# April 2017, Volume 26, Number 1 [DOI: 10.13164/re.2017-1]

**M. Stumpf**
[references] [full-text]
[DOI: 10.13164/re.2017.0001]
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Modeling of Electromagnetic Fields in Parallel-Plane Structures: A Unified Contour-Integral Approach

A unified reciprocity-based modeling approach for analyzing electromagnetic fields in dispersive parallel-plane structures of arbitrary shape is described. It is shown that the use of the reciprocity theorem of the time-convolution type leads to a global contour-integral interaction quantity from which novel both time- and frequency-domain numerical schemes can be arrived at. Applications of the numerical method concerning the time-domain radiated interference and susceptibility of parallel-plane structures are discussed and illustrated on numerical examples.

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Keywords: Contour integral method, integral equations, electromagnetic compatibility, electromagnetic interference, reciprocity theorem, numerical analysis

**V. Prajzler, M. Neruda, P. Nekvindova, P. Mikulik**
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[DOI: 10.13164/re.2017.0010]
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Properties of Multimode Optical Epoxy Polymer Waveguides Deposited on Silicon and TOPAS Substrate

The paper reports on the fabrication and characterization of multimode polymer optical waveguides. Epoxy polymer EpoCore was used as the waveguide core material and EpoClad was used as a cladding and cover protection layer. The design of the waveguides was schemed for geometric dimensions of core 50 μm and for 850 nm and 1310 nm wavelengths. Proposed shapes of the waveguides were fabricated by standard photolithography process. Optical losses of the planar waveguides were measured by the fibre probe technique at 632.8 nm and 964 nm. Propagation optical loss measurements for rectangular waveguides were done by using the cut-back method and the best samples had optical losses lower than 0.53 dB/cm at 650 nm, 850 nm and 1310 nm.

- BAMIEDAKIS, N., CHEN, J., PENTY, R.V., WHITE I. H. Bandwidth studies on multimode polymer waveguides for 25 Gb/s optical interconnects. IEEE Photonics Technology Letters, 2014, vol. 26, no. 20, p. 2004–2007. DOI 10.1109/LPT.2014.2342881
- BOSMAN, E., Van STEENBERGE, G., MILENKOV, I., PANAJOTOV, K., THIENPONT, H., BAUWELINCK, J., Van DAELE, P. Fully flexible optoelectronic foil. IEEE Journal on Selected Topics in Quantum Electronics, 2010, vol. 16, no. 5, p. 1355–1362. DOI 10.1109/JSTQE.2009.2039466
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- CHOI, C., LIN, L., LIU, Y., CHOI, J., WANG, L., HAAS, D., MAGERA, J., CHEN, R.T. Flexible optical waveguide film fabrications and optoelectronic devices integration for fully embedded board-level optical interconnects. Journal of Lightwave Technology, 2004, vol. 22, no. 9, p. 2168–2176. DOI: 10.1109/JLT.2004.833815
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- IMMONEM, M., WU, J., YAN, H.J., ZHU, L.X., CHEN, P., RAPALA-VIRTANEN, T. Long distance optical printed circuit board for 10 Gbps optical interconnection. Proceedings of SPIE, 2012, vol. 8555, Article Number: UNSP 85551M. DOI: 10.1117/12.999969
- BAMIEDAKIS, N., CHEN, J., WESTBERGH, P., GUSTAVSSON, J. S., LARSSON, A., PENTY, R. V., WHITE, I. H. 40 Gb/s data transmission over a 1-m-long multimode polymer spiral waveguide for board-level optical interconnects. Journal of Lightwave Technology, 2015, vol. 33, p. 882–888. DOI: 10.1109/JLT.2014.2371491
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- PRAJZLER, V., NEKVINDOVA, P., HYPS, P., JERABEK, V. Optical properties of polymer planar waveguides deposited on flexible foils. Journal of Optoelectronics and Advanced Materials, 2015, vol. 17, no. 11-12, p. 1597–1602.
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Keywords: Optical planar and rectangular waveguides, Multimode waveguides, Polymer

**H. Saghaei**
[references] [full-text]
[DOI: 10.13164/re.2017.0016]
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Supercontinuum Source for Dense Wavelength Division Multiplexing in Square Photonic Crystal Fiber via Fluidic Infiltration Approach

In this paper, a square-lattice photonic crystal fiber based on optofluidic infiltration technique is proposed for supercontinuum generation. Using this approach, without nano-scale variation in the geometry of the photonic crystal fiber, ultra-flattened near zero dispersion centered about 1500 nm will be achieved. By choosing the suitable refractive index of the liquid to infiltrate into the air-holes of the fiber, the supercontinuum will be generated for 50 fs input optical pulse of 1550 nm central wavelength with 20 kW peak power. We numerically demonstrate that this approach allows one to obtain more than two-octave spanning of supercontinuum from 800 to 2000 nm. The spectral slicing of this spectrum has also been proposed as a simple way to create multi-wavelength optical sources for dense wavelength division multiplexing.

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- DUDLEY, J. M., TAYLOR, J. R. Supercontinuum Generation in Optical Fibers. Cambridge University Press, 2010. ISBN: 1139486187
- AGRAWAL, G. P. Nonlinear Fiber Optics. Academic Press, 2007. ISBN: 0123695163
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Keywords: Supercontinuum generation, photonic crystal fiber, optofluidic, dispersion, dense wavelength division multiplexing

**K. D. Xu, M. Z. Li, Y. H. Liu, J. Ai, Y. C. Bai**
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[DOI: 10.13164/re.2017.0023]
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Compact Microstrip Triple-Mode Bandpass Filters Using Dual-Stub-Loaded Spiral Resonators

Two new microstrip triple-mode resonators loaded with T-shaped open stubs using axially and centrally symmetric spiral structures, respectively, are presented. Spiraled for circuit size reduction, these two half-wavelength resonators can both generate three resonant modes over a wide frequency band by loading two T-stubs with different lengths. Due to the structural symmetry, they can be analyzed by odd- and even-mode method. To validate the design concept, two compact bandpass filters (BPFs) using these two novel resonators with center frequencies of 1.76 GHz and 2.44 GHz for the GSM1800 and WLAN/Zigbee applications, respectively, have been designed, fabricated and tested. The center frequencies and bandwidths can be tunable through the analysis of resonant frequency responses, fractional bandwidths and external quality factor versus the resonator parameters. The final measured results have achieved good consistence with the simulations of these two BPFs.

- KIM, S., KIM, N. Y. Compact bandpass filter with wide stop band response based on meandered-line stepped-impedance resonator using IPD process. Microwave and Optical Technology Letters, 2015, vol. 57, no. 6, p. 1466–1470. DOI: 10.1002/mop.29111
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- MO, S. G., YU, Z. Y., ZHANG, L. Design of triple-mode bandpass filter using improved hexagonal loop resonator. Progress in Electromagnetics Research, 2009, vol. 96, no. 4, p. 117–125. DOI: 10.2528/PIER09080304
- XU, H., XU, K., LIU, Y., LIU, Q. H. Compact triple-mode bandpass filter using short-and open-stub loaded spiral resonator. In 2016 IEEE/ACES International Conference on Wireless Information Technology and Systems (ICWITS) and Applied Computational Electromagnetics (ACES). Honolulu (USA), 2016, 2 p. DOI: 10.1109/ROPACES.2016.7465476

Keywords: Spiral resonator, stub-loaded resonators, transmission zeros, triple-mode bandpass filter

**M. Danaeian, K. Afrooz, A. Hakimi**
[references] [full-text]
[DOI: 10.13164/re.2017.0030]
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Miniaturized Substrate Integrated Waveguide Diplexer Using Open Complementary Split Ring Resonators

In this paper, two miniaturized planar diplexers based on the substrate integrated waveguide (SIW) structure loaded by open complementary split-ring resonators (OCSRRs) are proposed. The working principle is based on the theory of evanescent mode propagation. The proposed SIW diplexers operate below the cutoff frequency of the waveguide. Both the complementary split-ring resonators (CSRRs) and the OCSRRs behave as electric dipoles however, the resonance frequency of the OCSRRs is approximately half of the resonance frequency of the CSRRs. Therefore, the electrical size of the OCSRRs is larger than the CSRRs. Accordingly, the OCSRRs are more appropriate for the SIW miniaturization. At first, the filtering response of the SIW structure loaded by OCSRR unit cells is investigated. Then, two miniaturized SIW diplexers which consist of two cascaded OCSRR unit cells with different orientations are designed. For the first diplexer (Type I), the fractional bandwidths of operation for the up and down channels are 9.52% and 2.59% at 4.2 GHz and 5.8 GHz, respectively. For the second diplexer (Type II), the fractional bandwidths of operation for the up and down channels are 5.95% and 2.51% at 4.7 GHz and 5.6 GHz, respectively. Finally, in order to validate the ability of the proposed OCSRR unit cells in the size reduction, two designed diplexers are fabricated and experimental verification are provided. A good agreement between the results of measurement and simulation is achieved. The proposed diplexers show significant advantages in terms of size reduction, low loss, high isolation, and integration with other planar circuits.

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Keywords: Open Complementary split ring resonators (OCSRRs), electric dipoles, substrate integrated waveguide (SIW), evanescent mode, planar waveguide diplexer, miniaturization.

**Chen Zhang, Xiang-yu Cao, Jun Gao, Si-jia Li, Yue-jun Zheng**
[references] [full-text]
[DOI: 10.13164/re.2017.0038]
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Low RCS and Broadband ME Dipole Antenna Loading Artificial Magnetic Conductor Structures

A design for low radar cross section (RCS) and broadband magnetic-electric (ME) dipole antenna is proposed. Minkowski-like fractal metal patches printed on the substrate form the electric dipoles, four metallic vias connected to the radiation patches and the metal ground form the magnetic dipoles. The whole antenna is connected with an L-shaped feeding structure which excites electric and magnetic dipoles simultaneously. Meanwhile, two different structure AMC cells with a 180° (±30°) phase difference in a broadband frequency region are designed as a chessboard and loaded around the ME antenna radiation patch. Numerical and experimental results incident the antenna bandwidth is 42.4% from 8.0GHz to 12.3GHz, covering the whole X band. Moreover, the RCS is reduced remarkable in a broad frequency range from 6.5GHz to 15.5GHz (81.8% relative bandwidth) when compared to conventional ME antenna. After loading AMC structures, the antenna still keeps advanced performances such as stable gain and almost consistent pattern in E and H plane.

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- LIU, Y., LI, K., JIA, Y., et al. Wideband RCS reduction of a slot array antenna using polarization conversion metasurfaces. IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation, 2016, vol. 64, no. 1, p. 326–331. DOI: 10.1109/TAP.2015.2497352

Keywords: Broadband, RCS reduction ME dipole antenna AMC

**M. A. Abdalla, A. A. Ibrahim**
[references] [full-text]
[DOI: 10.13164/re.2017.0045]
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Simple Mu-Negative Half Mode CRLH Antenna Configuration for MIMO Applications

A design of compact size mu-negative half mode composite right left handed metamaterial antenna, using only series capacitive loading, for MIMO application is presented. The proposed configuration is simple as it is realized using via free configuration. The MIMO antenna is formed using two antenna elements designed to operate at 5.8 GHz for wireless applications. The overall MIMO antenna size is only 2.6 × 2.6 cm^2 with in-between separation = 1.8 mm (0.034 lambda_0). Moreover, the ports mutual coupling reduction between the two antenna elements, achieved without using extra structure, is lower than -20 dB. Compared to conventional two microstrip patch MIMO antennas, our proposed configuration has more than 50 % size reduction and 9 dB enhancement in the mutual coupling for the same separation. The antenna design principles, full wave simulations, experimental measurements are introduced with good agreement. Finally, the MIMO parameters are extracted and discussed.

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Keywords: Metamaterial, MIMO antenna, composite right left handed transmission line, isolation enhancement

**Chao-ming Luo, Jing-song Hong, Muhammad Amin**
[references] [full-text]
[DOI: 10.13164/re.2017.0051]
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Mutual Coupling Reduction for Dual-Band MIMO Antenna with Simple Structure

In this paper, a novel dual-band MIMO (multi¬ple input, multiple output) antenna for WLAN (wireless local area network) applications is presented. The MIMO antenna contains two dual-band antenna elements, each of which comprises a T-shaped monopole and a special ├-shaped stub resonator. Two operating bands with center frequencies of 5.5 GHz and 2.5 GHz are crested by the monopole of T shape and the stub resonator of ├ shape, accordingly. The ├-shaped stub also works as an isolation structure at the higher band, which can simplify the dual-band isolation design into a single-band problem. Moreo¬ver, the isolation is enhanced at the lower band by insert¬ing a metal strip which can cancel out original coupling. The inserted metal strip is the only additional decoupling structure in this design and has a simple texture with a compact size. The measured and simulated results reveal that the designed MIMO antenna can cover all the 2.4/5.2/5.8 GHz WLAN operating bands and within the recommended bands the isolations exceed by 20 dB.

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Keywords: Dual-band, high isolation, multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) antenna, wireless local area network (WLAN).

**W. Ali, A. A. Ibrahim, J. Machac**
[references] [full-text]
[DOI: 10.13164/re.2017.0057]
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Compact Size UWB Monopole Antenna with Triple Band-Notches

This paper presents triple band notched ultra wide band (UWB) monopole antenna with overall size of 36 × 32 mm2 fed by microstrip transmission line. In order to achieve a good impedance matching from 2.7 GHz to 13.4 GHz, a tapered transition between the rectangular patch and the feeding line is utilized. The three notched frequency bands are accomplished by a defected microstrip structure (DMS) which is inserted in the microstrip feeding line and by an open loop slot etched in the radiating patch. The three band notches are 3.15-4 GHz, 5.7-6.3 GHz and 7.9-8.6 GHz. They prevent the receiving of the signals of IEEE 802.16 WiMAX band, WLAN band, and ITU applications respectively. The UWB antenna was designed and simulated then fabricated and tested in order to investigate its impedance and radiation characteristics. Good agreement between the simulated and measured data is achieved. The obtained results show that the proposed antenna is convenient for UWB applications.

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Keywords: UWB monopole antenna, open loop resonant slot, defected microstrip structure, notched characteristic.

**M. Manohar, R. S. Kshetrimayum, A. K. Gogoi**
[references] [full-text]
[DOI: 10.13164/re.2017.0064]
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A Compact Dual Band-Notched Circular Ring Printed Monopole Antenna for Super wideband Applications

In this article, a simple and compact dual band-notched (DBN) super wideband (SWB) printed monopole antenna (PMA) has been proposed. The proposed antenna composed of a circular PMA, which is connected through a 50-Ω triangular tapered microstrip fed line (TTMFL) and a round-cornered finite ground plane (RCFGP). It exhibits a very wide frequency band from 1.6–25 GHz (ratio band¬width of 15.63:1) with a voltage standing wave ratio (VSWR) ≤ 2. By employing a U-shaped parasitic element (USPE) near the RCFGP and a T-shaped protruded stub (TSPS) inside the radiating patch, a single band-notched (SBN) characteristic in the frequency band of 3.2–4.4 GHz (WiMAX/C-band) is generated. In order to realize the sec¬ond band-notched function for X-band satellite communication systems (7.2–8.4 GHz), a U-shaped slot (USS) has been inserted in the RCFGP. The overall dimension of the proposed antenna is 24x30x0.787 mm3 and occupies a relatively small space compared to the existing DBN an¬tennas. Good agreement has been attained between pre¬dicted and measured results.

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Keywords: Dual band-notch, journal, super wideband (SWB) antenna, triangular tapered microstrip feed line.

**M. Chakraborty, S. Chakraborty, P. S. Reddy, S. Samanta**
[references] [full-text]
[DOI: 10.13164/re.2017.0071]
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High Performance DGS Integrated Compact Antenna for 2.4/5.2/5.8 GHz WLAN Band

An application specific tri-band hexagonal microstrip antenna with saw tooth shaped defected ground structure (DGS) is proposed. In this paper, a hexagonal microstrip antenna is designed for 5.2 GHz which is basically WLAN band (5.15–5.35 GHz). Now in this structure two defects are suitably incorporated and the positions are so optimized that two additional frequency bands 2.4 GHz, i.e. the Bluetooth band (2.4–2.48 GHz) and 5.8 GHz, i.e. the second WLAN band (5.725–5.825 GHz) are obtained. The fabricated prototype of the proposed antenna occupies an area 35 mm X 27.4 mm. Therefore, the structure has the characteristics of application specific multi band resonance. The variation of different parameters of the microstrip antenna is extensively studied. The proposed multiband microstrip antenna is functional simultaneously at three specific application band frequencies with approximately 84% surface area reduction for the largest patch dimension corresponding to 2.4 GHz.

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Keywords: Microstrip antenna, hexagonal patch, defected ground structure, compact antenna, tri band antenna

**W. Ali, E. Hamad, M. Bassiuny, M. Hamdallah**
[references] [full-text]
[DOI: 10.13164/re.2017.0078]
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Complementary Split Ring Resonator Based Triple Band Microstrip Antenna for WLAN/WiMAX Applications

A new simple design of a triple-band microstrip antenna using metamaterial concept is presented in this paper. Multi-unit cell was the key of the multi resonance response that was obtained by etching two circular and one rectangular split ring resonator (SRR) unit cells in the ground plane of a conventional patch operating at 3.56 GHz .The circular unit cells are resonating at 5.6 GHz for the upper band of Wi-MAX, while the rectangular cell is designed to produce a resonance at 2.45 GHz for the lower band of WLAN. WiMAX's/WLAN's operating bands are covered by the triple resonances which are achieved by the proposed antenna with quite enhanced performance. A detailed parametric study of the placement for the metamaterial unit cells is introduced and the most suitable positions are chosen to be the place of the unit cells for enhanced performance. A good consistency between simulation and measurement confirms the ability of the proposed antenna to achieve an improved gain at the three different frequencies.

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Keywords: Metamaterial, metasurface, multi band antennas, CSRR, split ring resonators

**P. Vasina, J. Lacik**
[references] [full-text]
[DOI: 10.13164/re.2017.0085]
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Circularly Polarized Rectangular Ring-Slot Antenna with Chamfered Corners for Off-Body Communication at 5.8 GHz ISM Band

This paper deals with a substrate integrated waveguide (SIW) circularly polarized rectangular ring-slot antenna with chamfered corners designed for 5.8 GHz ISM frequency band for off-body communication. The antenna consists of a substrate integrated waveguide, which operates in the fundamental mode TE10, and the rectangular ring-slot radiator with chamfered corners etched in the top wall of the SIW. It radiates a right-handed circularly polarized (RHCP) wave in the boresight direction. Experimental results prove that the proposed antenna located in free space achieves the impedance bandwidth of 2.41 % (for the reflection coefficient less than -10 dB) and the RHCP gain of 6.57 dBi, and the impedance bandwidth of 2.6 % and the RHCP gain of 6.98 dBi for its location on the phantom. The axial ratio (AR) bandwidth (for the AR less than 3 dB) is 0.9 % for both configurations.

- BOZZI, M., GEORGIADIS, A., WU, K. Review of substrate integrated waveguide (SIW) circuits and antennas. IET Microwaves, Antennas & Propagation, 2011, vol. 5, no. 8, p. 909 to 920. DOI: 10.1049/iet-map.2010.0463
- WOLANSKY, D., HEBELKA, V., RAIDA, Z. Two-pole filtering antenna for body centric communications. In Proceedings of the Loughborough Antennas and Propagation Conference (LAPC). The Loughborough (United Kingdom), 2013, p. 221–224. DOI: 10.1109/LAPC.2013.6711887
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- ZHU, X. Q., GUO, Y. X., WU, W. A compact dual-band antenna for wireless body-area network applications. IEEE Antennas and Wireless Propagation Letters, 2016, vol. 15, p. 98–101. DOI: 10.1109/LAWP.2015.2431822
- MORO, R., AGNEESSENS, S., ROGIER, H., et al. Textile microwave components in substrate integrated waveguide technology. IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques, 2015, vol. 63, no. 2, p. 422–432. DOI: 10.1109/TMTT.2014.2387272
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Keywords: Substrate integrated waveguide, off-body communication, rectangular ring slot antenna, circular polarization

**S. Lamultree, P. Akkaraekthalin, D. Torrungrueng**
[references] [full-text]
[DOI: 10.13164/re.2017.0091]
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Theoretical Analysis of Moving Reference Planes Associated with Unit Cells of Nonreciprocal Lossy Periodic Transmission-Line Structures

This paper presents a theoretical analysis of moving reference planes associated with unit cells of nonreciprocal lossy periodic transmission-line structures (NRLSPTLSs) by the equivalent bi-characteristic-impedance transmission line (BCITL) model. Applying the BCITL theory, only the equivalent BCITL parameters (characteristic impedances for waves propagating in forward and reverse directions and associated complex propagation constants) are of interest. An infinite NRLSPTLS is considered first by shifting a reference position of unit cells along TLs of interest. Then, a semi-infinite terminated NRLSPTLS is investigated in terms of associated load reflection coefficients. It is found that the equivalent BCITL characteristic impedances of the original and shifted unit cells are mathematically related by the bilinear transformation. In addition, the associated load reflection coefficients of both unit cells are mathematically related by the bilinear transformation. However, the equivalent BCITL complex propagation constants remain unchanged. Numerical results are provided to show the validity of the proposed theoretical analysis.

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Keywords: Unit cell, periodic transmission-line structure, bi-characteristic-impedance transmission line (BCITL), bilinear transformation

**S. R. Lee, E. H. Lim, F. L. Lo**
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[DOI: 10.13164/re.2017.0097]
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Broadband Single-layer E-Patch Reflectarray

E-shaped patch resonator is proposed for designing a novel broadband linearly polarized reflectarray for the first time. The element is made up of a shorted E-shaped patch with a polystyrene foam placed beneath it, and no dielectric substrate is needed in the reflectarray design. The unit element is simulated using Floquet method and it is found that a reflection phase range of ~360° is easily obtainable by varying the arm length of the shorted E-shaped patch. A full 11 × 11 reflectarray has been designed to achieve an antenna gain of ~23.7dBi and a -1dB gain bandwidth of 8.1%. The cross-polarization is found to be ~18dBi smaller than its co-polarization in the boresight direction. The proposed reflectarray is simple to design as it requires the use of only a single layer.

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Keywords: Reflectarray, shorted E-shaped patch, linearly polarized reflectarray

**K. Wei, J. Y. Li, L. Wang, R. Xu**
[references] [full-text]
[DOI: 10.13164/re.2017.0107]
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Study of Horizontally Polarized Omnidirectional Microstrip Antenna Arrays

This paper presents two microstrip antenna arrays for horizontally polarized (HP) omnidirectional application, namely rectangular patch antenna array and H-shaped patch antenna array. There are eight patch elements placed with back-to-back structure, four patch elements on each side. Antenna arrays are fed by a split eight power divider. The H-shaped patch antenna array has better omnidirectional performance than rectangular patch antenna array. The H-shaped antenna array is fabricated and measured. Both simulated and measured results show that the bandwidth of the designed H-shaped antenna array is 36 MHz with a center frequency 2.35 GHz. Horizontally polarized gains are greater than 7 dBi over the resonant band (S11<−10 dB), while the cross-polarization level is less than −25 dB. The proposed H-shaped antenna array has high directivity (half-power beam-width is only 20 deg) and good omnidirectional performance (gain variation less than 1.5 dBi) at the center frequency.

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- BANCROFT, R., BATEMAN, B. An omnidirectional planar microstrip antenna. IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation, 2004, vol. 52, no. 11, p. 3151–3154. DOI: 10.1109/TAP.2004.832338
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Keywords: Antenna array, horizontal polarization, omnidirectional radiation pattern, microstrip antenna.

**S. Veisee, Sh. Asadi**
[references] [full-text]
[DOI: 10.13164/re.2017.0114]
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A Modified Unequally Spaced Array Antenna Synthesis Method for Side Lobe Reduction

The aim of this paper is to demonstrate the application of Unequally Spaced Arrays (USAs) in decreasing side lobe level (SLL) in linear arrays. As well known, solving of a nonlinear equation is needed in USA antenna pattern synthesis. In this paper, an improved algorithm for USA antenna pattern synthesis is presented. This method is based on converting the array factor into a triangular system of equations capable to be solved using a recursive algorithm. This method has more accuracy and speed than reported similar analytical methods based on simulation results, which leads to lower SLL and simulation time. In addition, an improvement of 3dB beamwidth in comparison with uniform spaced array can be observed.

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Keywords: Antenna arrays, unequal spacing, pattern synthesis, side lobe level

**H. Ozturk, K. Yegin**
[references] [full-text]
[DOI: 10.13164/re.2017.0120]
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Electromagnetic Scattering from a PEC Wedge Capped with Cylindrical Layers with Dielectric and Conductive Properties

Electromagnetic scattering from a layered capped wedge is studied. The wedge is assumed infinite in z-direction (longitudinal) and capped with arbitrary layers of dielectric with varying thicknesses and dielectric properties including conductive loss. Scalar Helmholtz equation in two dimensions is formulated for each solution region and a matrix of unknown coefficients are arrived at for electric field representation. Closed form expressions are derived for 2- and 3-layer geometries. Numerical simulations are performed for different wedge shapes and dielectric layer properties and compared to PEC-only case. It has been shown that significant reduction in scattered electric field can be obtained with 2- and 3-layered cap geometries. Total electric field in the far field normalized to incident field is also computed as a precursor to RCS analysis. Analytical results can be useful in radar cross section analysis for aerial vehicles.

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Keywords: PEC wedge, dielectric capped wedge, electromagnetic wedge scattering, radar cross section

**Yifei Ji, Qilei Zhang, Yongsheng Zhang, Zhen Dong**
[references] [full-text]
[DOI: 10.13164/re.2017.0130]
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Analysis of Background Ionospheric Effects on Geosynchronous SAR Imaging

Background ionospheric propagation effects are adverse to the performance of Geosynchronous Synthetic Aperture Radar (GEO SAR) system. This paper focuses on the background ionospheric phase advance, which can be modelled as a function of Slant Total Electron Content (STEC). The dispersive feature of the phase advance caused by the background ionosphere could be able to distort the GEO SAR range-imaging. Furthermore, for GEO SAR, the integration time is ultra-long and the coverage is ultra-large, thus temporal and spatial distributions of the background ionosphere have to be taken into account. The resultant ionospheric phase variations might decorrelate the azimuth signal and then lead to azimuth-imaging deteriorations. In this paper, the theoretical model of the background ionospheric effects on GEO SAR imaging is established and in-depth analyses are presented. Finally, theoretical analyses are validated by the signal-level simulation.

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Keywords: Geosynchronous Synthetic Aperture Radar (GEO SAR), imaging, background ionosphere, Total Electron Content (TEC), Slant Total Electron Content (STEC)

**H. Anam, A. Habib, S. I. Jafri, Y. Amin, H. Tenhunen**
[references] [full-text]
[DOI: 10.13164/re.2017.0139]
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Directly Printable Frequency Signature Chipless RFID Tag for IoT Applications

This Paper proposes a low-cost, compact, flexible passive chipless RFID tag that has been designed and analyzed. The tag is a bowtie-shaped resonator based structure with 36 slots; where each patch is loaded with 18 slots. The tag is set in a way that each slot in a patch corresponds to a metal gap in the other patch. Hence there is no mutual interference, and high data capacity of 36 bits is achieved in such compact size. Each slot corresponds to a resonance frequency in the RCS curve, and each resonance corresponds to a bit. The tag has been realized for Taconic TLX-0, PET, and Kapton®HN (DuPontTM) substrates with copper, aluminum, and silver nanoparticle-based ink (Cabot CCI-300) as conducting materials. The tag exhibits flexibility and well optimized while remaining in a compact size. The proposed tag yields 36 bits in a tag dimension of 24.5 x 25.5 mm^2. These 36 bits can tag 2^36 number of objects/items. The ultimate high capacity, compact size, flexible passive chipless RFID tag can be arrayed in various industrial and IoT-based applications.

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Keywords: Chipless, Radio Frequency Identification (RFID), Radar Cross-section (RCS), backscattering

**U. H. Khan, H. Rasheed, B. Aslam, A. Fatima, L. Shahid, Y. Amin, H. Tenhunen**
[references] [full-text]
[DOI: 10.13164/re.2017.0147]
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Localization of Compact Circularly Polarized RFID Tag Using ToA Technique

A compact, flexible crossed-dipole circular polarized antenna using commercially available paper substrate is presented which caters North American frequency band. The crossed-dipoles have meandered lines for reduction of size as well as increased inductivity in the antenna. Dipoles have asymmetric T-shaped rectangular endings to provide the required compactness. Two semicircles are induced between the orthogonal dipoles and meandering matching structure to accomplish circular polarization excitation. Good impedance matching with the chip is achieved through a modified meander line matching structure. The proposed design dimensions are 32 × 32 × 0.4 mm3. Systematic analysis revealed the results comprising circular polarization 3dB-AR bandwidth of 11MHz (909–920 MHz) and power transmission coefficient bandwidth of 36MHz (900–936 MHz). Time delay between interrogating signal and backscattered signal is measured and relative distance is calculated. Linear Least Square (LLS) method is applied to approximate the position of tag in interrogation area. The proposed tag is placed at known locations and its position is measured to analyze accuracy of the method by simulating the positioning algorithm code in MATLAB. Six valid tag positions 0.5–2 m read range and 0°–150° angular resolution has been investigated.

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- HONG, S. K., DAVIS, W. A. Use of tumor-specific resonances for more efficent microwave hyperthermia of breast cancer. Microwave and Optical Technology Letters, 2013, vol. 55, no. 11, p. 1645–1660. DOI: 10.1002/mop.27840
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Keywords: Circular polarized antenna, paper substrate, impedance matching, RFID, RFIC, time of arrival

**S. Sakouhi, H. Raggad, A. Gharsallam, M. Latrach**
[references] [full-text]
[DOI: 10.13164/re.2017.0154]
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A Novel RFID EMSICC-based Chipless Tag

A new Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) chipless tag based on the Substrate Integrated Waveguide (SIW) technology is proposed in this paper. The tag highlights the importance of using such technologies allowing a surface miniaturization, a high Q-factor and an original shape. Thus, the novel design consists of an Eight-Mode Substrate Integrated Circular Cavity (EMSICC) associated to an Ultra Wideband (UWB) bowtie-shaped antenna. The EMSICC is realized by bisecting the Quarter Mode Substrate Integrated Circular Cavity (QMSICC) into two parts, while preserving the same resonant frequency and the original electric field distribution. Further, the operating frequency band is from 5 GHz to 8 GHz within a compact area of 4.97 × 1.05 cm2. The proposed design is experimentally validated in the frequency domain.

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Keywords: RFID, chipless tag, Substrate Integrated Waveguide (SIW), Substrate Integrated Circular Cavity (SICC), Half Mode SICC, Quarter Mode SICC, Eight-Mode Substrate Integrated Circular Cavity (EMSICC), EMS (Electromagnetic Signal)

**L. Safari, G. Baghersalimi, A. Karami, A. Kiani**
[references] [full-text]
[DOI: 10.13164/re.2017.0162]
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On the Equalization of an OFDM-Based Radio-over-Fiber System Using Neural Networks

In this study the impact of a Radio-over-Fiber (RoF) subsystem on the performance of Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing (OFDM) system is evaluated. The study investigates the use of Multi-Layered Perceptron (MLP) and Radial Basis Function (RBF) neural networks to compensate for the optical subsystem nonlinearities in terms of bit error rate, error vector magnitude, and computational complexity. The Bit Error Rate (BER) and Error Vector Magnitude (EVM) results show that the performance of MLP neural network is superior to that of RBF neural network and time-multiplexed pilot-based equalizer especially in the case of highly nonlinear behavior of the RoF subsystem.

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Keywords: Radio-over-Fiber, OFDM, equalization, neural network, RBF, MLP, BER, EVM

**H. H. Kha, H. Q. Ta**
[references] [full-text]
[DOI: 10.13164/re.2017.0170]
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Min-Max MSE-based Interference Alignment for Transceiver Designs in Cognitive Radio Networks

This paper is concerned with an optimal design of the precoders and receive filters for cognitive radio (CR) networks in which multiple secondary users (SUs) share the same frequency band with multiple primary users (PUs). To cope with interference and to achieve fairness among users, we develop an interference alignment (IA) scheme by minimizing the maximum mean squared error (Min-Max MSE) of the received signals. Since the Min-Max MSE design problems are nonconvex in the design matrix variables of the precoders and receive filters, we develop an alternating optimization algorithm with provable convergence to iteratively find the optimal solutions. In each iteration, the precoder design problems can be recast as second order cone program (SOCP) while the optimal receive filters can be derived in closed-form solutions. Finally, numerical results are provided to demonstrate the superiority of the proposed method as compared to previous work in terms of the information rate and bit error rate.

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Keywords: Multiuser MIMO, cognitive radio, interference alignment, Min-Max MSE, transceiver design

**M. T. Kawser, M. R. Islam, M.R. Rahim, M. A. Masud**
[references] [full-text]
[DOI: 10.13164/re.2017.0179]
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Versatile Controllability over Cell Switching for Speedy Users in LTE HetNets

The heterogeneous networks (HetNets) are regarded as a promising solution in LTE-Advanced for ubiquitous and cost effective broadband user experience. But there are challenges to support seamless mobility in HetNets, especially, when the user speed is high. In this paper, we investigate these challenges and study the scopes to address them for the improvement of cell edge performance. The study indicates the requirement of enhanced and versatile controllability over adaptation of cell switching parameters that simultaneously depends on variation in user speeds, traffic loads, street patterns, types of cells involved in switching, and so forth. We propose a scheme to scale cell switching parameters that incorporates Doppler spread estimation and adapts smoothly to various changes. Both the eNodeB and the UE participate in a versatile control over the scaling. Limited simulations have been performed to partially reflect the outcome of the proposed scheme.

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Keywords: LTE, HetNets, cell reselection, handover, speedy users

**S. Japertas, V. Grimaila**
[references] [full-text]
[DOI: 10.13164/re.2017.0191]
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Mobile Signal Path Losses in Microcells behind Buildings

The paper presents measurement results of the GSM (900 MHz band), UMTS (2100 MHz band), and LTE (1800 MHz band) propagation path loss (PL) in the urban area behind the buildings of ten different heights. The results were compared with the 7 most popular models. It was found that the existing models approximate the experimental results with relatively large errors. The new model, which evaluates the path loss variation nature behind the buildings, is proposed. This new model shows good agreement with measurements for all three mobile technologies. The average relative error is less than 6.5 %.

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Keywords: Cellular networks, radio wave propagation, mobile communications

**J. Milos, L. Polak, S. Hanus, T. Kratochvil**
[references] [full-text]
[DOI: 10.13164/re.2017.0201]
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Wi-Fi Influence on LTE-U Downlink Data and Control Channel Performance in Shared Frequency Bands

Nowadays, providers of wireless services try to find appropriate ways to increase user data throughput mainly for future 5G cellular networks. Utilizing the unlicensed spectrum (ISM bands) for such purpose is a promising solution: unlicensed frequency bands can be used as a complementary data pipeline for UMTS LTE (Universal Mobile Telecommunication System - Long Term Evolution) and its advanced version LTE-Advanced, especially in pico- or femtocells. However, coexisting LTE and WLAN services in shared ISM bands at the same time can suffer unwanted performance degradation. This paper focuses predominantly on co-channel coexistence issues (worst case) between LTE and WLAN (IEEE 802.11n) services in the ISM band. From the viewpoint of novelty, the main outcomes of this article are follows. Firstly, an appropriate signal processing approach for coexisting signals with different features in the baseband is proposed. It is applied in advanced link-layer simulators and its correctness is verified by various simulations. Secondly, the influence of IEEE 802.11n on LTE data and control channel performance is explored. Performance evaluation is based on error rate curves, depending on Signal-to-Interference ratio (SIR). Presented results allow for better understanding the influence of IEEE 802.11n on the LTE downlink physical control channels (PCCH) and are valuable for mobile infrastructure vendors and operators to optimize system parameters.

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Keywords: LTE, WLAN, LTE physical channels, coexistence, interference, ISM band, 5G

**A.Tekovic, D.Bonefacic, G.Sisul, R.Nad**
[references] [full-text]
[DOI: 10.13164/re.2017.0211]
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Interference Analysis between Mobile Radio and Digital Terrestrial Television in the Digital Dividend Spectrum

This paper is concerned with the analysis of adjacent channel interference of the Long Term Evolution (LTE) mobile system operating in the Digital Dividend into Digital Video Broadcasting – Terrestrial (DVB–T) system. Field measurements in the real LTE network have been conducted in order to define the most significant scenarios and for each of these, Protection Ratios have been quantified. Variable load on the LTE base station has been taken into consideration. Therefore, Protection Ratios for the LTE base station in idle state, and fully dedicated mode have been calculated. Interference mitigation techniques have been reviewed, and an effective deployment method has been proposed.

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Keywords: Adjacent-channel interference, LTE FDD, DVB-T, Digital Dividend, Protection Ratio, Protection Distance, mitigation technique

**J. Ahmed**
[references] [full-text]
[DOI: 10.13164/re.2017.0221]
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Spectral Efficiency Comparison of OFDM and MC-CDMA with Carrier Frequency Offset

Inter-carrier interference and multiple access interference due to carrier frequency offset (CFO) are two major factors that deteriorate the performance of orthogonal frequency division multiple access (OFDMA) and multicarrier code division multiple access (MC-CDMA) in wireless communication. This paper presents a new mathematical analysis for spectral efficiency of OFDMA communication systems over a frequency selective Rayleigh fading environment in the presence of multiple users. It also compares the spectral efficiency performance of OFDMA and MC-CDMA at different load, signal-to-noise ratio, CFO and delay spread conditions. MC-CDMA is found to be more resilient to CFO in general, however, OFDMA performs better at high load.

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Keywords: OFDM, MC-CDMA, spectral efficiency, carrier frequency offset, inter-carrier interference, multiple access interference

**G. S. Satapathi, S. Pathipati**
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[DOI: 10.13164/re.2017.0227]
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Waveform Agile Sensing Approach for Tracking Benchmark in the Presence of ECM using IMMPDAF

This paper presents an efficient approach based on waveform agile sensing, to enhance the performance of benchmark target tracking in the presence of strong interference. The waveform agile sensing library consists of different waveforms such as linear frequency modulation (LFM), Gaussian frequency modulation (GFM) and stepped frequency modulation (SFM) waveforms. Improved performance is accomplished through a waveform agile sensing technique. In this method, the selection of waveform to be transmitted at each scan is determined, by jointly computing ambiguity function of waveform and Cramer-Rao Lower Bound (CRLB) matrix of measurement errors. Electronic counter measures (ECM) comprises of stand-off jammer (SOJ) and self-screening jammer (SSJ). Interacting multiple model probability data association filter (IMMPDAF) is employed for tracking benchmark trajectories. Experimental results demonstrate that, waveform agile sensing approach require only 39.98 percent lower mean average power compared to earlier studies. Further, it is observed that the position and velocity root mean square error values are decreasing as the number of waveforms are increasing from 5 to 50.

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Keywords: Clutter, electronic countermeasures, root mean square error, target tracking

**T. N. Nguyen, T. T. Duy, G.-T. Luu, P. T. Tran, M. Voznak**
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[DOI: 10.13164/re.2017.0240]
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Energy Harvesting-based Spectrum Access with Incremental Cooperation, Relay Selection and Hardware Noises

In this paper, we propose an energy harvesting (EH)-based spectrum access model in cognitive radio (CR) network. In the proposed scheme, one of available secondary transmitters (STs) helps a primary transmitter (PT) forward primary signals to a primary receiver (PR). Via the cooperation, the selected ST finds opportunities to access licensed bands to transmit secondary signals to its intended secondary receiver (SR). Secondary users are assumed to be mobile, hence, optimization of energy consumption for these users is interested. The EH STs have to harvest energy from the PT's radio-frequency (RF) signals to serve the PT-PR communication as well as to transmit their signals. The proposed scheme employs incremental relaying technique in which the PR only requires the assistance from the STs when the transmission between PT and PR is not successful. Moreover, we also investigate impact of hardware impairments on performance of the primary and secondary networks. For performance evaluation, we derive exact and lower-bound expressions of outage probability (OP) over Rayleigh fading channel. Monte-Carlo simulations are performed to verify the theoretical results. The results present that the outage performance of both networks can be enhanced by increasing the number of the ST-SR pairs. In addition, it is also shown that fraction of time used for EH, positions of the secondary users and the hardware-impairment level significantly impact on the system performance.

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Keywords: Cognitive radio, relay selection, energy harvesting, hardware impairments, outage probability

**M. H. Mohd Salleh, N. Seman, D. N. Abang Zaidel, A. A. Eteng**
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[DOI: 10.13164/re.2017.0251]
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Investigation of Unequal Planar Wireless Electricity Device for Efficient Wireless Power Transfer

This article focuses on the design and investigation of a pair of unequally sized wireless electricity (Witricity) devices that are equipped with integrated planar coil strips. The proposed pair of devices consists of two different square-shaped resonator sizes of 120 mm × 120 mm and 80 mm × 80 mm, acting as a transmitter and receiver, respectively. The devices are designed, simulated and optimized using the CST Microwave Studio software prior to being fabricated and verified using a vector network analyzer (VNA). The surface current results of the coupled devices indicate a good current density at 10 mm to 30 mm distance range. This good current density demonstrates that the coupled devices’ surface has more electric current per unit area, which leads to a good performance up to 30 mm range. Hence, the results also reveal good coupling efficiency between the coupled devices, which is approximately 54.5% at up to a 30 mm distance, with both devices axially aligned. In addition, a coupling efficiency of 50% is achieved when a maximum lateral misalignment (LM) of 10 mm, and a varied angular misalignment (AM) from 0° to 40° are implemented to the proposed device.

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Keywords: Coupling Efficiency, Magnetic Resonance Coupling, Misalignment, Wireless Power Transfer, Witricity

**H. Zhivomirov, N. Kostov**
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[DOI: 10.13164/re.2017.0258]
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Power Parameters and Efficiency of Class B Audio Amplifiers in Real-World Scenario

Consumer audio amplifiers are intended to op¬erate with various loudspeaker loads, i.e. the load imped¬ance profile of the audio amplifier is a priori unknown. We propose the power parameters analysis of the class B audio amplifiers to be carried out in the realistic worst-case (RWC) scenario of operation with the minimal value of the impedance and a RWC type of signal, instead of the nominal impedance of the loudspeaker and a sine-wave signal. Experimental validation, carried out for different types of signals and loudspeaker loads, demonstrate the advantages of the proposed RWC-based power parameters estimation. Furthermore, we provide a way of assessing the safe-operating area (SOA) boundaries, based on the output I-V loci of the amplifier and by means of an equi¬valent load line (ELL).

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Keywords: Audio, class B amplifier, power parameters, estimation, realistic worst-case scenario

**A. I. Bautista-Castillo, J. M. Rocha-Perez, A. Diaz-Sanchez, J. Lemus-Lopez, L. A. Sanchez-Gaspariano**
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[DOI: 10.13164/re.2017.0263]
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A CMOS Morlet Wavelet Generator

The design and characterization of a CMOS circuit for Morlet wavelet generation is introduced. With the proposed Morlet wavelet circuit, it is possible to reach a~low power consumption, improve standard deviation (σ) control and also have a small form factor. A prototype in a double poly, three metal layers, 0.5 µm CMOS process from MOSIS foundry was carried out in order to verify the functionality of the proposal. However, the design methodology can be extended to different CMOS processes. According to the performance exhibited by the circuit, may be useful in many different signal processing tasks such as nonlinear time-variant systems.

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Keywords: CMOS, wavelet, Morlet, analog multiplier, weak-inversion

**M. Hayati, F. Shama**
[references] [full-text]
[DOI: 10.13164/re.2017.0000]
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A Compact Lowpass Filter with Ultra Wide Stopband using Stepped Impedance Resonator

In this paper, a compact asymmetric-shaped microstrip lowpass filter (LPF) using a stepped impedance resonator is presented. An ultra wide stopband with high attenuation in the stopband region, within very small circuit area is achieved for the proposed filter using novel asymmetric structures for resonator and suppressor. The transmission zeros of the resonators can be adjusted as a function of high impedance and low impedance microstrip lines, and due to the asymmetric structure, the proposed suppressing cell can be located within the resonator structure without occupying a large area. For verification, a 2.92 GHz LPF is designed and fabricated. The experimental results, in comparison with the other LPFs, show that the proposed LPF has significant advantages in the stopband characteristics with acceptable sharp roll off. The measured passband insertion loss is below 0.1 dB, and the rejection band over -20 dB is obtained from 3.42 GHz to 36.2 GHz. The size of filter corresponds to compact electrical size of 0.156 λg × 0.128 λg, where λg is the guided wavelength at 2.92 GHz. Also, the maximum variation of the group delay in 80 percent of the passband region is only about 0.2 ns.

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Keywords: Lowpass filter, microstrip, stepped impedance resonator, ultra wide stopband

**H.S. Lu, W.W. Wu, J.J. Huang, X.F. Zhang, N.C. Yuan**
[references] [full-text]
[DOI: 10.13164/re.2017.0275]
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Compact Dual-mode Microstrip Bandpass Filter Based on Greek-cross Fractal Resonator

A geometrically symmetrical fractal structure is presented in this paper to provide an alternative approach for the miniaturization design of microstrip bandpass filters (BPFs). The generation process of the geometric geometry is described in detail, and a new fractal resonator called Greek-cross fractal resonator (GCFR) is produced by etching the proposed fractal configuration on the surface of the conventional dual-mode meandered loop resonator. Four microstrip BPFs based on the first four iterations GCFR are modeled and simulated. The simulation results show that with the increase of the number of iterations, the central frequency of the BPF is gradually moving towards the low frequency, which indicates that the proposed fractal resonator has the characteristic of miniaturization. In addition, the parameter optimization and surface current density distribution are also analyzed in order to better understand the performance of the BPF. Finally, a compact dual-mode BPF based on the third iteration GCFR is designed, fabricated and measured. The measurement results are in good agreement with the simulation ones.

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Keywords: Dual-mode, miniaturization, bandpass filter (BPF), fractal geometry, Greek-cross

**P. Montezuma, R. Dinis, S. Ribeiro, M. Beko**
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[DOI: 10.13164/re.2017.0285]
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Two Methods for Estimation of Amplifier Imbalances in Multi-Amplifier Transmission Structures

Energy efficient power amplification of multilevel constellations can be achieved by an amplification structure based on the constellation's as a sum of polar components, such as $M$ BPSK (Bi-Phase Shift Keying), that are separately amplified. By doing this one can define highly efficient transmitters based on multiple amplifiers. However, amplifiers' imbalances might lead to substantial constellation distortion since phase and gain imbalances cause rotations and translations of the symbols associated to each branch that are combined to generate the resulting constellation. Therefore, it becomes crucial the knowledge of the amplifiers' imbalances to overcome this problem at the receiver side. For that we propose and evaluate efficient two new methods for estimating amplifier imbalances. Simulation results demonstrate that the good performance attainable by the proposed estimate algorithms can be assured without significant increase in system and computational complexity.

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Keywords: Multilevel constellations, multi-amplifier transmitters, estimation

**E.Klejmova, J. Pomenkova**
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[DOI: 10.13164/re.2017.0291]
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Identification of a Time-Varying Curve in Spectrogram

In this study a process of acquiring a trend of significant spectral coefficients of Photonic Doppler Velocimetry (PDV) data is proposed. The novelty of the paper is the design of a methodology which will allow to find a specific curve describing data of aluminium metal plate acceleration by detonation products of brisant high explosive obtained using PDV in time on the basis of frequency response. The paper combine short time Fourier Transform (STFT), time-frequency varying autoregressive process (TFAR) to specify the description of detonation products from both time and frequency perspectives. We also investigate the identification of a curve describing such behavior of frequency response on time in processed spectrogram.

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Keywords: Short time Fourier transform, AR process, kernel analysis, photonic Doppler velocimetry, trend estimation

**K. B. Cui, W. W. Wu, X. Chen, J. J. Huang, N. C. Yuan**
[references] [full-text]
[DOI: 10.13164/re.2017.0299]
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2-D DOA Estimation of LFM Signals Based on Dechirping Algorithm and Uniform Circle Array

Based on Dechirping algorithm and uniform circle array(UCA), a new 2-D direction of arrival (DOA) estimation algorithm of linear frequency modulation (LFM) signals is proposed in this paper. The algorithm uses the thought of Dechirping and regards the signal to be estimated which is received by the reference sensor as the reference signal and proceeds the difference frequency treatment with the signal received by each sensor. So the signal to be estimated becomes a single-frequency signal in each sensor. Then we transform the single-frequency signal to an isolated impulse through Fourier transform (FFT) and construct a new array data model based on the prominent parts of the impulse. Finally, we respectively use multiple signal classification (MUSIC) algorithm and rotational invariance technique (ESPRIT) algorithm to realize 2-D DOA estimation of LFM signals. The simulation results verify the effectiveness of the algorithm proposed.

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- TOMIC, S., BEKO, M., DINIS, R., et al. Distributed algorithm for target localization in wireless sensor networks using RSS and AoA measurements. Pervasive and Mobile Computing, 2016. DOI: 10.1016/j.pmcj.2016.09.013
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Keywords: 2-D DOA estimation, Dechirping algorithm, LFM signal, FFT, MUSIC algorithm, mode-space, ESPRIT algorithm

**B. Lutovac, M. Dakovic, S. Stankovic, I. Orovic**
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[DOI: 10.13164/re.2017.0309]
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Watermark Detection in Impulsive Noise Environment Based on the Compressive Sensing Reconstruction

The watermark detection procedure for images corrupted by impulsive noise is proposed. The procedure is based on the compressive sensing (CS) method for the reconstruction of corrupted pixels. It is shown that the proposed procedure can extract watermark with a moderate impulsive noise level. It is well known that most of the images are approximately sparse in the 2D DCT domain. Moreover, we can force sparsity in the watermarking procedure and obtain almost strictly sparse image as a desirable input to the CS based reconstruction algorithms. Compared to the state-of-the-art methods for impulse noise removal, the proposed solution provides much better performance in watermark extraction.

- BARNI, M., BARTOLINI, F. Watermarking Systems Engineering. New York, NY (USA): Marcel Dekker, Inc., 2004. ISBN: 978-0824748067
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- STANKOVIĆ, S., OROVIĆ, I., CHABERT, M., et al. Image watermarking based on the space/spatial-frequency analysis and Hermite functions expansion. Journal of Electronic Imaging, 2013, vol. 22, no. 1. DOI: 10.1117/1.JEI.22.1.013014
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Keywords: Image watermarking, impulsive noise, compressive sensing, sparse reconstruction, gradient algorithm

**M. Kayani, M. M. Riaz, A. Ghafoor, N. Iltaf**
[references] [full-text]
[DOI: 10.13164/re.2017.0316]
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An Efficient Eulerian Video Magnification Technique for Micro-biology Applications

The micro-biology videos often contain motions of particles which are not visible to naked eye. Therefore an efficient motion magnification technique is required to magnify these motions. A time efficient eulerian video magnification technique for micro-biological applications is proposed. The proposed technique utilizes the concept of time and spatial uniformity to reduce the computational complexity. Simulation results reveal that the proposed scheme is almost four times efficient and more accurate as compared to state of art video magnification technique.

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Keywords: Eulerian video magnification, micro-biological applications, spatial-temporal processing

**D. Kala, V. Krajca, H. Schaabova, L. Lhotska, V. Gerla**
[references] [full-text]
[DOI: 10.13164/re.2017.0323]
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Optimal Parameters of Adaptive Segmentation for Epileptic Graphoelements Recognition

Manual review of EEG records, as it is per¬formed in common medical practice, is very time-consuming. There is an effort to make this analysis easier and faster for neurologists by using systems for automatic EEG graphoelements recognition. Such a system is composed of three steps: (1) segmentation, which is a subject of this article, (2) features extraction and (3) classification. Precision of classification, and thereby the whole recognition, is strongly affected by the quality of preceding segmentation procedure, which depends on the method of segmentation and its parameters. In this paper, Varri’s method for segmentation of real epileptic EEG signals is used. Effect of input parameters on segmentation outcome is discussed and parameters values are proposed to achieve optimal outcome suitable for the following classification and graphoelements recognition. Only the results of segmentation are presented in this paper.

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Keywords: EEG, adaptive segmentation, epilepsy, two connected windows method

**Y. Zhu, Y Wei, P. Tong**
[references] [full-text]
[DOI: 10.13164/re.2017.0330]
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Wavefront Correction of Ionospherically Propagated HF Radio Waves Using Covariance Matching Techniques

High Frequency (HF) radio waves propagating in the ionospheric random inhomogeneous media exhibit a spatial nonlinearity wavefront which may limit the performance of conventional high-resolution methods for HF sky wave radar systems. In this paper, the spatial correlation function of wavefront is theoretically derived on condition that the radio waves propagate through the ionospheric structure containing irregularities. With this function, the influence of wavefront distortions on the array covariance matrix can be quantitatively described with the spatial coherence matrix, which is characterized with the coherence loss parameter. Therefore, the problem of wavefront correction is recast as the determination of coherence loss parameter and this is solved by the covariance matching (CM) technique. The effectiveness of the proposed method is evaluated both by the simulated and real radar data. It is shown numerically that an improved direction of arrival (DOA) estimation performance can be achieved with the corrected array covariance matrix.

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Keywords: Ionospheric irregularities, wavefront distortion, covariance matching technique, particle swarm optimization (PSO)

**T. Wang, Y. Zhao, S. Chen, K, Zhang**
[references] [full-text]
[DOI: 10.13164/re.2017.0337]
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A Cascaded Reduced-Dimension STAP Method for Airborne MIMO Radar in the Presence of Jammers

A cascaded reduced-dimension (RD) space-time adaptive processing (STAP) method for airborne multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) radar in the presence of jammers is proposed in this paper. The proposed MIMO-STAP method for clutter plus jamming suppression proceeds in two steps. Firstly, the jamming is suppressed by its orthogonal complementary subspace obtained in the passive radar mode, while the receive dimension is reduced. Secondly, the tri-iterative algorithm (TRIA) is utilized to suppress the clutter combining the remaining receive degree of freedom (DOF) with the transmit DOF and the Doppler DOF, and further dimension reduction is implemented. The proposed method can effectively realize the separate jamming and clutter elimination. Moreover, the training sample number and the computational complexity are significantly decreased. Simulation results verify the validity of the proposed cascaded RD MIMO-STAP method under jamming condition.

- FISHLER, E., HAIMOVICH, A., BLUM, R., et al. MIMO radar: an idea whose time has come. In Proceedings of the IEEE Radar Conference. Philadelphia (USA), 2004, p. 71–78. DOI: 10.1109/NRC.2004.1316398
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Keywords: Multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) radar, space-time adaptive processing (STAP), dimension reduction, jammer, tri-iterative algorithm (TRIA)

**T. Wang, Y. Zhao, J. Wang**
[references] [full-text]
[DOI: 10.13164/re.2017.0345]
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Knowledge-Aided Non-Homogeneity Detector for Airborne MIMO Radar STAP

The target detection performance decreases in airborne multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) radar space-time adaptive processing (STAP) when the training samples contaminated by interference-targets (outliers) signals are used to estimate the covariance matrix. To address this problem, a knowledge-aided (KA) generalized inner product non-homogeneity detector (GIP NHD) is proposed for MIMO-STAP. Firstly, the clutter subspace knowledge is constructed by the system parameters of MIMO radar STAP. Secondly, the clutter basis vectors are utilized to compose the clutter covariance matrix offline. Then, the GIP NHD is integrated to realize the effective training samples selection, which eliminates the effect of the outliers in training samples on target detection. Simulation results demonstrate that in non-homogeneous clutter environment, the proposed KA-GIP NHD can eliminate the outliers more effectively and improve the target detection performance of MIMO radar STAP compared with the conventional GIP NHD, which is more valuable for practical engineering application.

- FISHLER, E., HAIMOVICH, A., BLUM, R., et al. MIMO radar: an idea whose time has come. In Proceedings of the IEEE Radar Conference. Philadelphia (USA), 2004, p. 71–78. DOI: 10.1109/NRC.2004.1316398
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Keywords: Airborne multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) radar, space-time adaptive processing (STAP), knowledge-aid (KA), general inner product nonhomogeneity detector (GIP NHD), outliers

**H. Wang, X. Yu, W. Xu, B. Wen**
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[DOI: 10.13164/re.2017.0353]
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Optimal Energy-Efficient Power Allocation Scheme with Low Complexity for Distributed Antenna System

In this paper, by maximizing the energy efficiency (EE), an optimal power allocation scheme is developed for downlink distributed antenna system (DAS). Different from conventional optimal power allocation schemes that need iterative calculation, the developed scheme can provide closed-form power allocation and no iteration is required. Based on the definition of EE, the optimized objective function is firstly formulated, and then a computationally efficient algorithm is proposed to obtain the optimal number of active remote antennas and the corresponding power allocation. Using the optimal number, the multidimensional solution for the optimized function is transformed into searching one-dimensional solution. As a result, closed-form expression of power allocation coefficients is attained. Numerical results verify the effectiveness of the proposed scheme. The scheme can obtain the same EE as the conventional optimal scheme but with lower complexity, and it has more accuracy than the existing low-complexity scheme.

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Keywords: Energy efficiency, distributed antenna system, power allocation, low complexity, Rayleigh channel.

**S. Gajewski**
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[DOI: 10.13164/re.2017.0359]
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Soft – Partial Frequency Reuse Method for LTE-A

In the paper a novel SPFR frequency reuse method is proposed which can be used for improvement of physical resources utilization efficiency in LTE-A. The proposed method combines both SFR and PFR giving the possibility of more flexible use of frequency band in different regions of a cell. First, a short study on the problem of frequency reuse in cells is discussed including bibliography overview. In next section the principle of the proposed SPFR method is described. Then the simulation model is discussed and simulation parameters are expected. In the last part, results of simulation of SPFR efficiency in comparison to known frequency reuse methods are presented. Presented results include both capacity and throughput for single connection. The proposed method eliminates main disadvantages of both SFR and PFR methods and gives significantly greater capacity of radio interface in boundary region of cells.

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Keywords: Frequency reuse, LTE, SPFR, FFR, resource management, SFR, PFR, ICI reduction

**K.-T. Nguyen, D.-T. Do, M. Voznak**
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[DOI: 10.13164/re.2017.0369]
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An Optimal Analysis in Wireless Powered Full-duplex Relaying Network

Wireless-powered cellular networks (WPCNs) are currently being investigated to exploit the reliability and improve battery lifetime of mobile users. This paper investigates the energy harvesting structure of the full-duplex relaying networks. By using the time switching based relaying (TSR) protocol and Amplify-and-Forward (AF) model in delay-limited transmission scheme, we propose the closed-form expression of the outage probability and then calculate the optimal throughput. An important result can be taken obviously that the time fraction in TSR, the position of relay, the noise as well as the energy conversation impacting on the outage probability as well as the optimal throughput. By Monte Carlo simulation, the numerical results indicate an effective relaying strategy in full-duplex cooperative systems. Finally, we provide fundamental design guidelines for selecting time fraction in TSR that satisfies the requirements of a practical relaying system.

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Keywords: Energy harvesting, full-duplex, one way relaying network, time switching-based protocol, throughput, amplify-and-forward

**K. Garg, D. K. Upadhyay**
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[DOI: 10.13164/re.2017.0376]
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Design of Second Order Recursive Digital Integrators with Matching Phase and Magnitude Response

Location of poles and zeroes greatly affect phase response and magnitude response of a system. Recently, pole-zero optimization emerged as an effective approach to approximately match magnitude response of a system with that of an ideal one. In this brief, a methodology for the design of linear phase integrators and ones with constant phase of -90 degree is proposed. The aim of this method is to simultaneously attain multiple objectives of magnitude and phase optimization. In this method, magnitude response error is minimized under the constraint that the maximum passband phase-response error is below a prescribed level. Examples are included to illustrate the proposed design technique.

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Keywords: Digital integrator, genetic algorithm, linear phase, polezero optimization, recursive, simulated annealing

**R. Barsainya, T. K. Rawat**
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[DOI: 10.13164/re.2017.0387]
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Novel Design of Recursive Differentiator Based on Lattice Wave Digital Filter

In this paper, a novel design of third and fifth order differentiator based on lattice wave digital filter (LWDF), established on optimizing L_1-error approximation function using cuckoo search algorithm (CSA) is proposed. We present a novel realization of minimum multiplier differentiator using LWD structure leading to requirement of optimizing only N coefficients for Nth order differentiator. The gamma coefficients of lattice wave digital differentiator (LWDD) are computed by minimizing the L_1-norm fitness function leading to a flat response. The superiority of the proposed LWDD is evident by comparing it with other differentiators mentioned in the literature. The magnitude response of the designed LWDD is found to be of high accuracy with flat response in a wide frequency range. The simulation and statistical results validates that the designed minimum multiplier LWDD circumvents the existing one in terms of minimum absolute magnitude error, mean relative error (dB) and efficient structural realization, thereby making the proposed LWDD a promising approach to digital differentiator design.

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Keywords: Lattice wave digital filter, digital differentiator, wideband, L1-CSA, minimum multiplier