f). SVRMs are novel learning machines combining the convex optimization theory with the generalization and therefore they guarantee the global minimum and the sparse solution which can be expressed as a continuous function of the input variables using a subset of the training data so called Support Vector (SV)s. Thus magnitude and phase of each S- or N- parameter are expressed analytically valid in the wide range of device operation domain in terms of the Characteristic SVs obtained from the substantially reduced measured data. The proposed method is implemented successfully to modelling of the two LNA transistors ATF-551M4 and VMMK 1225 with their large operation domains and the comparative error-metric analysis is given in details with the counterpart method Generalized Regression Neural Network GRNN. It can be concluded that the Characteristic Support Vector based-sparse regression is an accurate and reliable method for the black-box signal and noise modelling of microwave transistors that extrapolates a reduced amount of training data consisting of the S- and N- data measured at the typical bias currents belonging to only a middle bias voltage in the form of continuous functions into the wide operation range.
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Keywords: Scattering S-parameters, noise N- parameters, Support Vector Regression Machine (SVRM), Generalized Regression Neural Network (GRNN)
A new approximation to design continuoustime and discrete-time low-pass filters, presented in this paper, based on the product of Gegenbauer polynomials, provides the ability of more flexible adjustment of passband and stopband responses. The design is achieved taking into account a prescribed specification, leading to a better trade-off among the magnitude and group delay responses. Many well-known continuous-time and discrete-time transitional filter based on the classical polynomial approximations(Chebyshev, Legendre, Butterworth) are shown to be a special cases of proposed approximation method.
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Keywords: Gegenbauer polynomials, lowpass filters, continuous-time filters, discrete-time filters.
The increased use of personal private devices (PPDs) is drawing greater attention to the effects of continuous-wave interference (CWI) on the performance of global positioning system (GPS) receivers. The effective carrier-to-noise density ratio (C/N0), an essential index of GNSS receiver performance, is studied in this paper. Receiver tracking performance deteriorates in the presence of interference. Hence, the effective C/N0, which measures tracking performance, decreases. However, simulations and bench tests have shown that the effective C/N0 may increase in the presence of CWI. The reason is that a sinusoidal signal is induced by the CWI in the correlator and may be tracked by the carrier tracking loop. Thus, the effective carrier power depends on the power of the signal induced by the CWI, and the effective C/N0 increases with the power of the CWI. The filtering of the CWI in the carrier tracking loop correlator and its effect on the phase locked loop (PLL) tracking performance are analyzed. A mathematical model of the effect of the CWI on the effective C/N0 is derived. Simulation results show that the proposed model is more accurate than existing models, especially when the jam-to-signal ratio (JSR) is greater than 30 dBc.
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Keywords: Receiver performance, interference monitoring, signal-to-interference-plus-noise ratio
The global positioning system (GPS) with accurate positioning and timing properties has become integral part of all applications around the world. Radio frequency interference can significantly decrease the performance of GPS receivers or even completely prohibit the acquisition or tracking of satellites. The approaches of system performances that can be further enhanced by preprocessing to reject the jamming signal will be investigated. A recurrent neural network (RNN) predictor for the GPS anti-jamming applications will be proposed. The adaptive RNN predictor is utilized to accurately predict the narrowband waveform based on an unscented Kalman filter (UKF)-based algorithm. The UKF algorithm as a derivative-free alternative to the extended Kalman filter (EKF) in the framework of state-estimation is adopted to achieve better performance in terms of convergence rate and quality of solution. The adaptive RNN filter can be successfully applied for the suppression of interference with a number of different narrowband formats, i.e. continuous wave interference (CWI), multi-tone CWI, swept CWI and pulsed CWI, to emulate realistic circumstances. Simulation results show that the proposed UKF-based scheme can offer the superior performances to suppress the interference over the conventional methods by computing mean squared prediction error (MSPE) and signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) improvements.
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Keywords: Global positioning system (GPS) receiver, narrowband interference, direct sequence spread spectrum (DSSS), recurrent neural network (RNN) predictor, unscented Kalman filter (UKF) algorithm
This paper focuses on real-time tracking of multiple extended targets in clutter based on labeled multi-Bernoulli filter. To address this problem, a novel approach is proposed within the recently presented box-particle framework. Unlike the traditional point-particle approach, the measurements of extended targets are modeled as interval measurements in this work, and the corresponding likelihood function is given based on interval analysis. Then, labeled multi-Bernoulli recursion for extended targets is implemented by box particles, referred to as BP-LMB filter. Furthermore, BP-MM-LMB filter is proposed to better accommodate the uncertainty of target dynamics by integrating the BP-LMB filter with interacting multiple models (IMM) algorithm. Simulations demonstrate that the proposed approach can significantly reduce the number of particles and well track multiple extended targets with less runtime.
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Keywords: Box particle, labeled multi-Bernoulli, multi-target tracking, extended target, interacting multiple models.
The paper presents a new method of more precise estimation of the depth map in 3D videos. The novelty of the proposed approach lies in sophisticated combination of partial results obtained by selected existing passive and active 3D scanning methods. The aim of the combination is to overcome drawbacks of individual methods and this way to improve the accessible precision of the final depth map. The active method used is incoherent profilometry scanning which fails on surface discontinuities. As a passive method, a stereo pair matching is used. This method is currently the most widely applied method of depth map estimation in the field of 3D capturing and is available in various implementations. Unfortunately, it fails if there is a lack of identifiable corresponding points in the scanned scene. The paper provides a specific way of combining these methods to improve the accuracy and usability. The proposed innovative technique exploits the advantages of both approaches. Specifically, the more accurate depth profiles of individual discontinuous objects obtained from the active method, and information about mean depths of the objects from the stereo pair are combined. Two implementations of the passive method have been tested for combination with active scanning: matching from stereo pair, and SIFT. The paper includes a brief description of the active and passive methods used and a thorough explanation of their combination. As an example, the proposed method is tested on a simple scene whose nature enables straight assessment of the achieved accuracy. The choice of a suitable implementation of the passive component is also shown and discussed. The obtained results of individual existing methods used and of the proposed combined method are given and compared. To demonstrate the contribution of the proposed combined method, also a comparison with the results obtained with a commercial solution is presented with significantly good results.
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Keywords: Profilometry, stereoscopical capturing, depth map, phase unwrapping, stereo pair, 3D images, map estimation, shadow detection
The purpose of image encryption is to protect content from unauthorized access. Image encryption is usually done by pixel scrambling and confusion, so process is possible to reverse only by knowing secret information. In this paper we introduce a new method for digital image encryption, based on a 2D cellular automaton and pixel separation. Novelty in the proposed method lies in the application of the balanced 2D cellular automata with extended Moore neighborhood separately on each level of pseudorandom key-image. This process extends key space several times when compared to the previous methods. Furthermore, pixel separation is introduced to define operation for each pixel of the source image. Thanks to pixel separation, decryption process is more difficult to conduct without knowing secret information. Moreover, encryption is robust against different statistical attacks and analysis, does not affect image quality and can cope with loss of encrypted image content.
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Keywords: Image security, encryption, decryption, cellular automaton, statistical tests
A robust image hashing method based on radon transform and invariant features is proposed for image authentication, image retrieval, and image detection. Specifically, an input image is firstly converted into a counterpart with a normalized size. Then the invariant centroid algorithm is applied to obtain the invariant feature point and the surrounding circular area, and the radon transform is employed to acquire the mapping coefficient matrix of the area. Finally, the hashing sequence is generated by combining the feature vectors and the invariant moments calculated from the coefficient matrix. Experimental results show that this method not only can resist against the normal image processing operations, but also some geometric distortions. Comparisons of receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve indicate that the proposed method outperforms some existing methods in classification between perceptual robustness and discrimination.
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Keywords: Image hashing, radon transform, invariant centroid, invariant moments
Emotions play big role in our everyday communication and contain important information. This work describes a novel method of automatic emotion recognition from textual data. The method is based on well-known data mining techniques, novel approach based on parallel run of SVM (Support Vector Machine) classifiers, text preprocessing and 3 optimization methods: sequential elimination of attributes, parameter optimization based on token groups, and method of extending train data sets during practical testing and production release final tuning. We outperformed current state of the art methods and the results were validated on bigger data sets (3346 manually labelled samples) which is less prone to overfitting when compared to related works. The accuracy achieved in this work is 86.89% for recognition of 5 emotional classes. The experiments were performed in the real world helpdesk environment, was processing Czech language but the proposed methodology is general and can be applied to many different languages.
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Keywords: Czech, Emotion classification, Emotion detection, Emotion recognition, Text mining
Considering all possible steering directions for beam scanning, a digital position shift method (DPSM) is presented to minimize the Peak Sidelobe Level (PSL) by searching the best position solution for every sensor and calculating the pattern with position offset factor. For the truly minimum PSL, digital position shift with optimal amplitude (DPSOA) is considered simultaneously for beam scanning. For searching the best solution to the two methods, constrained conditions for position shift range and amplitude range are described. The method of feedback particle swarm optimization (FPSO) is presented to obtain a large searching space and fast convergence in local space with refined solution. Numerical examples show that the optimized results by DPSM and DPSOA in all steering directions can be used in beam scanning for its digital realization. When compared with the other techniques published in the literature, especially the steering direction close to endfire direction, this method has lower PSL when the main beam width is maintained.
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Keywords: Digital position shift method (DSPM), feedback particle swarm optimization (FPSO), beam scanning, Peak Sidelobe Level (PSL)
To meet the miniature requirement, a frequency modulated continuous wave synthetic aperture radar (FMCW SAR) puts tight constraint on the compactness, which causes the interference of narrow band noise. The aim of this study is to suppress the strong noise for an FMCW SAR. First, the quantitative analysis of the noise is performed. It is found that a strong spurious noise of the analog-to-digital converter (ADC) is introduced from interferences and significantly affects the image quality; the other noise components are sufficiently small, thus having ignorable influences. Then, a Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) based method of noise suppression is proposed to eliminate the ADC strong spurious noise, adopting an ADC and a field programmable gate array (FPGA). Finally, using the real Ku-band FMCW SAR data, the level of the noise components is measured and the effectiveness of the proposed noise suppression method is validated. The results show that the measured noise level coincides with the theoretical noise level, and the proposed noise suppression method effectively eliminates the ADC strong spurious noise.
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Keywords: Frequency Modulated Continuous Wave (FMCW), Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR), strong spurious noise, noise suppression, miniaturized system
In non-cooperative bistatic synthetic aperture radar (SAR), the position of transmitter’s beam footprint should be detected and tracked in real-time to perform beam synchronization. Theoretical analysis shows that signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of the reflected echoes from the observational scene is too low to apply the conventional detection and tracking method. According to the cross correlation and Doppler frequency information of the backscattering echo, a beam footprint detection and tracking method is proposed in this paper. This method can realize accumulation of signal energy, therefore enormously improve the performance of beam footprint detection and tracking. Meanwhile, vehicle-based bistatic SAR experiment and airborne bistatic SAR experiment are performed to evaluate the performance of the proposed beam footprint detection and tracking method. Experimental results show that the proposed method performs well for real-time transmitter beam footprint detection and tracking.
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Keywords: Beam footprint, detection and tracking, non-cooperative, cross-correlation, Doppler information
M. Svecova, D. Kocur
Time of Arrival Complementing Method for Cooperative Localization of a Target by Two-Node UWB Sensor Network
Recently, the detection, localization and tracking of moving persons in emergency situations using ultra-wideband (UWB) sensors have attracted the attention of researchers and final users as well. Experiences with single UWB sensors in real applications have shown that their reliability and accuracy in person detection and localization may be considerably reduced. In contrast, the improved performance of a UWB sensor-based localization system can be provided by a UWB sensor network, which benefits from cooperation among spatially distributed sensor nodes. This cooperation extends the coverage of the monitored area and improves detection capability and localization performance, especially in the case of complex environments and multiple targets. In this paper, we will introduce a new approach to cooperative localization of a target, referred to as the time of arrival complementing method (TOACOM). TOACOM, developed for a two-node UWB sensor network, is based on the time of arrival (TOA) complementing and combining algorithms in combination with the conventional direct calculation method (DC). Its properties will be analyzed for through-the-wall single moving person localization. The obtained results will show the superior performance of TOACOM as compared with person localization by a single UWB sensor, or by a two-node sensor network. In the conclusion, we will outline that the presented version of TOACOM can be further modified for a multiple target scenario and an N-node sensor network.
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Keywords: Radar signal processing, target tracking, TOA complementing method, UWB sensor network
R. Mehmood, N. Huda, J. Song, M. M. Riaz, N. Iqbal, T. S. Choi
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Keywords: Target tracking, spatio-spectral technique, Mean Shift, Guided filter, Target localization